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JAN. 194 81 1flh Vol. LIV. No. I 1 5 5 T E I S
JAN. 194 81 1flh Vol. LIV. No. I 1 5 5 T E I S
JAN. 194 81 1flh Vol. LIV. No. I 1 5 5 T E I S
JAN. 194 81 1flh Vol. LIV. No. I 1 5 5 T E I S

JAN. 194 81

1flh

Vol. LIV.

No.

I

15

5 TEIS

HIGH-QUALITY

AMPLIFIER

WITH

TETRODES

Advertisements

Wireless World

January,

r948

e s s W o r l d J a n u a r y ,
e s s W o r l d J a n u a r y ,

"

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output can often be increased by t00%

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For

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with pre -heated powder, tool wear is

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range of

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wireless

World

RADIO

AND

ELECTRONICS

3

7

t

h

YEAR

O

F

PUBLICATION

JANUARY

1948

Proprietors :

Managing Editor :

Editor :

ILIFFE

&

SONS

LTD

HUGH S. POCOCK,

--

H. F. SMITH

Editorial,

DORSET

Advertising

HOUSE,

and

Publishing

STAMFORD

LONDON, S.E.I.

Offices:

STREET,

Telephone :

Waterloo

Telegrams :

3333 " Ethaworld, Sedist, London."

(60 lines).

(Publicatirn

Susscription

Birmingham :

Coventry

Glasgow :

Manchester :

:

PUBLISHED

Price :

MONTHLY

1/6

date

Rote

:

26th

20/-

of

per

Abroad

preceding

month)

annum.

Home

and

_

Branch

Offices :

King Edward House, New Street, 2.

8-10, Corporation Street.

26B, Renfield Street, C.2.

260, Deansgate, 3.

In

this Issue

EDITORIAL COMMENT HIGH -QUALITY AMPLIFIER DESIGN.

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www.americanradiohistory.com

2 2 Advertisements Wireless World January, 1948 VALVES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS By M. G. SCROGGIE,

22

Advertisements

Wireless World

January, 1948

VALVES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS By M. G. SCROGGIE, B.Sc., M.I.E.E. No. 13: Mullard HIGH -SLOPE
VALVES
AND
THEIR
APPLICATIONS
By
M.
G.
SCROGGIE, B.Sc., M.I.E.E.
No.
13:
Mullard
HIGH -SLOPE
R.F.
PENTODE
EF42

IT is well known that for television and other wide-band v.h.f. purposes the important

the

is necessarily small, making the

characteristic is high slope (gm). Since

load impedance

One

slope large is the only way of obtaining a useful

stage gain.

also expects a modern valve to be miniature

and single -ended. Achieving a design that fulfils these

requirements

is less than

specification,

half the

job.

However attractive the

it is worth little if the valve is difficult

to produce

The EF42

in large

quantities,

or is inconsistent.

on account of its per-

is interesting

formance,

but perhaps more so because it is at the

same

time a good valve to manufacture.

That is

why I am leaving until next month its characteristics

and applications

(except to say the the slope is very

nearly

10

mA/V) and dealing first with its

construction.

10 mA/V) and dealing first with its construction. GLASS SILVER PLATED PINS GRID COOLING PLATES WELDS

GLASS SILVER PLATED PINS

GRID

COOLING

PLATES

WELDS

GAUZE

SCREEN

LOCATI NG

BOSS

SEAL

BASE

close spacing necessary for such

a high slope, the electrode structure must be strong and rigid. Several features make for this in the

EF42. Firstly, the structure is

To maintain the

supported directly

the pressed-

glass " button " base. This base, the new British standard B8A, is like the EF50 type reduced in

on the contact pins set in a ring around

4dvertisement of The Mullard

Wireless Service Co. Ltd.

diameter. The fact that the structure it supports

is much smaller in itself makes it more rigid. But

feature is a metal gauze cylinder

the exceptional

enclosing the whole electrode system and welded to

The

need for mica

no contacts with the glass

result is

spiders or other supporting

it at top and bottom - only

so firm

that there is

bulb,

As a screen, the position the bulb excludes a certain

with bulb charges.

14 mm. apart.

and microphony from that cause is absent.

of the cylinder inside

type of noise associated

Mechanical distortion or strain that would

impair consistency is minimized in two ways : the

the electrodes to be more

and the bulb

cylinder enables

uniformly heated during

is " soldered " to

temperature sealing

outgassing;

the base by means of a low - cement.

Other details

of the base are the silver plating of

to minimize contact resistance, the absence

the pins

of spigot (optional in the B8A), and the side boss

been

developed several stages further in the EF42 with

the following beneficial results :- (1) Higher slope, with improved v.h.f. per- formance. (2) Miniature size.

to ensure correct and visible location.

Summarizing:

the EF50

technique

has

(3)

In spite

of (1) and (2), remarkable con-

sistency of production.

(4)

Exceptional rigidity and absence of micro -

phony.

(5)

Freedom from bulb charge noise.

This is the thirteenth of a series written by M. G. Scroggie, B.Sc., M.I.E.E., the well-known Consulting Radio Engineer. Reprints for schools and technical

colleges may be obtained free of charge from the address below. Technical Data Sheets on the

EF42 and other valves are also available.

THE

MULLARD

TECHNICAL

WIRELESS SERVICE

PUBLICATIONS

CO. LTD.,

DEPARTMENT,

CENTURY

HOUSE, SHAFTESBURY AVE., W.C.2

(M.V.M. 50)

www.americanradiohistory.com

wireless World

RADIO AND ELECTRONICS No. 1
RADIO
AND
ELECTRONICS
No.
1

Vol. LIV.

January 1948

Post Office Control

EVERYTHING touching on the technical use of radio communication channels demands the closest and most detailed regulation by a

working in its turn within a

framework decided upon

ment. On that there can for-all " radio spectrum

be almost equal unanimity

nobody. There will on the proposition

control of all

munication or not. Here we come to one of the weaknesses of British wireless legislation, which for all practical purposes is confined to the Wireless Telegraphy Act

national authority,

by

international agree-

be no argument ; a " free-

would soon be

free for

there

should be unified

that

forms of radiation, whether for com-

of 1904.

Those responsible for that archaic docu-

ment can have had no conception of the ramifi- cations of radio in later years, and it is not sur- prising that the Act, in spite of its supplement of

1925,

such

fails

to

on

provide

him

means for dealing with In exercising the monopoly

modern developments.

conferred

General has gradually

by the Act, the Postmaster

extended his powers to cover

as radio telephony, picture

television. But the P.M.G. has,

developments

transmission and

in general, shown some diffidence-presumably on

assuming control of radio directly concerned .with com-

Except under powers conferred on

him by wartime Orders, we believe he claims no

munication.

developments

legal

grounds-on

less

right to

legal

of radio

interference such as, to take an

heaters. Until recently, there has been no indica- tion that the latest non-communication radio device -radar-has been considered as coming within his

purview.

Indeed, reasoned arguments have been

control potential

sources

extreme case, R.F.

adduced in this journal But now we learn

that

it

does not do so.

that legal opinion has been

that " radar appara-

taken, and it has been decided

tus is apparatus

meaning of the

cordingly,

a radar

for wireless telegraphy within the

Wireless Telegraphy Acts."

Ac-

the P.M.G.'s licence is required before

installation can be set up and worked.

At first sight

arbitrary

ing with

and

this assumption of control seems unjustified, being quite out of keep-

the wording and spirit of the 1904 Act.

If the P.M.G. can

stroke of the

pen,

any other application

sweep radar into his net at

a

cannot he

do the

same with

of radio technique that is

even more remotely

connected with

mission of messages or intelligence? "

the

" trans-

However,

more mature consideration. leads to the conclusion that, if only as a matter of expediency, the national

for the

allocation of radar frequencies.

responsibility for detailed administration of radar

will remain with the Ministries of Transport and

depending on the

Another aspect of Post Office control that has

recently given us concern is what we have termed restrictive uses of the authority vested in the P.M.G. In the August, 1947, issue of Wireless

Civil Aviation,

radio authority must at least be responsible

We assume

application.

that

World we suggested that neither the broadcast licence or any other form of licence available to

to trans-

time sig-

nals, weather reports, scientific test

the public

missions

conferred authority to listen

such as calibrated frequencies,

signals and the

like when transmitted by stations in the " special

service " category.

Most of these transmissions are

to the public,

and it seems highly restrictive that

should be placed in the way of their

any barrier

in fact directed

either specifically or by implication

reception. What is

Broadcasting

a

Station?

The Post Office does not confirm or deny our

of the regulations governing the issue

interpretation

of

broadcast licences

but

now

offers

us

a

new

definition of the term " broadcasting station " (on

which

the matter largely depends).

This definition

reads :- . " a station in a radio communication service of transmissions radiated for direct reception by the general public on frequencies assigned to such

services."

It would perhaps be unwise to attempt a re-

examination of the problem

definition, into which it is

a more

in the light of this new at least possible to read

We will content

hope that the issue of

favourable interpretation.

ourselves by expressing the

the new definition

the Post Office to allow the public without cumbersome formalities,

betokens a desire on the part of

to make use, of services that

are clearly

the matter

intended for the benefit of all. There must rest until the findings of the inter-

national conferences are adopted.

www.americanradiohistory.com

2

High - Quality

Wireless World

January, 1948

Amplifier

Advantages

of

Output

Tetrodes

Stage

in

By

P. J. BAXANDALL,

B.sc. (Hons.)

(Telecommunications Research Establishment)

the

signals, and

possible

tained.'

to permit the lowest

level

to

be

ob-

hum

The solution

a

over

to the problem of

amount of

the

applying

feedback

former was found to lie in the use

trans-

large

output

IN the April

and May issues of

reasonably

low non -linearity dis-

Wireless

World

a

design for

tortion.

an

described

audio

using

amplifier

triodes

in

was

all

(3)

To

reduce

non -linearity

is,

distortion to a given level, it

of

a

very

ingenious

design ' of

transformer,

developed by C.

G.

Mayo, of the B.B.C.

Research Department,

Engineering

in conjunc-

tion with

Messrs.

Tanner

and

stages

and

giving

an

output of

about 14 watts,

the non-linearity

distortion and hum being reduced

to a very low level by the applica-

tion of

feedback over all four stages. The present article describes an

amplifier employing

the output stage, with high-slope

previous

pentodes

non -

are of

the

about 20 db

of negative

tetrodes

one

in

power is rather

and

the

in

the

stage. The output over ro watts,

linearity

distortion and hum-level

the same

order

as

in

previously

described

amplifier.

The

input

voltage for

maximum

output

is

approximately

4 volts

R.M.S.,

and

it is intended that

the

unit

shall

constitute

the

' ` main amplifier " section of an

involving a radio re-

ceiver unit, gramophone and per-

installation

of course, necessary to apply con-

siderably more negative feedback

with tetrodes

great

and pentodes than

with

triodes,

but this

has

advantages from the point of view

of reducing hum.'

It allows one

to use less

smoothing of the H.T.

supply, and also the output trans-

former can be mounted closer to

the mains transformer for a given

N' I

+ H.T.

Unfortunately space does

not permit

design principles of this type of

a full account of the

transformer, which has

Ellis.'

a

speci-

the

ally positioned third winding

for negative feedback, but

explained as

circuit in

which an output valve feeds a re -

basic

idea

may be

(a)

shows

follows.

Fig.

r

a

PRIMARY

WINDING

AND STRAY CAPACITY

L'

LEAKAGE

INDUCTANCE

ANODE

ANODE CURRENT

=gm

x VIN

y i a

LOAD r

N

haps

Most high -quality radio receiver

units will provide an output of well

over 4 volts, and this level is also

microphone

preamplifiers.

a

convenient

level

for

feeding

through

channel

a

cable

from

a

multi-

preamplifier and mixing

unit.

Considerable economies can be

FEEDBACK

(a)

NEGATIVE

FEEDBACK

(b)

Fig.

r

(a).

Circuit with

negative

feedback

from secondary

of output

transformer.

(b). Approximate equivalent circuit at high frequencies.

effected

by

triodes,

reasons :-

for

avoiding

the

the

use

of

following

(r) The power efficiency of out-

put tetrodes or pentodes, in Class

is greater than

"

A "

operation,

result-

ing in economies in power-supply components for a given output

for triodes

in Class

"

A,"

power.

(2) \The input grid-swing re-

quired by output tetrodes

pentodes is less than with triodes

or

a given output power, so that

even with high-slope pentodes in the pre -output stage, this grid -

for

swing can be supplied with

amount

magnetic

components.

of

hum

coupling

output

between

due

to

these

When

contemplating building a

very

low dis-

ro-watt amplifier of

tortion, the writer therefore de-

cided to use slope pentodes

stage,

tetrodes, with high-

in the

-output

that it proved

pre

an adequate

the

output

provided

to

apply

possible

amount

of feedback with com-

plete stability. It was considered

essential to include

the feedback

chain to enable the feedback to reduce the non-linearity distortion

caused

by the transformer on

large - amplitude low - frequency

transformer inside

sistive load

transformer,

being taken from across the load.

through

negative

output

an

feedback

Fig. r (b)

equivalent circuit

high frequencies, the transformer

been replaced by one

having first

shows the approximate

applicable

at

suit-

of

ably modified

unity turns ratio with

secondary

a

load im-

pedance. The effects of the main winding inductance, the core

and the winding resistance

losses

may be

neglected

to

a

first

ap-

proximation

at high frequencies.

Assuming

pedance,

a

low

secondary

im-

the secondary

winding

capacity may also be neglected.3

With this arrangement, it wane

4

www.americanradiohistory.com

January,

1948

f'irrless World

3

Design

AMPLIFIER

Output power

Input voltage

Working frequency range Low-frequency response High -frequency response

CHARACTERISTICS

ro watts into r5 -ohm load.

Approx.

4 volts

R.M.S.

for

ro watts

output.

3o c/s to 16,000 c/s.

Less

than o.r db down at 3o c/s.

Less than r db down

at

16,000 c/s

on

loudspeaker load.

down

at

Less than

on

2 db

16,000 c/s

r5 -ohm

resistive load.

Non-linearity distortion

Less than o.r

Approx.

8o db below

per cent. at ro watts

o.8 ohms in series with roo-µH.

ro watts output (roo db

with extra care).

Output impedance

Hum

output.

ings,

arid by adopting the right

it is possible to make

arrangement

L'a very small relative to L'b

and L'0.

If L'a is zero, then, provided

no appreciable current flows in L'0, the feedback voltage will be always in phase with the anode voltage. The current in L'0 can be made negligibly small by

that the impedance of

the circuit connected to the feed- back winding is very high com-

pared with the impedance of this

winding. In practice, with the winding arrangement used, L'a is slightly negative. This gives the feedback voltage a slight phase

lead at high frequencies and does

arranging

seen that the feedback voltage

will lag in phase relative

anode current by an angle tending

to the

to 180

deg

at

very

high

fre-

quencies, or more

than 18o deg

if

there

is

appreciable

if

the

too

capacity

across the load. Since the rest

of the amplifier circuit will in-

evitably produce slight phase lags

circuit

at high frequencies,

will be unstable

much

feedback is applied,

frequency

phase

as the

is raised, the total

for,

shift will then reach 18o

before the loop-gain has fallen

deg

to unity.

It

is, of course, possible to raise

the frequency

former phase shifts become

serious by sectionalizing the trans-

and thereby re-

ducing the

If provision is also made in the

amplifier

circuit to reduce the for-

ward gain to a low value, with

small phase shift, at a

frequency

at which the trans-

former windings

leakage inductance.

lower than

former shifts become serious, then

a fairly

may

especially

always

used to feed an inductive

when the amplifier is

load such as a loudspeaker. This

however, increases

that at which the trans-

large amount of feedback

be

applied

with stability,

sectionalizing,

the

the

any

cult to obtain good stability

constructional difficulties of

output

transformer,

and

in

case it will be

found very diffi-

with

such a transformer if as much as

qo db of negative feedback is ap-

plied in .an amplifier

operate with low

intended to

distortion over a

frequency range as wide as 3o c /s

to r6,000c/s.

The phase of the anode voltage

in

Fig.

r (b)

can never

lag by

more

than 90 deg

relative to the

anode current,

so that if by some

means the feedback voltage could

be

taken from a point

equivalent

phase shifts

to the anode as far as

are

derived

concerned,

ing,

then

though

readily obtainable

actually

from a secondary wind-

stability

would

be

and the advan-

tages of including the transformer

inside

secured.

feedback

the

loop

also

This

result

is

is

obtained

if

the

a

cor-

cir-

feedback

separate

rectly positioned

relative to

The

cuit at high

derived

from

secondary

the

winding

on the

other

equivalent

bobbin

windings.

approximate

frequencies

for such

a

three-winding

transformer,

N :1 BETWEEN

I

AND 2

Fig.

third

(b).

not

adversely affect the stability. The simplest winding arrange-

ment which achieves the above

result is a concentric one, with the primary winding between the

main secondary winding and the

feedback winding.

Though

an

amplifier using such a simple de- sign could be made quite stable,

the frequency response, on load,

high fre-

owing

to the

quencies than is desirable,

would

fall off more

rather

large

at

leakage

in-

ductance between the

primary

feed-

and output windings. The

back would not correct this, be- cause the effect of the feedback

is only to make the response from

2 (a). Circuit with feedback from

winding

on

output

transformer.

at

Approximate

equivalent circuit

high frequencies.

PRIMARY WINDING

AND STRAY

CAPACITY

ANODE

ANODE

CURRENT

gm z VIN

IA

NEGATIVE

FEEDBACK

(a)

with the transformer re-

again

duced to unity ratio, is shown in

Fig. '2 (b), the actual circuit being

shown in Fig. 2 (a). The

values

are due to the leakage inductance

between windings, depend on the relative positioning of the wind -

of L'a, L'b and L'0, which

as

NEGATIVE

FEEDBACK

(b)

the amplifier input to the feed- back winding nearly flat, whereas

if

L'b is

too large there

will be

a

considerable voltage drop across it at high frequencies, due to the

load current.

In the transformer designed for this amplifier and nescrihed in the

www.americanradiohistory.com

4

Wireless World

January, 1948

High-Quality Amplifier Design-

Appendix, the primary is divided into two sections, with the output winding between them and the feedback winding in two sections, one at the inside of the bobbin and the other at the outside. This

gives a response

2 db down

at

which is less than

r6,000 c/ s

with

These

a

r5-ohm resistive load, and less

than r db down when feeding a

r5-ohm loudspeaker.

figures could be improved

further sectionalizing the

ings, but this seems

sary

for practical purposes.

In designing the

by

wind-

quite unneces-

output trans-

former from the point of view of

its low-frequency performance, no

account

was

taken

of

the

low-

level

since even if this were

primary

inductance value,

so low

as

put. voltage at the lowest

frequency,

out requiring too large a peak magnetizing current for the out-

put valves to supply without over-

permit a

loading. Space does not

working

taken as 3o c/ s, with-

full discussion

of the factors

governing the choice of core

material, core size and

turns, but by using a Radiometal

winding

flux

gauss for

core, working with a

density of about 9,000

ro watts output

peak

at 3o c/ s, the out-

put transformer made for this

amplifier fulfils the requirements

of high efficiency, low leakage in-

small

ductance and

size and weight.

reasonably

The complete circuit

diagram is

shown in Fig.

3.

A

"

see-saw "

phase-inverter

is used-otherwise

called " floating paraphase " or

response is produced

by

having

suitably small values for the screen

bypass condensers for V, and V2 ;

as the

frequency is

lowered, the

phase lead

reaches a maximum, and then

tends back to zero again at the

very low

inter -stage coupling condensers

give a large phase

rect proportioning of these time

constants, it has been

ensure

is comfortably less than i8o deg at

-shift

due to these condensers

frequencies, where the

lead.

By

cor-

possible to

total phase

that the

all frequencies for which

the loop-

gain

hence good low-frequency stability is secured.

The condenser and resistor joined in series across the anode

gain

of the amplifier to fall off as the

load of V, cause the forward

is greater

than

unity,

and

Fig. 3.

Circuit diagram of amplifier.

All resistors are i -watt, ± zo per cent unless otherwise marked.

to cause the response without feedback to be several db down

at 5o c/ s, the response would be made almost dead level down to a

much lower frequency than this

when a large amount of negative

feedback

was applied.

The

im-

portant factor was rather to en-

that the transformer was capable of delivering the full out-

sure

" anode - follower." 4, 5, 6 The coupling condensers between the

excep-

two stages have been made

tionally large, to ensure that as

the operating frequency is lowered

the output transformer produces

large

coupling

attenuation

circuit

before

phase -shift

a

the

(a

lead) becomes large.

attenuation

Additional

of the low-frequency

frequency is raised,

reaching a level of about

relative to the response at medium

small

phase-shift.

ultimately

-20 db

is

then

of loop

18o

frequencies, with a

stage,

with

Stability

well

under

very

assured at high frequencies, since

the remaining 20 db or so

gain is lost largely in the output

deg

total phase-shift. The loop gain

www.americanradiohistory.com

January, 1948 Wireless World drops to the order unity at of a frequency o f

January, 1948

Wireless World

drops to

the order

unity at

of

a frequency of

600 kc /s.

The condensers and resistors

across the

transformer

primary of the

voltages

output

of

are mainly for the

the produc-

tion of destructively high instan-

taneous

purpose of preventing

in the event

drastic overloading of

fier. If the amplifier is

moving-coil

corder cutting

the ampli-

feeding a

loudspeaker

or

re-

head, which have

inductive impedance at

a

high

high frequencies, these resistors and condensers ensure that the output valves work into a reason-

ably

constant

load

at

all

fre-

quencies, so that even if, due to

an excessive input signal, one out- put valve is cut off and the other

grid current, the cur-

into the transformer