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Carbon Dioxide Utilization in


Ready-Mixed Concrete
Production
Sean Monkman, PhD PEng
VP Technology Development, CarbonCure
Mark MacDonald
Director of Research, CarbonCure
Doug Hooton, PhD PEng FACI
Professor, University of Toronto
ACI Fall Convention 2015
Denver, CO, Nov 8-12
1

Reaction Of CO2 and Freshly


Hydrating Cement
C3S(alite) + 3H2O 3Ca2+ + SiO20 + 6OHC2S(belite) + 2H2O 2Ca2+ + SiO20 + 4OHCa(OH)2 + H2O Ca2+ + 2OH- + H2O
CO2 (g)

CO2 (aq)

CO2 (aq) + H2O

H2CO3 (aq)

H2CO3 (aq)

HCO3- (aq)

HCO3- (aq)

CO3-2 (aq) + H+

Ca+2(aq) + CO3-2(aq)

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H+

CaCO3 (s)
ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO
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2015

Dissolution

(Ca2+ Supply)

+
CO2
Dissociation
(CO3-2 Supply)

=
Product
formation
22

In situ nano-CaCO3 formation

Widely available feedstock, uses waste CO2


Eective catalyst for hydration reactions
Simple retrot technology
Re: ex-situ additions - No dispersion/
sonication required

www.carboncure.com

ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


Simply
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Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

33

Early Hydration - Power


2.5
Control
CO2-1
CO2-2

2.0
Normalized Power (a.u.)

CO2-3
CO2-4
CO2-5

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

10

15

20

25

Time (h)
www.carboncure.com

ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


Simply
Better
Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

44

Research Goals
Investigate viable CO2 utilization
approach in ready-mixed concrete
Establish impact on fresh properties
Establish impact on hardened properties
Compressive strength
Durability metrics

Develop optimized mix designs using CO2


as an admixture
www.carboncure.com

ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


Simply
Better
Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

55

Trial Summary
Trial one
One truck
CO2 applied at the wash rack, three doses.

Testing

Slump, temperature, isothermal calorimetry


Compressive strength (1, 3, 7, 28, 56, 91 days)
Resistivity
2

3
4

8
5

1
6

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ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


Simply
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Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

1 - Truck
2 - Mixing drum
3 - CO2 line
4 - Gas line connection
5 - Gas manifold
6 - Control box
7 - Telemetry
8 - CO2 supply

66

Gas control system

Gas delivery wand

Gas hooked onto the truck

Trial outline
Condition

CO2 Dose
(%bwc)

Slump
(inches)

Mix
Temperature
(C)

1401

Control

3.5

23.9

1402

CO2

0.10

3.0

1403

CO2

0.30

3.0

25.6

1404

CO2

0.60

2.0

26.5

Sample
Code

One truck, sequential dosing of CO2 after the control


specimen was taken.
Slump was decreasing, temperature was increasing

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ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


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Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

10
10

Calorimetry - Power
1.2
Control 1401
CO2 1402

Normalized Power (a.u.)

1.0

CO2 1403
CO2 1404

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

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10
12
14
Time After Mixing (hours)
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2015

16

18

20

11
11

Early compressive strength


30

107%

112%

116%

126%

20

109%

3000

117%

2500

15
10

3500

2000
106%

115%

1500

122%

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1 day

3 day
ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO
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2015

7 day

CO2-3

CO2-2

CO2-1

1000

Compressive Strength (psi)

25

Control

Compressive strength (MPa)

4000

500
0

12
12

Later compressive strength


121%

40
35

108%

6000

103%

115%

97%

5000

105%

30

4000

25

3000

20
15

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28 day

59 day
ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO
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2015

CO2-3

CO2-2

10

CO2-1

2000
Control

Compressive strength (MPa)

45

7000

Compressive Strength (psi)

50

1000
0

13
13

Pilot Program
Technology
trials at 14
locations
through June
2015
Limited scale
Optimal dosing
not necessarily
achieved
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ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


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Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

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14

Compressive Strength Relative to Reference

Compressive Strength Results


200%
180%
160%
140%
120%
112%

110%

111%

108%

100%
80%

1 day

3 days

7 days

28 days

Test Age
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ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


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2015

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15

Inuence on Slump
12
Control

CO2

Slump (inches)

10

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Mix
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16
16

Inuence on Air
12%
Control

CO2

10%

Air content

8%

6%

4%

2%

0%

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Mix
ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO
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2015

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17

Durability testing
TEST

RESULT

Compressive Strength (C39)

Increased 1 to 9% (1, 3, 7, 28, 56, 91 d)

Flexural Strength (C78)

Increased 6%

Absorption (C642)

Equivalent

Abrasion (C944)

Reduced 7%

RCPT (C1202)

Equivalent (moderate)

Resistivity

Equivalent (moderate)

Bulk chloride diusion (C1556)

Equivalent

Freeze/thaw (C666)

Equivalent (mass loss <0.2%, pass)

Drying Shrinkage (C426)

Equivalent

Service Carbonation (RILEM CPC-18)

Reduced 29/54/25%

Salt Scaling (BNQ NQ 2621-900)

Equivalent

Corrosion (G109, C876)

Equivalent (none observed)

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ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


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Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

18
18

Pore Solution Chemistry - pH

www.carboncure.com

15.00

14.00
13.83

13.79

13.74

13.81

0.0%

0.6%
1.0%
1.5%
CO2 Uptake (%bwc)

1.7%

13.78

13.00
pH

Paste samples made


specically for pore
solution expression.
CO2 addition had no
impact on pH.
We do not necessarily
expect increased
corrosion potential due to
CO2 addition, even at
1.7% bwc.

12.00

11.00

10.00

ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


Simply
Better
Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

19
19

Research Goals
Investigate viable CO2 utilization approach
in ready-mixed concrete
Establish impact on fresh properties
Establish impact on hardened properties
Compressive strength
Durability metrics

Develop optimized mix designs using CO2


as an admixture
www.carboncure.com

ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


Simply
Better
Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

20
20

Future Work

Mechanism
Strength and/or acceleration benet
associated with nano-CaCO3 formation.
Increased hydration associated with
nucleation
Like an admixture, there are cement
sensitivities
Subject of further investigation

www.carboncure.com

ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


Simply
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Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

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21

Nano-scale calcite

22

Thanks to
NRC Industrial Research Assistance
Program (IRAP)
Sustainable Development Technology
Canada (SDTC)
The industrial partners

www.carboncure.com

ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


Simply
Better
Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

23
23

Concluding slide

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ACI Fall Convention, Denver CO


Simply
Better
Concrete
Nov 8-12,
2015

24
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