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Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... i
DIFFERENTIATION .................................................................................................................................. 1
Basics & Differentiation ............................................................................................................................. 1
First Principle & Differentiation Rules ...................................................................................................... 1
Behaviour of Graphs in Calculus ............................................................................................................... 3
Implicit Differentiation .............................................................................................................................. 4
INTEGRAL CALCULUS ............................................................................................................................ 5
Method of integrations ............................................................................................................................... 5
Definite Integral ......................................................................................................................................... 9
NUMBER THEORY .................................................................................................................................. 11
Proofs........................................................................................................................................................ 11
Prime Number .......................................................................................................................................... 12
Linear Diophantine Equation ................................................................................................................... 12
Modular Arithmetic .................................................................................................................................. 13
1. Chinese Remainder Theorem (for solving simultaneous congruencies) .......................................... 13
2. Solving System of Congruencies by Substitution ............................................................................ 13
3. Fermats Little Theorem ................................................................................................................... 14
Number Division ...................................................................................................................................... 14
Numbers in Different Bases ..................................................................................................................... 15
Recurrence Relations................................................................................................................................ 16
GRAPH THEORY ..................................................................................................................................... 17
Definitions ................................................................................................................................................ 17
Graph Theory Theorems .......................................................................................................................... 18
Algorithms ................................................................................................................................................ 19
1. Eulerian, & Hamiltonian Algorithm ................................................................................................. 19
2. Kruskals Algorithm (Finding Minimum Spanning Tree) ............................................................... 19
3. Dijkstras Algorithm (Finding Shortest Path) .................................................................................. 19
4. Chinese Postman Problem (Finding Shortest Eulerian Circuit) ....................................................... 20
5. Travelling Salesman Problem (Finding Shortest Hamiltonian Cycle) ............................................. 20
Some Important Long Proofs ................................................................................................................... 21
Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium
IB Mathematics HL Notes (May 2014 Session)

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Introduction
This is part of my series of detailed IB Mathematics HL notes that I took during my mathematics course at
Kungsholmens Gymnasium. Part

consists of

## big topics: Calculus, and Discrete Mathematics Option (including

Number, & Graph Theory). The study guide covers the IB syllabus; thus contains lots of derivations & explanations
for different laws and concepts that students need to master at the end of their IB Mathematics HL course.
Notice that there are things within this study guide that are totally not part of the syllabus, but are still put here for
the ones who are interested; these supplementary materials are put within the information boxes (see the figure
below). There are many symbols and abbreviations that are used throughout the study guide, in which some of the
most common ones are listed down below. However, most of the symbols will be defined within the guide itself; so
pay attention to these definitions when using the guide! Also, note that the mathematical formulae that appear
within small red boxes (such as the one presented down below) are the ones that appear within the IB Mathematics
HL formula booklet!
Some common abbreviations:
-

## Min, Max: Minimum & Maximum

Trig: Trigonometric

## Example of an equation that appear within IB Maths HL formula booklet

This guide is not for commercial use; hence, the information presented here (in which most are taken from the
internet; from Mathematics Higher Level Topic 10 Option Discrete Mathematics, written by Paul Fannon, Vesna
Kadelburg, Ben Woolley, & Stephen Ward; and from Mathematics High Level Developed Specially for the IB
Diploma (Pearson Baccalaureate), written by Ibrahim Wazir & Tim Garry) will not be formally referenced.
Please feel free to contact me through email (my email address is dinhsyhai@yahoo.com.vn) if you have any
questions regarding this study guide. Thank you!

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

DIFFERENTIATION
Basics & Differentiation
Differentiation is a technique that is used to find the slope of tangent lines at every point on a graph (a function); note
that the graph does not necessarily be a straight-line graph!
-

( )

Notations of differentiation:
( )

st-derivative,

( ( )) for

nd-derivative, &

( ) when

## derivatives are only denoted as

-

( ( )) for finding

This shows that

## methods, or using algebraic method as shown in the figures

) at

is

Remember that when dealing with trig (or intrig) functions in calculus, always use radians instead of degrees this
is to make sure that the inside the functions are consistent with the ones outside the functions
( )

## Rules of Limits: let

-

(where
( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )
+
( )

( is a specific value;

&

## are constants), then:

is a constant)
(where

( )

&

is a constant)

is in indeterminate form (

) however, in case

## ), then perform algebraic

manipulation (rationalization & fraction simplification) such that only appear in numerator
-

If

If

( )

( )

( )

( )

First Principle:
-

points,

( )) &

## )), on a graph now let be

infinitesimally small, then this secant line becomes the tangent line of point
Secant lines slope is

( )

( )

1

( )

( )

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Basic Differentiation Rules (which can be proven by First Principle):
-

( )

( ( )

(where
)

)
) this can be proven by First Principle & binomial theorem

(
( ))

( ( ))

( ))

( ( ))

( ( )) (

( )&

## ( ), then its obvious that when theres no change in , there would be no

change in or (i.e.
-

as they approach ):
now applying the limits, we have

( )

## Applying chain rule:

o

For ( )

), then

( )

or more functions

))

o

( )

For

), then

( )

( ) ( ), thus:

-

( )

( )

## & then derive the formula

Quotient Rule Let

) ( )

-

( )

&

## use these results, together with First

(

results & quotient rule can be combined to differentiate other Trig functions

&

these

-

( )

Let

## of inverse sine), hence

( )

by implicit differentiation,

( )

## Using the same method,

Similarly, let

( ))

( )

( )

; but as

(the range

( )

( )

by implicit differentiation,

( )

but since

-

By chain rule,

( )

)
(

equating the

results give

As

As

)
)

(
(

)
)

);

( )
Trig

( )
( )

InTrig

( )

( )

Exp &

( )

Log

If

( ( ))

(i.e.

( ) as follow:

When

( )

When

( )

## , then ( ) is increasing draw a little arrow pointing upward

When

( )

, then theres a stationary point here (i.e. a turning point of ( )) draw a horizontal arrow

Now connect all the arrows to get the general shape of the graph of ( )

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Concavity:
-

( ) concaves up whenever

( )

## ( ) is increasing (i.e. whenever

( ) is decreasing (i.e. whenever

( )

( )

## ( ) stays constant (i.e. whenever

For a continuous function, an inflexion point is the point where concavity (up or down) changes since
concavity changes, the inflexion point must always have
o

( )
( )

, then

( )

## To show whether a point on the graph of ( ) is an inflexion point or not:

Step : Show that

( )

Step : Figure out the sign of the second derivative of any point that is close to , but is to the left of it
Step : Figure out the sign of the second derivative of any point that is closer to , but is to the right of it
Step : Compare the signs to see if the concavity changes if it does, then

is an inflexion point

## First Derivative Test (max & min test):

-

If

( ) changes sign from plus to minus as ( ) passes through a stationary point, then the point is a max

If

( ) changes sign from minus to plus as ( ) passes through a stationary point, then the point is a min

If

( ) doesnt change sign as ( ) passes through a stationary point, then the point is neither a max nor a min

However, this test can be easily done by setting up a sign chart for

-

If

( )

is a max

If

( )

is a min

If

( )

## , then the test fails first derivative should now be applied!

Both derivative tests can be applied in optimization problems because optimization is basically a process of choosing
the best option for a problem; & this best option usually occurs at a critical value (a max or a min)

Implicit Differentiation
Implicit Equations are equations of both
pass the vertical line test); let
-

Step

Differentiate

& ; they dont necessarily have to be a function (i.e. they dont have to

implicitly by:
with respect to

Step

Since

(like

& equation

&

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Method of integrations
( )

## Integration is the opposite process of differentiation let

is the integrand; &

( ), then ( )

( )

(where ( )

is the constant of integration which must be included when finding the general equations)

Anti-Derivative is the simplest method of integration, as it is basically a direct reverse of differentiation this
method can thus be applied with simple, common, & non-composite functions
Basic Integration Rules (which are straight-forward as theyre all consistent with differentiation):
( )

( )

Constant Rule:

Polynomial Rule:

| |

for

), but

(where
( ))

is a constant)
( )

(where

( )

(where

## is only defined for

(except
is symmetrical

& thus has the same slopes on both sides of the -axis

Integration by Substitution
-

Step : Choose ( ) such that is the variable that were integrating with respect to; then differentiate ( ),
so that

## Step : Substitute both

&

into the original integral to transform the original integral into a basic form such

that we can apply anti-derivatives directly to integrate the integral with respect to
-

Step : Substitute back the original , & add the constant of integration

Example: Integrate
(1) As

with respect to

(2) As

&

## ), thus we need to choose

(

, thus

(3) Hence,

Integration by Parts
By product rule of differentiation,
equation with respect to , we get

)
(

)

-

## Re-write the integral that we have to integrate into the form

is something thats easy to differentiate, while

Differentiate to get

As , ,

,&

## : Remember to keep repeating the process until

Case

, while integrate

## is something thats easy to integrate

to get

are now known, we can use the formula above to evaluate the integral
can be integrated anti-derivatives or

substitution; during the repetition of the process, do not change the nature of substitution; i.e. always
differentiate the same type of function (e.g. polynomial, trig, etc), & integrate the same type of function!
o

Case : If the process returns to the original integral, we can then group

(1) Let

&

, thus:

## (3) Combining the results from (1) & (2) gives

Example for case : Evaluate
(1) Let

&

, thus:

together gives

grouping

## Integration with Trig Functions

Integrating trig functions requires a wise use of trig identities, in which the most common ones are
Pythagoras identities

,&

these identities help simplifying the integrals to transform them into a basic form in order to apply anti-derivative
Integrals with Even Powers of Trig Functions:
-

Use Pythagoras identities to transform the even powers into simpler form to apply anti-derivatives

## Note that anti-derivative should be used for

For
terms of

( is even), write

&

functions as
( )

as

## then use the substitution

because

)
( ) where

&

( ) can be written in
same goes for

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Example: Evaluate
(

(1)

Odd Powers:
-

For

( is odd), write

( ) where

as

-

For

( ,

where

For

as

## by the Pythagoras identities then use the

because
, its best to transform it to

because

substitution

For

now let

, then

as

now

## to solve for the integral

Example: Evaluate
(1)

(2) Let

(

For

is odd), since

For

|
)

now let

, then

## , we can integrate the integrals using

,&

Example: Evaluate
(1) We know that

; now let

(2) But

}
(

&

, thus:

grouping

together gives

|)

( )

## Remember to use anti-derivatives wisely as

( )

&

these anti-derivatives can also be used in a special case when theres a quadratic expression in the integrals by:
-

First completing the square to change the quadratic expression into the vertex form (
can let

,&

, in which we

in this way, the original quadratic expression has been transformed into an

## easier form such that we can apply the

anti-derivatives above

, or

, or

## ) appear within an integral (where is a

constant & is a function of the variable that were integrating with respect to), then use the following substitution:
Expression

Substitution

-

Step : Let

Integrate

## substitute these into the integral gives

|
|

(
( (

Geometric Representation

|))

Step : Using the figure down below, its quite easy to deduce that

,&

thus:

|
(

)(

## just remember to use the right substitutions!

,&

Definite Integral
Let

&

-

( )

## represent the limits of an integral (i.e. theyre some values of ); if ( )

( )|

( )

( ( )

( ( )

( )

, then definite

( )

Note that the limits are for the variables that were integrating with respect to if we perform substitution, we
must remember to change our limits such that theyre suitable for the variable that weve just substituted in

## Fundamental Theorem of Calculus:

-

Let ( ) & ( ) be the derivatives of ( ) & ( ), respectively; and let be a constant (i.e.

Now, since

( )|

( )

( )

( ), thus

( )

-

( ) & write

## , then remember to use the substitution

&

range

be some values of

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

Let

( )

if ( ) (where

in terms of

## ) is the average value of the function ( ) over the

, then just like calculating the area of a rectangle with the height of ( ), & the width of

## area of the function over the range is

( )

) ( ) thus ( )

, the

( )

Areas in a Graph
Area Between -axis & a Function of :
-

## Using analogy of finding the area of a rectangle, a small change in area (

(where
while

is a small change in

## & can analogically be thought of as the width of the rectangle,

is the height of the rectangle) thus the area over the range

is

## Limits can then be used for a better approximation

When dealing with cases where areas are both above & below the -axis, use Case
below), but remember to let ( )

is estimated by

( )

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Area Between
-

Case : If either ( )
( )

|
-

Functions ( ) & ( ):
( ) or ( )

( )

( )

( )

## | the absolute value takes care of any negative signs

(i.e. therere parts where ( )

## Case 2: If ( ) & ( ) intersect somewhere over the range

therere parts where ( )
o

functions is

( ), &

## ( ) in this range), then do either one of the following methods:

Sketch the curve to find the points of intersection these points split the range

## into different parts

we can calculate the area of each part, & add their absolute values together
| ( )

o Evaluate

( )|

| ( )

( )|

with GDC

Area Along -axis: This is very similar to finding the areas along the -axis, only with

&

in the integrals be

interchanged (i.e. imagine -axis as the -axis, while the -axis being the -axis)
Note that its impossible to find area over an asymptote of any curve, as technically, the area would be infinite!!!

Volumes of Revolution
( ):

-

## Using the analogy of finding the volume of a cylinder, the volume of

a small disk section of the function is estimated by
can analogically be thought of as the height of the

(where

cylinder, while
the range
-

is

when

## using the GDC to evaluate this, remember to draw the graph of

Volume between

( )&

( ) is

| (

| (

Likewise, for a volume of revolution around the -axis, we just need to interchange

&

## in the integrals; thus

hence, we have to find in terms of which is quite difficult & lengthy sometimes in

this case, its better to use the shell method as it avoids having to find in terms of !
Shell Method (used when volume of revolution around -axis):
-

Using the analogy of finding the volume of a rectangular box, volume of a small change in volume is estimated
by

( )

(where

can analogically be thought of as the length of the box, ( ) as the width, &

-

-axis between

functions

is
( ) &

( ), then

10

( )

( )

( )
( )|

the

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

NUMBER THEORY
An axiom is a universally accepted principle, rule or a proposition that is assumed without proof & serves as a
starting point from which other statements are logically derived

Proofs
To prove a statement
then

is true) &

(i.e.
(i.e. if

## is true if & only if

is true then

is true), then

separate statements

(i.e. if

is true

## is true) must be proven!

Proof by Implication:
-

## Use intuitive logics to prove than

(where

&

are

particular propositions)

Proof by implication gives rise to proof by contrapostive, which is based on the fact that
if we prove

## equivalent to its contrapostive

, then

is logically
is proven

-

A proposition is disproved by showing that its truth would lead to an impossible conclusion relies on the law
of excluded middle, which states that either a proposition or its negation must be true

This can be used to prove that must be irrational number, or to prove that if

is odd, then

is also odd

-

If

## the pigeonhole principle itself can be proved by contradiction

Proof by Mathematical Induction:
-

Induction is based on domino effects it can thus be used to prove proposition involving only positive integers

## Inductive: Make an assumption that it

given by the question to prove for

## , then use this assumption & the definition

when
, and if its true for all

## Conclusion: Since the statement is true for

; Hence, by the principle of induction,

-

If

true for

11

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Prime Number
is a prime or not, its best to divide

Euclids Lemma:
If

is prime & |

If

If

## is prime & | , then | and

If

&

Prime factorize

, then |
(

or | proof is as follow:

; but |

) (i.e. | )

, then both

|(

&

&
|

## simplify this expression; as

; as

& |

, we cant further

(

Theorem : All

## Theorem : Theres only

Theorem : Therere infinitely many prime numbers proof (very similar to induction) is as follow:
o

primes between

## way to prime factorize a number this can be proven by contradiction!

such that theres no other

&

; thus

## can be prime factorized there must be a prime

However, by theorem ,

& that |

such that

to hold true

## Linear Diophantine Equation

Linear Diophantine Equations are equations of the form
find general solutions to
If

):

## Apply Euclidean algorithm in backwards to write

such that (

equation by
-

in terms of a parameter

doesnt divide , then theres no solutions (as both sides have no common factor)

If | , then
-

&

(where

,&
Thus (

## only integers, therefore

is increased, then

, where

&

( )

(where
,

## must decrease such that the equation stays the same; if

are the exact amount to keep the equation stay the same
)

&

thus,

## General solution to the Diophantine Equation is

Sometimes, solutions get restricted (e.g.

&

,&

,&
(for

12

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Modular Arithmetic
Tips when solving problems in modular arithmetic (which is basically the study of numbers with same remainders):
-

## Definition of modulo is as followed: If

), then

(i.e.

|(

)) this definition is

## extremely helpful when proving something within modular arithmetic

-

When working with modulo, remember to reduce the remainder to the smallest value, thatll give us easy answer
to the modulo (e.g. its ideal to have the value equal to due to its special multiplication property)

The remainder sometimes repeats itself as a number is raised to different powers its good to find the rule of
(

repetition; e.g.

## when is odd, while

when is even

Theorems in Modular Arithmetic (can be proven by direct proof, which usually involves the use of the definition
(

of modulo) let
(

), &

), then:

)
(

) (where

If | ; |

) (where
(

(

side at a tie

For these
&

)&
(

), if

(i.e. if

## ) (in which is any term that satisfies

both of the congruencies) can be found by inspection or by setting up a Diophantine equation as follow:
-

## ) rearranging the equation gives

(in which

solve

this Diophantine equation for & such that we can use the results to find
2. Solving System of Congruencies by Substitution
Let

),

),

## ),.., be a system of simultaneous congruencies the

trick here is to solve each of the congruencies in turns & then substitute into the next congruency as follow:
-

## Step : Write st congruency as equality using definition of modulo, i.e.

this into the nd congruency such that

(for

) substitute

## write in terms of another variable (e.g. )

-

Step : Substitute this new variable into the rd congruency & solve for it this is very similar to Step

13

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

-

Step : Write in terms of the last variable that was substituted this equality can then be transformed into a
congruency (with modulo

## ) which is the simultaneous solution to the given system of congruencies

This method is extremely useful as it can be applied in any situation (even when

## as required by Chinese Remainder Theorem) this is great for a computer program!

3. Fermats Little Theorem
-

## Special case of the theorem requires

, then
(

, meaning that

This is the quickest way to reduce the remainder of some large number to the smallest possible value that gives
an easy answer to the modulo its very useful when finding the remainder for a large power
Note that if is a composite number, break into products of primes & then apply the theorem several times

Number Division
Its very straight-forward to compute the remainder of a number division; however, it gets complicated when dealing
with negative integers in these cases, the remainder must satisfy the inequality | |

| | (where is the

Factor Theorem:
-

), thus

## ), which means that (

is basically the factor theorem, & it will be used to prove the divisibility test of
-

Similarly,
of

## For proof of divisibility by

factor theorem, |(

& , rewrite
(

(
o

) (

is divisible by

) but by

) Let

, then:

Proof: As
(

, then:

-

) (
(

as follow:

((

&

as

) this

Given an integer

-

) (

)|(

, so

## Proof: Its obvious that

) 2 pairs of integers (

same common divisors, thus they must have the same greatest common divisor

14

) &(

) have the

(

(

## Proof: Its obvious that

) 2 pairs of integers (

)&(

) have

the same common divisors, thus they must have the same greatest common divisor
(

)):

call this

## Step : Find the remainder of

call this

Step : Continue this process until the remainder is zero the last non-zero remainder is the

(

Prove that

(
(

)
(

(
)

,&

(for

Step : Let

(

, then
(

Step : Let

(for

)
; but since

however, for
)

)|(

|
to be the

), then

)
(

)|

## Numbers in Different Bases

For a number in base denoted by ( ) the place values are worth times more than the previous one; in
base , therere digits (from
Converting Number from Base

); if

## , letters will be used instead!

to Base :

Step : Find the largest power of that goes into the number the quotient is the st digit

Step : Divide the remainder by the previous power of to find the quotient, which is the next digit

## Mathematically, just write ( )

that goes into , while

## is the number of digits in base )

To convert from one base to any other base, its easiest to go via base 10
Converting Number from Base to Base
as its done with base

## digit can be written as a

block of digits in base this is mostly used in computer science to convert from base

15

to base

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Divisibility Test:
-

## A base- number is divisible by

method as divisibility test of

in base

## A base- number is divisible by

(same proving

)
if & only if the alternating sum of its digits is divisible by

## proving method as divisibility test for

in base

(same

Arithmetic Operations in other bases can be done using the column method (just as it is in base

Recurrence Relations
One of the purposes of the study of recurrence relations is to find an equation (a solution) that gives an explicit
definition to a sequence from the sequences recursive definition
1. First-Order Recurrence Relations
General form of a recursive definition that well work with is:

-

Substitute

Then use

&

if

, where

## into the recursive definition to find

(which is always given) to find

## 2. Second-Order Recurrence Relations

General form of a recursive definition that well work with is:
now, assume that

(where

&

are constants)

## characteristic equation, which we will solve for

If the equation gives

Then, use

&

-

&

are the

roots)

(where

&

Then, use

are the

&

&

&

use

(where

(where

16

is the root)

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

GRAPH THEORY
Definitions
-

An edge connects

Multiple edges have the same endpoints this thus creates a multi-graph

If

## Simple graph is the graph that contains no loops or multiple edges

Sub-graph is part of another graph which have all the vertices connected

Di-graph is a directed graph (in which the directions are always from a vertex in a row to a vertex in a column,

( )

, then

common vertex
( )

is pendant

(denoted by

## ( )) is the no. of edges that goes into

similarly for out-degree total in-degree = total out-degree (because what goes in must go out)
-

## subsets; vertices from same subset arent connected

to each other, & therere only edges connecting the vertices between the
-

Complete graph (

subsets

edge a graph

if

## they make a complete simple graph when they combine

-

Null graph is a graph with only vertices, but without any edges

Walk is a sequence of linked edges Length of a walk is the no. of edges used

Trail is a walk with no repeating edges; Circuit is a trail which begins & ends at the same vertex

Path is a walk with no repeating vertices; Cycle is a path which begins & ends at the same vertex

Note that a trail doesnt necessarily be a path, but a path is definitely a trail (because no repeating vertices also
means that there are no repeating edges) the same relation goes for connection between a circuit & a cycle

A trail or a circuit, which contains all the edges of the graph, are called Eulerian a graph which contains an
Eulerian circuit is called an Eulerian graph

A path or a cycle, which contains all the vertices of the graph, are called Hamiltonian a graph which
contains a Hamiltonian cycle is called a Hamiltonian graph

between

(denoted by

) is a

## -matrix, where the entries show the no. of edges

particular vertices the matrix must be symmetric about the diagonal in every undirected graph

Tree is a simple connected graph without any cycles a spanning tree is a tree in a graph which contains all
the vertices of that graph

-regular graph is a graph where all the vertices have the same degree

17

## Graph Theory Theorems

Handshaking Theorem (which can be applied to both multi- & simple graph) states that sum of all the degrees of
the vertices is equal to twice the no. of edges; mathematically,

( )

(where

## vertices of a graph, while is total no. of edges of that graph)

As a result of the theorem, an undirected graph can only have an even number of vertices with odd degrees
is always ( ); this is because each vertex is connected to

## No. of Edges in a Complete Graph

vertices (i.e. therere (
there must be ( )

)

other

## Bi-Partile Negative Tests:

-

If the

subsets of the bi-particle graph dont have the same no. of vertices there is no Hamiltonian cycle

If the

## Rules Relating to Adjacency Matrices:

-

is a simple graph, then sum of the entries in a column/row is the degree of that vertex however, if

If a graph

contains some loops, remember that the entries in the diagonal should be multiplied by
-

(

## can be seen from the appropriate entry in

) (i.e. the power of adjacency matrix) the total no. of walks of length is the sum of all the entries!

## Theorems Relating to Eulerian Trail & Circuit:

-

A graph has an Eulerian circuit if & only if every vertex has even degree this is because what goes in must
go out for the walk to go back the same vertex!

A graph has an Eulerian trail (but not an Eulerian circuit) if & only if it has exactly

## vertices (which will be the

starting & ending vertices) of odd degree its because there shouldnt be any edge connecting these

vertices

## Theorems Relating to Hamiltonian Path & Cycle:

-

If a graph contains a vertex with degree , then it does not contain any Hamiltonian cycles, because we cant go
back to the same position if we go through that vertex

In a complete graph
o

Theres

, therere always

## Hamiltonian cycles this is because by the counting principle:

possibility for the st vertex (because it doesnt matter which vertex to start as the cycle can be

o

## Therefore, there should be (

reverse the cycle (e.g.

); however, therere

## ) possibilities; however, note that we over-counted twice as we can also

is essentially the same as

18

) there should be

possibilities!

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

Theorems Relating to Planar Graphs:
-

(where , , &

-

## All simple connected planar graphs with triangles (i.e. cycles of

while for the ones with no triangles, the relation

## must hold true

To prove that a graph is planar, its enough to just draw it in planar form
To prove that a simple connected graph (with triangles) is not planar, show that it doesnt satisfy
To prove that a simple connected graph (with no triangles) is not planar, show that it doesnt satisfy
Kuratowskis Theorem: A graph is not a planar graph if & only if it contains a sub-graph similar to
(i.e. a sub-graph that can be rearranged to look like

or

or

## ) this is very useful, because the methods of

proof above wont work for graphs that have a super-small section that is not planar!
No. of Edges in a Tree of Vertices is always

vertex by only

## to the total no. of edges; however, since the st vertex

does not have any previous vertex the total no. of edges must be

Algorithms
1. Eulerian, & Hamiltonian Algorithm
-

To find an Eulerian circuit, we need to use all the edges by constructing several different circuits (note that each
must have the starting/ending vertex as a vertex of another circuit), & then combining them all together e.g.
different circuits

,&

## can be combined to become the Eulerian circuit

To find a Hamiltonian path, the only method is to use trial & error

-

## Step : Repeat Step

edges from a graph (the shortest first) this is because a tree has

edges

edge at a time (the shortest first) to the tree; but take away any edges that create cycles of any kind
(i.e. keep adding edges) until all of the vertices have been connected

The resulting tree should be the minimum spanning tree, as its made of the shortest

-

## Step : Draw the following boxes for each of the vertices:

Box

Box

Box

Box

Box
o

Box

shows the order in which the vertices are given permanent labels

Box

shows the shortest distance the from the start to the current vertex

Box

## Note that Box ,

,&

are called permanent labels (i.e. if they are filled, they cant be changed) the

algorithm will be completed when all of the vertices are filled with the permanent labels

19

## Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium (2014)

o

Box

shows the temporary previous vertex the value in this box will get copied into Box

once

## should be deleted after the algorithm is done

o

Box

is the temporary label, which shows the shortest distance so far from the start to that vertex (i.e. it

will get updated whenever we find a shorter path it will not get updated with a new path that is of the
same distance as the old path, but we still need to write down both of the paths for alternatives)
-

Step : Start from the required vertex; find the distances from that vertex to all neighbouring vertices & fill these
values into Box

## Step : Compare Box

of all the vertices that dont have their permanent labels filled, & choose the one with

the lowest value fill in the permanent labels for this vertex
-

Step : After the permanent labels of a vertex have been filled, continue to find the distances from this vertex to
all neighbouring vertices & fill the Box

## until all vertices are filled with permanent labels

Dijkstras Algorithm is usually done with an already-drawn graph; however, its fine to do it with just an
adjacency table just make sure that you always look at both rows & columns (no matter what!)
Dijkstras Algorithm is used in computer science; however, note that the algorithm can only find the shortest
distance from a particular starting vertex to any other vertices, but not from any vertices to any vertices!
4. Chinese Postman Problem (Finding Shortest Eulerian Circuit)
For a graph with only
-

## be repeated twice in the final answer e.g.

-

will become

DCBA

Continue to find a Eulerian circuit like normal, & then include the path above in the final answer!

Consider all
(

), (

), & (

,&

## , the pairings are

) now, choose the combination that gives the shortest distance this

## combination will have to be repeated twice in the final answer

-

Continue to find an Eulerian circuit like normal & then include the chosen combination above in the final answer

## 5. Travelling Salesman Problem (Finding Shortest Hamiltonian Cycle)

-

To find an Upper Bound (UB), we use Nearest Neighbour Algorithm pick a starting vertex, & then go to the
next closest vertex until you have gone back to the original vertex

## To find a Lower Bound (LB): remove

the rest of the vertices; then, add

vertex & apply Kruskals Algorithm to find the shortest spanning tree for

shortest vertices of the removed vertex to the spanning tree to obtain the LB

even though this doesnt give a cycle, but its still a LB as it has enough edges to make a Hamiltonian cycle!
-

Note that using a different starting vertex or choosing a different vertex to remove will give a different UB or LB

20

Prove

by Induction

BASIS STEP:
-

If

If

## , & if it has a loop, then

,&

,&

INDUCTIVE STEP:
is true for vertices, edges, & faces i.e.

; Now

1) Increase to

## vertices when we add more vertex (vertex ), we also need to add

more edge

for the graph to be a connected graph; this also means that we havent changed the total no. of faces
Now we have

the assumption,
2) Increase to
have

vertices,
)

## more edge (edge ) using the existing vertices, we then

edges, but unchanged no. of vertices; however, the no. of faces will increase by

## new edge will divide the region into

because the

parts
Now we have vertices,
the assumption,

edges, &
)

## CONCLUSION: Thus, by the principle of mathematical induction,

Prove that
In a simple planar connected graph, a new region (i.e. a face) must be surrounded by at least
total no. of edges is at least

edges the

region,

By substituting

## , we get the relation

Prove that
In a simple planar connected graph with no triangles (i.e. no cycles with
must be surrounded by at least

By substituting

## edges), a new region (i.e. a face)

times no. of faces (i.e.

21

);