Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

w3schools.

com
THE WORLD'S LARGEST WEB DEVELOPER SITE

SQL FOREIGN KEY Constraint


Previous

Next Chapter

SQL FOREIGN KEY Constraint


A FOREIGN KEY in one table points to a PRIMARY KEY in another table.
Let's illustrate the foreign key with an example. Look at the following two tables:
The "Persons" table:

P_Id

LastName

FirstName

Address

City

Hansen

Ola

Timoteivn 10

Sandnes

Svendson

Tove

Borgvn 23

Sandnes

Pettersen

Kari

Storgt 20

Stavanger

The "Orders" table:


O_Id

OrderNo

P_Id

77895

44678

22456

24562

Note that the "P_Id" column in the "Orders" table points to the "P_Id" column in the "Persons"
table.
The "P_Id" column in the "Persons" table is the PRIMARY KEY in the "Persons" table.
The "P_Id" column in the "Orders" table is a FOREIGN KEY in the "Orders" table.
The FOREIGN KEY constraint is used to prevent actions that would destroy links between tables.
The FOREIGN KEY constraint also prevents invalid data from being inserted into the foreign key
column, because it has to be one of the values contained in the table it points to.

SQL FOREIGN KEY Constraint on CREATE


TABLE
The following SQL creates a FOREIGN KEY on the "P_Id" column when the "Orders" table is
created:

SQL
MySQL:

CREATE TABLE Orders


(
O_Id int NOT NULL,
OrderNo int NOT NULL,
P_Id int,
PRIMARY KEY (O_Id),
FOREIGN KEY (P_Id) REFERENCES Persons(P_Id)
)
SQL Server / Oracle / MS Access:

CREATE TABLE Orders


(
O_Id int NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
OrderNo int NOT NULL,
P_Id int FOREIGN KEY REFERENCES Persons(P_Id)
)
To allow naming of a FOREIGN KEY constraint, and for defining a FOREIGN KEY constraint on
multiple columns, use the following SQL syntax:

MySQL / SQL Server / Oracle / MS Access:

CREATE TABLE Orders


(
O_Id int NOT NULL,
OrderNo int NOT NULL,
P_Id int,
PRIMARY KEY (O_Id),
CONSTRAINT fk_PerOrders FOREIGN KEY (P_Id)
REFERENCES Persons(P_Id)
)

SQL FOREIGN KEY Constraint on ALTER TABLE


To create a FOREIGN KEY constraint on the "P_Id" column when the "Orders" table is already
created, use the following SQL:
MySQL / SQL Server / Oracle / MS Access:

ALTER TABLE Orders


ADD FOREIGN KEY (P_Id)
REFERENCES Persons(P_Id)
To allow naming of a FOREIGN KEY constraint, and for defining a FOREIGN KEY constraint on
multiple columns, use the following SQL syntax:
MySQL / SQL Server / Oracle / MS Access:

ALTER TABLE Orders


ADD CONSTRAINT fk_PerOrders
FOREIGN KEY (P_Id)
REFERENCES Persons(P_Id)

To DROP a FOREIGN KEY Constraint


To drop a FOREIGN KEY constraint, use the following SQL:
MySQL:

ALTER TABLE Orders


DROP FOREIGN KEY fk_PerOrders
SQL Server / Oracle / MS Access:

ALTER TABLE Orders


DROP CONSTRAINT fk_PerOrders

Previous

Next Chapter



@75/15d

COLOR PICKER

LEARN MORE
HTML Cards
Google Maps
Animated Buttons
Modal Boxes
Modal Images
Tooltips
Loaders
Filter List
JS Animations
Progress Bars
Dropdowns
Slideshow
Accordions
Side Navigation
Top Navigation
HTML Includes
Tabs

SHARE

CERTIFICATES
HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, jQuery, Bootstrap and XML.
Read More

REPORT ERROR
PRINT PAGE
FORUM
ABOUT

Top 10 Tutorials
HTML Tutorial
CSS Tutorial
JavaScript Tutorial
W3.CSS Tutorial
Bootstrap Tutorial
SQL Tutorial
PHP Tutorial
jQuery Tutorial
Angular Tutorial

XML Tutorial

Top 10 References
HTML Reference
CSS Reference
JavaScript Reference
W3.CSS Reference
Browser Statistics
PHP Reference
HTML Colors
HTML Character Sets
jQuery Reference
AngularJS Reference

Top 10 Examples
HTML Examples
CSS Examples
JavaScript Examples
W3.CSS Examples
HTML DOM Examples
PHP Examples
ASP Examples
jQuery Examples
Angular Examples
XML Examples

Web Certificates
HTML Certificate
HTML5 Certificate
CSS Certificate
JavaScript Certificate
jQuery Certificate
PHP Certificate
Bootstrap Certificate
XML Certificate

W3Schools is optimized for learning, testing, and training. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and basic
understanding. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full
correctness of all content. While using this site, you agree to have read and accepted our terms of use, cookie and
privacy policy. Copyright 1999-2016 by Refsnes Data. All Rights Reserved.
Powered by W3.CSS.