Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... i
DIFFERENTIATION .................................................................................................................................. 1
Basics & Differentiation ............................................................................................................................. 1
First Principle & Differentiation Rules ...................................................................................................... 1
Behaviour of Graphs in Calculus ............................................................................................................... 3
Implicit Differentiation .............................................................................................................................. 4
INTEGRAL CALCULUS ............................................................................................................................ 5
Method of integrations ............................................................................................................................... 5
Definite Integral ......................................................................................................................................... 9
NUMBER THEORY .................................................................................................................................. 11
Proofs........................................................................................................................................................ 11
Prime Number .......................................................................................................................................... 12
Linear Diophantine Equation ................................................................................................................... 12
Modular Arithmetic .................................................................................................................................. 13
1. Chinese Remainder Theorem (for solving simultaneous congruencies) .......................................... 13
2. Solving System of Congruencies by Substitution ............................................................................ 13
3. Fermats Little Theorem ................................................................................................................... 14
Number Division ...................................................................................................................................... 14
Numbers in Different Bases ..................................................................................................................... 15
Recurrence Relations................................................................................................................................ 16
GRAPH THEORY ..................................................................................................................................... 17
Definitions ................................................................................................................................................ 17
Graph Theory Theorems .......................................................................................................................... 18
Algorithms ................................................................................................................................................ 19
1. Eulerian, & Hamiltonian Algorithm ................................................................................................. 19
2. Kruskals Algorithm (Finding Minimum Spanning Tree) ............................................................... 19
3. Dijkstras Algorithm (Finding Shortest Path) .................................................................................. 19
4. Chinese Postman Problem (Finding Shortest Eulerian Circuit) ....................................................... 20
5. Travelling Salesman Problem (Finding Shortest Hamiltonian Cycle) ............................................. 20
Some Important Long Proofs ................................................................................................................... 21
Sy Hai Dinh Kungsholmens Gymnasium
IB Mathematics HL Notes (May 2014 Session)
Introduction
This is part of my series of detailed IB Mathematics HL notes that I took during my mathematics course at
Kungsholmens Gymnasium. Part
consists of
Number, & Graph Theory). The study guide covers the IB syllabus; thus contains lots of derivations & explanations
for different laws and concepts that students need to master at the end of their IB Mathematics HL course.
Notice that there are things within this study guide that are totally not part of the syllabus, but are still put here for
the ones who are interested; these supplementary materials are put within the information boxes (see the figure
below). There are many symbols and abbreviations that are used throughout the study guide, in which some of the
most common ones are listed down below. However, most of the symbols will be defined within the guide itself; so
pay attention to these definitions when using the guide! Also, note that the mathematical formulae that appear
within small red boxes (such as the one presented down below) are the ones that appear within the IB Mathematics
HL formula booklet!
Some common abbreviations:

Trig: Trigonometric
DIFFERENTIATION
Basics & Differentiation
Differentiation is a technique that is used to find the slope of tangent lines at every point on a graph (a function); note
that the graph does not necessarily be a straightline graph!

( )
Notations of differentiation:
( )
stderivative,
( ( )) for
ndderivative, &
( ) when
( ( )) for finding
) at
is
Remember that when dealing with trig (or intrig) functions in calculus, always use radians instead of degrees this
is to make sure that the inside the functions are consistent with the ones outside the functions
( )
(where
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
+
( )
( is a specific value;
&
is a constant)
(where
( )
&
is a constant)
is in indeterminate form (
) however, in case
manipulation (rationalization & fraction simplification) such that only appear in numerator

If
If
( )
( )
( )
( )
points,
( )) &
infinitesimally small, then this secant line becomes the tangent line of point
Secant lines slope is
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ( )
(where
)
)
) this can be proven by First Principle & binomial theorem
(
( ))
( ( ))
( ))
( ( ))
( ( )) (
( )&
change in or (i.e.

as they approach ):
now applying the limits, we have
For ( )
), then
( )
or more functions
))
( )
For
), then
( )
( )
( )
) ( )
( )
&
results & quotient rule can be combined to differentiate other Trig functions
&
these
( )
Let
( )
by implicit differentiation,
( )
Similarly, let
( ))
( )
( )
; but as
(the range
( )
( )
by implicit differentiation,
( )
but since
By chain rule,
)
(
equating the
results give
As
As
)
)
(
(
)
)
);
( )
Trig
( )
( )
InTrig
( )
( )
Exp &
( )
Log
( ( ))
(i.e.
( ) as follow:
When
( )
When
( )
When
( )
, then theres a stationary point here (i.e. a turning point of ( )) draw a horizontal arrow
Now connect all the arrows to get the general shape of the graph of ( )
( ) concaves up whenever
( )
( )
( )
For a continuous function, an inflexion point is the point where concavity (up or down) changes since
concavity changes, the inflexion point must always have
o
( )
( )
, then
( )
( )
Step : Figure out the sign of the second derivative of any point that is close to , but is to the left of it
Step : Figure out the sign of the second derivative of any point that is closer to , but is to the right of it
Step : Compare the signs to see if the concavity changes if it does, then
is an inflexion point
If
( ) changes sign from plus to minus as ( ) passes through a stationary point, then the point is a max
If
( ) changes sign from minus to plus as ( ) passes through a stationary point, then the point is a min
If
( ) doesnt change sign as ( ) passes through a stationary point, then the point is neither a max nor a min
However, this test can be easily done by setting up a sign chart for
If
( )
is a max
If
( )
is a min
If
( )
Both derivative tests can be applied in optimization problems because optimization is basically a process of choosing
the best option for a problem; & this best option usually occurs at a critical value (a max or a min)
Implicit Differentiation
Implicit Equations are equations of both
pass the vertical line test); let

Step
Differentiate
& ; they dont necessarily have to be a function (i.e. they dont have to
Step
Since
(like
& equation
&
INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Method of integrations
( )
( ), then ( )
( )
(where ( )
is the constant of integration which must be included when finding the general equations)
AntiDerivative is the simplest method of integration, as it is basically a direct reverse of differentiation this
method can thus be applied with simple, common, & noncomposite functions
Basic Integration Rules (which are straightforward as theyre all consistent with differentiation):
( )
( )
Constant Rule:
Polynomial Rule:
 
for
), but
(where
( ))
is a constant)
( )
(where
( )
(where
(except
is symmetrical
& thus has the same slopes on both sides of the axis
Integration by Substitution

Step : Choose ( ) such that is the variable that were integrating with respect to; then differentiate ( ),
so that
&
into the original integral to transform the original integral into a basic form such
that we can apply antiderivatives directly to integrate the integral with respect to

Step : Substitute back the original , & add the constant of integration
Example: Integrate
(1) As
with respect to
(2) As
&
, thus
(3) Hence,
Integration by Parts
By product rule of differentiation,
equation with respect to , we get
)
(
Differentiate to get
As , ,
,&
Case
, while integrate
are now known, we can use the formula above to evaluate the integral
can be integrated antiderivatives or
substitution; during the repetition of the process, do not change the nature of substitution; i.e. always
differentiate the same type of function (e.g. polynomial, trig, etc), & integrate the same type of function!
o
Case : If the process returns to the original integral, we can then group
&
, thus:
&
, thus:
together gives
grouping
,&
these identities help simplifying the integrals to transform them into a basic form in order to apply antiderivative
Integrals with Even Powers of Trig Functions:

Use Pythagoras identities to transform the even powers into simpler form to apply antiderivatives
For
terms of
( is even), write
&
functions as
( )
as
because
)
( ) where
&
( ) can be written in
same goes for
(1)
For
( is odd), write
( ) where
as
For
( ,
where
For
as
because
, its best to transform it to
because
substitution
For
now let
, then
as
now
Example: Evaluate
(1)
(2) Let
For
is odd), since

)
now let
, then
,&
Example: Evaluate
(1) We know that
; now let
(2) But
}
(
&
, thus:
together gives
)
( )
&
these antiderivatives can also be used in a special case when theres a quadratic expression in the integrals by:

First completing the square to change the quadratic expression into the vertex form (
can let
,&
, in which we
in this way, the original quadratic expression has been transformed into an
antiderivatives above
, or
, or
constant & is a function of the variable that were integrating with respect to), then use the following substitution:
Expression
Substitution
Step : Let
Integrate


(
( (
Geometric Representation
))
Step : Using the figure down below, its quite easy to deduce that
,&
thus:

(
)(
,&
Definite Integral
Let
&
( )
( )
( ( )
( ( )
( )
, then definite
( )
Note that the limits are for the variables that were integrating with respect to if we perform substitution, we
must remember to change our limits such that theyre suitable for the variable that weve just substituted in
Let ( ) & ( ) be the derivatives of ( ) & ( ), respectively; and let be a constant (i.e.
Now, since
( )
( )
( )
( ), thus
( )
( ) & write
range
be some values of
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
Let
( )
if ( ) (where
in terms of
, then just like calculating the area of a rectangle with the height of ( ), & the width of
( )
) ( ) thus ( )
, the
( )
Areas in a Graph
Area Between axis & a Function of :

is a small change in
is the height of the rectangle) thus the area over the range
is
When dealing with cases where areas are both above & below the axis, use Case
below), but remember to let ( )
is estimated by
( )
Case : If either ( )
( )


Functions ( ) & ( ):
( ) or ( )
( )
( )
functions is
( ), &
Sketch the curve to find the points of intersection these points split the range
we can calculate the area of each part, & add their absolute values together
 ( )
o Evaluate
( )
 ( )
( )
with GDC
Area Along axis: This is very similar to finding the areas along the axis, only with
&
in the integrals be
interchanged (i.e. imagine axis as the axis, while the axis being the axis)
Note that its impossible to find area over an asymptote of any curve, as technically, the area would be infinite!!!
Volumes of Revolution
( ):
(where
cylinder, while
the range

is
when
( )&
( ) is
 (
 (
Likewise, for a volume of revolution around the axis, we just need to interchange
&
hence, we have to find in terms of which is quite difficult & lengthy sometimes in
this case, its better to use the shell method as it avoids having to find in terms of !
Shell Method (used when volume of revolution around axis):

Using the analogy of finding the volume of a rectangular box, volume of a small change in volume is estimated
by
( )
(where
can analogically be thought of as the length of the box, ( ) as the width, &
axis between
functions
is
( ) &
( ), then
10
( )
( )
( )
( )
the
NUMBER THEORY
An axiom is a universally accepted principle, rule or a proposition that is assumed without proof & serves as a
starting point from which other statements are logically derived
Proofs
To prove a statement
then
is true) &
(i.e.
(i.e. if
is true), then
separate statements
(i.e. if
is true
Proof by Implication:

(where
&
are
particular propositions)
Proof by implication gives rise to proof by contrapostive, which is based on the fact that
if we prove
, then
is logically
is proven
Proof by Contradiction:

A proposition is disproved by showing that its truth would lead to an impossible conclusion relies on the law
of excluded middle, which states that either a proposition or its negation must be true
This can be used to prove that must be irrational number, or to prove that if
is odd, then
is also odd
If
Induction is based on domino effects it can thus be used to prove proposition involving only positive integers
when
, and if its true for all
If
true for
11
Prime Number
is a prime or not, its best to divide
Euclids Lemma:
If
is prime & 
If
If
If
&
Prime factorize
, then 
(
or  proof is as follow:
; but 
) (i.e.  )
, then both
(
&
&

; as
& 
, we cant further
Theorem : All
Theorem : Therere infinitely many prime numbers proof (very similar to induction) is as follow:
o
&
; thus
However, by theorem ,
& that 
such that
to hold true
):
equation by

in terms of a parameter
doesnt divide , then theres no solutions (as both sides have no common factor)
If  , then

&
(where
is increased, then
, where
&
( )
(where
,
are the exact amount to keep the equation stay the same
)
thus,
&
,&
,&
(for
12
Modular Arithmetic
Tips when solving problems in modular arithmetic (which is basically the study of numbers with same remainders):

), then
(i.e.
(
)) this definition is
When working with modulo, remember to reduce the remainder to the smallest value, thatll give us easy answer
to the modulo (e.g. its ideal to have the value equal to due to its special multiplication property)
The remainder sometimes repeats itself as a number is raised to different powers its good to find the rule of
(
repetition; e.g.
when is even
Theorems in Modular Arithmetic (can be proven by direct proof, which usually involves the use of the definition
(
of modulo) let
(
), &
), then:
)
(
) (where
If  ; 
) (where
(
side at a tie
)&
(
), if
(i.e. if
both of the congruencies) can be found by inspection or by setting up a Diophantine equation as follow:

(in which
solve
this Diophantine equation for & such that we can use the results to find
2. Solving System of Congruencies by Substitution
Let
),
),
trick here is to solve each of the congruencies in turns & then substitute into the next congruency as follow:

(for
) substitute
Step : Substitute this new variable into the rd congruency & solve for it this is very similar to Step
13
Step : Write in terms of the last variable that was substituted this equality can then be transformed into a
congruency (with modulo
This method is extremely useful as it can be applied in any situation (even when
, then
(
, meaning that
This is the quickest way to reduce the remainder of some large number to the smallest possible value that gives
an easy answer to the modulo its very useful when finding the remainder for a large power
Note that if is a composite number, break into products of primes & then apply the theorem several times
Number Division
Its very straightforward to compute the remainder of a number division; however, it gets complicated when dealing
with negative integers in these cases, the remainder must satisfy the inequality  
  (where is the
), thus
is basically the factor theorem, & it will be used to prove the divisibility test of

Similarly,
of
& , rewrite
(
(
o
) (
is divisible by
) but by
, then:
Proof: As
(
, then:
) (
(
as follow:
((
&
as
) this
Given an integer
) (
)(
, so
) 2 pairs of integers (
same common divisors, thus they must have the same greatest common divisor
14
) &(
) have the
) 2 pairs of integers (
)&(
) have
the same common divisors, thus they must have the same greatest common divisor
(
)):
call this
call this
Step : Continue this process until the remainder is zero the last nonzero remainder is the
Prove that
(
(
)
(
(
)
,&
(for
Step : Let
, then
(
Step : Let
(for
)
; but since
however, for
)
)(

to be the
), then
)
(
)
); if
to Base :
Step : Find the largest power of that goes into the number the quotient is the st digit
Step : Divide the remainder by the previous power of to find the quotient, which is the next digit
To convert from one base to any other base, its easiest to go via base 10
Converting Number from Base to Base
as its done with base
block of digits in base this is mostly used in computer science to convert from base
15
to base
in base
(same proving
)
if & only if the alternating sum of its digits is divisible by
in base
(same
Arithmetic Operations in other bases can be done using the column method (just as it is in base
Recurrence Relations
One of the purposes of the study of recurrence relations is to find an equation (a solution) that gives an explicit
definition to a sequence from the sequences recursive definition
1. FirstOrder Recurrence Relations
General form of a recursive definition that well work with is:
Substitute
Then use
&
if
, where
(where
&
are constants)
Then, use
&
&
are the
roots)
&
Then, use
are the
&
&
&
(where
(where
16
is the root)
GRAPH THEORY
Definitions

An edge connects
Multiple edges have the same endpoints this thus creates a multigraph
If
Subgraph is part of another graph which have all the vertices connected
Digraph is a directed graph (in which the directions are always from a vertex in a row to a vertex in a column,
( )
, then
adjacent vertices;
common vertex
( )
is pendant
(denoted by
similarly for outdegree total indegree = total outdegree (because what goes in must go out)

to each other, & therere only edges connecting the vertices between the

Complete graph (
subsets
edge a graph
if
Null graph is a graph with only vertices, but without any edges
Walk is a sequence of linked edges Length of a walk is the no. of edges used
Trail is a walk with no repeating edges; Circuit is a trail which begins & ends at the same vertex
Path is a walk with no repeating vertices; Cycle is a path which begins & ends at the same vertex
Note that a trail doesnt necessarily be a path, but a path is definitely a trail (because no repeating vertices also
means that there are no repeating edges) the same relation goes for connection between a circuit & a cycle
A trail or a circuit, which contains all the edges of the graph, are called Eulerian a graph which contains an
Eulerian circuit is called an Eulerian graph
A path or a cycle, which contains all the vertices of the graph, are called Hamiltonian a graph which
contains a Hamiltonian cycle is called a Hamiltonian graph
(denoted by
) is a
particular vertices the matrix must be symmetric about the diagonal in every undirected graph
Tree is a simple connected graph without any cycles a spanning tree is a tree in a graph which contains all
the vertices of that graph
regular graph is a graph where all the vertices have the same degree
17
( )
(where
other
If the
subsets of the biparticle graph dont have the same no. of vertices there is no Hamiltonian cycle
If the
is a simple graph, then sum of the entries in a column/row is the degree of that vertex however, if
If a graph
contains some loops, remember that the entries in the diagonal should be multiplied by

) (i.e. the power of adjacency matrix) the total no. of walks of length is the sum of all the entries!
A graph has an Eulerian circuit if & only if every vertex has even degree this is because what goes in must
go out for the walk to go back the same vertex!
A graph has an Eulerian trail (but not an Eulerian circuit) if & only if it has exactly
starting & ending vertices) of odd degree its because there shouldnt be any edge connecting these
vertices
If a graph contains a vertex with degree , then it does not contain any Hamiltonian cycles, because we cant go
back to the same position if we go through that vertex
In a complete graph
o
Theres
, therere always
possibility for the st vertex (because it doesnt matter which vertex to start as the cycle can be
); however, therere
18
) there should be
possibilities!
(where , , &
To prove that a graph is planar, its enough to just draw it in planar form
To prove that a simple connected graph (with triangles) is not planar, show that it doesnt satisfy
To prove that a simple connected graph (with no triangles) is not planar, show that it doesnt satisfy
Kuratowskis Theorem: A graph is not a planar graph if & only if it contains a subgraph similar to
(i.e. a subgraph that can be rearranged to look like
or
or
proof above wont work for graphs that have a supersmall section that is not planar!
No. of Edges in a Tree of Vertices is always
vertex by only
does not have any previous vertex the total no. of edges must be
Algorithms
1. Eulerian, & Hamiltonian Algorithm

To find an Eulerian circuit, we need to use all the edges by constructing several different circuits (note that each
must have the starting/ending vertex as a vertex of another circuit), & then combining them all together e.g.
different circuits
,&
To find a Hamiltonian path, the only method is to use trial & error
Step : Add
edges from a graph (the shortest first) this is because a tree has
edges
edge at a time (the shortest first) to the tree; but take away any edges that create cycles of any kind
(i.e. keep adding edges) until all of the vertices have been connected
The resulting tree should be the minimum spanning tree, as its made of the shortest
Box
Box
Box
Box
o
Box
shows the order in which the vertices are given permanent labels
Box
shows the shortest distance the from the start to the current vertex
Box
,&
are called permanent labels (i.e. if they are filled, they cant be changed) the
algorithm will be completed when all of the vertices are filled with the permanent labels
19
Box
shows the temporary previous vertex the value in this box will get copied into Box
once
Box
is the temporary label, which shows the shortest distance so far from the start to that vertex (i.e. it
will get updated whenever we find a shorter path it will not get updated with a new path that is of the
same distance as the old path, but we still need to write down both of the paths for alternatives)

Step : Start from the required vertex; find the distances from that vertex to all neighbouring vertices & fill these
values into Box
of all the vertices that dont have their permanent labels filled, & choose the one with
the lowest value fill in the permanent labels for this vertex

Step : After the permanent labels of a vertex have been filled, continue to find the distances from this vertex to
all neighbouring vertices & fill the Box
Dijkstras Algorithm is usually done with an alreadydrawn graph; however, its fine to do it with just an
adjacency table just make sure that you always look at both rows & columns (no matter what!)
Dijkstras Algorithm is used in computer science; however, note that the algorithm can only find the shortest
distance from a particular starting vertex to any other vertices, but not from any vertices to any vertices!
4. Chinese Postman Problem (Finding Shortest Eulerian Circuit)
For a graph with only

will become
DCBA
Continue to find a Eulerian circuit like normal, & then include the path above in the final answer!
Consider all
(
), (
), & (
,&
) now, choose the combination that gives the shortest distance this
Continue to find an Eulerian circuit like normal & then include the chosen combination above in the final answer
To find an Upper Bound (UB), we use Nearest Neighbour Algorithm pick a starting vertex, & then go to the
next closest vertex until you have gone back to the original vertex
vertex & apply Kruskals Algorithm to find the shortest spanning tree for
shortest vertices of the removed vertex to the spanning tree to obtain the LB
even though this doesnt give a cycle, but its still a LB as it has enough edges to make a Hamiltonian cycle!

Note that using a different starting vertex or choosing a different vertex to remove will give a different UB or LB
20
by Induction
BASIS STEP:

If
If
,&
,&
INDUCTIVE STEP:
is true for vertices, edges, & faces i.e.
; Now
more edge
for the graph to be a connected graph; this also means that we havent changed the total no. of faces
Now we have
the assumption,
2) Increase to
have
vertices,
)
edges, but unchanged no. of vertices; however, the no. of faces will increase by
because the
parts
Now we have vertices,
the assumption,
edges, &
)
Prove that
In a simple planar connected graph, a new region (i.e. a face) must be surrounded by at least
total no. of edges is at least
edges the
region,
Prove that
In a simple planar connected graph with no triangles (i.e. no cycles with
must be surrounded by at least
21
);