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About the WTO

The World Trade Organization


deals with the global rules of
trade between nations. Its main
function is to ensure that trade
ows as smoothly, predictably
and freely as possible.

About this
publication
World Trade Statistical Review
provides a detailed analysis
of the latest developments in
world trade. It will be produced
on an annual basis and
replaces International Trade
Statistics, the WTOs former
annual statistical publication.

For more information


All data used in this report, as
well as additional charts and
tables not included, can be
downloaded from the WTO web
site at www.wto.org/statistics

Contents
I.

Introduction
Acknowledgements
A message from Director-General Roberto Azevdo
Abbreviations and symbols

2
4
5
7

II.

Trends in world trade: Looking back over the past ten years

III.

World trade in 2015-2016


General trends and drivers of world trade in 2015
World trade and output in early 2016

16
18
26

IV.

Merchandise trade and trade in commercial services


Merchandise trade
Trade in commercial services
Global value chains

28
30
34
39

V.

Trading patterns: Global and regional perspectives


Merchandise trade
Trade in commercial services

42
44
48

VI.

Developing economies participation in world trade


Developing economies
Least-developed countries
Aid for Trade

52
54
59
63

VII.

Trade policy developments

64

VIII. Composition, denitions & methodology

70

IX.

88

Statistical tables

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Chapter I

Introduction

Introduction

Acknowledgement s

A me s s a ge from Director- General R ob erto Azevd o

Abbreviations and sy mb o ls

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Acknowledgements

his publication has been prepared under the direction of Hubert Escaith,
WTO Chief Statistician, and Andreas Maurer, Chief, International Trade
Statistics Section. The coordination and supervision of the preparation of
tables, charts and production of the report was undertaken by Ninez Piezas-Jerbi,
with the assistance of Alessandro Nicol Giambrone. Statistical research, data
compilation and the preparation of estimates were conducted by Alejandra Barajas
Barbosa, Lori Chang, Barbara dAndrea-Adrian, Christophe Degain, Florian Eberth,
Deen Lawani, Antonella Liberatore, Coleman Nee, Ninez Piezas-Jerbi and Ying Yan.
Additional contributions to this publication were made by Maria Mercedes Ycaza
Nowak, Jrgen Richtering, WTO Aid for Trade Unit of the Development Division and
the WTO Trade Monitoring Section of the Trade Policies Review Division.
Acknowledgements are owed to the multilateral, national and private institutions for
providing their statistics. Special thanks also go to our colleagues at UNCTAD and
ITC for jointly producing the data set on trade in services. The detailed statistical
sources used in this report are presented in Chapter VIII.
The International Trade Statistics Section also wishes to thank colleagues from
the Information and External Relations Division (IERD) and the Languages
Documentation and Information Management Division (LDIMD) whose collaboration
is vital in the production of this report. In particular, recognition is owed to Anthony
Martin and Serge Marin-Pache for the editing and production of the publication, and
to Steve Cooper and Joo Dos Santos De Almeida for preparing the publication
for the website. Recognition is also owed to the French and Spanish translators for
rendering the report in the WTOs other official languages.
Finally, we wish to thank the community of WTO Statistics users for their loyalty
and their suggestions and comments for improvements to WTO statistics. Their
regular feedback allows us to better provide relevant statistical data.
This publication is also available online at www.wto.org/statistics

For more information on the contents of this report, comments


or suggestions for improvement may be sent by email to the International
Trade Statistics Section (statistics@wto.org).

Introduction

A message
from Director-General
Roberto Azevdo
World Trade Statistical Review is the WTOs
new flagship statistical publication. Like its
predecessor, International Trade Statistics, the
aim of the publication is to show the latest trends
in world trade and to improve understanding of
global trade patterns.
This publication has existed in many guises since it was first produced as
International Trade in 1952. Over the years, it has evolved in many ways, just as
world trade has evolved. For example, in 2014 it included for the first time data on
global value chains, a key measure for understanding the impact of global trade.
This new edition sees a transformation of the publication from a statistical
compendium to a publication that analyses these statistics within a global
economic context, using statistical data to explain how and why global trade is
changing.

World Trade
Statistical Review
combines detailed
statistics with
an analytical
review of trade
data to enhance
understanding of the
latest developments
in global trade.

The new structure of the publication allows for more comprehensive information
about trade and trade policy developments to be provided, and in a more timely
way. This new publication will be released online in July each year, bringing it
closer to the reporting period. A print version will be published in early September.
Inevitably, this means that the publication will rely more on estimates of trade over
the previous year rather than final data but by publishing the information earlier,
it will allow us to highlight and analyse the latest trends more quickly. This is of
obvious benefit to policy makers, trade analysts and all those involved in world
trade.
A further update of the statistical data will be made online in October once final
data are available, in line with previous years.
This new publication continues to provide comprehensive data on trade in goods
and services but now has a broader coverage of world trade developments,
including a particular focus on trade policy, an analysis of the participation of
developing economies in world trade and a more detailed look at selected goods
and services. All of this is accompanied by a detailed explanation of how the
information is sourced and the methodology used in compiling the data.
In parallel to the revamping of our flagship statistical publication, we are also
making improvements to our other annual statistical publications. Rather than
having separate profiles for merchandise trade and trade in commercial services,
these will be combined into one publication, with two pages of key data devoted
to each economy.

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

The new version of Trade Profiles will be published alongside Tariff Profiles,
which will continue to provide information on tariffs and non-tariff measures
applied by over 170 economies around the world. This publication will continue
to be prepared in cooperation with the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD) and the International Trade Centre (ITC). Both these
publications will continue to be published in October each year. Other profiles, on
the Aid for Trade initiative and on trade in value added, will only be made available
online.
Finally, I would like to thank everyone who has worked on this report. The gathering
of these statistics and the analysis of the data would not be possible without the
cooperation of our WTO members missions, other international organizations
and national statistical authorities. Within the WTO, a number of divisions across
the Secretariat have come together to help create this publication. I thank all of
them for their invaluable contribution to this report.

Roberto Azevdo
Director-General

Introduction

Abbreviations and symbols


ACP African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States
ASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations
AFTA ASEAN Free Trade Area
BOP Balance of Payments
BPM5 Balance of Payments Manual, fifth edition
BPM6 Balance of Payments Manual, sixth edition
CACM Central American Common Market
CARICOM Caribbean Common Market
CEMAC Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
ECCAS Economic Community of Central African States
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EU European Union
EUROSTAT Statistical Office of the European Communities
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FATS Foreign Affiliates Statistics
FDI Foreign Direct Investment
GCC Gulf Co-operation Council
GDP Gross Domestic Product

c.i.f.

cost, insurance and freight

f.o.b.

free on board

n.e.s.

not elsewhere specified

n.i.e.

not included elsewhere

GNP Gross National Product


HS Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System
IEA International Energy Agency
IMF International Monetary Fund
GTIS Global Trade Information Services Inc.
ISIC International Standard Industrial Classification
LDCs Least-developed countries
MERCOSUR Southern Common Market
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation
SADC South African Development Community
SAPTA South Asian Preferential Trade Arrangement
SITC Standard International Trade Classification
UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNECLAC United Nations Economic Commission for Latin
America and the Caribbean
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNSD United Nations Statistics Division
WAEMU West African Economic and Monetary Union

The following symbols are used in this publication:

...

not available or growth rates exceeding 500%

gure is zero or became zero due to rounding

not applicable

United States dollars

Unless otherwise indicated, (i) all value


gures are expressed in U.S. dollars;
(ii) trade gures include the intra-trade
of free trade areas, customs unions,
geographical and other groups; (iii)
merchandise trade gures are on a
customs basis and (iv) merchandise
exports are f.o.b. and merchandise
imports are c.i.f. Data for the latest year
are provisional.
The statistical data in this publication
are supplied by and under the
responsibility of the relevant statistical
authorities. The use of such data by the
WTO is without prejudice to the status
of or sovereignty over any territory, or to
the delimitation of international frontiers
and boundaries.

Q1, Q2 1st quarter, 2nd quarter


I

break in comparability of data series. Data after the symbol do not form a
consistent series with those from earlier years.

Billion means one thousand million.


Minor discrepancies between constituent gures and totals are due to rounding.

Closing date for provision of data:


15 May 2016

Chapter II

Trends in
world trade:
Looking back
over the past
ten years

World merchandise trade and trade in commercial services, 2005-2015

10

Wo r l d me rcha ndi s e trade growth in value terms, 2 00 5- 2 0 1 5

11

Me rcha ndi s e tra de of W TO memb ers by region, 2 00 5- 2 0 1 5

12

Merchandise exports of developing economies, 2 00 5 and 2 0 15

13

Economi es by size of merchandise trade, 2 0 1 5

14

E conomi e s by s i z e of trade in commercial services, 2 0 1 5

15

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

World merchandise trade and


trade in commercial services, 2005-2015
The value of merchandise
trade and trade in commercial
services in 2015 is nearly
twice as high as in 2005.

The value of merchandise trade


and trade in commercial services
declined in 2015 following modest
growth in 2012 to 2014.

World merchandise trade and trade in commercial services, 2005-2015

20,000
19,000
18,000
17,000
16,000
15,000
14,000
13,000
,
12,000
11,000
10,000
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000

Billion US dollar

4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
2005
20
005

Merchandise trade

10

2006

2007

2008

2009

Trade in commercial services

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Trends in world trade: Looking back over the past ten years

World merchandise trade growth


in value terms, 2005-2015
A decline in world commodity prices
had a significant impact on the value
of global merchandise trade in 2015.

45%

World energy prices


dropped by 45% in 2015.

Growth of world merchandise trade, 2005-2015


20

Exports

Imports

15

10

Annual percentage change


hange

-5
5

-10

-15

-20
2005

2006

2007

8
2008

2009

20
2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

The ratio of merchandise trade to GDP fell sharply in 2009


following the economic crisis but bounced back quickly in 2010-2011.
In 2012-2014 it declined gradually, before falling significantly in 2015.
Ratio of world merchandise trade to GDP, 2005-2015
27%

24%

21%

18%

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Note: Merchandise trade to GDP ratio is estimated as merchandise trade (average of exports and imports
values) divided by GDP, measured in nominal dollar terms at market exchange rates.

11

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Merchandise trade of WTO


members by region, 2005-2015
Asia, Europe and North
America have accounted for 88%
in total merchandise trade of WTO
members over the past ten years.

The share of developing


economies in merchandise
exports increased from
33% in 2005 to 42% in 2015.

Merchandise trade of WTO members by region, 2005-2015


(percentage share, %)
100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
2005

North America

12

2006

2007

South America

2008

Europe

2009

2010

2011

Commonwealth of Independent States

2012

Africa

2013

Middle East

2014

Asia

2015

Trends in world trade: Looking back over the past ten years

Merchandise exports of developing


economies, 2005 and 2015
Merchandise trade between
developing economies has increased
from 41% to 52% of their global trade
in the last ten years.

55%
1%
3%

To developed economies
To developing economies

2005

To Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)


Not elsewhere specied

41%

43%

2%
3%

To developed economies
To developing economies

2015
To Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Not elsewhere specied

52%

13

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Economies by size
of merchandise trade, 2015

Billion
US Dollars

0 - 125
125 - 250
250 - 500
> 500

US$16.2 tn

52%
The top ten
merchandise
traders accounted
for 52% of the
worlds total
trade in 2015.

42%
Developing
economies
had a 42%
share in world
merchandise
trade in 2015.

Merchandise
exports of WTO
members totalled
US$ 16.2 trillion
in 2015.

Note: Merchandise trade is calculated as an average of exports and imports and including significant re-exports or imports for re-export.

14

Trends in world trade: Looking back over the past ten years

Economies by size of trade


in commercial services, 2015

Billion
US Dollars

0 - 10
10 - 25
25 - 50
> 50

US$ 4.68 tn

53%
The top ten traders
in commercial
services accounted
for 53% of the
worlds total
trade in 2015.

36%
Developing
economies
accounted for
36% of total trade
in commercial
services in 2015.

Exports
of commercial
services by WTO
members totalled
US$ 4.68 trillion
in 2015.

15

World trade
in 2015-2016

The volume of world trade continued to grow slowly in 2015 recording


growth of 2.7 per cent, revised down from a preliminary estimate of 2.8 per
cent in April 2016. Trade growth was roughly in line with world GDP growth
of 2.4 per cent.

Despite positive growth in trade volume terms, the current dollar value
of world merchandise exports declined by 14 per cent in 2015,
to US$ 16.0 trillion, as export prices fell by 15 per cent.

The dollar value of world commercial services exports also fell 6 per cent
in 2015 to US$ 4,754 billion, although the decline was less severe than
for merchandise.

In the rst half of 2015, a sharp slowdown in trade volumes affected


all regions to varying degrees, particularly in the second quarter,
but this was mostly reversed by the end of the year.

The weakness of trade in 2015 was due to a number of factors,


including an economic slowdown in China, a severe recession in Brazil,
falling prices for oil and other commodities, and exchange rate volatility.

Demand for imports slowed in Asia and in resource-based economies


in 2015 but strengthened in the United States and the European Union.

Merchandise values appeared to be stabilizing in the rst quarter of 2016


as the dollar eased and oil prices staged a modest recovery, but the outlook
for the year as a whole remained subdued.

General trends and drivers


of world trade in 2 0 15

18

O ver vi ew

18

Merchandi s e tr ade i n vol ume term s

19

Trade i n commer ci al s ervi ces

23

World trade and output in early 2 0 16

26

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

General trends and drivers


of world trade in 2015
Overview
Growth in the volume of world
merchandise trade remained sluggish
in 2015, at 2.7 per cent as measured
by the average of exports and imports.
This gure was revised downward
from a preliminary estimate of 2.8 per
cent released in April 2016 based
on available data at the time. Slow
global trade growth was accompanied
by a modest increase in world GDP,
which grew 2.4 per cent in real terms
at market exchange rates in the same
period. Several factors contributed to
the lacklustre performance, including
economic slowdown in China,
recessions in other large developing
economies including Brazil, falling
prices for oil and other primary
commodities, strong uctuations in
exchange rates, and nancial volatility
driven by divergent monetary policies in

developed countries. Faster economic


growth and rising import demand in
developed countries partly made up
for weaker demand elsewhere, leaving
trade growth and output growth nearly
unchanged compared with the previous
year (2.8 per cent and 2.5 per cent,
respectively, in 2014). 2015 marked
the fourth consecutive year with trade
volume growth below 3 per cent, and
the fourth year in a row with world trade
growing at nearly the same rate as world
GDP. Growth rates for trade and GDP
in 2015 remained below their respective
averages since 1990 of 5 per cent and
2.7 per cent (see Chart 3.1). The slow
pace of trade growth relative to GDP
growth over the past four years stands
in contrast to the period from 1990 to
2008, during which world merchandise
trade volume grew 2.1 times as fast
as world GDP on average. The recent
uninterrupted spell of slow trade growth

is unusual but not unprecedented,


and its importance should not be
exaggerated. Overall, world trade
growth was weaker between 1980 and
1985, when ve out of six years saw
trade growth below 3 per cent, including
two years of outright contraction.
Unlike merchandise trade in volume
terms, which recorded a modest
increase last year, the dollar value of
world merchandise trade declined
sharply in 2015 as exports fell 14 per
cent to US$ 16 trillion, down from
US$ 19 trillion in the previous year.
World trade in commercial services
also registered a substantial decline
in dollar terms (exports down 6 per
cent to US$ 4.7 trillion) (see Table
A3). Larger declines were recorded
in services categories closely linked
to merchandise trade (e.g. transport
services, down 10 per cent to US$ 876

Chart 3.1:

Growth in volume of world merchandise trade and real GDP, 2005-2015


(percentage change)

10
0

-5
5

-10

2005

2006

2007

2008
8

2009

2010

2011

2013

2014

Merchandise trade volume growth (avg. exports and imports)

Average merchandise trade volume growth since 1990

Real GDP growth at market exchanges rates

Average real GDP growth since 1990

Source: WTO Secretariat for trade figures, International Monetary Fund and Secretariat calculations for GDP.

18

2012

2015

World Trade in 2015-2016

billion) than in other types of services, in


particular travel and other commercial
services, both down 5 per cent to
US$ 1,230 billion and US$ 2,495
billion respectively (see Table A25).

Chart 3.2:

Prices of primary commodities, January 2014-March 2016


(indices of dollar values, January 2014=100)
120

80

The appreciation of the US dollar


contributed to falling commodity

60

Food and beverages

Agricultural raw materials

Metals

2016M1

2015M10

2015M7

2015M4

2015M1

2014M10

2014M4

2014M7

40

2014M1

The discrepancy between trade growth


in 2015 in terms of volume and value
was mostly attributable to large swings
in commodity prices and exchange rates,
as illustrated by Charts 3.2 and 3.3.
Fuels registered the largest price decline
of any commodity group (down 63 per
cent between June 2014 and December
2015), as a result of new sources of
supply such as shale oil and an easing
of world energy demand as economic
growth slowed in Asia. The decline in
metals prices (down 35 per cent over
the same period) was smaller than the
decline in fuels due to the fact that there
was no increase in the supply of metals
comparable to the development of shale
oil in the United States. Prices of food
and agricultural raw materials also fell, by
around 22 per cent each between June
2014 and December 2015 (more on
commodity prices in Table A67).

Fuel (energy)

Source: IMF Primary Commodity Prices.

average in 2015 and 13 per cent


between June 2014 and December
2015, due to the Chinese currencys
quasi-peg to the US dollar at the time.
The appreciation of the yuan may have
contributed to the economic slowdown
in China to the extent that it made
Chinese exports more expensive in
foreign markets. Meanwhile, major
natural resource exporters such as
Brazil and the Russian Federation saw
their currencies drop sharply in value in
2014 as falling prices for oil and other
commodities reduced export earnings.

prices since most primary products


are priced in dollars and a stronger
US currency generally allows the
same quantity of goods to be
purchased with fewer dollars.
The dollar appreciated 13 per cent
on average against the currencies of
US trading partners in 2015 (i.e. in
nominal effective terms), and was
up even more (19 per cent) between
June 2014 and December 2015.
The Chinese yuan appreciated along
with the dollar, rising 10 per cent on

Merchandise trade in volume terms

Chart 3.3:

Nominal effective exchange rates of selected economies, January 2014 - March 2016
(indices, January 2014=100)

120
110

90
80
70

US

China

India

Japan

Source: Bank for International Settlements.

Euro area

Brazil

Russia

2016M3

2016M1

2015M11

2015M9

2015M7

2015M5

2015M3

2015M1

2014M11

2014M9

2014M7

2014M5

2014M3

2014M1

60

The regional and product composition


of export and import growth has
changed in recent years. In 2012-13,
strong demand for imported goods
and services on the part of China
and other developing economies
helped cushion slow GDP growth and
weak import demand in developed
countries, particularly in the euro
area. However, in 2015 a recovery
of imports in Europe and North
America compensated for weak import
demand in developing countries,
especially natural resource exporters
and developing Asian economies.

19

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Chart 3.4:

Volume of merchandise exports and imports by level of development, 2012Q1-2015Q4


(indices, 2012Q1=100)
Exports

World

Developed

Developing + CIS

World trade volume was unusually


volatile over the course of 2015, falling
sharply in the second quarter before
rebounding in the second half of the
year (see Chart 3.4). The 1.4 per cent
drop in world trade in the second
quarter (average of exports and
imports) was equivalent to a decline
of roughly 5 per cent on an annualized
basis, but this was reversed in the
third and fourth quarters to the point
that trade nished the year above its
initial level. The declines in exports
and imports of developed economies
in the second quarter were less than
the world average, but all economies
were affected to varying degrees by
the trade slowdown.

20

15Q4

Source: WTO - UNCTAD

Asia contributed more than any other


region to the recovery of world trade
after the nancial crisis of 200809. However, the regions impact
on global import demand declined
in 2015 as China and other Asian
economies cooled. Asia contributed
1.6 percentage points to the 2.3
per cent rise in the volume of world

merchandise imports in 2013, or 73


per cent of world import growth, but
in 2015 the region contributed just
0.6 percentage points to the global
increase of 2.4 per cent, or 25 per
cent of world import growth. Asias
share in world import growth began
to shrink at an earlier point than other
regions in the rst quarter of 2015

Chart 3.5:

Contributions to world trade volume growth by region, 2011-2015


(annual percentage change)
Exports
E

Imports

6
5
4

The volume of world merchandise


trade has grown at a slow, steady
pace in recent years, but this
consistency belies changes in the
contributions of WTO geographic
regions to that growth over time.
This is illustrated by Chart 3.5,
which shows annual contributions of
regions to world export and import
volume growth.

15Q3

15Q2

15Q1

14Q4

14Q3

14Q2

14Q1

13Q4

13Q3

13Q2

13Q1

12Q4

12Q3

12Q1

15Q4

15Q3

15Q2

15Q1

14Q4

14Q3

14Q2

14Q1

13Q4

13Q3

95

13Q2

95

13Q1

105

12Q4

105

12Q3

110

12Q2

110

12Q1

115

12Q2

Imports

115

2
1

0
-1
2011

World

2012

2013

North America

Source: WTO Secretariat.

2014

2015

South America

2011

Europe

2012

Asia

2013

2014

2015

Other regions

World Trade in 2015-2016

2015, or 35 per cent of export growth,


whereas Europes 1.3 percentage
point contribution accounted for 44
per cent of the rise, thanks in part
to a reactivation of trade within the
European Union. North Americas
contribution to export growth in volume
terms was close to zero in 2015 as
demand for US goods slowed in
Canada, Asia and South and Central
America. North American exports were
the rst to slow in 2015, as its quarterly
contribution to world trade growth
turned negative in the rst quarter
before registering a small rebound in
the second quarter (see Chart 3.5).
Meanwhile, South and Central America
made a small positive contribution to
export volume growth in 2015.

sovereign debt crisis faded.


North America made a positive
contribution to world import growth
in 2015 (1.1 per cent), while negative
contributions were recorded in 2015
for South and Central America (-0.2
per cent) and other regions including
Africa, the Middle East and the
Commonwealth of Independent States
(-0.6 per cent).

before turning negative in the second


quarter along with every other region.
In contrast to Asia, Europe mostly
weighed down world trade growth
since the nancial crisis, making a
negative contribution to global import
growth in 2012 and 2013. However,
by 2015 Europes contribution was
again largely positive, accounting
for 1.5 percentage points of the
2.4 per cent increase in world
import volume for the year, or 64
per cent of global trade growth.
A gradual recovery of trade within
the European Union in 2014 and
2015 was responsible for much
of the rebound in Europe, as the
negative impact from the European

On the supply side, factory Asia


did more than any other region to lift
merchandise export volume growth
between 2011 and 2014, but its
contribution fell below that of Europe
in 2015. Asia was responsible for 1
percentage point of the 3.0 per cent
rise in world merchandise exports in

Chart 3.6:

Volume of merchandise exports and imports by region, 2012Q1-2015Q4


(seasonally adjusted volume indices, 2012Q1=100)

North America

Europe

Asia

South America

Other

15Q4

15Q3

15Q2

15Q1

14Q4

14Q3

14Q2

14Q1

13Q4

13Q3

13Q2

13Q1

12Q4

12Q3

12Q1

15Q4

15Q3

15Q2

15Q1

14Q4

14Q3

95
14Q2

95
14Q1

100

13Q4

100

13Q3

105

13Q2

105

13Q1

110

12Q4

110

12Q3

115

12Q2

115

12Q1

120

12Q2

Imports

Exports
120

Source: WTO - UNCTAD

21

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Trade in value and trade in volume:


Which one to use when analysing trade?
change and a 4.8 per cent change in prices. During the
2009 nancial crisis, merchandise trade values dropped
23 per cent, i.e. volume changes accounted for 52
per cent and unit changes accounted for 48 per cent
(see chart below). During 2010, both price and volume
recovered. Volume developments contributed more than
price change, resulting in a 21 per cent increase in value
terms (the volume contribution was 68 per cent and the
price change was 32 per cent).

The WTOs merchandise trade volume indices are


designed to approximate changes in quantities of
goods traded by adjusting trade values in current
dollar terms to account for uctuations in prices and
exchange rates. To calculate them, we divide changes
in the dollar value of trade ows (represented by
trade value indices) by changes in export and import
prices (represented by unit value indices) using data
collected from national sources. In general, trade
statistics in volume terms are used to analyse changes
in trade in real terms while trade in value is used when
analysing changes in trade using current prices.

2013 and 2015 saw a different contribution to value


growth: volume growth stabilized at 2.7 per cent in a
context of falling commodity prices. This resulted in a
large decrease in value growth (see table below), with
relationships between price and volume similar to those
registered in the early 1980s before the ratios between
volume and prices bounced back.

During the 20002010 period, growth in trade value


resulted from a balanced contribution of price and
quantities: on average, a 9.7 per cent increase in value
terms was due to a 4.3 per cent contribution of volume

Contribution to trade growth, in volume


and unit price terms, 1981 2015 (per cent)
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
-5.0
-10.0
-15.0
-20.0

Volume

Unit Value

2015

2013

2011

2009

2007

2005

2003

2001

1999

1997

1995

1993

1991

1989

1987

1985

1983

1981

-25.0

Value

Average trade growth by volume, value and unit value (per cent)
Period

Volume

Unit Value

Value

1981-1985

2.9

-3.5

-0.7

1986-1990

5.8

6.2

12.3

1991-1995

6.2

1.9

8.4

1995-2000

7.0

-2.1

4.8

2001-2005

5.0

5.1

10.5

2006-2010

3.7

4.6

9.0

2011-2015

3.1

-1.3

1.8

2013-2015

2.6

-6.0

-3.6

Source: WTO Secretariat.

22

World Trade in 2015-2016

All geographic regions were affected


to varying degrees by the trade
slowdown in the rst half of 2015,
as observed in Chart 3.6. Imports
of resource dependent economies
(mostly in South and Central America
and Other regions) were squeezed
by falling export revenues and did
not see their imports recover in
the second half of 2015, whereas
imports of the more industrialized
regions (Europe, North America,
Asia) staged a partial recovery in the
second half. The plunge in South and
Central Americas imports has been
precipitous, with a decline of 11 per
cent between the rst and fourth
quarters of 2015.

is possible for the dollar value


of merchandise trade. Chart 3.7
illustrates that fuels and mining
products were responsible for more
than half of the plunge in trade values
in 2015, but that slowing trade in
manufactured goods and agricultural
products also contributed signicantly
to the overall decline. Among
manufactured goods, the products
where trade values notably declined
in 2015 were ofce and telecom
equipment, chemicals and other
machinery, while clothing and textiles
only made small positive contributions
to trade growth.

A product breakdown of world trade


growth in volume terms in 2015 is not
available, but such a decomposition

The 6 per cent (see Table A3) decline


in the dollar value of world exports
of commercial services in 2015 was

Trade in commercial services

strongly inuenced by exchange rate


uctuations, particularly the general
appreciation of the dollar against the
currencies of US trading partners and
more specically by the depreciation
of the euro and the pound against the
US currency.
Europe accounted for a large fraction
of world commercial services trade
in 2015 (46 per cent of exports).
A large share of this encompassed
trade within the euro area and within
the European Union more generally,
so exchange rate developments
within the EU have an outsized
impact on world trade. However,
all regions were probably affected
to some degree by exchange rate
movements due to the fact that trade
statistics are usually recorded in US
dollars. To illustrate the sensitivity

Chart 3.7:

Contributions to year-on-year growth in world merchandise trade by product, 2014Q1-2015Q4


(year-on-year percentage change in current dollar values)

5.0

0.0

-5.0

-10.0

Agricultural products

Fuels and mining products

Manufactured goods

Not elsewhere specied

15Q4

15Q3

15Q2

15Q1

14Q4

14Q3

14Q2

14Q1

-15.0

T
To
Total merchandise

Source: WTO Secretariat estimates.

23

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

of these data to exchange rates,


consider the fact that commercial
services exports of the European
Union were down nearly 10 per cent
in 2015 (see Table A3), but if this
trade was measured in euro terms
exports would have risen 8 per cent.
Chart 3.8 shows quarterly
developments in commercial services
exports in 2015 broken down by
geographic regions. World exports
in dollar terms were down as much
as 8 per cent year-on-year in the
second quarter, but by the fourth
quarter the decline had moderated to
around 6 per cent. The evolution of
European exports followed a similar
pattern, although the magnitude of
the decline was greater (-12 per cent
in the second quarter, -8 per cent in
the fourth quarter). North America
recorded a more modest contraction,
with commercial services exports

Chart 3.8:

World exports of commercial services by region, 2014Q4-2015Q4


(year-on-year percentage change)

-5

-10

-15
World

14Q4
15Q3

15Q1
15Q4

North America

Europe

15Q2

Asia

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates


Note: World and regional quarterly aggregates are based on available
reporters, covering at least 90 per cent of trade in commercial services.

Chart 3.9:

World exports of commercial services by main category, 2014Q4-2015Q4


(year-on-year percentage change)

-5

-10

-15
14Q4

Transport
Travel
Goods-related services
Other commercial services

24

15Q1

15Q2

15Q3

15Q4

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.


Note: World and regional quarterly aggregates are based on available
reporters, covering at least 90 per cent of trade in commercial services.

World Trade in 2015-2016

down 3 per cent in the nal quarter


compared to the same period in 2014.
Asias decline was steeper (down 6
per cent in the fourth quarter after
rising 8 per cent in the equivalent
period in 2014) and probably
reected a real slowdown in trade
activity as well. Figures for imports
by region display similar trends.
Chart 3.9 shows the quarterly
evolution of the dollar value
of world commercial services
exports in 2015 by major services
categories. Transport recorded the
largest contraction at year end,
with exports down 12 per cent in
the fourth quarter. On the other
hand, goods-related services and

seasonally adjusted trend index


declined by 2.3 per cent between
January and September of 2015
but then increased by 2.8 per
cent between September 2015
and January 2016. Meanwhile,
the World Tourism Organization
(UNWTO) reports that worldwide
tourist arrivals were estimated to
have risen 4.4 per cent in 2015,
marking the sixth consecutive
year of above average growth in
tourism since the financial crisis
of 2009. These figures suggest
that commercial services trade
may have suffered a setback in
the middle of 2015 but has since
started to recover.

other commercial services showed


signs of recovery in the second
half of the year, with respective
declines of 1 per cent and 5
per cent in the final quarter.
There is no volume indicator for
services trade akin to the WTOs
merchandise trade volume indices,
but physical measures of services
trade, such as passenger arrivals
and container port throughput, point
to a resumption of growth after a
slowdown in the middle of 2015.
Chart 3.10 shows an index of
container port throughput compiled
by the Institute for Shipping
Economics and Logistics. The

Chart 3.10:

Container shipping throughput index, January 2007 - January 2016


(seasonally adjusted trend index, 2010=100)

120

110

100

90

Jan-16

Jul-15

Jan-15

Jul-14

Jan-14

Jul-13

Jan-13

Jul-12

Jan-12

Jul-11

Jan-11

Jul-10

Jan-10

Jul-09

Jan-09

Jul-08

Jan-08

Jul-07

Jan-07

80

Source: Institute for Shipping Economics and Logistics

25

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

World trade and output


in early 2016
The outlook for the world economy
and world trade remained subdued in
the opening months of 2016.
Quarter-on-quarter GDP growth was
modest in the United States and
the euro area in the nal quarter of
2015. Meanwhile, output slowed
in China and contracted in Japan.
Chinas economy slowed further
in the rst quarter of 2016, but
indicators of business and consumer
sentiment suggested that growth
would remain stable at a lower but
more sustainable rate. Growth also
eased in the United States in the rst
quarter of 2016 but accelerated in
the euro area. Finally, Japans GDP
continued to alternate between

positive and negative growth with a


rebound in the rst quarter (see Chart
3.11). Current economic forecasts
for the whole of 2016 at the time of
writing point to another year of weak,
uneven growth in both real GDP and
merchandise trade volume.

the previous year, but this was the


least negative result in 14 months.
Meanwhile, year-on-year growth in
both exports and imports for the
European Union was effectively zero
in February following many months
of contraction.

Monthly merchandise trade data for


the rst quarter of 2016 indicate
stabilization in the dollar value of
trade ows in the latest months (see
Chart 3.12). Imports of the United
States were up 4 per cent year-onyear in February, the largest increase
since December 2014. On the export
side, however, shipments from the
United States were down 4 per cent
compared to the same month in

Chinas exports surged 11 per cent


in March while imports were less
negative compared with previous
months, at -8 per cent. The 1 per
cent decline in Japans imports for
March was the best result since
January 2015, and although import
growth remained negative at -9
per cent, this was less negative
than the 20 per cent declines
that became routine in 2015.

Chart 3.11:

GDP growth of selected economies, 2014Q4-2016Q1


(annualized per cent change, seasonally adjusted)

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0
0

-2.0
14Q4
China

26

Euro Area

15Q1
Japan

United States

15Q2

15Q3

15Q4

16Q1

Source: OECD Quarterly National Accounts.

World Trade in 2015-2016

Chart 3.12:

Merchandise exports and imports of selected economies, January 2014-March 2016

Imports

Exports

Jan -14

-5

-5

-10
10

-10
10

-15

-15

-20

-20

-25

-25

-30

-30
Jan -14

Jan -16

Oct -15

10

Jul -15

10

Apr -15

15

Jan -15

15

Oct -14

20

Jul -14

20

Apr -14

CHINA a

Jan -14

EUROPEAN UNION (28)

Jan -16

-30

Jan -16

-30

Oct -15

-25

Oct -15

-25

Jul -15

-20

Jul -15

-20

Apr -15

-15

Apr -15

-15

Jan -15

-10
10

Jan -15

-10
10

Oct -14

-5

Oct -14

-5

Jul -14

Jul -14

Apr -14

Jan -16

Oct -15

10

Jul -15

10

Apr -15

15

Jan -15

15

Oct -14

20

Jul -14

20

Apr -14

JAPAN

Jan -14

UNITED STATES

Apr -14

(year-on-year percentage change in current dollar values)

a January and February averaged to minimize distortions due to lunar new year.
Sources: IMF International Financial Statistics, Global Trade Information Services GTA database, national statistics.

27

Chapter IV

Merchandise
trade and trade
in commercial
services
The share of manufactured goods in total merchandise
exports was just over 70 per cent in 2015, up from 67
per cent in 2014. The share of agricultural products also
increased slightly to around 10 per cent in 2015. This was
mostly due to the sharp decline in the value of fuels and
mining products whose share dropped to 18 per cent in
2015, from 20 per cent in 2014.
In 2015, the world transport sector fell by 10 per cent
as container shipping rates fell sharply due to lower
demand especially in developing economies. Global
travel receipts also decreased largely as a result of strong
exchange rate uctuations rather than declining demand
for international tourism. The aggregate category other
commercial services, which account for more than half of
services exported worldwide, contracted by 5 per cent.
Construction was the hardest hit services sector (-15 per
cent), reecting a fall in exports in both developed and
developing economies.

M erchandise trade

30

Trade in commercial services

34

Global value chains

39

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Merchandise trade
The dollar value of merchandise trade fell
by 13 per cent in 2015. This was mostly
caused by a fall in the value of world
exports of fuels and mining products,
which declined at a dramatic rate (-25 per
cent compared with -6 per cent in 2014).
The decline was due to a sharp decrease
in prices and a signicant decrease in
demand. Exports of agricultural products
fell by 11 per cent, while exports of

manufactured goods declined by 5 per


cent (see Chart 4.1).
The reduction in the price of commodities
in 2015 was especially steep for fuels (see
Chart 4.2). For exporting countries, this
decline has been partially compensated
by an increase in the dollar exchange rate
(short-term uctuations between the US
dollar and commodity prices are often

negatively correlated). But the decline


in commodity prices was also due to
the slow-down in the Chinese economy
and an increase in world supply as many
projects fuelled by high prices after
2003 reached maturity. Financial volatility
is also responsible for higher uncertainty
and lower investment worldwide, leading
to a further reduction in demand for
minerals and oil (see Table A67).

Chart 4.1:

World merchandise exports, 2005-2015


20,000
18,000
16,000

US$bn

14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
2005

2006

Total merchandise

2007

2008

Agricultural products

2009

2010

Fuels and mining products

2011

2012

2013

2014

2013

2014

2015

Manufactured goods

Source: WTO Secretariat.

Chart 4.2:

Fluctuations in international prices, 2005-2015


250

(indices, 2005=100)

200
150
100
50
0
2005

2006

Food and beverages


Source: IMF

30

2007

2008

Agricultural raw materials

2009

2010

2011

2012

Minerals and non-ferrous metals (excluding crude petroleum)

Energy

2015

Merchandise trade and trade in commercial services

Regarding agricultural products


in 2015, the ranking of the top six
exporters remained unchanged
compared with the previous year
(see Chart 4.3). India dropped two
places to ninth position while Thailand
and Australia improved their ranking.
Argentina remained in tenth position.
All of the major exporters of agricultural
products experienced a decline in
exports in 2015, with India recording the
most signicant fall (-19 per cent) and
China the smallest decline (-2 per cent)
(see Table A14). The top ten exporters
represented 72.7 per cent of world
agricultural exports in 2015, down 0.2
per cent on their share in 2014.
Major exporters of fuels and mining
products suffered from the dramatic
decline in prices for fuels and minerals
in 2015 recording a signicant fall
in exports ranging from -14 per cent
for China to -47 per cent for SaudiArabia (see Chart 4.4) (see Table
A15). The share in world trade of the
top ten exporters declined to 50 per
cent in 2015, compared with 60 per
cent in 2000. This reects increasing
geographical diversication in the
exporting of fuels and mining products.

Chart 4.3:

Top ten exporters of agricultural products, 2015


700
600
585

-5
--7
7

500

--7
7
-8
8

--9
9

--10
10

400

-9

--10
10

-10

-13
3

300

-15

200
163
16

-20

-20
0

100

80
0

73
3

63
3

9
39

6
36

6
36

Thailand
Tha
ailand
d

Australia
Au
usstralia
a

35
5

35
35
-25

US$bn
Euro
European
E
opean
Union
Un
nion

Exports
a

United
Unit d
States
Sttates

Brazil

China

Canada
Canada

Indonesia
Indo
onesia a

India
In
ndia

Argentina
Argentin
n
na

Annual percentage change (%)

Includes Secretariat estimates. Source: WTO Secretariat.

Chart 4.4:

Top ten exporters of fuels and mining products, 2015


500
440
400
-14
14
300
-28
28
8

200 -30
30
0

195
19
1
95

153
153
5

-29
9
145
145

108
108
0

100

-34
-3
34
4

-35
35
5
104
10
04

-38
-3
8

-39
-3
39
39
71
7

-44
4

68
68

-47
7

66
66

55
55

US$bn
European
Eu
uro
opean
Un
Union
nio
on (28)
on

Exports
a

World exports of iron and steel were


heavily affected by falling prices for
steel and iron ores and a decline in
demand in 2015. The top ten exporters
saw a marked decrease in annual
exports ranging from -9 per cent for
Brazil to -39 per cent for the Russian
Federation and Ukraine (see Chart 4.5)
(see Table A17). The top four exporters
remained the same as in 2014. Russia
dropped from fth to sixth position while
Ukraine dropped two places, to ninth
position. Brazil broke into the top ten,
reaching eighth position compared with
11th place in 2014. Among the major
exporters, Brazils exports suffered
the least.

0
-2
2

R
Russian
usssia
sian Saudii Ara
Arabia,
ab
bia,
Fed
Federation
de
eration King
eratio
Kingdon
gdon
n of
o a

Un
United
nited
d
St
States
tatess

A
Australia
us
ustralia
lia

C
Canada
anad
a da

Qatar
Q
atar a

United
United
Un
d
Norwayy
Arab E
Emirates
miratesa

0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25 %
-30
-35
-40
-45
-50

China

Annual percentage change (%)

Includes Secretariat estimates. Source: WTO Secretariat.

Chart 4.5:

Top ten exporters of iron and steel, 2015


140
120
100

-5

139
-9
9

-12
-1
12

-10
-15

-18
8

-19
9

-20
0

-20

-20

80

-24
2

-25 %

64
64

60

--28
28

-30

40

-35
0
30

20

3
23
16
6

-39
-3
39

-39
-3
39
5
15

10
10

Chinese
C
Taipei
Taipei
Ta

Ukraine

US$bn
European
Euro
opean
Union
Unio
on (28)

Exports
a

China
Ch
hinaa

Japan
Ja
apan

Korea,
Ko
orea,
Repu
Republic
ublic of
o

U
United
nited
S
States
ta
ates

Russ
Russian
sian
Feder
Federation
ration

Brazil
Bra
azill

-40

-45

India

Annual percentage change (%)

Includes significant shipments through processing zones. Source: WTO Secretariat.

31

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

The ranking of the major exporters


of chemicals remained mostly
unchanged in 2015. Only India
improved its position, from tenth to
ninth place, while Chinese Taipei
dropped one place, to tenth position
(see Chart 4.6). All major exporters
saw a decrease in their exports in
2015. US exports declined the least
(-2 per cent) while Chinese Taipeis
fell by the most (-16 per cent).
Between 2000 and 2015, China
expanded its share in the world
market the most (increasing it by 5
percentage points and reaching a
market share of almost 7 per cent
in 2015) while the European Union
experienced the biggest loss in
market share (-6 percentage points).
The top ten exporters accounted for
almost 86 per cent of world exports
of chemicals in 2015 (see Table A18).

Chart 4.6:

Top ten exporters of chemicals, 2015


900

901

--4
4

The ranking of the top ten exporters


of automotive products remained
unchanged in 2015, with the
European Union (49 per cent share
of world exports), Japan (10 per cent)
and the United States (10 per cent)
in the rst three positions (see Chart
4.8). Of the top ten exporters, only

32

-4
-4

--4
4

-4

-5
5

700

-6

600

-8

500
-10 %

-10
400

-11
11
-12

300

-13
13
3

-13
13
3
-14

20
2
06
0
6
206

200

3
130

100

-16

-16
16

88

63

58

47

37

36

32

US$bn
European
Eur
ro
opean
Uni
io
on (28)
Union

Exports
a

United
Un
nited
Sttates
States

China
Ch
hinaa

Switzerland
Switz
itz
zerlan
nd

Japan
Japan
Ja

Korea,
Ko
K
orea
o
rea,
rea
Singapore
Sing
Si
gapor
g
apo e
Repu
ublic o
of
Republic

Canada

In
India
ndia

-18

Chinese
e
Taipei

Annual percentage change (%)

Includes significant shipments through processing zones. Source: WTO Secretariat.

Chart 4.7:

Top ten exporters of office and telecom equipment, 2015


700

500

600

Among the top ten exporters of ofce


and telecom equipment (see Chart
4.7), only Hong Kong (China) and
the Republic of Korea increased the
value of their exports (by +3 per cent
and +1 per cent respectively). All
other major exporters saw a decline
in the value of their exports, varying
from -1 per cent (China) to -10 per
cent (European Union and Malaysia).
The export of ofce and telecom
equipment is still concentrated
among a small group of economies
even if the market share of the top ten
decreased slightly to 89.6 per cent
in 2015 from 90.1 per cent in 2000
(see Table A20).

-2

-2
2

800

591

1
-1

--2
2

-2

--3
3

400
31
31
18
8
318

300
200

14
42
142
100

-4 %

--5
5
--6
6

24
2
44
244

-6
-8

-8
-8

11
1
18
118

110
110
11

Sing
Si
Singapore
gaporre

K
Korea,
orea
a,
Repu
Republic
ublic of

-10
0

93
3

63
63

60
6
0

-10
10

59
5
9

-12

US$bn
C
Ch
China
hinaa

Exports
a

-10

European
European
n Hong
g Ko
Kong,
on
ng,
Unio
Union
on (28)
on
(28
C
China
hina
a

Un
U
United
nited
St
States
tates

C
Chinese
h
hinese
e
Ta
Taipei
aipei

Mexico
M
exico
oa

Japan
Ja
apan

Malays
Malaysia
ia
aa

Annual percentage change (%)

Includes significant shipments through processing zones. Source: WTO Secretariat.

Chart 4.8:

Top ten exporters of automotive products, 2015


6

700

653

600
500

2
1

400

300

-2

%
-3
3

--3
3

100

--6
6

--6
6

13
1
37
137

--6
6

129
2
129

97
9
7

-6

71
1

-6
62
6
2

US$bn
European
Eu
urropean
Union
Uniion (28)
Un

Exports
a

JJapan
Ja
apan
n

United
Un
nited
d
States
Sttatess

Mexico
M
Me
exico
oa

Korea,
Korea,
Republic
Repu
ublic of

-4

--4
4

200

Canada
Ca
anad
da

49
9
China
Ch
hinaa

27
2
7
Th
Thailand
ha
ailan
nd
d

Annual percentage change (%)

Includes significant shipments through processing zones. Source: WTO Secretariat.

17
7
Turkey
Turkey
Tu

11
11
India

-8

Merchandise trade and trade in commercial services

three saw an increase in the value


of their exports in 2015: Mexico (+5
per cent), Thailand (+2 per cent)
and Canada (+1 per cent). The
other top ten exporters recorded
declines (ranging from -3 per cent
to -6 per cent). Collectively, the
top ten exporters accounted for
almost 95 per cent of world exports
of automotive products in 2015
(compared with 96 per cent in 2000)
(see Table A21).

Chart 4.9:

Top ten exporters of textiles, 2015


0

120
109
100

-2

-2
-3
3

-3
3
-4

80

-6
6

-6

--6
6
-7
7

64
64

-8 %

60
-9
-9

-10

40

-11
11
1
-12

-13
3

20
-14

-14

17
17

4
14

1
11

11
11

1
0
10

6
-16

US$bn
C
Ch
China
hinaa

China, the European Union and India


remained the top three exporters
of textiles in 2015 (see Chart 4.9).
Altogether, they accounted for almost
two-thirds of world exports. The
top ten exporters all experienced a
decline in the value of their exports
in 2015, with the highest declines
seen in the European Union (-14 per
cent) and Turkey (-13 per cent). The
smallest decline was recorded in
China (-2 per cent) (see Table A22).

Exports

European
Eur
ropean
Union
Unio
on (28)
( )

In
India
ndia

Un
U
United
nited
States
S
St
tates

Tu
Turkey
urkey

Ko
Korea,
orea
a,
Republic
Repu
ublicc of

Hon
Hong
g Kon
Kong,
ng,
China
C
hina

Pakistan
Pa
kistan
nb

Japan

Annual percentage change (%)

Includes significant shipments through processing zones.


Source: WTO Secretariat.

Includes Secretariat estimates.

Chart 4.10:

Top ten exporters of clothing, 2015


200

15
175

10

10

160

8
6

120

Among the top ten exporters of


clothing (see Chart 4.10), increases
in export values were recorded by
Viet Nam (+10 per cent), Cambodia
(+8 per cent), Bangladesh (+6 per
cent) and India (+2 per cent). The
other major exporters saw stagnation
in their export values (United States)
or recorded a decline (all other top
ten economies). In 2015, the top ten
accounted for 87 per cent of world
exports of clothing.

Chinese
Chinese
e
Taipei
Ta
aipei

2
11
1
2
112

0%

80
-5
-6
6
40
-11

26
26

-9
9

-10
0
22

18
8

1
8
18

15
5

US$bn
China
Chinaa
Ch

Exports
a

Europea
European
Union
Unio
on (28)
on

Bangladesh
Bang
glade
esshb

Viet
Vi
ie
et Nam
mb H
Hong
ong
g Kong,
Kon
ng,

IIndia
ndia
ndi

-10

-10
0

T
Tu
Turkey
urkey

7
Indonesia
Indo
onesiia
ab

6
Cambodia
Cam
mbodia
ab

C
China
hina

-15

United
States

Annual percentage change (%)

Includes significant shipments through processing zones.


Source: WTO Secretariat.

Includes Secretariat estimates.

33

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Trade in commercial services


Transport

Chart 4.11:

World transport exports by region, 2015


The transport sector experienced
a difcult year in 2015. Container
shipping rates fell sharply and
the shipping sector suffered from
overcapacity due to lower demand
in developing economies. Global air
freight volumes slowed in particular in
Asia and in Europe, reecting weaker
merchandise trade ows. In contrast,
cheaper global air fares resulting
from collapsing oil prices boosted
international air passenger trafc,
which rose by 6.5 per cent1, a record
for the past decade.

(annual percentage change)

-10
10

World

-14
1

CIS

-13

Europe

-12

South and Central America

-9
9

Asia

-7

North America
Africa

2
6

-20

-15

-10

-5

Middle East

10

15

20

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.

In 2015, world transport exports


fell by 10 per cent to US$ 875
billion, with sharp declines in most
regions (see Chart 4.11). In the
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS), exports dropped by 14 per
cent as air transport services sunk by
26 per cent. In Europe, the decline
was 13 per cent, with international
sea transport exports falling by 17

per cent. Transport receipts in South


and Central America were down by
12 per cent. The contraction was less
pronounced in Asian economies, as
Chinas transport exports remained
positive (+1 per cent) while they
plummeted in other leading exporting
economies in the region (see Chart
4.12) (see Table A25).

By contrast, transport receipts


expanded by 6 per cent in the
Middle East, the fastest growing
region. The Middle Eastern air
transport industry recorded strong
growth, with international air
freight and air passenger transport
expanding by more than 10 per
cent in 2015.

Chart 4.12:

Leading transport exporters, 2015


(annual percentage change)

30

20

10

-10

-20

-30
European
Union

United
States

Singapore

China

Japan

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.

34

IATA Air freight market analysis and Air passanger market analysis (December 2015)

Korea,
Republic of

Hong Kong,
g,
China

Norway

Russian
Ru
Federation

India

Merchandise trade and trade in commercial services

Freight accounts for the largest part of world


transport exports
More than half of global transport exports relate to freight
transport. In particular, seaborne freight represents the
largest share, at 30 per cent in 2014. International freight
transport through railways, roads and inland waterways
accounted for 15 per cent, while airborne freight
accounted for an additional 6 per cent.
Supporting and auxiliary transport services
performed in ports, airports or railways, such as

cargo handling, storage and warehousing, formed


overall around one-quarter of world transport
exports. By comparison, passenger transport by air
was estimated at only 21 per cent of the total.
World transport exports mirror closely trends in global
merchandise trade ows. Even record performances in
international air passenger trafc, as in 2015, cannot offset
negative developments in goods transport.

Estimated structure of world transport exports, 2014


(percentage)

Other modes,
other services
5.7%
Other modes,
freight
15.0%

Post and
courier
1.4%

Sea,
passenger
0.8%
Sea, freight
30.3%

Other modes,
passenger
0.7%
Air, other
sevices
7.6%

Air, freight
5.9%
Air,
passengers
21.4%

Sea,
other services
11.3%

Source: WTO estimates.

35

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Europe saw international tourist


arrivals rise by 5 per cent in 2015,
or by an additional 24 million tourists
compared to 2014, with the European
hotel industry recording the highest
growth in occupancy rates. However,
in dollar terms Europes travel receipts
dropped by 13 per cent. Similarly, in
the CIS, travel exports dropped by 17
per cent while international tourists
were up by 5 per cent. Africa was
the only region with plunging travel
exports due to falling international
tourists following terrorist attacks
in some economies and fear of
Ebola. Increasing foreign tourists,
in particular from the United States,
boosted travel receipts in South and
Central America and the Caribbean,
which expanded by 3 per cent.

Chart 4.13:

World travel exports and international tourist arrivals by region, 2015


(annual percentage change)
20

15

10

Annual percentage change


change

In 2015, world travel exports fell by


5 per cent (see Table A25) to US$
1,230 billion, largely as a result of
strong exchange rate uctuations, in
particular the appreciation of the US
dollar against major world currencies,
rather than declining demand for
international tourism (see Chart 4.13).
Despite rising security concerns
and geopolitical tensions in various
destinations, global international
tourist arrivals grew by 4 per cent,
reaching 1,184 million in 2015.

-5

-10

-15

-20
World

North
America

Europe

International tourist arrivals

South
and
Central
America

Asia

Africa

Middle
e East

CIS

Travel exports

Source: WTO calculations based on UNWTO data and WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.

Chart 4.14:

Leading exporters of travel, 2015


(annual percentage change)
40

30

The leading economies for travel


exports had mixed experiences in
2015, particularly in Asia, where
receipts dropped by 26 per cent in
Macao, China, while they were up by
16 per cent in Thailand and by 35 per
cent in Japan (see Chart 4.14) (see
Table A33).
Other commercial services
Other commercial services account
for more than half of services exported
worldwide (see Chart 4.15). In 2015,

36

Annual
ual percentage change

20

10

-10
10

-20

-30
European
Union

United
States

China

Thailand
ailand

Macao,
China

Hong
Kong,
Chi a
China

Australia

Turkey

Japan

India

Merchandise trade and trade in commercial services

All categories of other commercial


services decreased, but some were
more adversely affected than others
(see Chart 4.17). Construction was
the hardest hit services sector (-15
per cent), reecting a drop in exports
in both developed and developing
economies, such as the European
Union (-21 per cent), Japan (-6 per
cent) and the Republic of Korea
(-30 per cent) (see Table A37).
In the latter, the fall was due to a
signicant contraction in building
projects in the Middle East, a key
export market. In recent years, the
Republic of Korea has specialized in
building renery and petrochemical
plants as well as power plants.
Among top exporters, China was
the only economy with strong
growth (8 per cent) (see Table
A37), reecting thriving construction
activity notably in African
countries. For both the Republic
of Korea and China, construction
exports are essentially trade with
other developing countries.

World exports of other commercial services by region, 2015


(annual percentage change)
10

5
Annual p
percentage
g change
g

Most leading exporters of other


commercial services recorded
signicant declines in 2015 (see Chart
4.16). India and Hong Kong, China,
were the only economies with positive
growth above 1 per cent, rising by 2
per cent and 6 per cent respectively. In
the United States, the increase was a
modest 0.7 per cent (see Table A35).

Chart 4.15:

-5

-10

-15

-20
World
orld

CIS

South
Sout
and
Central
America

Europe

Africa

Asia

North
America

Middle East

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.


Note: Other commercial services covers: construction; insurance and pension services; financial services;
charges for the use of intellectual property n.i.e.; telecommunications, computer and information services;
other business services; and personal, cultural and recreational services.

Chart 4.16:

Leading exporters of other commercial services, 2015


(annual percentage change)

15

10

Annual perce
percentage change

these services declined by 5 per cent


to US$ 2,495 billion (see Table A34).
The steepest fall was recorded in the
CIS, where exports dropped by 17 per
cent followed by South and Central
America (-8 per cent). These declines
reected negative growth in the
Russian Federation (-21 per cent) and
Brazil (-16 per cent). In Europe, exports
dropped by 7 per cent as the European
Unions exports decreased.

-5

-10

-15
European
Union

United
States

India

China

Japan

Switzerland Singapore

Canada

Korea,
Hong Kong,
Republic of
China

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.

37

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Chart 4.17:

World exports of other commercial services by main category, 2015


(annual percentage change)

2015
Other commercial services of which:

Telecommunications, computer and information services

-2

Financial services

2
-2

-3
-3

Charges for the use of intellectual property n.i.e.

-6

Other business services

-7

Insurance and pension services

Personal, cultural, and recreational services

-9
9

Construction

Annual
percentage change

2014

-5
5

-15

-20

-15

-10

-5
-

10

15

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.

Computer services was the most


resilient services sector in 2015, as
it has been in other periods in which
trade has contracted. This is due to a
regular global demand for cost-efcient
technologies, the development of
innovative software in various sectors
such as manufacturing, nance,
insurance, healthcare and education as
well as the pressing need to address IT
security concerns.

Chart 4.18:

Exports of computer services in selected economies, 2015


(annual percentage change)

Costa
sta Rica
R ca
Ric
Korea, Republic
public of
Japan
Ja
apan
Belarus
Bel
arus
Brazil
Br
B
razil

In 2015, the IT services sector


expanded rapidly in many emerging
exporters (see Chart 4.18). In Costa
Rica, the third-largest supplier of
computer services in South and Central
America, exports were up by 43 per
cent, followed by Brazil (16 per cent)
and Argentina (12 per cent). Doubledigit growth was reported also in
Asian exporters, such as the Republic
of Korea and Japan, both growing by
25 per cent, as well as in the United
States (14 per cent) (see Table A47).

38

United
d States
Sttates
Argentina
rgen
ntina
Ukraine
Uk
raine
Sri
Lanka
ri La
L
anka
India
Annual
entag
ge change
percentage

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.

10

1
15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Merchandise trade and trade in commercial services

Global value chains


Estimating trade in terms of value
added provides a new perspective
on trade patterns. The OECD-WTO
Trade in Value Added (TiVA) database
provides data on the origin of the value
added in gross exports. This can be
used to outline trade ows taking place
within global value chains (GVCs).
TiVA data is based on the International
Standard Industrial Classication (ISIC
Rev.3) that covers all sectors of the
economy, including primary products,
manufactured goods and services.
International supply chains
in the chemicals industry
The chemicals industry is a sector
dominated by supply chains. The
chemicals market faces strong
international competition, and
companies make use of supply chains to

optimize their production or services and


to make cost savings.
The ISIC denition of the chemical
industry includes basic chemicals
(plastics, synthetic rubber, etc.),
agrochemical products (fertilizers,
pesticides, etc.), pharmaceutical
products, cosmetic products (soap,
perfume, etc.) and synthetic bres.
TiVA data shows that around 62 per
cent of the value added in chemicals
exports in 2011 (the latest year for
which data is available in the TiVA
database) originated from other
industries supplying inputs to chemical
rms to allow them to produce goods
and services for export (see Chart 4.19).
The share of upstream services inputs
in the overall value added in chemicals

exports reached 38 per cent in 2011 of


which the wholesale and retail trade
industry represented 12 per cent,
reecting the distribution networks that
support the production process and that
ensure the circulation of intermediate
goods within the supply chain.
Research and development and other
business activities accounted for more
than 10 per cent of the value added in
world exports of chemicals. Transport
and storage services accounted for
4 per cent of its value added exports,
reecting the fact that the chemicals
sector is transport-intensive.
Among primary industry inputs,
raw materials, such as mining
and quarrying products, are
essential for the production of
chemicals. These accounted for
11 per cent of the value added.

Chart 4.19:

World exports in chemical products - Origin of value added, 2011


(per cent share in gross exports of chemicals)

Chemical industry
(exporter)

Other upstream industries


(inputs suppliers to the chemical industry)

62%
38%
Services industries

13%
Primary industries

38%

11%
Other manufactures industries
(excluding the chemical industry)

Source: OECD-WTO TiVA database.

39

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

The breakdown between domestic


and foreign value added content in
chemicals exports reveals to what
extent domestic content contributes to
exports in this sector and how much
the economy depends on foreign
production partners for the foreign
value added content of exports.
Chart 4.20 shows that for most
countries, chemicals exports have a
higher proportion of domestic rather
than foreign value added content
but the share varies signicantly.
The foreign value added content
corresponds to the upstream supply of
intermediate goods and services from
foreign companies for the production of
chemicals exports. The level of foreign

contributor to EU exports of chemicals,


with 5 per cent of the value added in
2011, mainly from services sectors
such as research and development or
wholesale/retail distribution services.

value added content depends on


multiple factors, such as the size of the
exporting economy and its capacity to
host the required production processes,
the economys level of industrial
specialization and its position in the
supply chain.

Large economies such as the United


States or Japan have a high share of
domestic content in their chemicals
exports. This is because their domestic
production networks have the capacity
to meet the needs of exporting
industries, and their chemical industry
therefore relies to a lesser extent on
international supply chains to produce
their exports.

Chemicals supply chains in the


European Union are concentrated
among its member countries, with 83
per cent of the value added in
exports in 2011 sourced from within the
EU. Germany, France and the United
Kingdom are the main suppliers of value
added, with 22 per cent, 12 per cent
and 11 per cent respectively of the
value added in EU exports of chemicals.
The United States is the main non-EU

The share of domestic content in


chemicals exports is also high in Brazil,

Chart 4.20:

Domestic and foreign value added content in chemicals exports selected economies, 2011
(per cent share in gross exports of chemicals)

100
1
00
90
80

16

17

18

84

83

82

23
77

70
70

24
29
76
71

30
70

35
65

60

45
55

50

53
47

40
30
20
10

Brazil
Brazi
il

Europe
European
e
ean
Union
n

Foreign value added

Source: OECD-WTO TiVA database.

40

Unite
United
ed
State
e
es
States

Switzerl
Switzerland
land

Domestic value added

Japan
n

India
a

Canad
Canada
d
da

Israe
Israel
e
el

Singap
Singapore
pore

Republ
Republic
ic of
Kore
ea
Korea

Merchandise trade and trade in commercial services

whose exports contained only 16 per


cent of foreign value added content
in 2011. This is because Brazils
chemicals industry is one of the largest
in the southern hemisphere, and the
country has its own natural resources
and industrial infrastructure to produce
basic raw materials or petrochemical
products used in the chemical industry.
Switzerland also incorporates a
high level of domestic value added

in its exports of chemical products.


This is due to its specialization
in high-grade products and the
application of innovative processes
and its high-skilled workforce.
Among the economies shown in
Chart 4.20, the Republic of Korea
has the lowest share of domestic
value added content in chemical
exports, at just 47 per cent in 2011.

This is because Korean rms have


established vertical supply chains with
a number of countries to optimize the
production process, to generate cost
savings and to import raw materials
such as oil products, which they
largely source from Saudi Arabia.
TiVA data reveals that Saudi Arabia
plays a key role in the international
chemicals industry as a core supplier
of oil products to many countries.

41

Chapter V

Trading
patterns: Global
and regional
perspectives
In 2015, China was once again the worlds leading merchandise exporter
and the United States the leading merchandise importer. The top ve traders
namely China, United States, Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom
accounted for more than one-third of world trade while the top three
countries accounted for more than one-quarter. A fall in prices in international
markets had a particular impact on Africa, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa,
other commodity exporters and regional trade agreements in general.
The United States remained the leading trader of commercial services.
However, China, which ranked second, was the only economy with positive
growth for both exports and imports. In 2015, all regions, with the exception
of the Middle East, experienced declines in their exports of services.

M erchandise trade

44

Top performers

44

Regi onal per f or mance

45

Regi onal trade agr eements

46

Trade in commercial services

48

Top performers

48

C ommer ci al s ervi ces trade by modes of s upply

48

For ei gn af f i l i ates s tati s ti cs ( FATS) :


Sal es of s er vi ces thr ough forei gn affi l i ate s

50

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Merchandise trade
Top performers

Chart 5.1:

Merchandise trade of worlds leading traders, 2011-2015


China, the United States, Germany and
Japan remained the top four traders for
both merchandise exports and imports
in 2015 (see Chart 5.1). China was
the leading exporter, with total exports
of US$ 2.27 trillion and a 14 per cent
share of world exports, followed by the
United States (US$ 1.50 trillion, 9 per
cent), Germany (US$ 1.33 trillion, 8
per cent) and Japan (US$ 624 billion,
4 per cent). The fth biggest exporter
was the Netherlands, with total exports
of US$ 567 billion, representing a 3
per cent share of world exports (see
Table A6).

(annual percentage change, %)

Imports

CHINA
CH
HINA

Exports

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
10
-15
-20

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Imports

UNITED STATES

Exports

30
25

The leading importer was the United


States, with imports totalling US$
2.31 trillion, representing a 14 per
cent share of the global total, followed
by China (US$ 1.68 trillion, 10 per
cent), Germany (US$ 1.05 trillion, 6
per cent) and Japan (US$ 648 billion,
4 per cent). The United Kingdom was
the fth biggest importer of goods,
with imports amounting to US$ 626
billion, representing 4 per cent of world
imports (see Table A6).

20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
10
-15
-20

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Imports

GERMANY
ERMANY

Exports

30
25
20
15

The European Union experienced a


decline of 12 per cent in the value of its
exports in 2015 following an average
of 2 per cent growth in 2012-14. Asia
overtook Europe for the rst time in
terms of share of world exports in
2015 (36.17 per cent compared with
36.15 for Europe). Europe and Asia,
the leading destinations of exports, saw
their imports drop by 13 per cent and
14 per cent respectively in 2015.

10
5
0
-5
-10
10
-15
-20

2011

2012

2013

2014

PAN
JAPAN

2015

Imports

30
25
20
15
10

Since the nancial crisis in 2008, the


European Union and the United States
have experienced similar trade patterns
in terms of exports and imports.
Though more volatile than GDP,
exports and imports from these two

44

5
0
-5
-10
10
-15
15
-20

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Exports

Trading patterns: Global and regional perspectives

traders have followed a similar pattern


to GDP growth. Conversely, countries
such as China and Japan have seen
varying trends for their exports and
imports. For instance, in 2015, Chinas
imports dropped by 14 per cent while
its exports declined by only 3 per cent
(see Chart 5.1).

Chart 5.2:

Merchandise trade by region, 2015


(annual percentage change)
10.0
10
0.0
0
5.0
5
0
00
0.0
-5.0
-5
5.0
0
-10
0.0
0
-10.0
-15.0
-15
5.0
0
0.0
0
-20.0

Exports from emerging economies


declined in 2015. In particular,
Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile,
China, Colombia, Hungary, India,
Indonesia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia,
Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa,
Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela
experienced signicant declines (see
Tables A6 and A7). Total exports from
this group of countries fell by 11 per
cent in 2015, bringing the total value
of exports to about US$ 5 trillion,
representing 30 per cent of the world
total. The largest among this group
were Russia (32 per cent), India (17
per cent) and Brazil (15 per cent).
Both China and Mexico were relatively
resilient to the decline in exports
compared with other developing
economies, recording a fall of 3 and 4

50
-25.0
-30.0
-35.0
-40.0
North America

Imports

South and
Central
America and
the Caribbean

pe
Europe

Commo
onCommonwealth of
Independent
States

Af
frica
a
Africa

Mi
ddle East
Middle

Asia

Exports

US$ 5.958 trillion and North Americas


US$ 2.3 trillion. The regions exports
declined by 7, 12 and 8 per cent
respectively (see Chart 5.2).

per cent respectively. China, however,


experienced a large decline of 14 per
cent for imports. Mexicos decline in
imports was not as drastic, falling by 2
per cent.
Regional performance
In dollar terms, Asia was the best
performing region in 2015 followed by
Europe and North America. Its overall
merchandise exports amounted to US$
5.961 trillion, followed by Europes

Chart 5.3:

Merchandise exports from Africa, 2005-2015


(million US dollars)

140,000
120,000
100,000
80,000
50,000

Africas exports experienced a


signicant 30 per cent decline in dollar
terms in 2015. Accounting for about
40 per cent of the regions exports,
Sub-Saharan oil-exporting countries,
such as Equatorial Guinea and Congo,
were signicantly affected by the 60 per
cent decline in oil prices. Nigeria saw a
decline of almost 50 per cent (see Table
A7) in its export revenues in dollar terms
(see Chart 5.3). This weakness was
also due to a variety of other factors,
including slow growth in North Africa
and domestic and political turmoil.
Growth in South Africa and Morocco
was relatively better than the average
for the region, with a less marked
decline in the value of their exports.

40,000
20,000

Algeria

Libya

Angola

Nigeria

South Africa

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

Asia experienced the lowest regional


decline in total exports in 2015,
with a fall of 7 per cent. However,
the larger Asian economies, such
as Malaysia and the Philippines (net
exporters of manufactured products),
experienced a decline of 15 per cent

45

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Chart 5.4:

Merchandise exports of leading RTAs, pre- and post-financial crisis, (2007-2015)


(annual percentage change)

40
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
20
-30
2007

EU 28

NAFTA

2008
08
8

2009

2011

2012

2013

2014
014

2015

ASEAN

and 6 per cent respectively while


Indonesias exports fell by 15 per
cent (see Table A7). On the other
hand, Viet Nam (a net importer of
manufactured goods) and Bangladesh
(a clothing exporter) experienced
growth of 8 and 6 per cent
respectively (see Table A7) despite
declining prices for manufactured
goods in 2015. Developing Asia
continues to account for the bulk of
developing economies share in world
exports, representing 67 per cent of
developing economies exports.
The participation in global trade of
the Middle East, South and Central
America and the Commonwealth of
Independent States is still largely
conned to agricultural products, energy
and other commodities, so their trade
ows are vulnerable to price movements
inuenced by international markets. Their
total exports amounted to US$ 841
billion, US$ 540 billion and US$ 500
billion respectively in 2015. Compared
to 2014, their exports declined by 35,
21 and 32 per cent respectively.

46

20
2
2010
10

Regional trade agreements (RTAs)


Some 423 notifications regarding
RTAs (counting goods, services and
accessions separately) comprising
267 physical RTAs have been
received by the GATT/WTO and
are currently in force, the biggest
being the European Union, the North
American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) and the Association of
Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Together, the three RTAs represent
55 per cent of world exports (US$
8.8 trillion) and 58 per cent of world
imports (US$ 9.6 trillion).
Overall, total merchandise trade in
value terms for RTAs stagnated or
declined in 2015 (see Chart 5.4). The
European Union, however, slightly
increased its one-third share of world
exports, increasing its total to US$
5,387 billion.
NAFTA accounted for 14 per cent
of world exports, and ASEAN
represented 7 per cent of world

exports respectively in 2015. The


average growth rate for merchandise
trade from 2013 to 2015 is lower than
the rate from 2007 to 2009, reecting
the sluggish economic growth across
the world since the nancial crisis of
2008 and a fall in export and import
prices from 2014 to 2015.
In South America, MERCOSUR
(Southern Common Market) and the
Andean Community (consisting of
Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru)
both experienced a decline in their
exports of 22 per cent and 27 per cent
respectively. Similarly their shares in
world exports continued to decline
slightly from 2014 to 2015.
In Africa, the dependence of the
Economic Community of West African
States (ECOWAS) on oil exports
and imports particularly Nigeria,
which accounted for 50 per cent of
ECOWAS exports resulted in its
share of world exports falling to 0.5
per cent in 2015 from 0.9 per cent in
2012 (see Table A56).

Trading patterns: Global and regional perspectives

Trans-Pacific Partnership
The Trans-Pacic Partnership (TPP), a trade agreement
among 12 Pacic Rim countries signed in February
2016, aims to increase market access and promote
economic growth through new trade rules. The
agreement has not yet entered into force.

a population of 810 million. The United States is


the largest market in terms of GDP and population,
representing 62 per cent of the TPPs GDP and 40 per
cent of the population covered by the TPP.

The TPP offers its signatories the potential to benet


from the large size of the markets covered by the
agreement and to increase their share of world trade.
In 2014, the signatories accounted for 36 per cent of
the worlds GDP, or US$ 28 trillion, and encompassed

The TPP includes some of the fastest growing


economies in trade. Since 2005, Viet Nam, Peru
and Chile have experienced annual average growth
rates of 17 per cent, 14 per cent and 9 per cent
respectively for their merchandise exports. For the
other TPP countries, the lowest annual average
growth rate during this period was 3.7 per cent,
recorded by the United States. In terms of GDP,
Viet Nam, Peru, Singapore and Malaysia achieved
the highest annual growth rates during the last
decade, averaging at 9 per cent or higher.

TPP partners in world exports (% share)

TPP partners in world imports (% share)

The 12 signatory countries saw their share of world


exports decline to 24 per cent in 2015 from 25 per cent
in 2005 and their share of world imports fell to 29 per
cent from 31 per cent a decade earlier.

30.0%

30.0%

25.0%

25.0%

20.0%

20.0%

15.0%

15.0%

10.0%

10.0%

5.0%

5.0%

0.0%

0.0%
2005

2011

Australia

2015

Brunei Darussalam
New Zealand

Peru

2005

Canada
Singapore

Chile

Japan

United States

Mexico

2011

2015

Malaysia

Viet Nam

47

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Trade in commercial services


In 2015, world trade in commercial
services was down by 6 per cent,
with some regions experiencing
signicant declines (see Chart 5.5).
In the Commonwealth of Independent
States (CIS), exports dropped by 16
per cent and imports by 23 per cent,
reecting a contraction in services
trade in the Russian Federation and
the depreciation of the Russian rouble
against the US dollar (see Table A3).

Chart 5.5:

Trade in commercial services by region, 2015


(annual percentage change)

15
10
1
5
0
-5
-10
-1
10
-15
-20

Strong exchange rates uctuations


in Europe largely contributed to the
regions decline in services trade, while
the recession in Brazil had a major
impact on services trade in South
and Central America, in particular on
imports, which fell by 12 per cent.
Imports increased moderately in North
America, the only region with positive
import growth. In Asia, a decline in
transport exports in many economies
due to weak merchandise trade and
a contraction in other commercial
services translated into services exports
falling by 3 per cent (see Table A3).
A decrease in travel receipts, which
account for more than 40 per cent of
Africas exports, resulted in a decline
of 3 per cent in Africas exports of
commercial services. In contrast,
expanding tourism in the Middle East,
the regions largest exported service,
boosted its services exports, which
rose by 5 per cent, reecting sustained
growth in both the United Arab
Emirates and in the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia (see Table A3).
Top performers
In 2015, the top ten exporters of
commercial services were the same as
the top ten importers but the order of
the top ten differed (see Chart 5.6). The
United States maintained its position as
the worlds leading trader of commercial

48

-25
North America

Exports

South and
Central
America

Europe
pe

CIS

Africa
A

Middle East

Asia

Imports

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.

services. Although US exports stagnated,


its imports were up by 3 per cent,
reecting its ongoing economic recovery
(see Tables A8 and A9).
China was the second-largest services
exporter in 2015, with a 6 per cent share
in global services exports. The country
was the only leading services exporter
to record positive growth for both
exports and imports (2 per cent and 3
per cent respectively). However, China
remained a net importer of services,
mainly due to the rapid increase in its
travel imports in recent years. Among
other leading Asian traders, imports
fell more steeply than exports, with
Japans services imports down by 9
per cent (see Tables A8 and A9).
In US dollar terms, leading European
traders saw declines in their services
trade, with the sharpest export reduction
in France (-13 per cent) and the biggest
fall in imports in Germany (-12 per cent).
However, it should be noted that in
euro terms growth was positive in both
countries. Imports rose by 4 per cent
in Ireland, as payments for business
services as well as for charges for the

use of intellectual property thrived.


Ireland recorded the most dynamic
growth rate among leading importers
of commercial services (see Tables A8
and A9).
Commercial services trade by
modes of supply
Services traded through mode 1
(services supplied from one country
to another, ofcially known as crossborder trade) accounted for 16 per
cent of US exports and imports of
services. These services comprise
transport (excluding supporting
and auxiliary transport services),
telecommunications services,
information services, insurance and
pensions services, nancial services,
charges for the use of intellectual
property n.i.e., operating leasing
services and trade-related services.
Mode 2 (consumers or rms making use
of a service in another country, known
ofcially as consumption abroad)
represents around 11 per cent of US
exports of commercial services and
8.5 per cent of imports. Mode 2 covers
travel and supporting and auxiliary

Trading patterns: Global and regional perspectives

Chart 5.6:

Leading traders of commercial services, 2015


(US$ billion and annual percentage change)

800
700
600
500

billion US$

400
40
00
30
00
300
200
20
00
10
00
100
0
-10
10
00
-100
-200
-300
United
States
Exports

Imports

United
d
Kingdom
m

China

German
Germany

France

Netherlands

Japan

Balance

China

Netherlands
Japan

Annual percentage change

United Kingdom

France

Singapore
Ireland
India

Imports

Exports

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.

transport services (such as loading


and unloading of containers in ports
and airports, storage and warehousing,

Singapore

Ireland

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.

United States

Germany

India

cleaning, etc.), which are supplied on a


consumption abroad basis.
Exports through mode 1 and mode 4

(individuals travelling from their own


country to supply services in another,
known ofcially as presence of natural
persons) together made up 6.1 per
cent of US services exports and 8.2 per
cent of its imports. This category covers
computer services as well as a variety
of professional and technical services,
such as legal services, business and
management consulting, and research
and development services for which
a dominant mode of supply cannot
be determined. They can be delivered
through mode 1 or mode 4. In Chart
5.7, mode 4 covers only mining services
while modes 3 and 4 combined
(commercial presence and presence of
natural persons) refer to construction in
balance of payments statistics.
Over two-thirds of US exports and
imports of services took place through
the setting-up of subsidiaries or
branches to provide services in another
country, known as establishment of
a commercial presence (mode 3, as
dened by the General Agreement on

49

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Chart 5.7:

Estimated structure of trade in commercial services in the United States by mode of service supply, 2013

Exports

Imports

Mode 3

Mode 3

66.5%

66.4%
Mode 3+4

Mode 4

0.1%

0.1%

Mode 4

Mode 3+4

0.2%

Mode 2

0.2%

Mode 2

10.8%

8.5%
Mode 1
Mode 1+4

Mode 1

16.3%

Mode 1+4

6.1%

16.5%

8.2%

Source: WTO Secretariat calculations based on U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) data.

Trade in Services) in 2013, the latest


year for which data is available.
Foreign afliates statistics
(FATS): Sales of services
through foreign afliates
Services can be provided to foreign
markets via a direct investment channel.
Modes 1, 2 and 4 (recorded in the
balance of payments current account)
mostly concern transactions between
residents and non-residents. However,
most of mode 3 (supply of services
through commercial presence) can
only be fully analysed through foreign
afliates statistics. Until recently,
data was mainly limited to developed
economies. But in recent years, an
increasing number of developing
economies, including some leastdeveloped economies, have started
compiling such data, leading to a better
understanding of how suppliers render
services to their clients worldwide.
Due to the time lag for the production
of these statistics, it is only possible

50

to analyse data up to 2013 in this


publication. As shown in Table A63,
mode 3 represents an important way
of supplying services to international

markets. On average, the level of sales


is steadily increasing. This is reected
in the data available for the major
services-producing economies.

Chart 5.8:

Main extra-EU destination markets for EU rms supplying services through mode 3, 2013

Singapore

3.9%
Mexico

3.0%
Australia

Canada

2.9%
China

2.8%

3.7%
South Africa

3.7%
Other

24.7%

Hong Kong, China

4.3%
Brazil

7.5%
United States
Switzerland

8.1%

Source: Eurostat.

36.4%

Trading patterns: Global and regional perspectives

Chart 5.9:

Growth in sales of services provided by foreign affiliates in 2013


(in percentage)*
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60

Thailand

Slovak Republic

Czech Republic

Greece

Latvia

Slovenia

Bulgaria

Canada

Norway

Estonia

Hungary

Italy

Austria

United States

Portugal

Spain

Denmark

Romania

France

Germany

Lithuania

Netherlands

Hong Kong, China

Poland

Croatia

Luxembourg

Serbia

Cyprus

Zambia

-70

*Given the recent development of these statistics, data coverage may not always be complete.
See the chapter on Composition, definitions & methodology.

For example, the supply of services


by the European Union (mainly
dominated by France, Germany, Italy,
Spain and the United Kingdom) to
other countries increased by 6 per
cent in 2011, 4 per cent in 2012 and
1 per cent for 2013. As illustrated
in Chart 5.8, the main extra-EU
destination markets for EU rms
supplying services through mode
3 are the United States, Switzerland,
Brazil, Hong Kong (China) and
South Africa.
Sales of services by the United States
and Canada through their foreign
afliates abroad show a similar growth
of sales. In addition, partial data
are available for some developing
economies, such as India. For instance,
Indian afliates abroad offering
banking, computer and IT-enabled
services have experienced a rapid
increase in sales, with annual average
growth of 17 per cent since 2008.
Inward FATS measure the rendering

(i.e. sale) of services to consumers


of economies in which the foreign
afliates are established. Available
data show on average growth rates
of 4 per cent in 2012 and 2 per
cent in 2013. However the picture
differs substantially depending on the
economies. It should be noted that
the number of economies reporting
inward FATS is greater than those
reporting outward FATS (see Table
A62). A number of economies
achieved double-digit growth rates in
2013 (see Chart 5.9). These include
Zambia (+24 per cent), Cyprus (21
per cent), Serbia (18 per cent),
Luxembourg (16 per cent) and Hong
Kong, China (11 per cent). Some
economies have experienced a sharp
decline in their sales of services.
These include the Slovak Republic
(-21 per cent) and Thailand (-65 per
cent). The high volatility of this data
needs to be taken into account, as
major suppliers of services are not
always included as a consequence of

mergers and acquisitions in an evergrowing era of globalization (see Table


A62).
Inward FATS in the United States
(see Table A64) shows how rapidly
some emerging and developing
economies are gaining local market
shares in the supply of services.
Although still representing relatively
small shares of overall foreign activity
in the United States (ranging from
0.5 per cent to 2 per cent for each
economy), afliates of major developing
economies, in particular from Asia and
the Middle East, are rapidly becoming
important players in the US market. For
example, the Republic of Korea, India,
Singapore, Mexico, China, Hong Kong
(China), United Arab Emirates and
Saudi Arabia now collectively account
for 7.3 per cent of total foreign
supply of services by foreign afliates
in the United States, compared
with only around 2.5 per cent ve
years earlier.

51

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Chapter VI

Developing economies
participation in world trade
Merchandise exports in terms of US dollar values from
developing economies and least-developed countries
(LDCs) were badly hit by signicantly lower prices for fuels
and mining products in 2015. LDCs exports suffered the
most, recording a 25 per cent decline, while exports from
developing economies fell by 14 per cent. LDCs share of
world exports dropped to below 1 per cent for the rst time
since 2007.
Exports of commercial services from developing economies
contracted by 3 per cent in 2015. The decline in transport
exports reected weak merchandise trade while travel
receipts fell only slightly. LDCs recorded growth in
exports of commercial services, which rose by 1 per cent,
assisted in particular by the continuing expansion of travel
exports. However, LDCs participation in global exports of
commercial services remained negligible at 0.8 per cent.

52

Developing economies participation in world trade

Developing economies

54

Mer chandi s e trade

54

S pot lig ht on Africa: Trade i n f uel s and ex por t di ver s i f i cati on

55

Trade i n commer ci al s ervi ces

56

L east- developed countries

59

Mer chandi s e trade

59

Trade i n commer ci al s ervi ces

60

Aid for Trade

63

53

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Developing economies
Chart 6.1:

Merchandise trade

Share of developing economies in world trade, 2000-2015

South-South trade (i.e. exports from


developing economies to other
developing economies) continued to

50
43%

45
40
41%

35
30
25

Merchandise exports

Merchandise imports

grow and to constitute an increasing


share of developing economies exports
(approximately 52 per cent in 2014).1
Since 2010, South-South trade has
recorded stronger growth than trade
with developed economies and with

Chart 6.2:

Developing economies merchandise trade with developing,


developed and CIS economies, 2000-20142
(US$ billion)
4,500
4,000
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500

South-South trade

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

Exports to developed and CIS countries

Imports from developed and CIS countries

Origin and destination gures and product group shares discussed here are based on the available WTO network of
world merchandise trade data, published in October 2015. The next update to the WTO network of world merchandise
trade data, which will include 2015 gures, is scheduled for October 2016.

Data in this chart are sourced from the WTO network of world merchandise trade, which is based on the geographical
distribution of exports adjusted for distortions relating to large re-export activities. Import data might thus slightly differ from
statistics published by other ofcial sources. All growth rates in this chapter are in terms of current US dollar values.

54

2015

2010

2005

20
2000

Developing economies recorded a


14 per cent decrease in merchandise
exports in value terms and a 13 per
cent decrease in imports in 2015. Latin
America, the Middle East and Africa
continued to be negatively affected
by the decline in the prices of fuel
and other commodities. Developing
countries in Europe and Asia, which
recorded positive but slowing growth in
exports in 2013 and 2014, registered
declines in 2015. As a result,
developing economies participation in
world merchandise trade showed little
change in 2015. Their share in exports
declined very slightly to 43 per cent
while their share in imports remained at
41 per cent (see Chart 6.1).

the Commonwealth of Independent


States (CIS see Chart 6.2).
In recent years, trade has grown
unevenly among the ve developing
regions (Africa, Developing Asia,
Developing Europe, Latin America
and the Middle East) due to political
stability, dependence on commodity
exports, and changes in global
commodity prices (see Chart 6.3).
Fuel exporters in developing
economies saw their exports fall
signicantly due to the increased
global supply and falling global
demand as a result of sluggish
growth globally. The share of fuels in
developing countries exports fell from
25 per cent in 2012 to 21 per cent
in 2014. The price of minerals and
non-ferrous metals also fell, but the
price of food and beverages remained
relatively stable following the peak
prices recorded for wheat, maize and
barley in 2011. Commodity-dependent
regions showed double-digit declines
(annual percentage change) in exports
in 2015 in contrast to Developing Asia,
which was buoyed by its manufacturing
sector (see Table 6.1).

Developing economies participation in world trade

Chart 6.3:

Quarterly merchandise trade exports for developing economies by region, 2013-2015


(indices 2013 Q1 = 100, not seasonally adjusted)
120
100
80
60
40
20
13 Q1

14 Q1

Latin America

Middle East

15Q1

Developing Europe

Spotlight on Africa: Trade in fuels


and export diversication
As illustrated in Chart 6.3, oil exporters
in Latin America, the Middle East and
Africa were negatively affected by an
increased global supply of oil and the
subsequent fall in fuel prices, which
dampened growth in those regions.
Declines in African exports followed
closely the declines in fuel prices, with
all eight African oil and gas exporters
recording declines in exports in both
2014 and 2015. As a group, the
eight African oil and gas exporters

15Q4

Developing Asia

Africa

Fuel prices

experienced a 52 per cent decrease in


exports between 2013 and 2015.
One reason for the decrease in fuel
exports was the increased oil production
by the United States. Between 2012 and
2014 the United States reduced fuel
imports from Africa by 59 per cent as a
result of increased domestic production.
This decrease in fuel imports contributed
to a 47 per cent fall in the value of Africas
total exports to North America during this
period. In 2014, North Americas share of
Africas total exports was only 7 per cent
compared with 11 per cent in 2012.

However, among the eight oil and gas


exporters, exports of manufactured
goods continued to grow. For
example, although Algerias exports
of manufactured goods represent
a very small percentage of its total
exports, which are dominated by trade
in fuels, its exports of manufactured
chemicals grew by almost 150 per cent
from 2013 to 2014. According to the
latest data available, the percentage
of manufactured goods as a share of
African exports grew from 19 per cent
in 2013 to 21 per cent in 2014.
Manufactured goods continued to
experience positive trade growth
(although at a decelerating rate) in
2013 and 2014 alongside trade of
agricultural products, in contrast to
exports of fuels and other mining
products. As shown in Table 6.2, the
top four traders, which also represent
several of the most economically
diverse countries in Africa, weathered
the downturn in the last few years
better than the commodity-dependent
oil and gas exporters.

Table 6.1:

Developing economies merchandise trade by region, 2015


(US$ billion and percentage)

Exports
Value

Share in world

Imports
Annual % change

2015

2014

2015

6934

43.6

920

5.9

Developing Europe

169

1.0

1.1

Africa

388

3.0

2.4

-8

841

7.0

5.3

-4

4616

26.8

28.9

15985

100.0

8550

52.4

500

4.0

Developing economies

Latin America

Middle East
a

Developing Asia

Value

Share in world

2014

2015

2015

2014

2015

43.4

-14

6664

41.0

5.8

-3

-15

1027

6.2

-9

247

-30

559

-35

100.0
53.5
3.1

Annual % change
2014

2015

40.9

-13

6.3

-1

-11

1.5

1.5

-3

-14

3.5

3.4

-14

707

4.2

4.3

-10

-7

4124

25.6

25.2

-14

-14

16299

100.0

100.0

-13

-12

9290

56.3

56.9

-11

-6

-32

345

2.7

2.1

-11

-32

Memorandum items
Worlda
Developed economies
Commonwealth of Independent States

Note: aExcluding Hong Kong (China) re-exports or imports for re-exports.

55

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Table 6.2:

Summary indicators on Africas merchandise trade, 2013-2015


Exports

Imports

Main traders ( per cent change)

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

-12

-14

-44

10

-19

South Africa

-4

-5

-10

-1

-3

-14

Egypt

-3

-7

-28

-14

19

-9

Morocco

-8

-18

Tunisia

-2

-16

-1

-19

79

77

73

70

70

68

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

-11

-13

Other mining products

-6

Manufactured goods

2013

2014

2015

2013

2014

2015

Agricultural products

10

11

16

16

Fuels

57

54

16

15

19

21

62

64

Oil and gas exporters (8 countries)

Above 12 countries, share of Africa's trade


Regional trade by product ( per cent change)
Agricultural products
Fuels

Product share in region's trade ( per cent)

Other mining products


Manufactured goods

Note: a Algeria, Angola, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Libya, Nigeria and Sudan.

Trade in commercial services


Developing economies participation
in world trade in commercial services
continued to rise in 2015, reaching
32 per cent of global exports or
US$ 1,521 billion (see Chart
6.4 and Table 6.3). Since 2005,
these countries have progressively
expanded their share of services
trade. The increase was mainly due
to Developing Asia, which accounted
for 22.4 per cent of world exports
of services in 2015. China, India,
the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong

56

(China) and Thailand were among the


main contributors.
Developing Asias share of world
imports of commercial services
expanded even more rapidly,
reaching 25.4 per cent in 2015,
largely due to Chinas booming
services imports, in particular travel.
Developing economies demand for
services has thrived over the years,
with these countries raising their
participation in world imports to 39.4
per cent in 2015 (US$ 1,815 billion).
As merchandise trade ows

contracted in 2015, container port


activity decelerated considerably
in several developing economies,
declining by 11 per cent in Hong
Kong (China) and by almost 9
per cent in Singapore. However,
thanks to Chinas growth in exports,
developing economies transport
exports fell by only 6 per cent
compared with a 12 per cent fall for
developed countries. Developing
economies travel receipts declined
by 1 per cent while exports of other
commercial services decreased
by 3 per cent.

Developing economies participation in world trade

Chart 6.4:

Share of developing economies in world trade in commercial services, 2005-2015


(percentage)

45.0
39.4

40.0
35.0

32.0

30.0
25.0

Commercial service imports

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

20.0
2005

Travel and transport account for the


bulk of developing economies exports
of commercial services, totalling 37 per
cent and 20.2 per cent respectively
in 2015 (see Chart 6.5). Both these
shares are higher than in developed
economies. However, developing
economies share in exports of
commercial services continues to lag
behind in higher-skilled services, such
as charges for the use of intellectual
property n.i.e., insurance and pension
services and nancial services. This
points to the difculty for these
countries to compete in these areas,
in particular in terms of training and
nancial resources.

Commercial service exports

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.

Chart 6.5:

Structure of developing and developed economies exports of commercial services, 2015


(percentage)

Developing economies

Developed economies

Insurance and
pension services
Construction

3.2%

1.7%
Financial services

4.1%
Telecommunications,
computer and information
services

Insurance and
pension services

3.1%
Construction

1.6%

Financial services

11.2%
Telecommunications,
computer and information
services

10.5%

9.1%
Travel

Charges for the use of


intellectual property n.i.e.

37%

1.1%
Other business
services

Transport

20%

20.2%
Not allocated

0.3%

Personal, cultural and


recreational services

0.7%
Goods related services

3.1%

Travel

Charges for the


use of intellectual
property n.i.e.

20.7%

8.9%

Transport

17%

Other business
services

Goods related
services

3.2%

23%
Personal, cultural and
recreational services

0.9%

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates

57

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Other business services comprised 20


per cent of developing economies total
services exports in 2015, according
to estimates. This category includes
research and development, professional
and management consulting services,
and technical, trade-related and other
business services.
Rising by an annual average of around
10 per cent since 2005, developing
economies share of global exports
of other business services reached
29.1 per cent in 2015. Developing
Asia continued to play the main role

(22.9 per cent), with exports from


India and China alone accounting
for 10.2 per cent of world exports.
These two economies ranked rst
and second as preferred services
offshoring locations.1 Indias exports
to foreign clients included a wide
range of services, such as nance and
accounting, auditing, book keeping
and tax consulting services, customer
services, medical transcriptions, and
various types of engineering services
(embedded solutions, product design,
industrial automation and enterprise
asset management).

Other economies play a key role


in business process outsourcing
(BPO). The Philippines, for example,
has specialized in call centres but it
has also expanded into higher valueadded services. Its exports of other
business services were up by 15
per cent in 2015. Among developing
countries, Israel is the leading exporter
of research and development services
(R&D). However, its exports in this
area contracted in 2015. In Africa,
Morocco is the main exporter of
other business services, especially
call centres.2

Table 6.3:

Developing economies trade in commercial services by region, 2015


(US$ billion and percentage)

Exports
Value

Developing economies
Latin America and the Caribbean

Share in world

Imports
Annual % change

Value

Share in world

Annual % change

2015

2014

2015

2014

2015

2015

2014

2015

2014

2015

1521

30.9

32.0

-3

1816

38.2

39.4

11

-3

163

3.3

3.4

-3

200

4.6

4.3

-11

Developing Europe

58

0.0

0.0

-10

28

0.7

0.6

-11

Africa

96

2.0

2.0

-3

157

3.5

3.4

-10

Middle East

141

2.6

2.0

257

5.4

5.6

10

-3

1064

21.7

22.4

11

-3

1173

24.1

25.4

14

-1

World

4754

100.0

100.0

-6

4612

100

100

-6

Developed economies

3140

66.9

66.0

-7

2662

58.2

57.7

-7

94

2.2

2.0

-9

-16

134

3.5

2.9

-4

-23

Developing Asia
Memorandum items

Commonwealth of Independent States

1
2

The 2016 A.T. Kearney, Global Services Location Index


Morocco Office des changes Evolution du secteur de lOffshoring 2013-2015

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates

58

Developing economies participation in world trade

Least-developed countries
Merchandise trade

Chart 6.6:

Merchandise trade of LDCs, 2005-2015


Merchandise exports of the leastdeveloped countries (LDCs) contracted
by 25 per cent in 2015, exceeding the
decline recorded in 2014 (-3 per cent).

250
200

US$bn

LDCs depend to a high degree on


exports of fuels and mining products,
which were hit by a fall in prices and
demand in 2015. LDCs rely more on
these products than most other country
groupings. Their imports declined by 9
per cent in 2015, leading to a record
merchandise trade decit (US$ 87
billion).

300

150
100
50
0
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

Exports

Imports

Source: WTO Secretariat.

Chart 6.7:

LDC exports by sub-groupings, 2005-2015


140
120
100

US$bn

LDC exporters of manufactured


goods showed the highest average
annual growth rate (6 per cent) of all
LDCs over the past ve years, followed
by exporters of agricultural products
(4 per cent). Economies classied as
other LDCs (Djibouti, Senegal and
Tuvalu) have more mixed exports than
other LDC economies; their average
annual growth rate reached 3 per cent.
Despite their more diversied exports,
the other LDCs have not hedged
against adverse uctuations in the
prices of international markets, and only
LDCs with a strong dependence on fuel
exports have recorded lower growth
rates during this period (-5 per cent
see Chart 6.7).

Share in world trade %

1.6

LDCs share of merchandise exports in


world exports dropped to 0.97 per cent
in 2015 the rst time it has dropped
below 1 per cent since 2007 (see Chart
6.6). Their share in world merchandise
imports slightly increased to 1.5 per
cent in 2015 (1.4 per cent in 2014).
LDCs share of merchandise exports
from developing economies dropped
to 2.1 per cent in 2015 (2.4 per cent in
2014) while its imports share increased
to 3.4 per cent (3.3 per cent in 2014).

80
60
40
20
0
2005

2006

2007

LDC exporters of agriculture

2008

2009

LDC oil exporters

2010

LDC exporters of manufactures

Other LDCs

Source: WTO Secretariat.

59

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

LDCs in Sub-Saharan Africa


experienced the largest declines
among LDC sub-categories in 2015,
registering a contraction of 30 per cent
(bringing their total exports to US$
97.5 billion from US$ 139 billion in
2014). This contraction was mainly due
to declines in exports of oil exporters
(Angola, Chad, Equatorial Guinea and
Sudan), which collectively account for
about 50 per cent of total exports from
the region.
Angolas share of merchandise exports
from the Sub-Saharan region fell to
35 per cent in 2015 from 48 per cent
in 2012. Its exports dropped by 42
per cent in 2015 (to US$ 34 billion
from US$ 59 billion in 2014). In this
region, oil exporters represented 48
per cent of the LDCs merchandise
exports in 2015, while agricultural
exporters and manufacturing exporters

represented 15 per cent and 3 per


cent respectively.
In contrast, in the East Asian
and Pacic region exporters of
manufactured goods accounted for
82 per cent of the LDCs merchandise
exports in 2015. Oil exporters and
agricultural exporters had a share of
12 per cent and 1 per cent of exports
respectively. Exports from the LDCs
in the East Asian and Pacic region
contracted by 4.3 per cent in 2015;
net exporters of manufactured goods,
such as Cambodia and Bangladesh,
accounted for more than 80 per cent
of total merchandise exports from the
East Asian and Pacic LDCs in 2015.
LDCs trade decit hit a record level
of US$ 87 billion in 2015, 44 per
cent higher than in 2014 and 134
per cent higher than in 2013. LDC oil

exporters registered a trade decit for


the rst time in more than 15 years,
totalling US$ 12 billion in 2015,
compared with an average surplus of
US$ 36 billion during the past decade.
LDC manufacturing and agricultural
exporters recorded a US$ 34 billion
and US$ 20 billion trade decit
respectively (see Chart 6.8).
Trade in commercial services
Although commercial services are
playing an increasingly important role
in global trade, the participation of
LDCs in international services trade
remains negligible. This is due to
several constraints, including poor
infrastructure, limited skills in this
sector and lack of financial resources.
In the last decade, the share of
LDCs in world exports of commercial
services increased from 0.4 per cent

Chart 6.8:

LDCs trade balance, 2010-2015


80
60
40

US$bn

2
20
0
-7

-7

-20
-20
-2

-25
-37

-40
-40
-4
-60

-61

-80
-87

-100
2010

2011

Exporters of agriculture
Oil exporters
Exporters of manufactures
Least developed countries

60

2012

2013

2014

2015

Source: WTO Secretariat.

Developing economies participation in world trade

Chart 6.9:

in 2005 to only 0.8 per cent in 2015


while, on the import side, it rose from
1 per cent to 1.6 per cent.

LDCs trade in commercial services, 2005-2015


(index 2005=100)

Exports

Export growth was fuelled by


LDCs in Asia, with Cambodia and,
in more recent years, Myanmar
being leading tourism destinations.
Also Bangladesh has become an
emerging exporter of information and
communications services and it is
seen as an attractive IT and business
processing outsourcing location. The
country has emerged especially as
a hub for freelance IT services via
online sites. These include freelance
IT professionals offering various
services, from simple data entry to
application development and project
management.
LDCs exports of computer services
are still at a low level, with exports
concentrated in just a few economies.
However, these exports have been
expanding rapidly. Overall, in 2015,
LDCs in Asia exported commercial
services worth US$ 14.4 billion, up by
2 per cent compared with 2014.
For African LDCs, the services sector
benefitted in particular from Ethiopias
expanding role as a supplier of air
transportation services and from
Tanzania and Uganda increasing their
role as exporters of tourism. With a
29.4 per cent share in 2015, Ethiopia

400
350

Index 2005 =100

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Imports

350
300

Index 2005=100

Nevertheless, average annual growth


of LDCs services trade was higher
than for the rest of the world. In the
period 2005-15, commercial services
exports grew by 14 per cent and
imports by 11 per cent, more than
twice the rate of other countries. Even
during the 2008-09 global economic
crisis, LDCs services exports were
resilient (see Chart 6.9).

250
200
150
100
50
0
2005

LDCs

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Rest of the world

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates

is the largest transport exporter of


the LDCs. In recent years, Ethiopia
has successfully integrated into
the international air transport value

chain, joining the largest global airline


alliance in 2011. In the period 200515, Ugandas travel exports grew by
12 per cent on average per year, while

61

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Chart 6.10:

Tanzanias travel exports grew by 10


per cent on average between 2005
and 2014.

LDCs exports of commercial services by region, 2005-2015


(US$ billion)

24
22

In 2015, the bulk of LDCs services


receipts originated from LDCs in Africa
whose export earnings reached US$ 21
billion (see Chart 6.10). The services
sector is less diversied in LDC islands,
where receipts declined by 6 per cent in
2015 to US$ 0.6 billion. Tourism is the
leading services sector in LDC islands,
accounting for over 70 per cent of their
services exports.1

20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

LDCs services exports are generally


dominated by low- to middle-skilled
services sectors, such as travel
(tourism) and transport. Their aggregate
contribution reached 73.4 per cent of
total services exports in 2015 compared
with 56.7 per cent for other developing
economies and 37.7 per cent for
developed countries. Since these
sectors are labour-intensive, they reach
out to a potentially large share of the
population, creating good employment
opportunities in LDCs. In 2015, LDCs

0
2005

LDCs Asia

2006

2007

2008

2009

LDCs Africa and Haiti

(annual percentage change)


8
6

Annual percentage change

4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12
Travel

Rest of the world

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.


1

62

2012

2013

2014

2015

LDCs islands

travel exports increased by 6 per


cent, reecting sustained growth in its
tourism sector, while transport receipts
contracted by only 1 per cent, much
less than in the rest of the world (see
Chart 6.11).

LDCs exports of commercial services by selected sector, 2015

LDCs

2011

Source: WTO-UNCTAD-ITC estimates.

Chart 6.11:

Transport

2010

The breakdown of LDCs by region is coherent with UNCTADs definition.

Other commercial service


services

LDCs services trade remains


concentrated within a few economies.
In 2015, the top ten leading
exporters accounted for more than
two-thirds of the groups services
receipts, a proportion virtually
unchanged since 2005. Myanmar
is the largest exporter of services
among the LDCs. For imports, Angola
alone represented one-quarter of the
groups total commercial services
payments.
The LDCs, as a group, are net
importers of commercial services. In
recent years, LDCs services trade
deficit has widened, reaching US$
39 billion in 2015 up from US$
16.3 billion in 2005. However, while
both the transport sector and other
commercial services sectors have
experienced persistent trade deficits,
travel (tourism) has recorded an
expanding surplus since 2005. In
2015, the travel surplus reached US$
11.4 billion.

Developing economies participation in world trade

Aid for Trade


The Aid for Trade initiative aims to
help developing countries use trade
as a means of achieving economic
growth and alleviating poverty. The
initiative supports the integration of
developing countries and particularly
least-developed countries into the
multilateral trading system by mobilizing
international resources to address
the constraints experienced by these

countries so that they can participate


more effectively in global trade and
benet from this activity. One of the
key aims of the initiative is to enhance
the capacity of developing countries to
trade and to take advantage of market
access opportunities.
Total Aid-for-Trade commitments in
2014 (the latest year for which data

is available) totalled US$ 54.8


billion, with approximately US$ 7
billion spent on multi-country
and regional programmes.
Chart 6.12 shows the regional
distribution of Aid-for-Trade
commitments from bilateral
and multilateral donors. Asia
and Africa remain the main
recipients of Aid for Trade.

Chart 6.12:

Aid for Trade financial commitments by developing region, 2006-2014


(million US dollars, 2014 prices)

60,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

2006
Europe

Asia

America

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Africa

Source: OECD-DAC Aid Activity database (CRS)

63

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Chapter VII

Trade policy
developments
To understand the developments of trade
ows over time, it is important to see them
in the context of changes in the global trade policy
environment. To enhance the transparency of trade
policy developments, notications from WTO members
complemented by semi-annual trade policy monitoring
exercises undertaken by the WTO are made available
to the public. The following chapter draws on these two
sources and provides some highlights of the current
trends as well as an overview of the stockpile of trade
policy measures in place.

64

Trade policy developments

Trends in trade policy making

66

Ot her tr ade meas ur es noti fi ed by WTO member s

68

Trade r emedi es

69

65

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Trends in trade policy making


Since 2009 the WTO has been
monitoring trade policy trends and
developments and has published
regular trade monitoring reports. These
reports aim to enhance the transparency
of trade policy developments and to
provide WTO members and observers
with an up-to-date picture of overall
trends in international trade policymaking as well as the implementation of
trade-restrictive measures and tradeliberalizing measures. The monitoring
exercise was initiated immediately
after the onset of the nancial crisis
at the end of 2008 and has evolved
considerably since then.

The latest monitoring report shows that


between mid-October 2015 and midMay 2016, WTO members applied 154
new trade-restrictive measures.1 This
corresponds to an average of 22 new
measures per month and constitutes a
signicant increase compared with the
previous interim report,2 which recorded
an average of 15 measures per month.
Also, it is the highest monthly average
registered since 2011, when the WTO
recorded a peak in the monthly average
of new trade-restrictive measures
(see Chart 7.1).
Trade-restrictive measures include
the establishment of import or export

tariffs or increases in these tariffs, the


introduction of import bans or quantitative
restrictions, the establishment of more
complex customs procedures, local
content measures and the temporary
or permanent introduction of import or
export taxes.
During the same period, WTO members
introduced 132 measures aimed at
facilitating trade, an average of 19
measures per month. While the latest
monthly average of trade facilitating
measures reects an increase compared
with the previous interim report, it is also
lower than the recorded monthly average

Chart 7.1:

Trade-restrictive measures, excluding trade remedies


(average per month)

23
22
20

20

15

15

15
14
14

14

14

13

10

0
2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

mid-Oct14
to mid-May15

mid-Oct15
to mid-May16

Note: Values are rounded. Source: WTO Secretariat.


1
2

66

For more information see WTO document WT/TPR/OV/W/10, 4 July 2016.


Report to the TPRB from the Director-General on Trade-Related Developments, Mid-October 2014 to mid-May 2015, WTO document WT/TPR/OV/W/9, 3 July 2015.

Trade policy developments

70 members (counting the European


Union and its member states separately),
representing 43 per cent of the WTO
membership and covering approximately
90 per cent of total world imports. Two
observers also replied to the request for
information.

imports or exports.

of trade-restrictive measures (see Chart


7.2). Examples of trade-facilitating
measures include the elimination or
reduction of import or export tariffs, the
simplication of customs procedures, the
temporary or permanent elimination of
import or export taxes and the elimination
of quantitative restrictions on both

The information on trade measures


highlighted in the monitoring reports
is submitted by WTO members and
observers or gathered from other
ofcial and public sources. In the latest
report, information was submitted by

The slow pace of removal of previous


restrictions means that the overall stock
of trade-restrictive measures is continuing
to increase. During the latest review
period, the overall stockpile of restrictive
measures, including trade remedies,
introduced by WTO members grew by 11
per cent. Of the 2,835 trade-restrictive
measures recorded for WTO members
since 2008, only 708, or 25 per cent, had
been removed by mid-May 2016. The
rate by which WTO members have been
eliminating trade restrictions remains too
low to make a dent in the stockpile. The
total number of restrictive measures still
in place today stands at 2,127 (see Chart
7.3).

Chart 7.2:

Trade-facilitating
ting measures, excluding
exclu
trade remedies
(average per month))

23
22

20

18

19

18
17

15

16

14
10

11

0
2009

2010

2011

2012
2

2013

2014

2015

mid-Oct14
to mid-May15

mid-Oct15
mid-Oct15
to mid-May16

Note: Values are rounded. Source: WTO Secretariat.

Chart 7.3:

Stockpile of trade-restrictive measures initiated


since October 2008

By mid-May 2016

By mid-October 2010
25.0%
708

15.0%
82

464

2,127

85.0%

75.0%

546 measures

Effectively eliminated measures

2,835 measures

Stockpile of restrictive measures

Note: The stockpile of trade-restrictive measures also includes trade remedy actions.
Source: WTO Secretariat.

67

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Other trade measures


notied by WTO members

notify immediately when emergency


measures are imposed.

Other trade measures notied by


WTO members mostly concern
regulations and standards, which are
dealt with under the WTOs Sanitary
and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures
Agreement and the Technical Barriers
to Trade (TBT) Agreement (see
Table 7.1). Under these agreements,
WTO members are obliged to
notify in advance any intention to
introduce new SPS/TBT measures
or to modify existing measures and to

By complying with the SPS/TBT


notication obligations, WTO members
are able to keep other members fully
informed about new or changed
regulations that may signicantly
affect trade. Therefore, an increased
number of notications does not
automatically imply greater use of
protectionist measures, but rather
enhanced transparency regarding
these measures.

The SPS/TBT notications received


by the WTO may underestimate
the actual number of implemented
measures as there is no legal
obligation to notify all measures.
Indeed, members have no obligation
to notify measures which are mostly
identical to international standards,
guidelines or recommendations.
However, members are recommended
to do so. Furthermore, WTO members
have not notied all SPS/TBT
measures that they are supposed to
report to the WTO.

Table 7.1:

SPS/TBT measures notified by WTO members


Measures notied as of 31 December 2015
Type of measure
Notications
SPS (regular and emergency notications)

14,807

120

TBT

20,459

128

Source: SPS Information Management System, TBT Information Management System and the Integrated Trade Intelligence Portal (I-TIP),
based on notifications from WTO members.

68

Economies

Trade policy developments

Trade remedies
In addition to the measures indicated
above, WTO members are required
to inform the WTO about trade
remedies anti-dumping measures,
countervailing measures and
safeguards (see Table 7.2). These
are measures applied by importing

countries in certain circumstances


and under WTO rules to imports of
a particular product where those
imports are causing injury to domestic
producers. Anti-dumping and
countervailing measures are applied
to dumped or subsidized imports
respectively from a particular country
or countries. These measures have to

be implemented in accordance with


the WTOs Anti-dumping Agreement
and the Agreement on Subsidies
and Countervailing Measures.
Safeguard measures are applied,
under the Agreement on Safeguards,
on a most-favoured nation (i.e. nondiscriminatory) basis, subject to
specically dened exceptions.

Table 7.2:

Trade remedies notified by WTO members3


Final duty in force on 31 December 2015
Type of measure
Measures

Economies

Anti-dumping

1494

30

Countervailing duties

111

Safeguards

155

35

Source: : Integrated Trade Intelligence Portal (I-TIP), based on notifications from WTO members.

Detailed statistics by members and by products can be found in I-TIP database (http://i-tip.wto.org/goods).

69

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Composition,
definitions
& methodology
The data for this report come from a variety
of sources. How they are compiled and
presented is explained in this chapter.

70

Composition, definitions & methodology

C omposit io n of geogr aphi cal and economi c gr oupi ngs

72

D ef i ni ti ons and methodol ogy

76

Tr ade pol i cy i ndi cator s

85

Speci f i c notes for s el ected economi es

86

Stati s ti cal s our ces

87

71

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Composition of geographical
and economic groupings
WTO members are frequently
referred to as countries, although
some members are not countries
in the usual sense of the word but
are ofcially customs territories.
The denition of geographical and
other groupings in this report does
not imply an expression of opinion
by the Secretariat concerning the
status of any country or territory,
the delimitation of its frontiers,
nor the rights and obligations of
any WTO member in respect of
WTO agreements. The colours,
boundaries, denominations, and
classications in the maps of this
publication do not imply, on the
part of the WTO, any judgement
on the legal or other status

72

of any territory, or any


endorsement or acceptance of
any boundary. Throughout this
report, South and Central America
and the Caribbean is referred to
as South and Central America;
Aruba, the Bolivarian Republic of
Venezuela, Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region of China,
Macao Special Administrative
Region of China, the Republic of
Korea and the Separate Customs
Territory of Taiwan, Penghu,
Kinmen and Matsu are referenced
as Aruba (the Netherlands with
respect to), Venezuela, Bolivarian
Rep. of; Hong Kong, China;
Macao, China; Korea, Republic of;
and Chinese Taipei respectively.

Changes in statistical territories


in 2010 and 2011 involving the
Netherlands Antilles and Sudan are
reected in this report, as far as
available statistics permit. Data for
the Netherlands Antilles are no longer
given beginning with 2011, and are
replaced with data for the successor
states Curaao and Sint Maarten.
Further, the secession of South Sudan
from Sudan in July 2011 resulted in
a decrease in the magnitude of the
latters trade ows. No time series is
currently disseminated for South Sudan.
Data provided by Ukraine do
not include the Autonomous
Republic of Crimea and the city
of Sevastopol starting 2014.

Composition, definitions & methodology

North America
Bermuda
Canada*
Mexico*
United States of America*
Other territories in the region not elsewhere specied
South and Central America and the Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda*

Brazil*

Dominican Republic*

Honduras*

Argentina*

Chile*

Ecuador*

Jamaica*

Saint Lucia*
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines*

Aruba (the Netherlands with respect to)

Colombia*

El Salvador*

Nicaragua*

Sint Maarten

Bahamas**

Costa Rica*

Grenada*

Panama*

Suriname*

Barbados*

Cuba*

Guatemala*

Paraguay*

Trinidad and Tobago*

Belize*

Curaao

Guyana*

Peru*

Uruguay*

Bolivia, Plurinational State of*

Dominica*

Haiti*

Saint Kitts and Nevis*

Venezuela, Bolivaria Rep. of*

Other territories in the region not elsewhere specied


Europe
Albania*

Cyprus*

Germany*

Liechtenstein*

Poland*

Andorra**

Czech Republic*

Greece*

Lithuania*

Portugal*

Sweden*
Switzerland*

Austria*

Denmark*

Hungary*

Luxembourg*

Romania*

Turkey*

Belgium*

United Kingdom*

Estonia*

Iceland*

Malta*

Serbia**

Bosnia and Herzegovina** Finland*

Ireland*

Montenegro*

Slovak Republic*

Bulgaria*

France*

Italy*

Netherlands*

Slovenia*

Croatia*

FYR Macedonia*

Latvia*

Norway*

Spain*

a
Georgia is not a member of the
Commonwealth of Independent
States but is included in this group
for reasons of geography and
similarities in economic structure.

Other territories in the region not elsewhere specied


Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)a
Armenia*

Georgia*a

Moldova*

Turkmenistan

Azerbaijan**

Kazakhstan*

Russian Federation*

Ukraine*

Belarus**

Kyrgyz Republic*

Tajikistan*

Uzbekistan**

Other territories in the region not elsewhere specied


Africa
Algeria**

Chad*

Ethiopia**

Libya**

Niger*

Sudan**

Angola*

Comoros**

Gabon*

Madagascar*

Nigeria*

South Sudan

Benin*

Congo*

The Gambia*

Malawi*

Rwanda*

Swaziland*

Botswana*

Congo, Dem. Rep. of*

Ghana*

Mali*

Sao Tome and Principe**

Tanzania*

Burkina Faso*

Cte dIvoire*

Guinea*

Mauritania*

Senegal*

Togo*

Burundi*

Djibouti*

Guinea-Bissau*

Mauritius*

Seychelles*

Tunisia*

Cameroon*

Egypt*

Kenya*

Morocco*

Sierra Leone*

Uganda*

Cabo Verde*

Equatorial Guinea**

Lesotho*

Mozambique*

Somalia

Zambia*

Central African Republic*

Eritrea

Liberia, Republic of**

Namibia*

South Africa*

Zimbabwe*

Other territories in the region not elsewhere specied


Middle East
Bahrain*

Israel*

Lebanese Republic**

Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of*

Iran**

Jordan*

Oman*

Syrian Arab Republic**

Iraq**

Kuwait, the State of*

Qatar*

United Arab Emirates*

Yemen*

Other territories in the region not elsewhere specied


Asia
Afghanistan**

China*

Korea, Republic of*

Mongolia*

Papua New Guinea*

Australia*

Fiji*

Kiribati

Myanmar*

Philippines*

Chinese Taipei*
Thailand*

Bangladesh*

Hong Kong, China*

Lao Peoples Dem. Rep.*

Nepal*

Samoa*

Tonga*
Tuvalu

Bhutan**

India*

Macao, China*

New Zealand*

Singapore*

Brunei Darussalam*

Indonesia*

Malaysia*

Pakistan*

Solomon Islands*

Vanuatu*

Cambodia*

Japan*

Maldives*

Palau

Sri Lanka*

Viet Nam*

Other territories in the region not elsewhere specied

* WTO members ** Observer governments

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World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Regional integration agreements


Andean Community (CAN)
Bolivia
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) / AFTA (ASEAN Free Trade Area)
Brunei Darussalam

Indonesia

Malaysia

Philippines

Thailand

Cambodia

Lao People's Dem. Rep.

Myanmar

Singapore

Viet Nam

Guatemala

Honduras

Nicaragua

CACM (Central American Common market)


Costa Rica

El Salvador

CARICOM (Caribbean Community and Common Market)


Antigua and Barbuda

Belize

Guyana

Montserrat

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Bahamas

Dominica

Haiti

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Suriname

Barbados

Grenada

Jamaica

Saint Lucia

Trinidad and Tobago

Congo

Equatorial Guinea

Gabon

CEMAC (Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa)


Cameroon

Chad

Central African Republic


COMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa)
Burundi

Egypt

Libya

Rwanda

Swaziland

Comoros

Eritrea

Madagascar

Seychelles

Uganda

Congo, Dem. Rep. of

Ethiopia

Malawi

South Sudan

Zambia

Djibouti

Kenya

Mauritius

Sudan

Zimbabwe

Sao Tome and Principe

ECCAS (Economic Community of Central African States)


Angola

Central African Republic

Congo, Dem. Rep. of

Gabon

Burundi

Chad

Equatorial Guinea

Rwanda

Cameroon

Congo

ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States)


Benin

Cte d'Ivoire

Guinea

Mali

Senegal

Burkina Faso

The Gambia

Guinea- Bissau

Niger

Sierra Leone

Cabo Verde

Ghana

Liberia, Republic of

Nigeria

Togo

Norway

Switzerland

EFTA (European Free Trade Association)


Iceland

Liechtenstein

European Union (28)


Austria

Denmark

Hungary

Malta

Slovenia

Belgium

Estonia

Ireland

Netherlands

Spain

Bulgaria

Finland

Italy

Poland

Sweden

Croatia

France

Latvia

Portugal

United Kingdom

Cyprus

Germany

Lithuania

Romania

Czech Republic

Greece

Luxembourg

Slovak Republic

Oman

Qatar

Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of

United Arab Emirates

Paraguay

Uruguay

Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of

GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council)


Bahrain
Kuwait, the State of
MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market)
Argentina

Brazil

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)


Canada

Mexico

United States

SADC (Southern African Development Community)


Angola

Lesotho

Mauritius

South Africa

Tanzania

Botswana

Madagascar

Mozambique

Seychelles

Zambia

Congo, Dem. Rep. of

Malawi

Namibia

Swaziland

Zimbabwe

SAFTA (South Asia Free Trade Agreement)


Afghanistan

Bhutan

Maldives

Pakistan

Bangladesh

India

Nepal

Sri Lanka

SAPTA (South Asian Preferential Trade Area)


Afghanistan

Bhutan

Maldives

Pakistan

Bangladesh

India

Nepal

Sri Lanka

Senegal

WAEMU (West African Economic and Monetary Union)

74

Benin

Cte d'Ivoire

Mali

Burkina Faso

Guinea- Bissau

Niger

Togo

Composition, definitions & methodology

Other groups
ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific countries)
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cabo Verde
Cameroon
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo
Congo, Dem. Rep. of

Cook Islands
Cte dIvoire
Cuba
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Fiji
Gabon
The Gambia
Ghana
Grenada
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau

Guyana
Haiti
Jamaica
Kenya
Kiribati
Lesotho
Liberia, Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Micronesia
Mozambique
Namibia

Nauru
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Palau
Papua New Guinea
Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands

Somalia
South Africa
South Sudan
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Tanzania
Timor Leste
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tuvalu
Uganda
Vanuatu
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Libya

Morocco

Tunisia

Guinea-Bissau
Liberia, Republic of
Mali

Mauritania
Niger
Nigeria

Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo

Congo
Dem. Rep. of the Congo

Equatorial Guinea
Gabon

Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe

Mauritius
Seychelles
Somalia

South Sudan
Sudan

Tanzania
Uganda

Mozambique
Namibia

Swaziland
South Africa

Zambia
Zimbabwe

Indonesia
Japan
Kiribati
Lao Peoples Dem. Rep.
Macao, China
Malaysia

Mongolia
Myanmar
New Zealand
Papua New Guinea
Philippines
Republic of Korea

Samoa
Singapore
Solomon Islands
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Tonga

Tuvalu
Vanuatu
Viet Nam

Bhutan
India

Maldives
Nepal

Pakistan

Sri Lanka

Malaysia
New Zealand
Peru
Papua New Guinea
Philippines

Russian Federation
Singapore
Thailand
Chinese Taipei
United States

Viet Nam

Africa
North Africa
Algeria
Egypt
Sub- Saharan Africa
Western Africa
Benin
The Gambia
Burkina Faso
Ghana
Cabo Verde
Guinea
Cte dIvoire
Central Africa
Burundi
Central African Republic
Cameroon
Chad
Eastern Africa
Comoros
Ethiopia
Djibouti
Kenya
Eritrea
Madagascar
Southern Africa
Angola
Lesotho
Botswana
Malawi
Territories in Africa not elsewhere specied
Asia
East Asia (including Oceania):
Australia
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia
China
Fiji
Hong Kong, China
West Asia:
Afghanistan
Bangladesh

APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)


Australia
Brunei Darussalam
Canada
Chile
China

Hong Kong, China


Indonesia
Japan
Korea
Mexico

BRIC (Brazil, Russian Federation, India and China)


Developed economies:

North America
(except Mexico)

European Union (28)

EFTA (Iceland,
Liechtenstein, Norway,
Switzerland)

Australia, Japan and


New Zealand

Developing economies:

Africa

South and Central America


and the Caribbean, Mexico

Europe except the


European Union (28) and EFTA;
Middle East

Asia except Australia, Japan,


and New Zealand

Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
The Gambia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti

Kiribati
Lao Peoples Dem. Rep.
Lesotho
Liberia, Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mozambique
Myanmar

Nepal
Niger
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Sudan
Sudan

Tanzania
Timor Leste
Togo
Tuvalu
Uganda
Vanuatu
Yemen
Zambia

Republic of Korea

Singapore

Chinese Taipei

Thailand

LDCs (Least-developed countries)


Afghanistan
Angola
Bangladesh
Benin
Bhutan
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Central African Republic
Chad
Six East Asian traders*
Hong Kong, China
Malaysia

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World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Definitions and methodology


Merchandise trade
Exports and imports
Two systems of recording merchandise
exports and imports are in common use.
They are referred to as general trade
and special trade and differ mainly in the
way warehoused and re-exported goods
are treated. General trade gures are
larger than the corresponding special
trade gures because the latter exclude
certain trade ows, such as goods
shipped through bonded warehouses.

To the extent possible, total merchandise


trade is dened in this report according
to the general trade denition. It
covers all types of inward and outward
movement of goods through a country
or territory including movements through
customs warehouses and free zones.
Goods include all merchandise that
either add to or subtract from the stock
of material resources of a country or
territory by entering (imports) or leaving
(exports) the countrys economic
territory. For further explanations, see
United Nations International Trade

Table IV.2
Products
A. Primary products
(i) Agricultural products (SITC sections 0, 1, 2 and 4 minus divisions 27 and 28)
of which,
- Food (SITC sections 0, 1, 4 and division 22)
of which,
0 - Food and live animals
1 - Beverages and tobacco
4 - Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes
22 - Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits
- - Fish (SITC division 03)
- - Other food products and live animals ( SITC sections 0, 1, 4 and division 22 minus division 03)
- Raw materials (SITC divisions 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29)
of which,
21 - Hides, skins and furskins, raw
23 - Crude rubber (including synthetic and reclaimed)
24 - Cork and wood
25 - Pulp and waste paper
26 - Textile bres (other than wool tops and other combed wool) and their wastes (not manufactured into yarn or fabric)
29 - Crude animal and vegetable materials, not elsewhere specied
(ii) Fuels and mining products (SITC section 3 and divisions 27, 28, 68)
of which,
- Ores and other minerals (SITC divisions 27, 28)
of which,
27 - Crude fertilizers, other than those of division 56, and crude minerals (excluding coal, petroleum and precious stones)
28 - Metalliferous ores and metal scrap
- Fuels (SITC section 3)
- Non-ferrous metals (SITC division 68)

76

Statistics, Concepts and Denitions,


Series M, N 52, Revision 2.
Unless otherwise indicated, exports
are valued at transaction value,
including the cost of transportation and
insurance to bring the merchandise to
the frontier of the exporting country
or territory (free on board valuation).
Imports are valued at transaction
value plus the cost of transportation
and insurance to the frontier of the
importing country or territory (cost,
insurance and freight valuation).

Composition, definitions & methodology

B. Manufactures (SITC sections 5, 6, 7, 8 minus division 68 and group 891)


(i) Iron and steel (SITC division 67)
(ii) Chemicals (SITC section 5)
of which,
- Pharmaceuticals (SITC division 54)
- Other chemicals (SITC divisions 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59)
of which,
51 - Organic chemicals
52 - Inorganic chemicals
53 - Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials
55 - Essential oils and resinoids and perfume materials; toilet, polishing and cleaning preparations
56 - Fertilizers (other than those of Group 272, i.e Fertilizers, crude)
57 - Plastics in primary forms
58 - Plastics in non-primary forms
59 - Chemical materials and products, not elsewhere specied
(iii) Other semi-manufactures (SITC divisions 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 69) of which,
61 - Leather, leather manufactures, not elsewhere specied and dressed furskins
62 - Rubber manufactures, not elsewhere specied
63 - Cork and wood manufactures (excluding furniture)
64 - Paper, paperboard and articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard
66 - Non-metallic mineral manufactures, not elsewhere specied
69 - Manufactures of metals, not elsewhere specied
(iv) Machinery and transport equipment (SITC section 7)
- Ofce and telecommunication equipment (SITC divisions 75, 76 and group 776)
of which,
- - Electronic data processing and ofce equipment (SITC division 75)
- - Telecommunications equipment (SITC division 76)
- - Integrated circuits, and electronic components (SITC group 776)
- Transport equipment (SITC group 713, sub-group 7783 and divisions 78, 79)
of which,
78 - Road vehicles (including air-cushion vehicles)
79 - Other transport equipment
- - Automotive products (SITC groups 781, 782, 783, 784 and subgroups 7132, 7783)
of which,
781 - Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons (other than public-transport type vehicles),
including station wagons and racing cars
782 - Motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles
783 - Road motor vehicles, not elsewhere specied
784 - Parts and accessories of the motor vehicles and tractors
7132 - Internal combustion piston engines for propelling vehicles listed above
- -Other transport equipment (SITC division 79, groups 713, 785, 786 minus sub-group 7132) of which,
79 - Other transport equipment
713 - Internal combustion piston engines, and parts thereof, not elsewhere specied
785 - Motorcycles and cycles, motorized and non-motorized
786 - Trailers and semi-trailers, other vehicles (not mechanically propelled), and specially designed and equipped transport containers
- Other machinery (SITC divisions 71, 72, 73, 74, 77 minus groups 713, 776 minus sub-group 7783) of which,
- - Power generating machinery (SITC division 71 minus group 713)
of which,
71 - Power generating machinery and equipment
minus
713 - Internal combustion piston engines, and parts thereof, not elsewhere specied
- - Non-electrical machinery (SITC divisions 72, 73, 74)
of which,
72 - Machinery specialized for particular industries

77

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

73 - Metal working machinery


74 - General industrial machinery and equipment, not elsewhere specied and machine parts, not elsewhere specied
- - Electrical machinery (SITC division 77 minus group 776 and subgroup 7783)
of which,
77 - Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, not elsewhere specied and electrical parts thereof
minus
776 - Thermionic, cold cathode or photo-cathode valves and tubes
7783 - Electrical equipment, not elsewhere specied, for internal combustion engines and vehicles; and parts thereof
(v) Textiles (SITC division 65)
(vi) Clothing (SITC division 84)
(vii) Other manufactures (SITC divisions 81, 82, 83, 85, 87, 88, 89 excluding group 891) of which,
- Personal and household goods (SITC divisions 82, 83 and 85)
of which,
82 - Furniture and parts thereof, bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings
83 - Travel goods, handbags and similar containers
85 - Footwear
- Scientic and controlling instruments (SITC division 87)
- Miscellaneous manufactures (SITC divisions 81, 88 and 89 minus group 891)
of which,
81 - Prefabricated buildings, sanitary plumbing, heating and lighting xtures and ttings, not elsewhere specied
88 - Photographic apparatus, equipment and supplies and optical goods, not elsewhere specied; watches and clocks
89 - Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not elsewhere specied
C. Other products: commodities and transactions not classified elsewhere (including gold); arms and ammunition (SITC section 9 and group 891)
9- Commodities and transactions not classed elsewhere in SITC
891 - Arms and Ammunition
D. Intermediate products include all parts and accessories as well as industrial primary and processed intermediate products.
The fuels and lubricants category (BEC code 3) was excluded.
BEC codes 42, 53, 111, 121, 21, 22

78

Composition, definitions & methodology

Products
All product groups are dened
according to Revision 3 of the Standard
International Trade Classication (SITC).
Throughout this report, other food
products and live animals; beverages
and tobacco; animal and vegetable
oils, fats and waxes; oilseeds and
oleaginous fruit are referred to as
other food products; electronic data
processing and ofce equipment
is referred to as EDP and ofce
equipment; and integrated circuits
and electronic components is
referred to as integrated circuits.
Agricultural products according to the
AOA (WTO Agreement on Agriculture)
denition refer to HS chapters 1 to 24
(excluding sh and sh products) and
a number of manufactured agricultural
products (for further information see
The Legal Texts, The Results of
the Uruguay Round of Multilateral
Negotiations, WTO). This denition
does not correspond to the denition
of agricultural products presented in
the breakdown of merchandise trade by
main commodity group (see table II.1).
Merchandise trade and
the goods account in balance
of payments statistics
Merchandise trade statistics serve
as an input for the compilation of
the goods account in the balance
of payments (BOP) and the rest of
the world account in the System
of National Accounts (SNA).
The compilation of international
merchandise trade statistics (IMTS)
relies principally on customs records
complemented, as appropriate, by
additional sources to enhance their
coverage (for instance, to include

electricity, or trade in vessels


and aircrafts). These statistics
essentially reect the physical
movement of goods across borders,
while National Accounts and BOP
statistics record transactions that
involve change in ownership.
Goods for processing with or without
change of ownership are recorded
in merchandise statistics when they
enter or leave the economic territory,
irrespective of whether a change
in ownership takes place. However,
goods supplied to another economy
for processing without a change
of ownership and returned to the
economy of the owner after processing
are not recorded in the balance of
payments statistics compiled according
to BPM6; further, if the goods are sold
to a third economy after processing,
then the value of the goods (including
the value of processing) is recorded as
an export of the economy of the owner
and an import of the third economy;
the value of the processing is recorded
as an export of services of the
processing economy and an import of
services of the economy of the owner.
Differences between BOP (BPM6)
and national accounts statistics
and IMTS can be found in the
International Merchandise Trade
Statistics: Compilers Manual,
Revision 1 (IMTS 2010), Chapter
XXIV Section B Goods to be
recorded differently in IMTS and
BPM6/national accounts (p288).
(http://unstats.un.org/unsd/
trade/eg-imts/imts2010nal-22march2011.pdf)
Refer to Table 11.1 (p177) in the
Balance of Payments and International
Investment Position Compilation Guide
(http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/
ft/bop/2014/pdf/BPM6_11F.pdf)

Trade in commercial services


between residents and nonresidents of an economy (BPM6)
Depending on the location of the
supplier and the consumer, the General
Agreement on Trade in Services
(GATS) denes four modes of supply.
In addition to the cross-border supply
(mode 1), where both the supplier
and the consumer remain in their
respective home territories, GATS also
covers cases where consumers are
outside their home territory to consume
services (mode 2 consumption
abroad), or where service suppliers
are in the territory of the consumers
to provide their services, whether
by establishing afliates through
direct investment abroad (mode 3
commercial presence), or through the
presence of natural persons (mode 4).
An economys Balance of Payments,
namely the services account, can be
used to derive estimates covering
trade in commercial services for
modes 1, 2 and 4. The Balance of
Payments does however not include
most of the information on services
supplied through foreign afliates
that is required to estimate the size of
mode 3. A framework for collecting
these data, the Foreign Afliates
Statistics (FATS) was adopted by
the international statistical community
for the rst time in 2002, and then
further developed in 2010. FATS are
available in the annual publication
World Trade Statistical Review and
on the online tool I-TIP services.
Trade in commercial
services between residents and
non-residents of an economy
(BPM6), exports and imports
Exports (credits or receipts) and imports
(debits or payments) of commercial
services are included in balance of

79

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

payments statistics, in conformity


with the concepts, denitions and
classication of the sixth (2009) edition
of the IMF Balance of Payments and
International Investment Position Manual
(BPM6) as well as the 2010 edition of
the Manual on Statistics of International
Trade in Services (MSITS 2010).
Denition of commercial services in
the Balance of Payments
In the sixth edition of the Balance
of Payments Manual, the current
account is subdivided into goods,
services (including government
goods and services, n.i.e.), primary
income, and secondary income.
Commercial services comprise all
services categories except government
goods and services, n.i.e. Commercial
services are sub-divided into
manufacturing services on physical
inputs owned by others, maintenance
and repair services n.i.e., transport,
travel, and other commercial services.
The BPM6 contains the following
12 standard services components.
(1) Manufacturing services on
physical inputs owned by others
(2) Maintenance and repair
services, n.i.e.
(3) Transport
(4) Travel
(5) Construction
(6) Insurance and pension services
(7) Financial services
(8) Charges for the use of
intellectual property, n.i.e.
(9) Telecommunications, computer
and information services
(10) Other business services
(11) Personal, cultural and
recreational services
(12) Government goods and
services, n.i.e.
Manufacturing services on physical

80

inputs owned by others cover


processing, assembly, labelling, packing,
and similar activities undertaken by
enterprises that do not own the goods
concerned and are paid a fee by the
owner. Only the fee charged by the
processor, which may cover the cost
of materials purchased, is included
under this item. Examples include oil
rening, liquefaction of natural gas,
assembly of clothing and electronics,
assembly, labelling, and packing.
Maintenance and repair services n.i.e.
cover maintenance and repair work
by residents on goods that are
owned by non-residents (and vice
versa). The repairs may be performed
at the site of the repairer or elsewhere.
The value recorded for maintenance
and repairs is the value of the work
done not the gross value of the
goods before and after repairs.
Manufacturing services on physical
inputs owned by others and
Maintenance and repair services
n.i.e. form a new WTO aggregate
named Goods-related services.
Transport is the process of carriage of
people and objects from one location
to another as well as related supporting
and auxiliary services. Transport can
be classied according to: (i) mode
of transport, namely, sea, air, or other
(other may be further broken down
into rail, road, internal waterway,
pipeline, and space transport as well as
electricity transmission); and (ii) what
is carried passengers or freight. Also
included are postal and courier services.
Travel credits cover goods and
services for own use or to give
away acquired by non-residents
from an economy during visits to
that economy. Travel debits cover
goods and services for own use or

to give away acquired from other


economies by residents of the reporting
economy during visits to these other
economies. The most common goods
and services covered are lodging, food
and beverages, entertainment and
transportation (within the economy
visited), gifts and souvenirs. Travel is
further subdivided into: (i) personal
travel and (ii) business travel.
The aggregate category Other
commercial services corresponds to the
following components dened in BPM6:
Construction covers the creation,
renovation, repair, or extension of
xed assets in the form of buildings,
land improvements of an engineering
nature, and other similar engineering
constructions such as roads, bridges,
dams, and so forth. It also includes
related installation and assembly
work, site preparation, specialized
services such as painting, plumbing,
and demolition, and management of
construction projects. Construction
also covers the acquisition of goods
and services by the enterprises
undertaking construction work
from the economy of location of
the construction work. Construction
can be divided into (i) construction
abroad and (ii) construction
in the compiling economy.
Insurance and pension services
include services of providing life
insurance and annuities, nonlife
insurance, reinsurance, freight
insurance, pensions, standardized
guarantees, and auxiliary services
to insurance, pension schemes, and
standardized guarantee schemes.
Financial services cover nancial
intermediary and auxiliary services,
except insurance and pension
fund services, provided by banks

Composition, definitions & methodology

and other nancial corporations.


They include deposit taking and
lending, letters of credit, credit
card services, commissions and
charges related to nancial leasing,
factoring, underwriting, and clearing
of payments. Also included are
nancial advisory services, custody
of nancial assets or bullion, nancial
asset management, monitoring
services, liquidity provision services,
risk assumption services other than
insurance, merger and acquisition
services, credit rating services, stock
exchange services, and trust services.
Financial services may be charged for
by: (i) explicit charges; (ii) margins on
buying and selling transactions; (iii)
asset management costs deducted
from property income receivable in
the case of asset-holding entities;
or (iv) margins between interest
payable and the reference rate on
loans and deposits (called nancial
intermediation service charges
indirectly measured FISIM).
Charges for the use of intellectual
property n.i.e. include: (i) Charges for
the use of proprietary rights (such
as patents, trademarks, copyrights,
industrial processes and designs
including trade secrets, franchises);
these rights can arise from research
and development, as well as from
marketing; and (ii) Charges for
licenses to reproduce or distribute (or
both) intellectual property embodied
in produced originals or prototypes
(such as copyrights on books and
manuscripts, computer software,
cinematographic works, and sound
recordings) and related rights (such as
for live performances and television,
cable, or satellite broadcast).
Telecommunications, computer
and information services cover
(i) Telecommunications services,

which encompass the broadcast


or transmission of sound, images,
data, or other information by
telephone, telex, telegram, radio
and television cable transmission,
radio and television satellite,
electronic mail, facsimile, and so
forth, including business network
services, teleconferencing, and
support services; (ii) Computer
services consisting of hardwareand software-related services
and data-processing services;
(iii) Information services including
news agency services, such as the
provision of news, photographs,
and feature articles to the media
as well as database services.
Other business services include
(i) Research and development
services, (ii) Professional and
management consulting services
and (iii) Technical, trade-related and
other business services. (i) Research
and development services consist
of services that are associated
with basic and applied research,
and experimental development of
new products and processes. (ii)
Professional and management
consulting services include (a) legal
services, accounting, management
consulting, managerial services, and
public relations services; and (b)
advertising, market research, and
public opinion polling services. (iii)
Technical, trade-related, and other
business services include:
(a) architectural, engineering, and
other technical services;
(b) waste treatment and depollution,
agricultural, and mining services;
(c) operating leasing services;
(d) trade-related services; and
(e) other business services n.i.e.
Personal, cultural, and recreational
services consist of (i) Audiovisual

and related services and (ii) other


personal, cultural, and recreational
services.
(i) Audiovisual and related services
cover services and fees related to
the production of motion pictures
(on lm, videotape, disk, or
transmitted electronically, etc.),
radio and television programs (live
or on tape), and musical recordings.
(ii) Other personal, cultural, and
recreational services include
(a) health services, (b) education
services, (c) heritage and recreational
services, and (d) other personal
services. Health services as well
as education services are provided
remotely or on-site. Data on exports
and imports of total services
(including government goods
and services n.i.e), other services
(including government goods and
services n.i.e) as well as government
goods and services n.i.e. are available
as memorandum items in the
WTO online Statistics Database.
Memo items:
Total services (Commercial
services plus Government
goods and services n.i.e)
Other services (Other commercial
services plus Government
goods and services n.i.e)
Government goods
and services n.i.e
Government goods and services
n.i.e. cover: (a) goods and services
supplied by and to enclaves, such
as embassies, military bases, and
international organizations; (b) goods
and services acquired from the host
economy by diplomats, consular
staff, and military personnel located
abroad and their dependents;
(c) services supplied by and to
governments and not included in
other categories of services.

81

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Statistics on international trade


in services are produced jointly
and published simultaneously
with UNCTAD and ITC.
Regional and world estimates
for 2015 for sub-item of other
commercial services should be
considered as preliminary.
Coverage and comparability
While many economies worldwide have
fully implemented the BPM6 for the
recording of their Balance of Payments
services transactions, some are still
compiling their statistics according to
the BPM5 methodology. Consequently,
comparability and coverage of data
may not always be complete. It should
be noted in particular that world and
regional estimates of trade in new
services items such as Manufacturing
services on physical inputs owned
by others and Maintenance and
repair services n.i.e. may be
underestimated, as some economies
do not report these items yet.
While the coverage and comparability
of trade in services statistics have
improved signicantly over the years,
the data remain subject to recognized
limitations, such as i) certain countries
do not collect gures for all items,
ii) statistically capturing some services
items remains difcult (more notably
on the imports side), iii) data can be
reported on a net rather than gross
basis, iv) certain transactions may
prove complex to classify appropriately,
v) different sources, data collection
and estimation methods lead
to diverse results, etc. These
distortions are more signicant
on detailed items levels and may
lead to considerable asymmetries
among countries reported trade
ows by origin and destination.

82

Foreign Afliates Statistics


The new statistical framework
on Foreign Afliates Statistics
(FATS) is developed in the Manual
on Statistics of International
Trade in Services 2010, the
OECD Benchmark Denition of
Foreign Direct Investment and the
OECD Handbook on Economic
Globalisation Indicators. The statistical
framework covers both goods and
services producing enterprises.

In the absence of data on output,


sales of services are used.
FATS are currently available mainly for
OECD and a small number of nonOECD economies. Given the recent
development of these statistics,
comparability and coverage of individual
economy data may not always be
complete. Availability of detailed
data and long-time series varies
considerably between economies.
Trade in global value chains

It analyses the universe of afliates


for which foreign investors own
more than 50 per cent of the
voting power or equity interest.
Depending on the compilers view, one
can distinguish inward FATS, that is,
activities of foreign-owned afliates
in the compiling economy, or, outward
FATS, that is, foreign afliates of the
compiling economy active abroad.
Variables such as sales, value added,
number of employees, etc. are used
to describe the afliates activities.
These variables are broken down
by country of origin or destination
of investments and also by type
of primary activity of the afliates.
The United States also provide
a breakdown into total supply of
goods and total supply of services
products. In the case of services
industries the concept of supply (or
output) is based on measures that
better capture service output (i.e. the
margin). This mainly has an impact
on the measurement of activities of
wholesalers and retailers, insurers
and nancial intermediaries.
From a GATS perspective, the
size of mode 3 in a given country
can be approximated through the
value of the output (or supply) of
services by foreign-owned afliates.

The measurement of trade in value


added terms traces the source of the
value added, by country and industry
that is contained in the products (goods
and services) traded across the world.
Value added is dened as the
value that is added by industries to
produce goods and services. In a
national account sense, it reects the
compensation of labour, capital, nonnancial assets and natural resources
used in the production as well as
net indirect taxes, when relevant.
The value added approach reects
the interconnection of economies
and sectors as well as the
increasing importance of trade
in intermediate inputs that takes
place among international supply
and production chains. It provides
insights on where the value added
comes from and thus on the actual
contribution of trade to economies.
Trade in value added indicators are
estimates based on Inter-Country
Input-Output (ICIO) tables. ICIO tables
cover both goods and services. They
regroup national Input-Output tables
and international trade statistics into a
consistent framework to describe sale
and purchase of goods and services

Composition, definitions & methodology

between producers and consumers


from various economies and
industries. They enable to disentangle
domestic and foreign value added
in each economy and industry.
Trade in value added estimates
presented in this publication are
sourced from the OECD-WTO Trade in
value added (TiVA) database and the
OECD ICIO table. The latter covers 57
economies plus a rest of the world
aggregate. Industries are regrouped
into 37 sectors and cover productive
activities in the primary, secondary and
tertiary sectors classied according to
the International Standard Industrial
Classication (ISIC) Revision 4.
The decomposition of
gross exports into their value
added components
The breakdown of conventional
export data (gross) into their value
added components allows showing
the role played by economies
in global value chains.
The domestic value added
content of exports is composed
of the following indicators:
(i) The domestic value added,
embodied either in nal
or intermediate goods/
services, directly consumed
by the importing country.
This represents a one-to-one
country transfer of value added,
with exported goods/services
crossing borders only once.
(ii) The domestic value added
contained in intermediates
exported to a rst country
which re-exports them to a third
country as embodied in others
goods/services. This indicator
represents a one-to-many

country transfer of value added,


when exported goods/services
cross borders more than once.
This illustrates the level of
participation of an economy
within international production.
(iii)
The domestic value
added of exported
goods/services which is
eventually re-imported
by the country itself.
Such a value added
round-trip between two
countries highlights the
domestic value added
content present in a
countrys imports.
The foreign value added
content of exports corresponds
to the value added of inputs
that was imported in order to
produce intermediate or nal
goods/services to be exported.
It can also be referred to as
vertical specialization, when
expressed in percentage.
The sectoral value added
contributions to gross exports
Exports from a (domestic) industry
do not only contain value added
produced within the same industry
but also value added sourced
from other industries within the
economy or from other economies.
The value added approach to
estimate trade ows can describe
both the geographical and sectoral
origin of the value added contained in
gross exports of any given industry.
Table IV.3 presents the value added
origin (columns) of gross exports
(rows) according to the domestic
and foreign source and by main
sector. This highlights the extent of
the global value chains phenomenon

and outlines the interconnection and


related dependency across countries
and sectors for the production and
trade of goods and services.
Other denitions and methods
Annual changes
Throughout this report, average annual
percentage changes are analogous to
compound interest rates. In calculating
the average annual rate of change
between 2010 and 2015, for example,
data for calendar year 2010 were taken
as the starting point, and data for
calendar year 2015 as the end point.
Prices
Commodity price movements are
primarily described by indices largely
based on spot market prices, and
therefore exclude transactions
governed by longer-term contracts.
Price indices for such commodities
as food, beverages, agricultural raw
materials, minerals, non-ferrous metals,
fertilizers and crude petroleum are
obtained from IMF Primary Commodity
Prices (May 2016 release). Aggregates
for all primary commodities and
for non-fuel primary commodities
are calculated using IMF weights
(Statistical appendix table A67).
Beginning with the rst quarter of
2011, the crude oil price is computed
excluding West Texas Intermediate
(WTI), which accounts for one third of
the IMFs crude oil index. The price of
WTI became largely dislocated from
international markets in early 2011
and is thought not to represent well
prices in international oil trade. For
more information, see Box Comm.1 of
the World Banks Global Commodity
Market Outlook, January 2012 (see
page 65 of the complete report on
http://go.worldbank.org/WI8LCZ6PT0).

83

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Export and import prices by commodity


group of Germany, Japan and the
United States are sourced from national
statistics. Aggregates are calculated by
weighting the countries price indices
with the export and import values of
the countries respective base year
(Statistical tables A68 and A69).

the corresponding regional deator.


Second, the total world merchandise
volume index is obtained by deating
the world trade value with the aggregate
of regional deators. Throughout the
aggregation process trade values of
the previous year are used as weights.
World gross domestic product

World merchandise
trade indices
The volume indices and the deators (i.e.
price indices or unit values) are taken
from a range of different international
and national sources. The reported
deators and volume indices may not
always be available for the most recent
years or may differ in product coverage
from the corresponding value indices.
Aggregation of the indices to obtain
a world total is a two-tier process.
First, export and import deators from
national and international sources
are complemented with Secretariat
estimates for missing data. They are
then aggregated to obtain regional
totals. The volume index for each region
is obtained by dividing the respective
trade value index for each region by

84

World GDP growth is estimated as


a weighted average of individual
economies real GDP growth. The
weights used are shares of the
economies previous year GDP at
2005 constant prices converted to
dollars at market exchange rates.
The use of ofcial exchange rates
which are not market-based for some
major economies, together with the
uctuations of the United States
dollar vis--vis major currencies,
can have a signicant impact on the
weighting pattern. The increasing use
of weights based on purchasing power
parities (PPP) by other international
organizations is meant to attenuate
anomalies linked to these factors. In
a period of widely diverging growth
rates among countries and regions,

the choice of the weighting pattern


can have a marked inuence on the
global growth estimate. For the 20002011 period, global growth estimates
based on PPP-weights indicate
a signicantly faster growth than
estimates using weights based on GDP
data measured at market exchange
rates. This is because of differences
in the two weighting patterns.
Re-exports and re-imports
Under the system of general trade
adopted in this report, re-exports are
included in total merchandise trade.
However, in the case of Hong
Kong, China, the magnitude of its
re-exports (amounting in 2015 to
$498 billion), if included in regional
or world aggregates, would adversely
affect the analytical value of the
statistics by introducing a signicant
element of double counting. Therefore,
Hong Kong, Chinas re-exports are
excluded from the world and from
Asia aggregates (unless otherwise
indicated); only Hong Kong, Chinas
domestic exports and retained
imports are included in the totals.

Composition, definitions & methodology

Trade policy indicators


Indicators tracking the changes
in the application of trade policy
measures can be broken down
into three broad categories:
(1) Customs related measures:
Information on customs duties
(bound, applied and preferential) can
be found on the WTO website and
also in a summary form in the World
Tariff Proles. Information on the
changes in customs duties can be
derived from the above sources but
these changes are also covered by
the Trade Monitoring reports (TM).
(2) Trade remedies: Binding tariffs
and applying them equally to all
trading partners (most-favourednation treatment) are key to the
smooth ow of trade in goods.
The WTO agreements uphold
the principles, but they also allow
derogations in some circumstances.
Those trade remedies cover
antidumping, countervailing duties and
safeguards; the relevant information
can be found in the I-TIP database
and also in the TM database.
(3) Technical measures / regulations:
By far a persistent growth in
notications happened in the area of

regulations and standards which fall


under the SPS and TBT agreements.
Keeping up to date with these
measures is crucial for all trading
partners. Notications in this area
are not easily comparable as to
the trade impact of the respective
measures announced and the number
of notications may overestimate the
actual implementation of the measures.
For each of these three categories,
the secretariat compiles indicators
showing the measures that were
introduced or modied in the year
and, when applicable, the stock of
these measures. WTO Members
have established two main ways of
obtaining the relevant information
on trade policy measures, one being
the system of notications and the
other one being the trade policy
reviews reports and, related to it, the
trade monitoring reports. Through
notications, WTO members and
observers provide the Secretariat
with recent relevant information on
trade and trade-related measures.
In the trade monitoring context, the
Secretariat in addition to information
received by WTO members and

observers, collects trade and traderelated measures from other relevant


sources and subsequently submit it to
the relevant member for verication..
The preparation of the trade
monitoring reports is an on-going
activity and a unique process relying
on continuous dialogue and exchange
with WTO delegations as well as
divisions within the WTO Secretariat.
The WTO-wide trade monitoring
reports are subsequently discussed at
meetings of the WTOs Trade Policy
Review Body. The verication process
is a unique feature of the WTOs
monitoring efforts and represents a
quality control mechanism, allowing
members to check the accuracy of the
information before it is made public.
Information contained in Members
notications is now in large parts
included in a consolidated database
platform, the Integrated Trade
Intelligence Portal (I-TIP, weblink).
For information on the Trade policy
monitoring reports see: (Trade
Monitoring database, http://tmdb.
wto.org/), WTO Docs online (https://
docs.wto.org/dol2feStaff/Pages/
FE_Search/FE_S_S001.aspx).

85

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

Specific notes for selected economies


Merchandise trade statistics
of the European Union
Beginning with the 2002 report, EU
data compiled according to national
statistical practices have been replaced,
starting 1993, with data compiled
by Eurostat in accordance with EU
legislation. The concepts and denitions
adopted by the EU are in line with the
United Nations International Trade
Statistics, Concepts and Denitions,
Series M, N 52, Revision 2. As a result,
the conceptual differences between
EU member states data have been
substantially reduced. Moreover, for the
EU as a whole, Eurostat data are more
timely than the previous source, thus
reducing substantially the amount of
estimation included in the EU aggregate.
Since January 1993, statistics on the
trade between the member states of
the EU have been collected through
the Intrastat system (see GATT
1994, International Trade Trends and
Statistics). The coverage of this system,
which relies on reports submitted
by rms for transactions above a
minimum value, is not as wide as the
previous one, which was based on

86

customs declarations. This is particularly


noticeable on the import side. For
example, prior to the adoption of the
Intrastat system, reported intra-EU
imports (c.i.f.) closely matched reported
intra-EU exports (f.o.b.). However,
from 1993 onwards, the reported
value of intra-EU imports has been
on average around 3 per cent lower
than the value of intra-EU exports,
indicating a substantial under-reporting
of intra-EU imports. As a result of
this inconsistency, the Secretariat has
substituted intra-EU exports data for
intra-EU imports at the aggregate EU
level when estimating regional and
world totals. However, this adjustment
is not allocated between EU member
countries. Hence, the sum of reported
imports of individual EU members
does not add to the gure for EU
imports as a whole. This adjustment
is also reected in the volume
estimates for the EU as a whole.
Major breaks in data continuity
of merchandise trade
Beginning 2003, Singapore includes
merchandise trade with Indonesia.
Beginning 2008, Indonesias

imports are reported according


to the general trade system.
With respect to the Russian
Federation, considerable uncertainty
remains about the accuracy of
foreign trade statistics, especially as
regards imports. A large proportion
of the reported data on imports
consists of ofcial estimates of
inows of goods which enter the
economy without being registered
by the customs authorities. Such
adjustments to import data accounted
for 6 per cent of the ofcially reported
totals in 2012; 8 per cent of the
ofcially reported totals in 2013.
As of 2012, data on merchandise
trade values for Switzerland includes
trade in gold. Merchandise trade ows
between the European Union member
States include trade associated
with fraudulent VAT declaration,
which concerns mainly ofce and
telecommunications equipment.
Between 2006 and 2007, intra-EU
merchandise trade statistics have been
particularly affected by a considerable
reduction in this fraudulent
trade in the United Kingdom.

Composition, definitions & methodology

Statistical sources
Most frequently used sources
for statistics are:
EUROSTAT, Comext and on-line
databases
FAO, FAOSTAT Agriculture database
FAO, Production Yearbook
GTIS, Global Trade Atlas database
IMF, Balance of Payments Statistics
IMF, International Financial Statistics
IMF, World Economic Outlook database
OECD, Main Economic Indicators
OECD, Measuring Globalisation: The
Role of Multinationals in OECD
Economies
OECD, Monthly Statistics of
International Trade
OECD, National Accounts
OECD, Statistics on International Trade
in Services
OECD/IEA, Energy Prices & Taxes
UNECE, Economic Survey of Europe
UNECLAC, Overview of the Economies
of Latin America and the Caribbean
UNIDO, National Accounts Statistics
Database
UNSD, Comtrade database
(for OECD members the UNSD-OECD
Joint Trade Data Collection and
Processing system)
UNSD, International Trade Statistics
Yearbook
UNSD, Monthly Bulletin of Statistics
UNSD, Servicetrade database
World Bank, World
Development Indicators

These sources are supplemented


by national publications and
other international databases
and Secretariat estimates.
Figures for total merchandise
trade are largely derived from IMF,
International Financial Statistics.
Data on merchandise trade by origin,
destination and product are mainly
obtained from Eurostats Comext
database, the Global Trade Atlas and
UNSDs Comtrade database. Some
inconsistencies in the aggregate
export and import data for the
same country or territory between
sources are inevitable. These can
be attributed to the use of different
systems of recording trade, to the
way in which for example IMF and
UNSD have converted data expressed
in national currencies into dollars,
and revisions which can be more
readily incorporated in the IMF data.
Statistics on trade in commercial
services are mainly drawn from the
IMF Balance of Payments Statistics or
from the Trade in Services by Partner
Country dataset of the OECD. Data
for European Union members, as well
as the EU(28) aggregate are drawn
from Eurostats on-line database. For
other economies that do not report
to the IMF (e.g., Chinese Taipei) data
are drawn from national sources.

Estimations for missing data are


mainly based on national statistics.
GDP series in current dollars are
mainly derived from the IMF World
Economic Outlook database.
Acknowledgements are due to the
Food and Agriculture Organization,
the International Monetary Fund,
the Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development, the
Statistical Ofce of the European
Communities, the United Nations
Economic Commission for Europe, the
United Nations Economic Commission
for Latin America and the Caribbean,
the United Nations Statistics
Division, the United Nations Industrial
Development Organization, the World
Intellectual Property Organization and
the World Bank whose assistance
in supplying advance information
has greatly facilitated the work of
the Secretariat. Acknowledgements
are also due to national institutions
for providing advance statistics.
Closing date for merchandise
trade statistics (Customs
basis) is 11 March 2016 and
commercial services (Balance
of Payments basis) is 30 April
2016. For foreign afliates
trade in services statistics the
closing date is 10 May 2016.

87

Chapter IX

Heading 01

Heading 02
Heading 03
Body copy

Statistical tables
The following statistical tables show long-term trends,
more detailled breakdowns of commodity products and
country origins and destinations.
Chart-heading
chart-body copy

90 Table A1
Table A2

Growth in the volume of world merchandise exports and production, 2010-2015


Growth in the volume of world merchandise trade by selected region and economy, 2010-2015

91 Table A3

World merchandise trade and trade in commercial services by region and selected economy, 2010-2015

92 Table A4

World merchandise exports by region and selected economy, 1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and 2015

93 Table A5

World merchandise imports by region and selected economy, 1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and 2015

94 Table A6

Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade, 2015

95 Table A7

Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade (excluding intra-EU (28) trade), 2015

96 Table A8

Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial services, 2015

Food and beverages

97 Table A9

Agricutural raw materials

Metals

Fuel (energy)

Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial services (excluding intra-EU (28) trade), 2015

Source: IMF Primary Commodity Prices.

98 Table A10 Trade in commercial services of selected economies by origin and destination, 2014
101 Table A11 Ratio of exports of goods and commercial services to GDP of the least-developed countries, 2015
102 Table A12 Merchandise exports and imports of least-developed countries, 2015

A13 Exports of commercial services of the least-developed countries by category, 2015


103 Table
Box
Out-heading
104 Table A14 Top 10 exporters and importers of agricultural products, 2015
Table A15 Top 10 exporters and importers of fuels and mining products of regions by destination, 2015
105 Table A16 Top 10 exporters and importers of manufactures, 2015
Table A17 Top 10 exporters and importers of iron and steel, 2015

Sim nosam,
Standfirst
2015
106 Table A18 Top 10 exporters and importers of chemicals,
sumquam
resedi
Table A19 Top 10 exporters and importers of pharmaceuticals, 2015
rerum
A20 Topcomnia
10 exporters and importers of ofce and telecom equipment, 2015
107 Table sime
volutat
iuriti
Table A21 Top 10 exporters and importers of automotive products, 2015
nimperunt
doles
dioand importers of textiles, 2015
10 exporters
108 Table A22 Top
tet aliquide
Table A23 Topcone
10 exporters and importers of clothing, 2015
iundantem
consequi
109 Table A24 World trade in commercial services by category, 2015
omni
officia
des
Table
A25 Growth
of commercial services exports by category and by region, 2005-2015
nulluptat.
110 Table A26 World trade in transportation services by region, 2015
111 Table A27 Leading exporters and importers of transportation services, 2015

Opener-Heading
112

Table A28 Major exporters and importers of manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others, 2014 and 2015

113

Table A29 Major exporters and importers of maintenance and repair services, 2015

114

Table A30 World trade in transport services by region, 2015

115

Table A31 Leading exporters and importers of transport services, 2015

116

Table A32 World trade in travel by region, 2015

Opener-Body
copy
117 Table A33 Leading exporters and importers of travel, 2015
118

Table A34 World trade in other commercial services by region, 2015


Table A35 Leading exporters and importers of other commercial services, 2015

119

Table A36 World exports of construction by region, 2014 and 2015


Table A37 Major exporters and importers of construction, 2014 and 2015

120

Table A38 World exports of insurance and pension services by region, 2014 and 2015
Table A39 Major exporters and importers of insurance and pension services, 2015 and 2015

121

Table A40 World exports of nancial services by region, 2014 and 2015
Table A41 Major exporters and importers of nancial services, 2014 and 2015

122

Table A42 World receipts of charges for the use of intellectual property n.i.e. by region, 2014 and 2015
Table A43 Major exporters and importers of charges for the use of intellectual property n.i.e. by region, 2014 and 2015

123

Table A44 World exports of telecommunications, computer and information services by region, 2014 and 2015
Table A45 Major exporters and importers of telecommunications, computer and information services, 2014 and 2015

124

Table A46 Major exporters and importers of telecommunications services, 2014 and 2015
Table A47 Major exporters and importers of computer services, 2014 and 2015

125

Table A48 World exports of other business services by region, 2014 and 2015
Table A49 Major exporters and importers of other business services, 2014 and 2015

126

Table A50 Trade in other business services by category in selected economies, major economies, 2014

127

Table A51 World exports of personal, cultural and recreational services by region, 2014 and 2015
Table A52 Major exporters and importers of personal, cultural and recreational services, 2014 and 2015

128

Table A53 Major exporters and importers of audio-visual and related services, 2014 and 2015

129

Table A54 Leading exporters and importers of intermediate goods, 2015

130

Table A55 World merchandise exports, production and gross domestic product, 1950-2015

132

Table A56 Merchandise trade of selected regional trade agreements, 2005-2015

133

Table A57 Trade in commercial services by selected groups of economies, 2006-2015

134

Table A58 World merchandise exports by region and selected economy, 2005-2015

138

Table A59 World merchandise imports by region and selected economy, 2005-2015

142

Table A60 World exports of commercial services by region and selected economy, 2006-2015

146

Table A61 World imports of commercial services by region and selected economy, 2006-2015

150

Table A62 Sales by afliates of foreign companies - resident afliates primarily engaged in services activities (inward FATS), 2011-2013

151

Table A63 Sales by foreign afliates of resident companies - afliates located abroad primarily engaged

General trends and drivers


of world trade in 2 0 15

in services activities (outward FATS), 2011-2013


152

11

O ver vi ew

22

i n vol ume terms

33

Table A64 Services supplied by United States afliates established abroad (outward FATS)

s e tr2013
ade
and by foreign afliates in the United States (inward FATS)Merchandi
by economy of afliate,
153

Table A65 World merchandise exports of intermediate goods by region and selected economy, 2004-2014

157

Trade
i n commer
al s ervi ces
Table A66 World merchandise imports of intermediate goods by region
and selected
economy, ci
2004-2014

161

Table A67 Export prices of primary commodities, 2005-2016

162

Table A68 Export prices of Germany, Japan and the United States by commodity group, 2005-2015

163

Table A69 Import prices of Germany, Japan and the United States by commodity group, 2005-2015

Wor ld trade and output in early 2 0 16

44

55

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A1. Growth in the volume of world merchandise


exports and production, 2010-2015
(Annual percentage change)








:RUOGPHUFKDQGLVHH[SRUWV
Agricultural products
Fuels and mining products
Manufactures




2.9
0.6
2.7


2.4
1.0
3.9



:RUOG*'3









1RWH : See the Metadata for the estimation of world aggregates of merchandise exports, production and GDP.

A2. Growth in the volume of world merchandise trade by selected region


and economy, 2010-2015
(Annual percentage change)
([SRUWV

,PSRUWV

















 

:RUOG







3.7

4.1

4.3

5.6

0.8

North America

4.0

4.7

6.5

4.4

Canada

2.5

2.8

5.6

0.7

6.6

4.0

Mexico

7.4

6.9

13.3

3.2

3.1

-0.9

United States

3.7

4.7

6.5

1.6

-1.8

1.3

South and Central America

1.5

-2.2

-5.8

2.7

2.0

3.7

Europe

1.7

3.2

4.3

2.8

1.9

4.0

European Union (28)

1.6

3.5

4.5

-0.3

1.9

3.4

Norway

2.0

0.8

3.4

1.6

1.2

-1.3

Switzerland

-0.2

-1.2

-0.1

0.7

0.2

-0.6

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

-2.8

-9.6

-21.9

-1.1

-2.1

0.1

Africa

5.6

4.2

1.3

4.7

0.7

8.6

Middle East

4.0

2.3

-1.9

4.4

4.8

3.1

Asia

4.0

3.3

1.8

3.7

6.0

3.3

Australia

3.0

1.5

4.5

6.8

6.8

4.6

China

4.3

4.0

-4.2

4.4

3.5

-2.1

India

1.7

4.2

-8.9

0.0

1.5

2.2

Japan

2.5

1.5

2.7

3.2

3.8

0.9

Six East Asian traders a

2.9

2.9

1.2

a Hong Kong, China; Malaysia; Republic of Korea; Singapore; Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (Chinese Taipei) and Thailand.

90

Statistical Tables

A3.World merchandise trade and trade in commercial services


by region and selected economy, 2010-2015
(Annual percentage change)
([SRUWV

,PSRUWV









-8

-7







:RUOG



North America

-5

United States

-4

Canada

-9

-4

-16

Merchandise

-14

-2

-6

-21

-1

-7

-15

Brazil

-1

-5

-25

-2

-1

-16

Chile

-9

-13

-12

-13

-12

-13

-13

-7

-14

-9

-3

-6

-32

-4

-11

-32

-3

-5

-32

Russian Federation

-5

-10

-37

-5

-6

-42

Kazakhstan

-1

-15

-27

-6

-8

-30

-2

-5

-10

-10

-8

-49

-2

-4

-35

-1

-29

United Arab Emirates a

-4

-9

-41

Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of a

-8

-3

China

-4

-3

-9

Japan

South and Central America

Europe
European Union (28)
Switzerland
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

Africa

-14

South Africa

-3

-14

Nigeria a

-20

-10

-8

10

-1

-15

-14

-1

-3

-20

Middle East

Asia

Commercial services




:RUOG



-1

North America

United States a

-4

-10

Canada a

-4

-11

-5

-16

-6

-10

-10

-7

-9

-16

-6

-21

-7

-33

-17

-3

-5

13

-10

-1

-11

19

13

15

United Arab Emirates

15

Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of

-3

China

20

Japan a

South and Central America

-12

Brazil

-20

Argentina

-9

-9

Europe
European Union (28) a

-9

Switzerland

-6

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

-4

-23

Russian Federation a

-5

-27

Ukraine

-4

-25

-16

-10

Egypt a

13

-1

South Africa

-5

-6

-9

10

-3

Africa

Middle East

Asia

10

21

-10
-2

12

21

37

13

-9

a Secretariat estimates.

91

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A4.World merchandise exports by region and selected economy,


1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and 2015
(Billion dollars and percentage)
1948

1953

1963

1973

1983

1993

2003

2015

Value
World

59

84

157

579

1838

3688

7380

15985

Share
World

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

North America
United States
Canada
Mexico

28.1
21.6
5.5
0.9

24.8
14.6
5.2
0.7

19.9
14.3
4.3
0.6

17.3
12.2
4.6
0.4

16.8
11.2
4.2
1.4

17.9
12.6
3.9
1.4

15.8
9.8
3.7
2.2

14.4
9.4
2.6
2.4

South and Central America


Brazil
Chile

11.3
2.0
0.6

9.7
1.8
0.5

6.4
0.9
0.3

4.3
1.1
0.2

4.5
1.2
0.2

3.0
1.0
0.2

3.0
1.0
0.3

3.4
1.2
0.4

Europe
Germany a
Netherlands
France
United Kingdom

35.1
1.4
2.0
3.4
11.3

39.4
5.3
3.0
4.8
9.0

47.8
9.3
3.6
5.2
7.8

50.9
11.7
4.7
6.3
5.1

43.5
9.2
3.5
5.2
5.0

45.3
10.3
3.8
6.0
4.9

45.9
10.2
4.0
5.3
4.1

37.3
8.3
3.5
3.2
2.9

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) b


Africa
South Africa c
Middle East

1.7

2.6

3.1

7.3
2.0

6.5
1.6

5.7
1.5

4.8
1.0

4.5
1.0

2.5
0.7

2.4
0.5

2.4
0.5

2.0

2.7

3.2

4.1

6.7

3.5

4.1

5.3

Asia
China
Japan
India
Australia and New Zealand
Six East Asian traders

14.0
0.9
0.4
2.2
3.7
3.4

13.4
1.2
1.5
1.3
3.2
3.0

12.5
1.3
3.5
1.0
2.4
2.5

14.9
1.0
6.4
0.5
2.1
3.6

19.1
1.2
8.0
0.5
1.4
5.8

26.0
2.5
9.8
0.6
1.4
9.6

26.1
5.9
6.4
0.8
1.2
9.6

34.2
14.2
3.9
1.7
1.4
9.9

Memorandum item:
EU d
USSR, Former
GATT/WTO Members e

2.2
63.4

3.5
69.6

24.5
4.6
75.0

37.0
3.7
84.1

31.3
5.0
77.0

37.3
89.0

42.4
94.3

33.7
98.3

a Figures refer to the Fed. Rep. of Germany from 1948 through 1983.
b Figures are significantly affected by including the mutual trade flows of the Baltic States and the CIS between 1993 and 2003.
c Beginning with 1998, figures refer to South Africa only and no longer to the Southern African Customs Union.
d Figures refer to the EEC(6) in 1963, EC(9) in 1973, EC(10) in 1983, EU(12) in 1993, EU(25) in 2003 and EU(28) in 2015.
e Membership as of the year stated.
1RWH Between 1973 and 1983 and between 1993 and 2003 export shares were significantly influenced by oil price developments.

92

Statistical Tables

A5.World merchandise imports by region and selected economy,


1948, 1953, 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003 and 2015
(Billion dollars and percentage)
1948

1953

1963

1973

1983

1993

2003

2015

Value
World

62

85

164

594

1883

3805

7696

16299

Share
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

North America
United States
Canada
Mexico

World

18.5
13.0
4.4
1.0

20.5
13.9
5.5
0.9

16.1
11.4
3.9
0.8

17.2
12.4
4.2
0.6

18.5
14.3
3.4
0.7

21.3
15.9
3.7
1.8

22.4
16.9
3.2
2.3

19.3
14.2
2.7
2.5

South and Central America


Brazil
Chile

10.4
1.8
0.4

8.3
1.6
0.4

6.0
0.9
0.4

4.4
1.2
0.2

3.9
0.9
0.2

3.3
0.7
0.3

2.5
0.7
0.3

3.8
1.1
0.4

Europe
Germany a
United Kingdom
France
Netherlands

45.3
2.2
13.4
5.5
3.4

43.7
4.5
11.0
4.9
3.3

52.0
8.0
8.5
5.3
4.4

53.3
9.2
6.5
6.4
4.8

44.1
8.1
5.3
5.6
3.3

44.5
9.0
5.5
5.7
3.3

45.0
7.9
5.2
5.2
3.4

36.2
6.4
3.8
3.5
3.1

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) b


Africa
South Africa c
Middle East

1.5

1.7

2.1

8.1
2.5

7.0
1.5

5.2
1.1

3.9
0.9

4.6
0.8

2.6
0.5

2.2
0.5

3.4
0.6

1.7

2.2

2.3

2.7

6.2

3.3

2.8

4.3

Asia
China
Japan
India
Australia and New Zealand
Six East Asian traders

13.9
0.6
1.1
2.3
2.9
3.5

15.1
1.6
2.8
1.4
2.3
3.7

14.1
0.9
4.1
1.5
2.2
3.2

14.9
0.9
6.5
0.5
1.6
3.9

18.5
1.1
6.7
0.7
1.4
6.1

23.5
2.7
6.4
0.6
1.5
10.2

23.5
5.4
5.0
0.9
1.4
8.6

30.8
10.3
4.0
2.4
1.5
9.1

Memorandum item:
EU d
USSR, Former
GATT/WTO Members e

1.9
58.6

3.3
66.9

25.5
4.3
75.3

37.1
3.6
85.5

31.4
4.3
79.7

36.2
89.3

41.3
96.0

32.6
97.9

a Figures refer to the Fed. Rep. of Germany from 1948 through 1983.
b Figures are significantly affected by including the mutual trade flows of the Baltic States and the CIS between 1993 and 2003.
c Beginning with 1998, figures refer to South Africa only and no longer to the Southern African Customs Union.
d Figures refer to the EEC(6) in 1963, EC(9) in 1973, EC(10) in 1983, EU(12) in 1993, EU(25) in 2003 and EU(28) in 2015.
e Membership as of the year stated.
1RWH Between 1973 and 1983 and between 1993 and 2003 export shares were significantly influenced by oil price developments.

93

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A6. Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exporters

15
16

China
United States
Germany
Japan
Netherlands
Korea, Republic of
Hong Kong, China
domestic exports
re-exports
France
United Kingdom
Italy
Canada
Belgium
Mexico
Singapore
domestic exports
re-exports
Russian Federation
Switzerland

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Chinese Taipei
Spain
India
United Arab Emirates b
Thailand
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b
Malaysia
Poland
Brazil
Australia
Viet Nam
Czech Republic
Austria
Indonesia
Turkey
Sweden
Ireland
Norway
Hungary
Denmark
South Africa
Qatar
Slovak Republic
Israel b
Chile
Iran b
Romania
Finland
Philippines
Argentina
Portugal
Kuwait, the State of
Iraq b
Nigeria b

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Value

Share

2275
1505
1329
625
567
527
511
13
498
506
460
459
408
398
381
351
174
177
340
290

13.8
9.1
8.1
3.8
3.4
3.2
3.1
0.1
3.0
3.1
2.8
2.8
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.1
1.1
1.1
2.1
1.8

-3
-7
-11
-9
-16
-8
-3
-16
-2
-13
-9
-13
-14
-16
-4
-14
-20
-9
-32
-7

285
282
267
265
214
202
200
198
191
188
162
158
152
150
144
140
120
105
99
95
82
77
76
64
63
63
61
59
59
57
55
55
49
48

1.7
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

-11
-13
-17
-29
-6
-41
-15
-10
-15
-22
8
-10
-15
-15
-9
-15
1
-27
-11
-14
-10
-39
-13
-7
-16
-29
-13
-20
-6
-17
-14
-47
-42
-49

Total of above c

15420

93.6

World c

16482

100.0

-13

a Imports are valued f.o.b.


b Secretariat estimates.
c Includes significant re-exports or imports for re-export.
1RWH : For annual data 2005-2015, see Appendix A6 and A7

94

Annual
percentage
change

Rank

Importers

Value

Share

Annual
percentage
change

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

United States
China
Germany
Japan
United Kingdom
France
Hong Kong, China
retained imports

2308
1682
1050
648
626
573
559
134

13.8
10.1
6.3
3.9
3.7
3.4
3.3
0.8

-4
-14
-13
-20
-9
-15
-7
-11

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Netherlands
Korea, Republic of
Canada a
Italy
Mexico
India
Belgium

506
436
436
409
405
392
375

3.0
2.6
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.2

-14
-17
-9
-14
-2
-15
-17

15
16

Spain
Singapore
retained imports
Switzerland
Chinese Taipei
United Arab Emirates b
Australia
Turkey
Thailand
Russian Federation a
Poland
Brazil
Malaysia
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b
Viet Nam
Austria
Indonesia
Czech Republic
Sweden
South Africa b
Hungary
Denmark
Norway
Slovak Republic
Ireland
Philippines b
Romania
Portugal
Egypt b
Israel b
Chile
Finland
Argentina
Colombia
Iraq b
Algeria
Nigeria b

309
297
120
252
238
230
208
207
203
194
193
179
176
172
166
155
143
140
138
105
93
86
76
74
71
70
70
67
65
65
63
60
60
54
52
52
48

1.8
1.8
0.7
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

-14
-19
-30
-9
-16
-8
-12
-14
-11
-37
-14
-25
-16
-1
12
-15
-20
-9
-15
-14
-12
-14
-15
-10
-2
3
-10
-15
-9
-14
-13
-22
-8
-16
-12
-12
-20

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Total of above c

15235

91.1

World c

16725

100.0

-12

Statistical Tables

A7. Leading exporters and importers in world merchandise trade


(excluding intra-EU (28) trade), 2015
(Billion dollars and percentage)

Rank

Exporters

Value

Share

Annual
percentage
change

Rank

Importers

Annual
percentage
change

Value

Share

2308
1914
1682
648
559
134
436

17.3
14.4
12.6
4.9
4.2
1.0
3.3

-4
-15
-14
-20
-7
-11
-17

1
2
3
4
5

China
Extra-EU(28) exports
United States
Japan
Korea, Republic of

2275
1985
1505
625
527

17.4
15.2
11.5
4.8
4.0

-3
-12
-7
-9
-8

1
2
3
4
5

511
13
498
408
381
351
174
177
340

3.9
0.1
3.8
3.1
2.9
2.7
1.3
1.4
2.6

-3
-16
-2
-14
-4
-14
-20
-9
-32

7
8
9

Canada a
Mexico
India

436
405
392

3.3
3.0
2.9

-9
-2
-15

10

Hong Kong, China


domestic exports
re-exports
Canada
Mexico
Singapore
domestic exports
re-exports
Russian Federation

United States
Extra-EU(28) imports
China
Japan
Hong Kong, China
retained imports
Korea, Republic of

10

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Switzerland
Chinese Taipei
India
United Arab Emirates b
Thailand
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b
Malaysia
Brazil
Australia
Viet Nam
Indonesia
Turkey
Norway
South Africa
Qatar
Israel b
Chile
Iran b
Philippines
Argentina
Kuwait, the State of b
Iraq b
Nigeria b
Kazakhstan
Oman b
Ukraine
Algeria
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of b
Colombia
New Zealand
Peru
Angola b
Bangladesh
Belarus
Pakistan
Morocco
Egypt b
Ecuador
Azerbaijan b
Tunisia

290
285
267
265
214
202
200
191
188
162
150
144
105
82
77
64
63
63
59
57
55
49
48
46
39
38
38
37
36
34
34
34
32
27
22
22
19
18
15
14

2.2
2.2
2.0
2.0
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.2
1.1
1.1
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

-7
-11
-17
-29
-6
-41
-15
-15
-22
8
-15
-9
-27
-10
-39
-7
-16
-29
-6
-17
-47
-42
-49
-42
-26
-30
-40
-51
-35
-17
-14
-42
6
-26
-10
-8
-28
-29
-49
-16

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Singapore
retained imports
Switzerland
Chinese Taipei
United Arab Emirates b
Australia
Turkey
Thailand
Russian Federation a
Brazil
Malaysia
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of b
Viet Nam
Indonesia
South Africa b
Norway
Philippines b
Egypt b
Israel b
Chile
Argentina
Colombia
Iraq b
Algeria
Nigeria b
Pakistan
Iran b
Bangladesh b
Peru
Morocco
Qatar b
New Zealand
Ukraine
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of b
Kuwait, the State of b
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Angola b
Ecuador
Jordan
Tunisia
Ethiopia b

297
120
252
238
230
208
207
203
194
179
176
172
166
143
105
76
70
65
65
63
60
54
52
52
48
44
43
39
38
38
37
37
36
33
32
30
30
22
22
20
20
19

2.2
0.9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.1
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1

-19
-30
-9
-16
-8
-12
-14
-11
-37
-25
-16
-1
12
-20
-14
-15
3
-9
-14
-13
-8
-16
-12
-12
-20
-7
-17
-7
-11
-18
7
-14
-33
-24
0
-25
-27
-24
-22
-11
-19
0

Total of above c

12694

97.0

Total of above c

12694

95.3

World (excl. intra-EU (28) c

13080

100.0

-13

World (excl. intra-EU (28)) c

13323

100.0

-12

7
8
9

a Imports are valued f.o.b.


b Secretariat estimates.
c Includes significant re-exports or imports for re-export.
1RWH : For annual data 2005-2015, see Appendix A6 and A7

95

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A8. Leading exporters and importers in world trade


in commercial services, 2015
(Billion dollars and percentage)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Exporters
United States
United Kingdom
China
Germany
France
Netherlands
Japan
India
Singapore
Ireland
Spain
Belgium
Switzerland
Hong Kong, China
Italy
Korea, Republic of
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Denmark
Thailand
Austria
Chinese Taipei
Russian Federation
Australia
Turkey
Poland
Norway
Macao, China
Malaysia
Israel
Brazil
Greece
Philippines
Portugal
United Arab Emirates
Finland
Czech Republic
Mexico
Hungary

Value

Share

690
345
285
247
240
178
158
155
139
128
117
109
108
104
99
97
95
76
71
61
60
58
56
51
48
46
43
40
40
35
34
33
31
28
28
26
24
23
23
21

14.5
7.3
6.0
5.2
5.0
3.7
3.3
3.3
2.9
2.7
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
2.0
1.6
1.5
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

Annual
percentage
change
0
-5
2
-9
-13
-9
0
0
-7
-5
-11
-10
-7
-2
-14
-13
-4
-10
-6
-16
10
-13
0
-21
-9
-10
-10
-18
-25
-17
-3
-16
-25
10
-11
15
-13
-9
7
-12

Total of above

4255

89.5

World

4755

100.0

-6

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Importers
United States
China
Germany
France
United Kingdom
Japan
Netherlands
Ireland
Singapore
India
Korea, Republic of
Belgium
Italy
Canada
Switzerland
Russian Federation
Hong Kong, China
Luxembourg
Brazil
United Arab Emirates
Spain
Sweden
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of
Australia
Denmark
Thailand
Chinese Taipei
Norway
Austria
Malaysia
Poland
Indonesia
Mexico
Qatar
Finland
Philippines
Kuwait, the State of
Israel
Turkey
Czech Republic

Value

Share

469
466
289
228
208
174
157
152
143
122
112
106
99
95
92
87
74
72
69
66
65
60
57
54
54
50
47
46
46
40
32
30
29
28
26
24
23
22
21
20

10.2
10.1
6.3
4.9
4.5
3.8
3.4
3.3
3.1
2.7
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4

Annual
percentage
change

Total of above

4055

87.9

World

4610

100.0

-6

1RWH : Figures for a number of countries and territories have been estimated by the Secretariat. Annual percentage changes and rankings are affected by continuity breaks in the series for a large number of
economies, and by limitations in cross-country comparability. See the Metadata. For more annual data, see Tables A60 and A61.

96

3
3
-12
-9
-1
-9
-9
4
-8
-4
-2
-10
-13
-11
-6
-27
0
-7
-20
3
-5
-10
-10
-14
-14
-5
4
-18
-14
-12
-11
-9
-3
-5
-16
15
3
0
-10
-12

Statistical Tables

A9. Leading exporters and importers in world trade in commercial


services (excluding intra-EU (28) trade), 2015
(Billion dollars and percentage)

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Exporters

Annual
percentage
change

Value

Share

915
690
285
158
155
139
108
104
97
76
60
56
51
48
46
40
40
35
34
33
28
26
23
21
18
15
14
14
14
14
14
14
12
11
11
11
10
10
8
7

24.9
18.8
7.8
4.3
4.2
3.8
2.9
2.8
2.6
2.1
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.1
1.1
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2

Total of above

3465

94.5

World (excl. intra-EU (28))

3670

100.0

-5

Extra-EU (28) exports


United States
China
Japan
India
Singapore
Switzerland
Hong Kong, China
Korea, Republic of
Canada
Thailand
Chinese Taipei
Russian Federation
Australia
Turkey
Norway
Macao, China
Malaysia
Israel
Brazil
Philippines
United Arab Emirates
Mexico
Indonesia
Egypt
South Africa
Lebanese Republic a
New Zealand
Qatar
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of
Morocco
Argentina
Ukraine
Panama
Viet Nam
Cuba
Chile
Iran
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic

-9
0
2
0
0
-7
-7
-2
-13
-10
10
0
-21
-9
-10
-18
-25
-17
-3
-16
10

15
7
-7
-10
-11
...

0
10
15
-10
1
-17
4
2
-17
-11
3
11

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Importers
Extra-EU (28) imports
United States
China
Japan
Singapore
India
Korea, Republic of
Canada
Switzerland
Russian Federation
Hong Kong, China
Brazil
United Arab Emirates
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of
Australia
Thailand
Chinese Taipei
Norway
Malaysia
Indonesia
Mexico
Qatar
Philippines
Kuwait, the State of
Israel
Turkey
Nigeria
Angola
Argentina
Egypt
Viet Nam
South Africa
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of
Iran
Chile
Lebanese Republic a
Iraq
New Zealand
Kazakhstan
Colombia

Value

Share

732
469
466
174
143
122
112
95
92
87
74
69
66
57
54
50
47
46
40
30
29
28
24
23
22
21
19
19
17
17
15
15
14
14
13
13
12
12
11
11

20.2
12.9
12.9
4.8
3.9
3.4
3.1
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.1
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

Annual
percentage
change
-7
3
3
-9
-8
-4
-2
-11
-6
-27
0
-20
3
-10
-14
-5
4
-18
-12
-9
-3
-5
15
3
0
-10
-16
-22
7
-1
7

-9
-14
-13
-9
...

-16
-11
-9
-17

Total of above

3375

93.1

World (excl. intra-EU (28))

3630

100.0

-5

a Secretariat estimate.
1RWH : Figures for a number of countries and territories have been estimated by the Secretariat. Annual percentage changes and rankings are affected by continuity breaks in the series for a large number of
economies, and by limitations in cross-country comparability. See the Metadata. For more annual data, see Tables A60 and A61.

97

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A10. Trade in commercial services of selected economies


by origin and destination, 2014
(Million dollars and percentage)
Exports
Value
2014

Imports
Share

Annual percentage
change

2014 2010-14

Value

2013

2014

2014

Share

Annual percentage
change

2014 2010-14

2013

2014

European Union (28)


World
European Union (28)
United States
Switzerland
China
Russian Federation

2216048
1210691
259521
145333
38336
38044

100.0
54.6
11.7
6.6
1.7
1.7

7
6
9
9
11
7

8
7
9
8
13
9

7
7
8
11
6
-6

Above 5
Norway
Japan
Singapore
Australia
Canada
Brazil
India
Turkey
Hong Kong, China
Mexico

1691927
36656
33939
27028
24643
21744
19799
16196
14438
14121
10465

76.3
1.7
1.5
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.5

7
8
14
6
3
1
3
7
6
7

13
5
28
5
5
-1
1
14
4
5

5
5
19
-3
-7
1
7
4
9
2

Above 15

1910955

86.2

World
European Union (28)
Canada
Japan
China
Mexico

690127
217877
61069
46081
42062
29618

100.0
31.6
8.8
6.7
6.1
4.3

...

...

4
2
17
5

1
0
13
6

4
7
-2
0
14
1

Above 5
Switzerland
Brazil
Korea, Republic of
Australia
India
Chinese Taipei
Singapore
Bermuda
Hong Kong, China
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of

396707
28835
28026
20429
19047
14766
12256
11686
10781
9998
7820

57.5
4.2
4.1
3.0
2.8
2.1
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.4
1.1

7
11
8
6
10
7
4
-1
15
11

0
7
15
3
10
1
-14
10
39
10

5
6
-1
-1
11
8
3
1
11
2

Above 15

560351

81.2

150449
20631
17165
10301
8970
8575

100.0
13.7
11.4
6.8
6.0
5.7

11
8
10
12
16
11

10
15
10
0
14
22

7
3
3
10
20
16

Above 5
Switzerland
Hong Kong, China
Malaysia
Indonesia
India
Thailand
Korea, Republic of
Chinese Taipei
Norway
Viet Nam

65642
4664
4476
3982
3810
3435
2940
2772
2079
1670
1532

43.6
3.1
3.0
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.0
1.8
1.4
1.1
1.0

27
6
10
11
3
11
10
2
7
21

13
-1
5
8
12
3
4
5
22
14

21
10
7
5
-14
5
21
17
1
10

Above 15

97001

64.5

World
European Union (28)
United States
Switzerland
China
Turkey

1877800
1087582
249867
84274
30186
20721

100.0
57.9
13.3
4.5
1.6
1.1

6
5
8
8
8
2

8
7
7
10
11
8

7
5
15
18
9
2

Above 5
Singapore
Norway
Japan
Russian Federation
India
Canada
Hong Kong, China
Australia
Brazil
Thailand

1472630
20695
20529
20062
16307
15869
14925
14279
10299
9871
7619

78.4
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.4

12
9
2
1
1
3
5
1
6
4

21
15
0
7
1
3
13
-2
1
10

11
12
1
-12
-5
-2
2
-4
18
-4

Above 15

1623085

86.4

453265
159675
29781
28275
24754
21676

100.0
35.2
6.6
6.2
5.5
4.8

...

...

3
6
-6
2

-1
12
-3
3

3
4
-2
3
-8
-3

Above 5
India
Mexico
China
Brazil
Korea, Republic of
Hong Kong, China
Chinese Taipei
Australia
Singapore
Israel

264161
20743
19368
14311
8383
7972
7571
7297
6578
5808
5543

58.3
4.6
4.3
3.2
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.3
1.2

9
9
8
13
4
4
7
7
8
5

3
12
8
2
2
2
1
0
0
-3

7
13
2
11
-4
6
4
-1
8
11

Above 15

367735

81.1

World
United States
European Union (28)
China
Hong Kong, China
Japan

155248
26086
24736
8123
5985
5487

100.0
16.8
15.9
5.2
3.9
3.5

11
10
10
20
17
7

13
1
25
14
20
6

6
17
-5
25
47
2

Above 5
Switzerland
Australia
Chinese Taipei
India
Korea, Republic of
Malaysia
Thailand
Indonesia
United Arab Emirates
Norway

70416
4643
4302
2892
2882
2566
2203
1696
1624
1438
1125

45.4
3.0
2.8
1.9
1.9
1.7
1.4
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.7

25
17
14
8
17
9
14
5
15
11

39
12
15
16
6
6
9
4
30
20

-2
-2
31
5
23
0
35
3
-5
19

Above 15

95788

61.7

United States
World
European Union (28)
Canada
Japan
Bermuda
Switzerland

Singapore a, b
World
European Union (28)
United States
Australia
Japan
China

98

Statistical Tables

A10. Trade in commercial services of selected economies


by origin and destination, 2014 (continued)
(Million dollars and percentage)
Exports
Value
2014

Imports
Share

Annual percentage
change

2014 2010-14

Value

2013

2014

2014

Share

Annual percentage
change

2014 2010-14

2013

2014

Japan
World
United States
European Union (28)
China
Singapore
Chinese Taipei

158626
38955
26620
16367
9895
8634

100.0
24.6
16.8
10.3
6.2
5.4

-1

20

...

...

...

World
United States
European Union (28)
Singapore
China
Korea, Republic of

190185
57096
35428
12834
11824
8534

100.0
30.0
18.6
6.7
6.2
4.5

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Above 5
Thailand
Korea, Republic of
Hong Kong, China
Malaysia
Indonesia
Australia
Switzerland
India
Viet Nam
Canada

100470
7663
7142
6112
4210
3263
2907
2539
2082
1845
1751

63.3
4.8
4.5
3.9
2.7
2.1
1.8
1.6
1.3
1.2
1.1

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Above 15

139985

88.2

106566
41479
15452
15379
4672
4220

100.0
38.9
14.5
14.4
4.4
4.0

Above 5
Singapore
Australia
Korea, Republic of
Malaysia
Canada
Thailand
India
Philippines
Switzerland
Macao, China

81203
3515
2647
2336
1345
1215
1169
1127
1097
1072
1057

Above 15

-8

13

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Above 5
Hong Kong, China
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Switzerland
Australia
Indonesia
United Arab Emirates
Canada
Malaysia
Philippines

125715
6274
6113
3605
3518
2924
2573
2199
2114
1938
1938

66.1
3.3
3.2
1.9
1.8
1.5
1.4
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Above 15

158911

...

83.6

7
15
1

6
18
1

...

...

-1
1

-8
-1

2
1
4
5
0
0

World
China
European Union (28)
United States
Japan
Singapore

73797
27912
10276
8140
5506
3636

100.0
37.8
13.9
11.0
7.5
4.9

1
-4

-2
-7

...

...

2
7
4

0
1
-1

-2
-8
-1
1
9
6

76.2
3.3
2.5
2.2
1.3
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0

9
2
3
2
0
12
2
10
6
13

10
-7
0
2
3
13
0
5
-11
9

14
-2
-11
2
-5
15
10
8
-3
-2

Above 5
Chinese Taipei
Australia
Korea, Republic of
Canada
Thailand
Malaysia
Macao, China
India
United Arab Emirates
Philippines

55470
3190
2813
1612
1576
1202
1160
1131
829
487
448

75.2
4.3
3.8
2.2
2.1
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.1
0.7
0.6

9
2
16
4
8
11
9
1
5
2

5
1
1
-5
11
14
2
-2
9
11

3
0
26
5
-13
4
-3
-1
8
4

97782

91.8

Above 15

69918

94.7

World
European Union (28)
United States
Switzerland
Turkey
Ukraine

64818
27208
3678
3443
2961
2513

100.0
42.0
5.7
5.3
4.6
3.9

7
11
-1
0
15
4

12
17
4
6
63
1

-6
-3
-14
-27
-22
5

World
European Union (28)
Turkey
United States
Egypt
Switzerland

118909
56223
9721
6608
3596
3202

100.0
47.3
8.2
5.6
3.0
2.7

13
15
19
14
5
10

18
21
47
8
-6
18

-5
-1
-17
0
40
-11

Above 5
Kazakhstan
China
Belarus
British Virgin Islands
Uzbekistan
India
United Arab Emirates
Panama
Korea, Republic of
Tajikistan

39803
2066
1498
1484
1177
1042
644
625
610
604
586

61.4
3.2
2.3
2.3
1.8
1.6
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.9

5
8
23
-1
2
-8
20
6
1
-2

14
6
73
22
4
8
20
-16
5
-5

-7
-7
1
-7
-21
-31
-8
34
1
-3

Above 5
Thailand
Belarus
China
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
Panama
Israel
Norway
Kazakhstan
Korea, Republic of

79350
2516
2223
2054
1930
1644
1497
1226
916
909
907

66.7
2.1
1.9
1.7
1.6
1.4
1.3
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.8

26
18
10
-14
17
9
18
24
4
7

31
22
-4
3
23
35
24
23
-5
26

-15
8
0
-57
-25
-7
5
2
-7
1

Above 15

50138

77.4

Above 15

95171

80.0

Hong Kong, China c


World
China
United States
European Union (28)
Japan
Chinese Taipei

Russian Federation d

99

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A10. Trade in commercial services of selected economies


by origin and destination, 2014 (continued)
(Million dollars and percentage)
Exports
Value
2014

Imports
Share

Annual percentage
change

2014 2010-14

Value

2013

2014

2014

Share

Annual percentage
change

2014 2010-14

2013

2014

Korea, Republic of
World
China
United States
European Union (28)
Japan

110961
22190
17036
11375
10059

100.0
20.0
15.4
10.3
9.1

8
14
7
7
-1

0
24
3
-2
-23

8
21
-1
19
1

60660

54.7

53368
8791
7345
5729
3607
3098

100.0
16.5
13.8
10.7
6.8
5.8

4
4
8
6
6
8

-1
-2
4
6
-1
3

1
-2
9
-1
0
-5

Above 5
India
Japan
Hong Kong, China
Malaysia
Korea, Republic of
Indonesia
Viet Nam
Switzerland
Thailand
Canada

28570
2239
1824
1794
1631
1449
1147
1046
940
837
782

53.5
4.2
3.4
3.4
3.1
2.7
2.1
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.5

-6
-3
6
4
-5
4
7
5
0
3

-12
-16
0
-3
-13
2
2
23
-5
-10

21
-5
-1
1
-10
-2
8
9
8
1

Above 15

42257

79.2

86560
47609
14101
2118
2041
1600

100.0
55.0
16.3
2.4
2.4
1.8

3
3

1
0

...

...

10
11
7

4
31
11

-4
-5
-2
-4
-4
-6

Above 5
Australia
Japan
Bermuda
Mexico
Singapore
Korea, Republic of
India
Brazil
Chinese Taipei
Barbados

67470
1437
1376
1235
933
862
776
749
558
493
460

77.9
1.7
1.6
1.4
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.6
0.6
0.5

6
4
-9
6
9
1
15
7
10
-6

-3
-4
-11
-3
9
2
22
2
9
-29

-2
5
-7
-3
-5
-3
-4
-6
-4
-4

Above 15

76348

88.2

Above 4

World
United States
European Union (28)
China
Japan

114741
28511
21258
14366
8726

100.0
24.8
18.5
12.5
7.6

4
2
4
4
-3

1
-3
1
-4
6

5
-1
10
10
-11

72860

63.5

62409
14377
11770
4846
3031
2439

100.0
23.0
18.9
7.8
4.9
3.9

5
5
8
11
4
4

2
-1
5
9
2
0

-7
-3
-4
-4
-1
4

Above 5
Hong Kong, China
Indonesia
China
Thailand
India
Malaysia
Switzerland
Fiji
Canada
Viet Nam

36463
2246
2227
1907
1734
1239
1213
1188
931
915
744

58.4
3.6
3.6
3.1
2.8
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.5
1.5
1.2

6
8
5
-1
19
4
-5
5
2
5

11
2
-3
-8
35
4
7
1
-5
4

-2
-4
-1
-27
-9
-11
-6
-2
-9
-9

Above 15

50808

81.4

World
United States
European Union (28)
Hong Kong, China
Mexico
China

107720
60728
19031
3339
2310
2005

100.0
56.4
17.7
3.1
2.1
1.9

2
2

1
1

...

...

3
3
4

0
1
-3

-4
-6
-1
0
-2
0

Above 5
Japan
Singapore
Barbados
Switzerland
India
Bermuda
Australia
Chinese Taipei
Russian Federation
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of

87413
1766
1652
1257
1113
979
975
876
564
555
354

81.1
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.3

4
2
5
-14
15
-4
6
2
9
7

-2
-1
11
3
20
-14
-5
-3
-7
2

0
-1
-17
-8
0
-7
-4
0
0
1

Above 15

97503

90.5

Above 4

Australia
World
European Union (27)
China
United States
New Zealand
Singapore

World
European Union (27)
United States
Singapore
New Zealand
Japan

Canada e
World
United States
European Union (28)
China
Switzerland
Hong Kong, China

a The following transactions are not allocated geographically: travel exports and imports; financial services exports related to foreign exchange trading; imports of freight transportation services and, insurance on
goods imports. Overall, they represent 17 per cent of commercial services exports, and 18 per cent of imports.
b In 2013, ASEAN countries accounted for 10 per cent of total commercial services exports and 5 per cent of imports.
c Financial intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM) are not allocated geographically. In 2014, they represented 4 per cent of exports, and 1 per cent of imports.
d In 2014, trade in commercial services not allocated geographically accounted for 11 per cent of exports and 13 per cent of imports.
e Refers to total services. In 2014, government goods and services n.i.e. accounted for 2 per cent of exports and 1 per cent of imports of total services.

100

Statistical Tables

A11. Ratio of exports of goods and commercial services to GDP of


the least-developed countries, 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
5DWLRWR*'3

9DOXH
*'3

LDCs
Afghanistan
Angola
Bangladesh
Benin
Bhutan
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti
Kiribati
Lao People's Dem. Rep.
Lesotho
Liberia, Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mozambique
Myanmar
Nepal
Niger
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Sudan
Sudan
Tanzania
The Gambia
Timor-Leste
Togo
Tuvalu
Uganda
Vanuatu
Yemen
Zambia
Memorandum item:
:RUOG

*RRGVDQGFRPPHUFLDOVHUYLFHV

&RPPHUFLDOVHUYLFHV

*RRGV















928200
19204
102979
205715
8471
2214
11009
2881
18155
1605
10894
589
38873
1727
9403
4666
61629
6696
1057
8618
162
12503
2032
2035
9737
6416
13066
4752
14965
66983
21356
7151
8267
318
13665
4167
1147
...
2627
83612
44904
893
2620
4165
33
24740
765
36852
21889

28.2
16.0
62.4
16.8
23.3
41.1
20.3
5.3
52.1
9.5
37.6
14.3
42.5
21.3
105.3
...
14.7
32.3
19.9
14.6
11.9
32.7
40.9
21.7
24.4
17.5
22.5
50.4
24.7
15.5
9.3
22.2
9.8
11.5
23.9
16.2
46.6
...
...
17.7
20.3
28.4
1.4
39.8
41.3
15.8
45.6
29.5
39.7

21.1
7.1
37.6
15.9

31.7


67.7
...
...


...

...
9.4
...

19.8

27.5

24.5
34.6
23.5


28.0

9.5

12.9
23.8


44.9
...
...
5.5
21.5
...

42.4
...
18.9


50.6

25.0
2.5
61.3
15.7
18.4
36.4
17.4
5.0
35.1
7.8
35.0
4.1
41.1
7.7
105.0
...
8.3
31.0
14.9
8.5
4.4
25.5
39.0
18.7
13.4
16.4
19.2
47.9
22.3
14.8
5.6
20.1
5.2
5.2
16.7
14.0
33.3
...
...
17.4
13.9
14.7
0.7
30.7
31.3
10.7
7.0
24.7
36.9

17.2
2.9
35.9
15.1

26.2


46.9
5.5
...


...

...
4.7
...

11.9

21.2

13.6
23.2
21.9


23.5

4.1

8.6
2.7


36.6
...
...
3.8
13.3
...

31.8
49.8
11.1


46.7

3.1
13.4
1.0
1.0
5.0
4.7
2.9
0.4
17.1
1.7
2.6
10.2
1.4
13.5
0.3
...
6.4
1.3
5.0
6.1
7.5
7.1
1.9
3.1
11.0
1.1
3.3
2.4
2.3
0.7
3.6
2.1
4.5
6.2
7.2
2.2
13.3
...
...
0.3
6.4
13.7
0.8
9.1
10.0
5.1
38.7
4.8
2.8

3.9
4.2
1.7
0.8

5.5


20.8
...
...


...

...
4.6
...

7.9

6.3

10.9
11.4
1.5


4.5

5.3

4.3
21.1


8.3
...
...
1.7
8.2
...

10.6
...
7.9


3.9















1RWH Most 2015 data are preliminary Secretariat estimates. Figures in italics refer to 2014. Trade in goods is derived from balance of payments statistics and does not correspond to the merchandise trade statistics
given elsewhere in this report. See the Metadata.

101

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A12. Merchandise exports and imports of least-developed countries, 2015


(Million dollars and percentage)
Exports

Imports

Annual percentage change

Value

Annual percentage change

Value

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

154378

-1

-3

-25

241754

-9

Angola
Equatorial Guinea
Myanmar
Sudan
Chad
Yemen
Bhutan
South Sudan

34151
6700
5950
2985
2900
1000
585

-8
-8
-7
-24
-4
-34
-2

-4
-5
27
18
-19
0
2

-13
-14
-2
-7
0
-6
-25

-42
-47
-46
-33
-26
-87
43

21703
4200
15920
8585
2200
12900
1170

5
-4
27
-3
-2
7
7

11
-16
31
7
7
0
-8

9
-3
35
-7
3
-3
2

-24
-25
-2
-7
-29
0
26

Exporters of manufactures b
Bangladesh
Cambodia
Madagascar
Haiti
Lesotho
Nepal

32379
11960
2258
990
775
720

11
18
14
11
-2
-3

16
18
27
9
-13
-4

4
17
14
7
-2
1

6
10
3
4
-6
-19

39460
14400
3173
3400
1954
6380

7
16
4
2
-3
4

9
13
5
7
-16
8

14
5
-1
10
-1
15

-7
7
-2
-9
-9
-16

Exporters of agriculture
Ethiopia
Uganda
Burkina Faso
Benin
Malawi
Togo
Rwanda
Afghanistan
Somalia
Solomon Islands
Liberia, Republic of
Guinea-Bissau
Burundi
The Gambia
Central African Republic
Vanuatu
Comoros
Sao Tome and Principe
Timor-Leste
Kiribati

3825
2245
2132
2032
1375
1227
659
470

402
260
259
111
108
90
62

15
15
9

10
7
6
10
5
5
17
4

12
3
15
2
10
-8
5

7
-2
18

41
2
8
37
2
16
19
20

-10
22
17
-32
-11
-43
-30
5
6
-48
15

10
-6
4
29
11
-13
3
11

2
5
9
45
-2
-18
63
14
34
-14
-25

-14
-1
-13
-21
2
-7
-9
-18

-12
-56
56
-16
4
-6
-1

-12
8
80

19063
5780
2647
3028
2932
2127
2570
5571

418
2237
229
755
410
348
388
232
150
850
100

17
4
5
8
6
5
12
2

1
26
3
8
8
3
6
0
6
28
6

25
-4
22
29
21
16
0
-4

7
14
1
8
-8
-34
6
4
16
27
-11

27
4
-18
27
-2
-9
11
-11

-2
83
17
-5
11
79
0
-2
12
2
-2

0
-5
-16
-21
6
-16
0
-28

-18
7
7
-2
6
-9
24
-17
-12
-1
5

Exporters of non-fuel minerals


Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
Tanzania
Mozambique
Mali
Lao People's Dem. Rep.
Guinea
Mauritania
Niger
Sierra Leone
Eritrea

6961
5800
4924
4195
2532
2340
2071
1502
1050
727
500

-1
2
4
7
5
6
7
-6
-2
16
107

13
-2
-11
4
-10
0
-12
0
10
71
-30

-9
11
2
17
19
18
18
-27
-9
-19
97

-28
-16
-2
-11
-9
-12
3
-22
-28
-53
-25

8451
6200
10285
8293
3167
3860
1971
2053
1990
1477
1053

10
7
5
13
-2
13
7
1
-4
14
10

15
3
7
16
8
1
-1
-3
6
11
6

-6
5
-1
-13
5
39
1
-13
8
-12
10

-11
-6
-14
-5
-21
-10
-12
-22
-9
-6
-7

Others
Senegal
Djibouti
Tuvalu

2532
132
0

3
9
0

5
1
0

6
8
0

-10
2
0

5675
890
11

3
19
-7

3
27
-53

-2
12
-14

-13
11
-8

16482216

-13

16724956

-12

LDCs
Oil Exporters a

Memorandum item:
World c
a Bhutan is included for its exports of electric current.
b Includes exporters of gold (normally classified in n.e.s. according to the UN Standard International Trade Classification) and diamonds (normally included in manufactures according to the UN classification).
c Includes significant re-exports or imports for re-export.
Note : Data for 2015 are largely estimated.

102

Statistical Tables

A13. Exports of commercial services of the least-developed countries


by category, 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
9DOXH
&RPPHUFLDO
VHUYLFHV

Least developed countries


Afghanistan
Angola
Bangladesh
Benin
Bhutan
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Haiti
Kiribati
Lao People's Dem. Rep.
Lesotho
Liberia, Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mozambique
Myanmar
Nepal
Niger
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Sudan
Sudan
Tanzania
The Gambia
Timor-Leste
Togo
Tuvalu
Uganda
Vanuatu
Yemen
Zambia

6KDUHLQFRPPHUFLDOVHUYLFHV
*RRGVUHODWHGVHUYLFHV

7UDQVSRUW

2WKHUFRPPHUFLDO
VHUYLFHV

7UDYHO



















36000
799
1751
1684

122


3775
...
...


...

...
2851
...

677

790

223
1114
98


675

1139

352
67


95
...
...
1397
3665
...
57

...
1945
295



0.5
...
...
3.0
0.0
...
0.2
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
17.2
...
0.0
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.0
...
...
...
...
...

3.7
0.0
...

...
...

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
0.0
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

...
...

...

...
...

...

...
...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

19.5
10.1
5.0
14.2
29.1
35.3
16.5
10.2
13.8
...
...
8.1
30.5
77.2
...
...
61.6
6.3
0.7
...
17.1
11.4
8.6
55.7
31.3
43.5
2.0
6.8
34.6
43.9
6.8
0.7
11.4
1.3
4.9
44.7
36.0
...
...
2.2
22.6
28.9
2.6
45.1
9.1
4.1
11.6
13.0
7.8

20.8
4.5



21.4


11.8
...
...


...
...
...
77.2
...

...

...






64.7

...


0.5


27.5
...
...
21.8

...
2.7
50.6
...
7.5
14.1



50.2
4.2
83.9
6.6
42.9
60.0
27.3
24.2
79.2
...
...
63.3
3.7
12.1
...
...
27.3
3.4
31.2
95.3
37.7
78.1
55.0
31.1
31.9
41.3
57.5
...
44.1
21.3
59.0
88.5
77.8
85.5
48.4
45.7
48.7
...
...
38.8
62.7
56.4
78.1
22.7
73.7
75.9
80.1
78.9
86.1

52.6
13.2



75.7


82.9
...
...


...
...
...
14.4
...

90.0

...






28.6

47.0


77.4


49.7
...
...
67.9

...
89.4
28.5
...
60.1
80.4



29.8
85.7
11.1
76.2
28.0
4.6
56.1
65.6
7.0
...
...
28.6
65.8
10.7
...
...
11.1
90.3
68.0
4.7
45.2
10.5
36.4
13.1
36.8
15.2
40.4
...
21.3
17.6
34.2
10.8
10.8
13.2
46.7
9.6
15.4
...
...
59.0
14.7
14.8
19.3
32.2
17.2
20.1
8.3
8.0
6.0

22.8
82.3



2.8


5.2
...
...


...
...
...
8.4
...

10.0

...






6.7

...


22.1


22.9
...
...
10.3

...
7.9
20.8
...
32.4
5.5





















Memorandum item:
:RUOG

1RWH Figures in italics refer to 2014. The improvement of the quality of data in recent years may have resulted in changes relating to the breakdown of exports of commercial services by category of services.

103

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A14. Top 10 exporters and importers of agricultural products, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Exporters
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) exports
United States
Brazil
China
Canada
Indonesia a
Thailand
Australia
India
Argentina
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) imports
China
United States
Japan
Canada b
Korea, Republic of
India
Mexico b
Russian Federation b
Hong Kong, China
retained imports a
Above 10

Share in world exports/imports

Annual percentage change

2015

1980

1990

2000

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

585
158
163
80
73
63
39
36
36
35
35

17.0
3.4
1.5
5.0
1.6
1.2
3.3
1.0
1.9

14.3
2.4
2.4
5.4
1.0
1.9
2.9
0.8
1.8

41.9
10.0
13.0
2.8
3.0
6.3
1.4
2.2
3.0
1.1
2.2

37.1
10.0
10.4
5.1
4.6
4.0
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2

2
4
3
3
7
4
2
1
6
9
0

8
8
2
5
6
4
-5
-4
-2
7
-3

1
1
4
-3
6
4
3
-2
3
-3
-10

-13
-11
-10
-9
-2
-7
-10
-8
-7
-19
-9

1146

76.9

72.7

590
166
160
149
74
38
33
28
28
28
27
18

2.1
8.7
9.6
1.8
1.5
0.5
1.2
1.0

1.8
9.0
11.5
2.0
2.2
0.4
1.2
1.0

42.7
13.2
3.3
11.6
10.4
2.6
2.2
0.7
1.8
1.3
1.1

35.0
9.8
9.5
8.8
4.4
2.3
2.0
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.1

1
2
8
5
-1
4
4
9
3
-5
6
6

6
3
6
3
-8
2
1
-5
8
6
11
12

2
2
3
7
-5
3
5
12
3
-8
5
6

-13
-9
-6
-5
-10
-5
-6
1
-8
-33
-6
-9

1154

77.6

67.9

a Includes Secretariat estimates.


b Imports are valued f.o.b.

A15. Top 10 exporters and importers of fuels and mining products, 2015
(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Exporters
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) exports
Russian Federation
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of a
United States
Australia
Canada
Qatar a
United Arab Emirates a
Norway
China
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) imports
China
United States
Japan
Korea, Republic of
India
Singapore
Taipei, Chinese
Turkey
Canada b
Above 10
a Includes Secretariat estimates.
b Imports are valued f.o.b.

104

Share in world exports/imports

Annual percentage change

2015

1980

1990

2000

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

440
137
195
153
145
108
104
71
68
66
55
1404

19.3
3.4
1.3
3.2
1.0
3.5
1.9
0.9
-

8.3
4.9
3.5
4.8
0.6
3.0
4.0
1.3
-

18.2
5.2
8.1
8.3
3.3
3.1
5.7
1.3
3.5
4.9
1.5
57.7

15.5
4.8
6.9
5.4
5.1
3.8
3.7
2.5
2.4
2.3
1.9
49.5

-3
-2
-7
-7
2
-4
-3
1
-2
-6
3
-

-2
-1
1
-4
4
2
1
0
2
-8
7
-

-7
-9
-7
-11
3
5
-5
-5
-12
-10
7
-

-30
-30
-44
-47
-28
-29
-35
-38
-39
-34
-14
-

741
438
358
246
169
130
130
70
50
50
42
1986

0.2
16.7
14.8
1.4
1.2
1.3
1.1
0.7
1.8
-

0.6
16.6
15.2
3.1
1.7
2.1
1.8
1.1
2.1
-

33.4
20.7
3.7
18.5
10.8
5.2
2.4
2.0
2.1
1.3
2.0
81.4

27.1
16.0
13.1
9.0
6.2
4.7
4.8
2.5
1.8
1.8
1.5
72.5

-5
-6
-1
-10
-8
-4
0
-4
-6
0
-4
-

-4
-5
2
-10
-7
-4
1
-5
-4
-7
-3
-

-9
-10
-3
-7
-4
-2
-3
-2
-4
-6
-4
-

-33
-36
-32
-40
-47
-39
-36
-42
-38
-15
-31
-

Statistical Tables

A16. Top 10 exporters and importers of manufactures, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Exporters
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) exports
China a
United States
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Hong Kong, China
domestic exports b
re-exports b
Mexico a
Singapore
Chinese Taipei
Canada
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) imports
United States
China a
Hong Kong, China
retained imports b
Japan
Canada c
Mexico a, c
Korea, Republic of
Singapore
India
Above 10

Share in world exports/imports

Annual percentage change

2015

1980

1990

2000

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

4239
1601
2153
1126
545
470
437
5
432
312
266
240
208
9445

0.8
13.0
11.2
1.4
1.2
0.4
0.8
1.6
2.7
-

1.9
12.1
11.5
2.5
1.1
1.1
1.6
2.6
3.1
-

43.0
14.1
4.7
13.8
9.6
3.3
0.5
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.7
87.0

36.6
13.8
18.6
8.7
4.7
4.1
0.0
2.7
2.3
2.1
1.8
81.6

1
2
8
4
-4
3
3
-7
3
7
1
0
2
-

4
4
8
2
-12
4
4
-6
4
6
2
1
-2
-

4
1
6
3
-5
3
3
3
3
8
1
0
2
-

-10
-10
-2
-3
-9
-5
-4
-4
-4
1
-9
-9
-2
-

3812
1258
1808
1084
465
41
372
323
320
269
206
187
8423

11.2
1.1
1.1
2.3
3.7
1.5
0.9
1.2
0.5
-

15.4
1.7
0.9
4.1
3.8
1.3
1.8
1.8
0.5
-

43.0
14.1
4.7
13.8
3.3
4.1
0.5
3.6
3.0
2.5
3.0
81.4

32.9
10.9
15.6
9.4
0.4
3.2
2.8
2.8
2.3
1.8
1.6
72.8

0
1
6
4
4
12
1
2
6
2
0
4
-

3
1
2
7
4
1
-4
0
4
2
1
-4
-

5
5
6
4
5
22
2
1
5
5
-2
3
-

-10
-4
3
-8
-6
-6
-9
-6
1
-2
-8
1
-

a Includes significant shipments through processing zones


b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Imports are valued f.o.b.

A17. Top 10 exporters and importers of iron and steel, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Exporters
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) exports
China a
Japan
Korea, Republic of
United States
Russian Federation
Chinese Taipei
Brazil
Ukraine
India
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) imports
United States
China a
Korea, Republic of
Turkey
Mexico a, b
Thailand
India
Canada b
United Arab Emirates c
Above 10

Share in world exports/imports

Annual percentage change

2015

1980

1990

2000

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

139
38
64
30
23
16
15
9
10
8
8
323

0.3
20.1
2.2
4.2
0.4
1.1
0.1
-

1.2
11.8
3.4
3.3
0.8
3.4
0.2
-

47.1
11.4
3.1
10.4
4.7
4.4
5.0
3.2
2.5
3.6
0.9
84.9

36.3
10.0
16.7
7.9
6.1
4.2
4.0
2.3
2.5
2.2
2.2
84.4

-3
-3
10
-6
-1
-1
-8
-4
2
-12
-5
-

-6
-8
2
-11
-12
-4
-18
-3
-19
-7
6
-

0
-2
32
-4
9
0
19
5
19
-14
-1
-

-18
-22
-12
-19
-20
-20
-39
-24
-9
-39
-28
-

130
32
39
20
16
11
11
11
10
10
8
265

10.1
2.7
1.2
0.4
2.2
0.6
1.0
1.6
0.7
-

9.5
2.5
2.9
1.1
1.0
2.4
1.0
2.0
0.4
-

41.4
7.5
12.7
6.4
3.5
1.6
2.6
1.8
0.5
3.5
0.6
74.5

32.0
7.9
9.6
4.8
3.8
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.3
1.9
65.1

-3
-2
5
-5
-7
3
6
-2
1
-2
6
-

-4
-2
-13
-6
-10
10
-11
1
-24
-12
6
-

3
8
26
5
10
-7
9
-13
17
11
4
-

-18
-14
-21
-13
-27
0
-3
-19
3
-27
-17
-

a Includes significant shipments through processing zones


b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.

105

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A18. Top 10 exporters and importers of chemicals, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Exporters
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) exports
United States
China a
Switzerland
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Singapore
Canada
India
Chinese Taipei
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) imports
United States
China a
Japan
India
Canada b
Korea, Republic of
Mexico a, b
Switzerland
Brazil c
Above 10

Share in world exports/imports

Annual percentage change

2015

1980

1990

2000

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

901
349
206
130
88
63
58
47
37
36
32
1598

14.8
0.8
4.0
4.7
0.5
0.5
2.5
0.3
0.4
-

13.3
1.3
4.7
5.3
0.8
1.1
2.2
0.4
0.9
-

53.9
18.6
13.7
2.1
3.6
6.0
2.4
1.6
2.5
0.7
1.6
88.0

48.2
18.7
11.0
6.9
4.7
3.4
3.1
2.5
2.0
1.9
1.7
85.5

1
3
2
8
4
-4
4
3
2
9
-2
-

3
3
1
5
4
-4
8
-7
2
8
3
-

3
2
2
12
7
-5
1
6
0
3
-3
-

-10
-6
-2
-4
-5
-13
-13
-11
-4
-4
-16
-

761
205
220
171
64
47
45
43
43
42
38
1474

6.2
2.0
4.1
0.0
2.2
1.3
1.5
2.5
2.4
-

7.7
2.2
5.0
1.0
2.5
2.4
1.2
2.6
1.1
-

44.0
10.5
12.2
4.9
4.2
0.8
3.2
2.2
2.4
2.1
1.6
77.7

39.5
10.7
11.5
8.9
3.3
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.0
76.6

1
2
4
3
1
6
2
1
5
2
3
-

3
0
0
6
-11
0
2
-1
3
7
7
-

4
5
6
1
-2
8
1
1
6
5
0
-

-11
-6
4
-11
-1
-3
-7
-8
-6
-13
-16
-

a Includes significant shipments through processing zones


b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Imports are valued f.o.b.

A19. Top 10 exporters and importers of pharmaceuticals, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Exporters
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) exports
Switzerland
United States
India
China a
Canada
Singapore
Israel
Japan
Panama b
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) imports
United States
Japan
Switzerland
China a
Canada c
Russian Federation c
Australia c
Brazil c
Mexico a, c
Above 10
a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Imports are valued f.o.b.

106

Share in world exports/imports

Annual percentage change

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

340
159
65
52
14
14
8
8
7
4
4
514

66.1
26.7
10.6
9.6
1.5
2.3
1.2
1.3
1.4
0.9
0.6
95.7

63.9
29.8
12.2
9.8
2.6
2.5
1.4
1.4
1.2
0.7
0.7
96.6

2
5
6
3
14
5
6
5
0
-2
6
-

3
4
6
-1
13
3
7
-14
-8
-8
-3
-

5
5
8
10
6
9
29
4
2
-9
-16
-

-5
1
-3
8
6
1
7
-7
6
15
-15
-

260
80
90
24
23
20
13
9
8
7
5
460

52.1
13.5
13.9
3.7
4.0
1.7
2.6
2.4
1.8
1.4
1.0
84.6

47.5
14.6
16.4
4.4
4.2
3.7
2.3
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.0
83.8

1
2
3
3
2
9
0
-2
-1
0
1
-

2
2
-2
-10
10
17
-1
10
-9
8
1
-

6
9
14
-4
6
18
4
-12
-9
0
-1
-

-8
-4
17
15
-9
7
-6
-31
-13
-12
-3
-

Statistical Tables

A20. Top 10 exporters and importers of office and telecom equipment, 2015
(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Exporters
China a
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) exports
Hong Kong, China
domestic exports b
re-exports
United States
Singapore
Korea, Republic of
Chinese Taipei
Mexico a
Japan
Malaysia a
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) imports
China a
United States
Hong Kong, China
retained imports b
Singapore
Japan
Mexico a, c
Korea, Republic of
Chinese Taipei
Malaysia a
Above 10
a
b
c
d

Share in world exports/imports

Annual percentage change

2015

1980

1990

2000

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

591
318
85
244
0
244
142
118
110
93
63
60
59
1555

0.1
2.0
19.5
3.2
2.0
3.2
0.1
21.1
1.4
-

1.0
1.6
17.3
6.4
4.8
4.7
1.5
22.5
2.7
-

4.5
29.3
8.7
0.4
15.9
7.7
6.1
6.0
3.5
11.2
5.4
90.1

34.0
18.3
4.9
0.0
8.2
6.8
6.3
5.4
3.6
3.5
3.4
89.6

6
-3
-3
7
-32
7
1
-1
3
1
1
-8
-3
-

10
-2
-3
8
-38
8
1
5
14
5
-1
-15
1
-

0
2
-3
7
7
7
3
-1
7
1
3
-7
4
-

-1
-10
-12
3
-44
3
-2
-6
1
-5
-3
-8
-10
-

446
222
385
321
257
13
84
80
64
62
47
41
1542

0.6
15.9
1.7
2.6
2.6
0.9
1.3
1.4
1.6
-

1.3
21.1
1.4
4.5
3.7
1.5
2.6
2.5
1.9
-

33.9
14.7
4.4
21.2
1.3
5.3
6.0
2.9
3.3
3.8
3.2
85.3

23.1
11.5
19.9
16.6
0.7
4.4
4.2
3.3
3.2
2.4
2.1
79.8

-3
-3
7
2
7
4
-1
-1
2
5
0
-3
-

-2
-2
13
0
7
-3
4
0
6
6
1
2
-

2
0
-4
3
9
41
-3
1
0
12
7
4
-

-7
-1
2
2
1
-24
-7
-12
0
7
-7
-12
-

Includes significant shipments through processing zones


Includes Secretariat estimates.
Imports are valued f.o.b.
In 2015, China reported imports of office and telecom equipment from China amounting to $91.2 billion. For further information, see the Metadata.

A21. Top 10 exporters and importers of automotive products, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Exporters
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) exports
Japan
United States
Mexico a
Korea, Republic of
Canada
China a
Thailand
Turkey
India
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) imports
United States
China a
Canada b
Mexico a, b
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of c
Australia b
Turkey
Japan
Russian Federation b
Above 10

Share in world exports/imports

Annual percentage change

2015

1980

1990

2000

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

653
229
137
129
97
71
62
49
27
17
11
1253

19.8
11.9
0.3
0.1
6.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
...
-

20.8
10.2
1.4
0.7
8.9
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
-

49.8
12.2
15.3
11.7
5.3
2.6
10.5
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.1
96.3

49.3
17.3
10.3
9.8
7.3
5.4
4.7
3.7
2.0
1.3
0.9
94.6

4
5
-2
5
12
5
4
12
7
4
8
-

6
6
-8
2
11
3
-4
7
7
13
2
-

6
1
-4
2
11
1
2
11
1
4
16
-

-6
-10
-6
-6
5
-6
1
-3
2
-3
-4
-

498
72
292
73
68
45
33
24
20
19
16
1088

20.3
0.6
8.7
1.8
2.7
1.3
...
0.5
-

24.7
0.6
7.7
0.3
0.9
1.2
0.4
2.3
-

42.5
5.6
29.4
0.7
8.0
3.5
0.7
1.5
1.0
1.7
0.2
89.0

36.7
5.3
21.6
5.4
5.0
3.3
2.4
1.7
1.4
1.4
1.2
80.2

3
4
9
7
3
9
16
1
5
6
-7
-

6
1
4
5
0
2
3
-10
16
0
-8
-

8
3
6
20
-2
7
0
-10
-6
4
-21
-

-2
8
7
-22
-4
4
42
-4
9
-9
-51
-

a Includes significant shipments through processing zones


b Imports are valued f.o.b.
c Includes Secretariat estimates.

107

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A22. Top 10 exporters and importers of textiles, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Exporters
China a
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) exports
India
United States
Turkey
Korea, Republic of
Chinese Taipei
Hong Kong, China
domestic exports b
re-exports b
Pakistan b
Japan
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) imports
United States
China a, d
Viet Nam b
Bangladesh b
Hong Kong, China
retained imports
Japan
Mexico a, e
Turkey
Indonesia b
Above 10
a
b
c
d
e

Share in world exports/imports

Annual percentage change

2015

1980

1990

2000

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

109
64
20
17
14
11
11
10
9
0
9
8
6
268

4.6
2.4
6.8
0.6
4.0
3.2
1.7
1.6
9.3
-

6.9
2.1
4.8
1.4
5.8
5.9
2.1
2.6
5.6
-

10.4
36.7
9.9
3.6
7.1
2.4
8.2
7.7
0.8
2.9
4.5
84.3

37.4
22.1
6.9
5.9
4.8
3.8
3.7
3.3
0.0
2.9
2.1
86.0

47
3
6
25
5
24
-3
-4
-7
-42
-6
13
-2
-

12
4
3
13
3
10
1
-1
2
-13
2
7
-12
-

5
4
3
5
3
3
-1
0
-9
-9
-9
-3
-7
-

-2
-14
-14
-6
-3
-13
-11
-6
-7
-47
-6
-9
-3
-

68
29
30
19
18
10
9
...
8
7
6
6
171

4.5
1.9
...
0.2
3.7
3.0
0.2
0.1
0.4
-

6.2
4.9
...
0.4
3.8
3.8
0.9
0.5
0.7
-

35.2
9.9
9.8
7.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
3.0
3.6
1.3
0.8
63.1

22.1
9.3
9.6
6.1
5.8
3.2
...
2.6
2.1
2.0
1.8
55.5

3
12
13
8
67
49
-9
-100
11
2
24
35
-

5
7
4
9
17
9
0
...
-3
3
5
4
-

6
9
5
-6
13
14
-10
96
1
4
5
0
-

-18
-9
5
-6
50
48
-9
...
-8
2
-13
-2
-

Includes significant shipments through processing zones


Includes Secretariat estimates.
Mainly re-exports.
In 2015, China reported imports of textiles from China amounting to $2.4 billion. For further information, see the Metadata.
Imports are valued f.o.b.

A23. Top 10 exporters and importers of clothing, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Exporters
China a
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) exports
Bangladesh b
Viet Nam b
Hong Kong, China
domestic exports b
re-exports
India
Turkey
Indonesia b
Cambodia b
United States
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) imports
United States
Japan
Hong Kong, China
retained imports b
Canada c
Korea, Republic of
Australia c
China a
Switzerland
Russian Federation c
Above 10
a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Includes Secretariat estimates.
c Imports are valued f.o.b.

108

Share in world exports/imports

Annual percentage change

2015

1980

1990

2000

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

175
112
28
26
22
18
0
18
18
15
7
6
6
387

4.0
0.0
...
11.5
1.7
0.3
0.2
...
3.1
-

8.9
0.6
...
8.6
2.3
3.1
1.5
...
2.4
-

18.2
28.7
6.4
2.6
0.9
5.0
3.0
3.3
2.4
0.5
4.4
68.9

39.3
25.2
6.2
5.9
4.8
0.0
4.1
3.4
1.5
1.4
1.4
87.0

6
2
5
12
16
-5
-23
-5
10
3
0
16
5
-

11
8
8
19
19
-3
-16
-3
12
8
2
17
5
-

5
7
5
5
14
-6
-6
-6
14
8
0
17
4
-

-6
-11
-13
6
10
-10
-43
-10
2
-9
-10
8
0
-

170
96
97
29
15

10
9
7
7
6
6
338

16.4
3.6
0.9
1.7
0.0
0.8
0.1
3.4
-

24.0
7.8
0.7
2.1
0.1
0.6
0.0
3.1
-

41.1
19.6
33.0
9.7
0.9
1.8
0.6
0.9
0.6
1.6
0.1
90.3

34.0
19.2
19.4
5.7

2.0
1.7
1.3
1.3
1.1
1.1
67.8

0
1
3
1
-2
4
14
6
21
1
-6
-

5
2
3
-1
1
-12
6
20
3
18
3
-2
-

8
9
2
-7
-2
-21
1
12
4
15
4
-6
-

-14
-8
4
-8
-8

-2
0
1
7
-8
-34
-

Statistical Tables

A24. World trade in commercial services by category, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
9DOXH

6KDUH













4755
150
875
1230
2495

100.0
3.3
22.4
26.5
47.9

100.0
3.6
21.5
25.0
49.9

100.0
3.5
19.9
25.2
51.5

100.0
3.3
19.2
25.6
51.9

100.0
3.2
18.4
25.9
52.5

4610
100
1090
1215
2210

100.0
2.6
27.1
26.0
44.3

100.0
2.1
26.5
23.3
48.1

100.0
2.3
25.8
23.8
48.1

100.0
2.1
24.6
25.3
48.0

100.0
2.1
23.6
26.4
47.9

Exports
All commercial services
Goods-related services
Transport
Travel
Other commercial services
Imports
All commercial services
Goods-related services
Transport
Travel
Other commercial services
1RWH : For information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.

A25. Growth of commercial services exports by category


and by region, 2005-2015
(Annual percentage change)

World

North America

South and
Central
America

Europe

CIS

Africa

Middle East

Asia

Commercial services
2005-10
2014
2015

8
7
-6

8
3
-1

9
2
-5

6
7
-10

12
-9
-16

9
4
-3

6
5

12

-3

2005-10
2014
2015

10
2
-9

12
19
8

-12
7
-2

9
2
-17

11
-22
-17

16
16
-14

19
15
2

15
-2
-1

2005-10
2014
2015

7
3
-10

6
2
-7

8
-3
-12

6
4
-13

12
-5
-14

10
3
2

9
9
6

9
4
-9

2005-10
2014
2015

7
8
-5

5
3
0

6
6
3

4
4
-13

9
-13
-17

8
5
-5

15
10
9

13

-1

2005-10
2014
2015

9
8
-5

10
2
-1

17
1
-8

7
9
-7

16
-7
-17

11
4
-3

-1
0

13
12
-2

Goods-related services

Transport

Travel

Other commercial services

109

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A26. World trade in goods-related services by region, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Annual percentage change

Share

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

150
26
4
75
67
5
2
1
40

100.0
11.5
2.1
51.9
47.3
4.9
1.8
0.2
27.6

100.0
16.9
2.7
49.4
44.3
3.0
1.0
0.6
26.5

2
10
8
1
1
-8
-10
21
1

6
7
5
12
12
-8
-30
-20
1

2
19
7
2
2
-22
16
15
-2

-9
8
-2
-17
-18
-17
-14
2
-1

100
10
0
51
47
2
1
0
33

100.0
9.5
0.2
40.7
36.6
1.5
0.5
0.1
47.5

100.0
10.6
0.4
52.2
48.1
2.2
0.6
0.4
33.6

5
7
17
10
11
13
9
57
-2

15
-5
-38
43
46
14
26
-41
-9

-1
0
71
-4
-2
1
15
37
1

-7
23
-5
-8
-9
-13
-4
-8
-10

Exports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia
Imports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia

1RWH : For information on asymmetries, see the Metadata. As a number of economies are currently in the process of implementing international recommendations on the compilation of goods-related services, these
estimates are to be considered preliminary and should be taken with caution.

110

Statistical Tables

A27. Major exporters and importers of goods-related services, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Annual percentage change

Share

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

67.4
35.4
24.1
24.0
6.8
5.1
3.2
2.6
2.5
1.6
1.6
1.3
1.2
1.2
0.9
0.9

47.3
22.4
10.5
18.2
4.6
2.7
1.7
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.8
0.0
1.6
1.3
0.5
0.4

44.3
23.2
15.8
15.8
4.5
3.4
2.1
1.7
1.6
1.1
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6

1
3
11
-1
2
6
7
-9
-2
3
7

2
3
20
-8
-9
0
8
-22
5
7
7
7
17
-32
8
166

-18
-13
8
12
-14
-1
1
-18
-11
9
11

-11
-7
5
9

12
11
9
-10
19
12
6
5
-6
-6
12
445
-34
-14
41
32

145.0

95.7

95.0

47.0
18.5
11.4
9.3
8.7
7.9
2.3
1.5
1.5
0.9
0.9
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.4

36.6
11.9
24.9
9.0
9.2
11.1
2.4
1.2
0.1
1.3
0.3
...
0.8
...
0.3
0.3

48.1
18.9
11.7
9.5
8.9
8.1
2.4
1.5
1.5
1.0
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.4

11
15
-10
6
4
-1
4
10
79
-2
33

46
52
-16
-7
-6
-9
27
18
-34
6
15

-9
-2
-5
24
-2
-34
14
-19
1179
-11
12

...

...

0
10
7

1
25
-35
38

-2
-7
-20
0
2
41
-31
-10
46
-20
12
-7
6
24
27
-30

95.0

...

96.2

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
United States
China
Singapore
Switzerland
Korea, Republic of
Russian Federation
Malaysia
Canada
Honduras
Myanmar a
Morocco
Ukraine
Norway
Japan
Above 15

...

...

-13
-21
-12
-61

Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
Hong Kong, China
United States
Korea, Republic of
Japan
Switzerland
Russian Federation
China
Norway
Canada
Myanmar a
Singapore
Turkey
Indonesia
Australia
Above 15

...

...

-11
14
-25
-26

a Secretariat estimate.

111

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A28. Major exporters and importers of manufacturing services on


physical inputs owned by others, 2014 and 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

54452
27348
21421
3048
2428
1531
1441
1418
1278
1276
1174

43050
22216
20436
2878
2159
1024
1249
1572
1055
1326

2
2
-4
8
-1
-10
-10
6
-1
13
112

5
4
-10
15
-9
7
-34
12
-6
1
445

-3
-1
-8
4
3
-34
17
7
-34
14
7

-21
-19
-5
-6
-11
-33
-13
11
-17
4

...

60.9
30.6
23.9
3.4
2.7
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.4
1.4
1.3

89465

...

100.0

28902
8498
11920
8692
4958
668
220
116
85
69
60

25960
8062
11325
8373
4515

10
9
-11
5
-11

10
4
-16
-6
-8

-10
-5
-5
-4
-9

57

51.9
15.3
21.4
15.6
8.9
1.2
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1

55690

...

100.0

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
China
Korea, Republic of
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Morocco
Honduras
Ukraine
Switzerland
Myanmar
Above 10

...

Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
Hong Kong, China
Korea, Republic of
Japan
Myanmar
Russian Federation
China
Switzerland
Macao, China
Turkey
Above 10

...

138
161
31
...

...

...

2
10

...

53
-34
-57
-4
15

-1
-12
-20
0
-38
-7
-32
46
239
20
33

...

1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain economies do not report this item separately, they may not appear in the list. See the Metadata.

112

...

-37
39
-63
...

-5
-

Statistical Tables

A29. Major exporters and importers of maintenance and repair


services, 2014 and 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

28208
13340
22389
7916
3887
1995
1676
1503
1061
487
369

24398
13149
24123
6843
3790
671
1596
1633
936

17
22
11
6
7
73
-2
1
9

-14
-1
8
-14
-3
-66
-5
9
-12

14

31
31
9
19
16
-34
1
-6
41
-23
18

13
10
20
-9
-4

336

40.6
19.2
32.2
11.4
5.6
2.9
2.4
2.2
1.5
0.7
0.5

69490

...

100.0

22873
10374
7468
7123
1963
1625
1064
791
713
488
476

21074
10427
9251
3435
2306
1355
947
887
636
359
359

51.3
23.3
16.8
16.0
4.4
3.6
2.4
1.8
1.6
1.1
1.1

27
34
2
98
1
22
1
38
3
17
21

145
166
-7
-19
29
13
6
15
1
38
-35

-5
-2
0
-33
-6
-20
12
6
-30
27

-8
1
24
-52
17
-17
-11
12
-11
-26
-25

44585

40610

100.0

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
United States
Singapore
Switzerland
Japan
Russian Federation
Canada
Norway
Israel
Malaysia
Above 10

...

...

...

-7
7
8
25
17

...

-9

Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
United States
Japan
Switzerland
Russian Federation
Norway
Canada
Singapore
Australia
Indonesia
Above 10

...

1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain economies do not report this item separately, they may not appear in the list. See the Metadata.

113

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A30. World trade in transport by region, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Annual percentage change

Share

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

875
98
26
412
366
35
30
36
240

100.0
10.3
3.0
48.4
43.4
3.9
2.9
2.8
28.7

100.0
11.1
3.0
47.1
41.7
4.0
3.4
4.1
27.4

1
3
1
1
0
2
4
9
0

3
3
5
6
5
6
2
7
-3

3
2
-3
4
4
-5
3
9
4

-10
-7
-12
-13
-13
-14
2
6
-9

1090
130
45
357
327
22
64
107
364

100.0
10.9
4.6
35.9
32.7
2.4
5.7
7.4
33.1

100.0
11.9
4.2
32.8
30.0
2.0
5.9
9.8
33.4

2
4
0
0
0
-1
3
8
2

3
5
0
6
6
4
1
1
-1

2
4
-5
3
4
-12
4
4
3

-10
-1
-14
-12
-11
-21
-9
-2
-11

Exports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia
Imports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia
1RWH : For information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.

114

Statistical Tables

A31. Leading exporters and importers of transport, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Annual percentage change

Share

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

365.5
163.7
84.2
47.3
38.6
35.5
32.7
29.8
17.9
16.8
14.3
14.3
11.9
10.9
10.4
10.3

43.4
19.9
8.7
4.7
4.1
5.1
4.7
3.6
2.2
1.8
1.6
1.1
1.5
1.3
1.2
0.3

41.7
18.7
9.6
5.4
4.4
4.0
3.7
3.4
2.0
1.9
1.6
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.2
1.2

0
0
3
4
2
-3
-4
0
0
3
2
9
-1
1
1
33

5
3
4
1
-3
-8
-9
-2
5
8
-3
13
0
5
1
84

4
0
3
13
2
0
1
2
5
-1
10
10
-4
4
10
12

-13
-13
-6
-8
1
-10
-15
-7
-21
-18
-23
-9
-12
-21
-7
15

740.0

85.3

84.5

327.3
142.5
96.9
75.6
52.3
44.1
43.4
41.0
29.6
23.8
20.0
19.6
17.7
13.2
12.8
11.7

32.7
14.6
7.6
6.5
4.8
3.0
2.6
4.7
3.1
2.3
2.2
1.3
1.6
1.4
1.1
1.2

30.0
13.1
8.9
6.9
4.8
4.0
4.0
3.8
2.7
2.2
1.8
1.8
1.6
1.2
1.2
1.1

0
0
5
4
2
8
11
-2
-1
1
-1
9
2
0
4
0

6
7
7
10
-6
7
0
-15
-3
-1
-2
8
-1
-4
5
6

4
2
4
2
3
20
4
-2
6
-6
-4
4
1
-9
16
-12

-11
-13
3
-21
-11
-4
2
-11
-8
-11
-11
-2
-4
-13
-13
-24

830.0

76.1

76.1

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
United States
Singapore
China
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Hong Kong, China
Norway
Russian Federation
India
Turkey
Canada
Switzerland
Chinese Taipei
United Arab Emirates
Above 15
Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
United States
China
India
Singapore
United Arab Emirates
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Thailand
Canada
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of
Hong Kong, China
Australia
Mexico
Russian Federation
Above 15

115

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A32. World trade in travel by region, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Annual percentage change

Share

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

1230
212
57
422
368
19
41
60
419

100.0
17.2
4.5
40.9
36.0
1.8
4.5
4.9

100.0
17.2
4.6
34.3
29.9
1.5
3.3
4.9
34.1

5
5
6
1
1
2
-1
5

7
7
4
8
8
9
-7
7
10

8
3
6
4
4
-13
5
10

-5
0
3
-13
-13
-17
-5
9
-1

1215
160
42
377
337
48
26
81
482

100.0
14.4
4.0
42.0
38.1
4.1
3.0
7.5
25.1

100.0
13.2
3.4
31.0
27.7
4.0
2.1
6.6
39.7

7
5
4
1
1
7
0
5
17

8
3
11
6
6
22
0
4
10

14
4
2
6
6
-5
-3
17
35

-2
4
-17
-13
-13
-26
1
-4
12

Exports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia
Imports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia
1RWH : For information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.

116

Statistical Tables

A33. Leading exporters and importers of travel, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Annual percentage change

Share

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

367.7
124.4
178.3
114.1
44.5
37.5
35.9
29.7
26.6
25.5
21.0
17.7
17.5
16.7
16.2
16.0

36.0
11.2
14.3
...
2.1
2.9
2.3
3.0
2.4
1.4
1.5
1.9
1.3
1.5
1.5
0.9

29.9
10.1
14.5
9.3
3.6
3.1
2.9
2.4
2.2
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3

1
3
5

4
4
3

13

8
12
7
3
23
18
18
-2
10
4
2
6
9
2
4
13

-8
-2
-1
2
6
25
7
5
16
0
4
13

-13
-14
1
8
16
-26
-7
-7
-10
35
7
-22
8
-12
-7
15

965.0

...

78.4

336.5
112.6
292.2
120.5
34.9
29.4
25.0
22.9
22.1
21.9
20.7
17.4
16.0
15.9
15.8
15.5

38.1
13.2
6.4
10.1
3.1
3.5
2.2
2.0
2.2
2.6
2.5
1.9
1.3
3.2
1.6
1.1

27.7
9.3
24.0
9.9
2.9
2.4
2.1
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3

1
0
40
7
6
0
6
3
-1
0
2
7

6
5
26
4
25
0
5
6
6
2
4
14
6

-11

-22

-13
-13
25
9
-31
-13
8
4
-9
-17
-14
-32
-7
-17
-16

11

11
16

6
7
83
6
-6
-4
7
4
-1
-8
37
2
6
-12
2
14

11

1005.0

81.6

82.7

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
United States
China
Thailand
Macao, China
Hong Kong, China
Australia
Turkey
Japan
India
Malaysia
Mexico
Singapore
Switzerland
United Arab Emirates
Above 15

...

17
6
10
1
3
14
8
-1
8
3
2

...

Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
China
United States
Russian Federation
Canada
Korea, Republic of
Hong Kong, China
Singapore
Australia
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of
Brazil
Switzerland
Japan
Norway
Chinese Taipei
Above 15

117

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A34.World trade in other commercial services by region, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Annual percentage change

Share

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

2495
455
53
1300
1198
35
24
44
584

100.0
19.2
2.4
53.5
48.8
1.5
1.1
1.8
20.5

100.0
18.2
2.1
52.1
48.0
1.4
1.0
1.8
23.4

5
4
3
5
5
4
4
5
8

7
4
-1
9
9
17
-3
8
6

8
2
1
9
9
-7
4
-1
12

-5
-1
-8
-7
-7
-17
-3
0
-2

2210
294
83
1100
1006
62
66
69
533

100.0
14.6
3.6
49.6
45.3
2.9
3.3
3.1
22.9

100.0
13.3
3.8
49.8
45.5
2.8
3.0
3.1
24.1

4
3
5
5
5
4
2
5
6

7
3
7
8
8
14
-1
6
8

7
1
4
9
9
1
12
11
6

-6
-1
-8
-6
-6
-21
-14
-5
-7

Exports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia
Imports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia
1RWH : For information on asymmetries, see the Metadata.

A35. Leading exporters and importers of other commercial services, 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Annual percentage change

Share

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2013

2014

2015

1198.1
591.2
403.4
119.6
108.7
96.0
75.8
68.5
46.8
45.7
38.2
31.7
24.4
23.1
21.7
20.9

48.8
23.0
16.7
4.6
2.5
4.0
3.3
2.2
2.4
1.6
1.5
1.1
0.8
1.1
1.0
0.7

48.0
23.7
16.2
4.8
4.4
3.8
3.0
2.7
1.9
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8

5
6
5
6
18
5
3
11
1
8
6
8
9
2
3
9

9
11
4
3
9
2
4
18
1
6
4
5
7
17
-4
15

9
9
4
4
23
27
4
8
-5
9
5
9
4
-9
6
9

-7
-7
1
2
-5
-2
-6
-5
-11
-12
6
3
-2
-21
-16
13

2325.0

92.3

93.1

1005.5
458.7
242.5
108.9
97.0
76.5
65.3
54.8
49.0
45.1
40.7
38.8
21.9
20.4
19.1
18.7

45.3
19.0
11.8
4.5
3.6
2.9
2.6
3.2
2.3
2.6
1.7
1.9
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.1

45.5
20.8
11.0
4.9
4.4
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.8
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8

5
6
3
6
9
8
7
-1
4
0
6
3
4
3
3
0

8
9
2
2
15
19
7
1
4
2
3
15
3
-9
11
9

9
16
2
23
13
2
10
-6
4
-5
11
-3
3
5
-3
1

-6
-4
1
-4
-19
-9
-2
3
-3
-9
-11
-24
2
3
0
-20

1905.0

86.4

86.3

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
United States
India
China
Japan
Switzerland
Singapore
Canada
Korea, Republic of
Hong Kong, China
Chinese Taipei
Israel
Russian Federation
Brazil
Philippines
Above 15
Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
United States
Japan
China
Singapore
Switzerland
India
Korea, Republic of
Canada
Brazil
Russian Federation
Hong Kong, China
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Norway
Above 15

118

Statistical Tables

A36.World exports of construction by region, 2014 and 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Share

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2014

2015

105
3
0
38
34
7
2
3
53

90
2
0
30
27
6
2
3
47

100.0
3.7
0.1
36.5
31.1
5.0
2.2
2.9
49.7

100.0
2.5
0.1
33.5
30.3
6.5
1.9
3.2
52.3

1
-7
6
-1
0
6
-2
3
2

8
-11
292
11
14
-13
0
-4
11

-15
-13
-68
-21
-20
-18
-15
8
-11

Exports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia

A37. Major exporters and importers of construction, 2014 and 2015


(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

34122
17750
19358
15355
11314
4730
1971
1631
1613
1522
1283

27239
14062
13492
16653
10596
3664
1917

6
9
13
1
2
8
-8
0
32
5
3

14
21
3
-13
-17
25
-34
1
32
2
-13

14
3
-5
44
17
-20
-7
-2
32
10
7

-20
-21
-30
8
-6
-23
-3

1486
1087
782

36.7
19.1
20.8
16.5
12.2
5.1
2.1
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.4

92900

...

100.0

24949
6591
10462
7520
6673
4870
4279
4070
3930
2686
2662

19300
5762
8123
4831

6
0
7
13
9
-1
3
15
86
3
22

6
-1
-3
23
-19
8
33
44
243
-4
7

5
-10
39
-20
32
25
18
-16
136
35
4

-23
-13
-22
-36

10197
4952
3000
3520
1887
2722

34.6
9.1
14.5
10.4
9.3
6.8
5.9
5.6
5.5
3.7
3.7

109
16
-26
-10
-30
2

72100

...

100.0

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
Korea, Republic of
China
Japan
Russian Federation
United States
Iran
India
Switzerland
Turkey
Above 10

...

...

-8
-29
-39

Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
Japan
Russian Federation
Angola
China
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of
Korea, Republic of
Azerbaijan
Kuwait, the State of
Malaysia
Above 10

...

...

1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain economies do not report this item separately, they may not appear in the list. See the Metadata.

119

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A38.World exports of insurance and pension services by region,


2014 and 2015
(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Share

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2014

2015

135
23
2
88
79
1
1
2
17

125
23
3
77
68
1
1
2
17

100.0
19.1
1.8
63.6
62.7
0.7
1.1
2.1
11.6

100.0
18.8
2.2
62.0
54.9
0.6
1.0
1.5
13.9

5
5
10
5
3
4
3
-2
9

8
5
22
7
6
-16
3
-14
23

-7
3
13
-12
-13
31
1
-5
-1

Exports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia

A39. Major exporters and importers of insurance and pension


services, 2014 and 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

78621
44467
17417
7133
4709
4574
3554
2285
1566
1559
1209

68367
38977
18666
6705
4605
4976
3171
1987
1444
1576
1312

64.1
36.3
14.2
5.8
3.8
3.7
2.9
1.9
1.3
1.3
1.0

7
7
5
7
7
28
18
6
-5
5
9

9
3
2
4
15
20
39
-5
-9

10

6
13
2
5
13
14
27
7
-9

18

-13
-12
7
-6
-2
9
-11
-13
-8
1
8

122625

112810

100.0

50096
43717
17367
22454
5946
5128
4473
4220
4102
2763
2703

48330
38590
15051
9327
5305
4731
4488
4339
3713
2368
2356

34.4
30.0
11.9
15.4
4.1
3.5
3.1
2.9
2.8
1.9
1.9

-5
3
2
9
4
-7
3
13
-4
6
6

-4
9
2
7
-7
-9
4
26
-4
-4
-3

-6
12
21
2
0
-24
-11
-13
-8
0
-9

-4
-12
-13
-58
-11
-8
0
3
-9
-14
-13

145605

123545

100.0

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
United States
Switzerland
Singapore
China
Mexico
India
Canada
Japan
Hong Kong, China
Above 10
Importers
United States
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
China
India
Japan
Singapore
Mexico
Canada
Malaysia
Thailand
Above 10
1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat.

120

Statistical Tables

A40.World exports of financial services by region, 2014 and 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Share

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2014

2015

425
95
3
256
232
2
2
3
64

415
94
2
246
223
2
2
3
67

100.0
23.3
0.9
61.1
54.6
0.5
0.5
1.2
12.4

100.0
22.6
0.5
59.0
53.6
0.4
0.5
0.8
16.0

4
4
-6
4
4
-1
5
-3
10

5
3
-40
5
5
-19
-2
12
13

-2
-1
-18
-4
-4
-21
9
14
4

Exports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia

A41. Major exporters and importers of financial services, 2014 and 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

231915
103732
87290
22133
20352
17399
7702
7235
5645
4531
3000

222911
97178
86286
20717
20262
19067
7706
10173
5331
2334
2956

57.0
25.5
21.4
5.4
5.0
4.3
1.9
1.8
1.4
1.1
0.7

6
7
5
-1
14
7
9
19
-1
36
35

7
8
10
2
10
6
5
-2
19
69
40

5
2
4
-1
11
6
-1
59
-11
42
19

-4
-6
-1
-6
0
10
0
41
-6
-48
-1

407200

397740

100.0

126433
50536
19503
5967
5274
4940
4434
4310
4115
3923
2400

115373
47941
20134
6870
6002
2645
4763
4467
3100
3772
1998

69.7
27.9
10.8
3.3
2.9
2.7
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.2
1.3

8
10
6
2
14
37
6
14
-12
-6
-3

15
21
11
13
12
92
7
11
10
-1
22

7
1
5
5
46
34
5
19
-30
6
-29

-9
-5
3
15
14
-46
7
4
-25
-4
-17

181300

169125

100.0

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
United States
Switzerland
Singapore
Hong Kong, China
Canada
Japan
India
China
Australia
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
United States
Canada
Japan
China
Hong Kong, China
Singapore
India
Switzerland
Russian Federation
Above 10
1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat.

121

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A42.World receipts of charges for the use of intellectual property


n.i.e. by region, 2014 and 2015
(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Share

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2014

2015

305
135
1
119
101
1
0
1
50

295
131
1
113
98
1
0
1
50

100.0
45.6
0.3
39.5
30.7
0.2
0.1
0.2
14.1

100.0
44.0
0.4
38.0
33.0
0.3
0.1
0.3
17.0

4
3
14
3
6
10
-1
15
8

4
0
-2
5
12
-10
2
8
15

-3
-3
19
-5
-3
2
-9
-12
0

Exports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia

A43. Major exporters and importers of charges for the use of


intellectual property n.i.e., 2014 and 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

130362
100522
65556
36877
18111
5167
4321
3779
894
890
866

126212
97977
65021
36077
14366
6199
4174
3302
786
761
1200

43.2
33.3
21.7
12.2
6.0
1.7
1.4
1.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

5
8
14
8
8
13
11
40
-2
24
17

3
9
12
-1
8
11
13
72
-6
-11
9

2
12
27
17
-3
19
-2
19
10
17
-15

-3
-3
-1
-2
-21
20
-3
-13
-12
-14
39

301790

291055

100.0

159716
90708
42124
22614
20858
19781
14034
11070
10546
8021
5923

164929
96546
39157
22022
16540
17285
12330
9243
9831
5634
5250

50.8
28.8
13.4
7.2
6.6
6.3
4.5
3.5
3.4
2.5
1.9

11
14
7
15
3
4
15
3
4
13
16

11
7
1
19
-10
2
6
8
14
10
9

26
51
8
8
17
-10
19
-6
7
-4
30

3
6
-7
-3
-21
-13
-12
-17
-7
-30
-11

314690

302220

100.0

Exporters
United States
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
Japan
Switzerland
Korea, Republic of
Canada
Singapore
Australia
Israel
Chinese Taipei
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
United States
China
Japan
Singapore
Switzerland
Canada
Korea, Republic of
Russian Federation
Brazil
Above 10
1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat.

122

Statistical Tables

A44. World exports of telecommunications, computer and information


services by region, 2014 and 2015
(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Share

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2014

2015

485
45
9
297
280
9
6
15
105

475
45
10
280
262
8
6
15
112

100.0
10.0
2.2
61.3
56.3
1.3
1.4
3.0
20.7

100.0
9.4
2.2
58.8
55.0
1.8
1.2
3.1
23.6

7
6
7
6
7
13
3
8
10

9
0
6
11
12
12
5
8
8

-2
0
12
-6
-6
-4
-12
-2
7

Exports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia

A45. Major exporters and importers of telecommunications,


computer and information services, 2014 and 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

279647
125209
55666
35885
20173
12634
9417
8704
4896
4504
3472

261919
120769
57661
36990
24549
13826
9274
7434
4829
3971
3461

64.3
28.8
12.8
8.2
4.6
2.9
2.2
2.0
1.1
1.0
0.8

10
10
8
9
18
12
21
1
8
14
12

9
10
8
8
5
8
4
-8
15
19
11

12
10
5
2
18
15
15
-9
1
8
4

-6
-4
4
3
22
9
-2
-15
-1
-12
0

435000

423915

100.0

165342
73776
33314
13854
11457
10748
8205
6854
5092
4318
3670

147626
66566
33158
13803
11311
11409
7935
5520
4794
3782
3340

62.9
28.1
12.7
5.3
4.4
4.1
3.1
2.6
1.9
1.6
1.4

6
9
4
8
26
27
23
15
2
5
-1

11
15
3
15
12
39
27
18
-14
8
10

4
15
-1
6
80
41
19
13
1
15
-30

-11
-10
0
0
-1
6
-3
-19
-6
-12
-9

262855

242680

100.0

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
India
United States
China
Switzerland
Israel
Canada
Singapore
Russian Federation
Philippines
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
United States
Switzerland
Japan
China
Singapore
Russian Federation
Canada
India
Brazil
Above 10
1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat.

123

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A46. Major exporters and importers of telecommunications services,


2014 and 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

52292
24010
13550
3064
2163
1921
1775
1732
1379
962
876

...

3
3
6
-4
9
3
17
8
17
3
-6

1
2
5
-3
34
-3
14
10
-5
21
-23

3
0
-6
-9
-1
-10
11
12
51
-1
5

...

1418
988
865
786

65.6
30.1
17.0
3.8
2.7
2.4
2.2
2.2
1.7
1.2
1.1

-18
-28
-10
-10

79715

...

100.0

44642
18140
6656
2839
2078
1526
1115
1053
839
813
789

...

3
4
-4
8
19
-1
19
-1
33
0
-3

0
3
2
11
15
-8
8
14
45
-9
10

8
6
-9
2
53
-9
17
-4
55
4
-25

...

836
583
697
859

71.6
29.1
10.7
4.6
3.3
2.4
1.8
1.7
1.3
1.3
1.3

-21
-31
-14
9

...

100.0

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
United States
Kuwait, the State of
India
Canada
Hong Kong, China
Russian Federation
Japan
Norway
Indonesia
Above 10

...

12525
2710
2088
1641
...

...

-8
-12
-3
-15
...

Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
United States
Russian Federation
Japan
Canada
Hong Kong, China
India
Nigeria
Norway
Korea, Republic of
Above 10

...

6259
2388
1689
1437
...

62350

...

-6
-16
-19
-6
...

1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain major traders in telecommunications services do no report this item separately, they may not appear in the list.

A47. Major exporters and importers of computer services, 2014 and 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

214388
94352
53261
15310
8534
5694
3121
2651
1880
1652
1500

...

12
12
9
14
22
-1
13
20
53

10
10
8
10
3
-7
13
26
58

14
13
5
11
18
-9
10
6
58

...

55360
17377
8404
4863
3163
2455
2348
2060
1668

69.6
30.6
17.3
5.0
2.8
1.8
1.0
0.9
0.6
0.5
0.5

...

...

...

39

38

16

4
14
-2
-15
1
-7
25
25
11

307990

...

100.0

110709
51141
24386
8738
3590
3016
2882
2703
2676
1880
973

...

7
10
6

15
20
2

1
18
0

...

24919
8980
2772
2801
2563
2103
2520
1455
1043

68.5
31.7
15.1
5.4
2.2
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.2
0.6

...

...

...

22
-2
7
21
6
12
14

26
11
8
10
-19
14
17

23
-35
26
19
6
15
14

2
3
-23
-7
-11
-22
-6
-23
7

161550

...

100.0

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
India a
United States
Israel
Canada
Philippines
Russian Federation
Korea, Republic of
Japan
Ukraine
Above 10

...

...

Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
United States
Japan
Russian Federation
Brazil
India
Norway
Canada
Australia
Indonesia
Above 10

...

a Secretariat estimate based on data reported on computer services by the Reserve Bank of India. It excludes estimates for Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES) and Business Process Outsourcing
Services (BPO), (source: RBI, Survey on Computer Software & Information Technology Services Exports, various issues), which have been included under other business services.
1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain major traders in computer services do not report this item separately, they may not appear in the list.

124

...

Statistical Tables

A48.World exports of other business services by region, 2014 and 2015


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Share

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2010

2014

2010-15

2014

2015

1120
155
40
572
536
23
12
17
300

1045
157
34
527
494
17
13
17
281

100.0
15.3
3.6
52.9
47.6
2.2
1.2
1.8
23.1

100.0
15.0
3.3
50.4
47.2
1.7
1.2
1.6
26.9

6
5
4
4
5
0
5
3
9

8
5
10
8
10
-10
7
-11
11

-6
1
-13
-8
-8
-23
2
-1
-6

Exports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia

A49. Major exporters and importers of other business services,


2014 and 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

536441
265210
126726
68895
47305
37288
36448
27843
25862
21351
20968

494240
245746
132550
58403
48614
33717
33809
23952
26147
17490
19168

56.5
27.9
13.4
7.3
5.0
3.9
3.8
2.9
2.7
2.2
2.2

9
9
7
8
4
17
3
8
12
16

10
13
2
12
-2
11
20
4
4
-6
8

10
10
6
20
2
32
8
-3
9
22
19

-8
-7
5
-15
3
-10
-7
-14
1
-18
-9

949125

888090

100.0

519770
223722
92499
58947
53370
46657
31929
31329
30497
26875
23152

489914
213549
98199
60879
39542
41353
32658
28775
29982
29906
18459

56.8
24.4
10.1
6.4
5.8
5.1
3.5
3.4
3.3
2.9
2.5

7
8
8
12
18
12
11
6
1
10

4
6
6
8
12
31
6
2
-3
-7
14

7
11
5
21
13
6
10
12
8
-4
1

-6
-5
6
3
-26
-11
2
-8
-2
11
-20

915025

869665

100.0

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
United States
China
India a
Japan
Singapore
Canada
Chinese Taipei
Brazil
Korea, Republic of
Above 10

...

Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
United States
Japan
China
Singapore
Switzerland
Brazil
Korea, Republic of
India
Russian Federation
Above 10

...

a Secretariat estimate. It includes an estimate for Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES) and Business Process Outsourcing Services (BPO) which are classified under "software" by the Reserve Bank of
India (source: RBI, Survey on Computer Software & Information Technology Services Exports, various issues).
1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat.

125

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A50. Trade in other business services by category in selected economies,


2014
(Million dollars and percentage)
Value

Share
Technical, trade-related, and
other business services

Professional and management


consulting services

Total other
business
services

Research and
development
services

Total

Advertising,
Legal,
market
accounting, research, and
management
public
consulting, and
opinion
public relations
polling
services
services

Total

Waste
Architectural, treatment
and
engineering,
de-pollution,
scientific,
agricultural
and other
and mining
technical
services
services

Operating
leasing
services

Other
7UDGH business
related services
services n.i.e.

Exporters
8European Union (28)
XT
Extra-EU (28) exports
SUnited States
India a
Japan
GSingapore
ACanada
RBrazil
RKorea, Republic of
HSwitzerland
URussian Federation
Philippines
ONorway
KHong Kong, China
Israel
Thailand
Australia
RArgentina
Lebanese Republic
AUkraine
South Africa

536441
265210
126726
47305
37288
36448
27843
21351
20968
18056
16736
14473
13932
13251
11768
9162
7971
4328
2963
2495
1989

13.6
15.7
26.2
2.7
18.3
1.9
17.4
2.5
3.7
22.6
2.7
0.4
2.7
1.2
41.7

8.6
10.9
0.3
17.6

33.3
31.0
46.9
65.3
12.1
61.9
40.9
19.3
10.2
34.0
44.7
0.3
16.5
43.2
15.5

53.7
62.4
31.3
29.1

24.6
23.6
39.2

37.6

7.5

2.9

37.4
7.5

45.7

8.7
7.4
7.8

3.3

2.7

25.8

5.8
8.0

8.0

53.1
53.3
26.9
32.0
69.7
36.2
41.6
78.3
86.1
43.4
52.6
99.3
80.8
55.7
42.7
100.0
37.7
26.7
68.3
53.2
100.0

14.6
18.3
9.7

25.5

12.1

21.0

4.0
7.6

18.0

3.2
4.7
3.0

1.5

9.3

2.3

5.4
5.7
5.9

2.2

3.5

7.8

0.2
1.2

2.9

8.6
5.5
1.0

5.4

17.1

40.6
6.4

7.8

21.3
19.1
2.0

8.5

51.9

14.6

10.9
27.5

6.6

Importers
8European Union (28)
XT
Extra-EU (28) imports
SUnited States
Japan
GSingapore
HSwitzerland
RBrazil
RKorea, Republic of
India
URussian Federation
ACanada
ONorway
KHong Kong, China
Thailand
OAngola
Australia
Israel
Kazakhstan
GNigeria
Algeria
Philippines

519770
223722
92499
58947
46657
31929
31329
30497
26875
23152
21144
15122
11195
10842
10532
9561
6132
5854
4826
3585
3561

15.8
18.8
35.7
29.8
16.3
29.1
0.3
9.8
1.2
0.7
6.5
2.6
1.4

2.6
10.4
0.3

1.3

32.5
28.4
41.3
14.9
34.7
49.0
5.7
18.8
31.3
25.4
46.4
15.9
33.5

1.0
43.9
22.2
35.6

0.5
3.0

21.3
18.6
37.6

8.5

2.8
43.5

28.8

41.4
12.7

11.3
9.9
3.7

10.3

9.2
2.9

4.7

2.5
9.5

51.7
52.7
23.0
55.2
49.0
21.9
94.0
71.4
67.5
73.9
47.1
81.5
65.1
100.0
99.0
53.5
67.4
64.1
100.0
99.5
95.7

9.5
8.9
5.4

4.2

24.5
21.3

3.3

28.4
12.3

1.8
2.2
1.9

0.2

19.6

3.3

4.7
4.4
3.8

4.2

18.0
5.6

14.8

4.2
0.4

12.5
13.9
1.5

8.6

3.7

38.8

3.5
11.9

23.3
23.3
6.2

54.3

11.8
16.4

8.1

14.2
42.8

a Secretariat estimate. It includes an estimate for Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES) and Business Process Outsourcing Services (BPO) which are classified under "software" by the Reserve Bank of India (source: RBI,
Survey on Computer Software & Information Technology Services Exports, various issues).
1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain economies do not report the breakdown of business services separately, they may not appear in the list.

126

Statistical Tables

A51.World exports of personal, cultural and recreational services


by region, 2014 and 2015
(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Share

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2010

2015

2010-15

2014

2015

45
3
2
31
28
1
1
1
6

40
3
1
27
24
1
1
2
6

100.0
10.0
10.3
62.5
62.4
2.3
1.0
1.5
12.4

100.0
6.7
2.9
68.2
60.9
1.3
1.4
3.8
15.7

4
-4
-20
5
3
-8
9
24
9

1
-9
-62
8
1
-10
1
40
17

-9
-7
-27
-11
-12
-46
-5
9
6

Exports
World
North America
South and Central America
Europe
European Union (28)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Africa
Middle East
Asia

A52. Major exporters and importers of personal, cultural and


recreational services, 2014 and 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

27785
10677
2012
1795
1266
922
882
817
738
681
681

24469
9049
1812
1874
1262
895
669
795
531
341
314

73.9
28.4
5.4
4.8
3.4
2.5
2.3
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.8

7
7
-3
18
7
24
6
-5
19
10
-27

8
5
-10
5
61
8
-20
-20
54
39
-7

1
3
-16
40
3
26
22
14
23
-12
-75

-12
-15
-10
4
0
-3
-24
-3
-28
-50
-54

37580

32960

100.0

30486
15478
3327
2222
2040
1657
1611
1563
1480
1390
992

28221
12966
3117
973
2054
1331
1092
1527
1346
1388
1073

65.2
33.1
7.1
4.8
4.4
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.0
2.1

7
9
-1
60
-1
32
13
5
-24
16

9
11
-10
40
-24
0
13
-6
51
34
11

11
20
-12

-4
-9
28
-4
-30
92
9

-7
-16
-6
-56
1
-20
-32
-2
-9
0
8

46770

42120

100.0

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
Canada
Turkey
India
Korea, Republic of
Australia
United States a
Switzerland
Russian Federation
Brazil
Above 10
Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of
Brazil
Canada
Norway
Russian Federation
Australia
Qatar
India
United States a
Above 10

...

a The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis records film and television tape distribution services under charges for the use of intellectual property n.i.e..
1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat.

127

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A53. Major exporters and importers of audio-visual and related services,


2014 and 2015
(Million dollars and percentage)
Share in 10
economies

Value

Annual percentage change

2014

2015

2014

2010-14

2013

2014

2015

16435
6671
1724
551
406
391
265
222
216
214
195

...

4
5
-3
25
15
45

-9
-12
14
42

19
22
-6
13
66
-29
117
-9
-8
-25
7

-11
-12
-16
25
-20
291

...

Exporters
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports
Canada
Korea, Republic of
India
Japan
Brazil
Argentina
Russian Federation
Australia
Israel
Above 10

...

79.7
32.4
8.4
2.7
2.0
1.9
1.3
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.9

20620

...

100.0

17209
7432
1847
1292
1274
846
698
606
489
471
272

...

5
7
-1
6
49
0
-1
9
10
12
0

3
2
-23
-6
11
6
-9
9
6
32
0

9
20
-3
-2

...

1859
1249
433
492
1006
477
489
313
292

68.8
29.7
7.4
5.2
5.1
3.4
2.8
2.4
2.0
1.9
1.1

-2
-20
-9
2
6
0

1
-3
-66
-42
44
-21
0
-34
7

25005

...

100.0

...

1552
570
364
531
135
264
131
145

...

-21
-25
51
17

...

-10
3
-11
36
-49
19
-39
-32
...

Importers
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports
Canada
Australia
Brazil
Russian Federation
Japan
Norway
Argentina
Korea, Republic of
Mexico
Above 10

...

...

1RWH : Based on information available to the Secretariat. As certain major traders in personal, cultural and recreational services do not report the item audiovisual and related services separately, they may not
appear in the list. See the Metadata.

128

...

Statistical Tables

A54. Leading exporters and importers of intermediate goods, 2014


(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Share in world exports/imports

Annual percentage change

2014

2010

2014

2010-14

2012

2013

2014

2783
1029
963
771
375
320
226
222
202
177
151
148
140
135
128
113

35.9
12.8
9.6
10.2
6.5
3.8
3.1
2.9
2.7
1.4
1.6
2.0
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.2

34.8
12.9
12.0
9.6
4.7
4.0
2.8
2.8
2.5
2.2
1.9
1.9
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.4

4
5
11
4
-3
7
3
4
3
19
9
4
6
5
3
9

-6
-3
6
1
-3
1
0
-3
-2
79
10
-7
-2
-7
-5
19

7
9
11
0
-10
5
3
1
-1
24
2
2
16
4
-1
-4

0
-3
6
1
-5
4
1
8
1
-24
6
-6
-10
-8
3
-1

6853

86.1

85.7

-1

2607
839
1147
858
282
237
236
213
198
173
159
144
123
123
121
118

33.8
11.7
13.1
9.7
4.0
2.7
3.1
2.7
2.5
2.3
1.1
2.1
1.6
1.4
1.6
1.4

31.7
10.2
13.9
10.4
3.4
2.9
2.9
2.6
2.4
2.1
1.9
1.7
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4

3
1
7
7
1
7
3
4
4
3
21
0
3
7
2
6

-10
-8
1
4
-5
5
-5
-4
3
2
104
-10
-2
-3
2
-1

3
-6
8
0
-6
2
0
-7
-2
2
15
-4
3
11
0
7

3
4
0
7
1
5
1
0
1
0
-23
5
2
-5
-11
-4

6739

83.1

81.9

-3

Exporters
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) exports
China a
United States
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Singapore
Taipei, Chinese
Canada
Switzerland
Mexico a
Brazil
India
Australia
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Above 15
Importers
European Union (28)
extra-EU (28) imports
China a
United States
Japan
Mexico a
Korea, Republic of
India
Canada b
Singapore
Switzerland
Taipei, Chinese
Malaysia
Turkey
Thailand
Brazil
Above 15
a Includes significant shipments through processing zones
b Imports are valued f.o.b.

129

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A55.World merchandise exports, production and gross domestic product,


1950-2015
(Index, 2005=100)
Value

Volume

Exports
Agricultural
products

Total a
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
6
8
8
10
11
13
16
20
20
18
18
19
19
21
24
28
30
34
34
36
36
41
49
51
53
52
55
62
59
62
72
88
100
116
134
154
120
146
175
175
179
180
155

3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
7
8
8
10
14
17
17
19
22
25
31
35
34
32
31
33
31
35
40
45
47
49
50
53
51
59
69
71
70
67
64
65
65
69
80
92
100
111
133
158
139
160
195
194
204
207
185

Exports

Fuels and mining


products
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
5
12
11
13
15
15
22
32
31
27
25
25
24
18
20
21
24
28
26
26
25
26
30
34
35
28
32
47
43
44
54
72
100
128
147
195
125
167
224
228
222
209
156

Manufactures

Total a
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
11
13
15
15
14
14
16
16
19
23
27
29
33
34
37
37
42
51
53
55
56
58
64
62
65
75
91
100
113
130
143
115
137
158
157
162
168
159

4
4
4
4
5
5
6
6
6
7
8
8
8
9
11
11
12
13
14
16
17
18
20
22
24
22
24
26
27
28
29
29
28
29
31
32
33
35
38
41
42
44
46
48
52
56
59
65
68
71
79
78
81
86
94
100
109
116
118
104
119
125
128
131
135
139

a Includes unspecified products.


1RWH: Secretariat estimates. See the Metadata for the estimation of world aggregates of merchandise exports and GDP.

130

Agricultural
products
15
15
15
16
16
17
18
19
20
22
24
25
25
26
27
28
29
30
32
34
35
35
38
38
36
37
40
41
44
46
49
51
50
50
52
51
50
53
55
56
57
59
62
63
68
71
74
79
80
80
83
85
87
91
94
100
106
111
113
111
119
126
129
132
136

GDP

Fuels and mining


products
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
17
18
22
23
24
25
27
28
30
33
37
39
44
45
48
53
52
46
49
50
53
56
52
47
44
44
46
46
50
51
53
56
59
61
63
66
70
73
75
81
83
82
83
83
86
90
97
100
104
108
109
103
109
111
114
115
116

Manufactures
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
15
17
16
18
19
20
21
22
23
23
24
26
28
29
31
34
36
38
40
41
43
48
52
55
61
64
67
76
76
79
83
93
100
111
119
122
103
122
130
133
137
142

12
13
13
14
15
16
16
17
17
18
19
20
21
22
24
25
26
27
29
31
32
34
36
38
39
39
41
43
45
47
48
49
49
51
53
55
57
59
62
64
66
67
68
69
71
73
76
78
80
83
87
88
90
93
97
100
104
108
110
108
112
115
118
120
123
126

Statistical Tables

A55.World merchandise exports, production and gross domestic product,


1950-2015 (continued)
(Annual percentage change)
Value

Volume

Exports

Agricultural
products

Total a
1950-63
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015

7.4
11.8
8.3
9.2
5.2
11.0
14.2
14.6
11.7
18.3
38.4
44.9
4.3
13.1
13.7
15.8
27.0
23.0
-1.2
-6.4
-2.1
5.8
-0.3
9.4
17.4
13.7
7.8
12.9
1.3
7.2
-0.2
13.5
19.4
4.5
3.3
-1.4
4.0
12.8
-4.1
4.8
16.6
21.7
14.0
15.6
15.7
15.4
-22.6
21.7
20.0
0.2
2.0
0.6
-13.6

3.7
6.9
4.3
4.1
-0.2
4.1
6.9
10.6
7.4
20.3
45.5
21.7
1.0
10.5
13.5
13.3
24.4
13.8
-1.9
-7.5
-1.4
5.3
-5.7
11.1
14.9
13.1
4.3
4.7
0.8
7.1
-4.1
15.8
17.7
2.5
-1.3
-4.6
-3.7
0.1
0.3
5.9
16.9
14.6
8.8
10.9
20.0
18.5
-12.1
15.4
21.8
-0.7
5.2
1.6
-10.7

Exports

Fuels and mining


products
8.5
11.8
7.1
9.8
5.7
14.2
9.2
13.6
11.3
14.1
47.4
122.9
-4.0
16.3
10.6
3.7
47.0
41.8
-3.2
-10.6
-8.0
-0.9
-3.2
-23.8
11.0
0.9
15.5
16.2
-6.2
-0.9
-3.5
5.1
15.2
14.2
2.7
-20.6
15.6
45.2
-8.8
1.4
23.2
34.7
38.3
27.6
15.4
32.6
-35.8
33.2
34.3
1.9
-2.9
-5.8
-25.2

Manufactures
10.1
15.0
10.9
10.8
7.7
14.9
16.5
15.4
13.7
19.4
34.1
31.3
8.8
12.8
14.7
21.6
21.3
15.9
-0.7
-3.6
0.5
8.1
3.8
20.3
19.7
16.1
6.9
14.4
3.3
8.0
0.0
15.6
20.0
3.5
4.6
2.3
3.3
10.0
-3.8
5.4
15.7
20.3
10.3
13.1
15.2
9.9
-19.9
19.5
15.2
-0.3
3.1
3.5
-5.5

Total a
7.7
10.9
6.6
7.7
5.7
10.8
12.2
8.7
7.0
8.4
12.1
5.4
-7.3
11.8
4.2
4.7
5.2
2.9
-0.3
-2.3
2.5
8.4
2.6
4.0
5.5
8.5
6.4
3.8
3.5
5.3
4.2
9.1
7.3
5.0
10.0
4.6
4.7
10.7
-0.3
3.6
5.4
9.9
6.4
8.7
6.5
2.1
-12.1
14.1
5.5
2.3
2.7
2.7
3.0

Agricultural
products
4.5
5.4
5.1
3.7
2.4
5.7
5.4
3.1
2.0
6.9
0.9
-4.5
1.0
7.5
3.5
6.8
4.8
6.8
5.0
-2.0
0.2
2.8
-1.2
-1.7
5.6
2.7
3.1
0.7
3.3
6.0
1.0
8.7
4.6
3.9
5.9
1.5
1.0
3.2
1.8
3.5
3.9
3.5
6.3
5.7
4.9
1.9
-1.8
7.5
6.1
1.7
2.9
2.4

GDP

Fuels and mining


products
7.2
8.8
3.2
6.2
10.3
12.0
6.0
12.4
1.0
6.9
10.2
-1.7
-12.0
6.8
2.7
5.3
5.9
-6.3
-9.9
-5.8
-0.9
4.8
-1.2
9.1
1.7
5.6
4.4
5.7
3.3
4.3
3.5
6.7
3.6
3.9
7.1
2.5
-0.7
1.7
0.0
2.6
5.6
6.7
3.6
4.1
3.4
1.1
-5.4
5.5
2.0
2.9
0.6
1.0

Manufactures
8.6
14.9
7.4
10.3
4.7
17.9
16.5
8.7
9.0
10.1
14.2
8.8
-4.0
12.6
5.0
5.9
5.0
5.9
4.0
-2.1
5.1
10.8
4.8
4.1
6.3
9.5
7.8
5.5
3.6
4.7
4.1
11.1
9.0
5.3
11.0
4.8
5.1
13.3
-0.6
3.9
5.9
11.3
7.9
10.5
7.7
2.3
-15.3
18.2
6.8
2.2
2.7
3.9

4.7
7.2
4.1
6.5
3.7
5.9
6.7
5.1
4.4
5.6
6.9
2.1
1.4
5.1
4.2
4.6
4.0
2.9
1.9
0.4
2.8
4.6
3.7
3.3
3.7
4.6
3.7
2.8
1.4
2.1
1.6
3.1
2.8
3.3
3.7
2.5
3.3
4.3
1.8
2.1
2.9
4.1
3.6
4.1
4.0
1.5
-2.1
4.1
2.9
2.3
2.2
2.5
2.4

a Includes unspecified products.


1RWH : See the Metadata for the estimation of world aggregates of merchandise exports and GDP.

131

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A56. Merchandise trade by selected groups of economies, 2005-2015


(Billion dollars)
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Exports
World a

10509.1

12130.5

14023.3

16160.4

12555.0

15301.1

18338.0

18496.3

18948.0

18995.0

16482.2

North America and Europe


EFTA
European Union (28)
NAFTA

237.8
4082.7
1475.8

273.5
4606.1
1664.1

313.2
5366.0
1840.7

377.9
5954.9
2035.2

293.3
4613.5
1601.8

330.9
5183.9
1964.3

400.6
6092.2
2283.4

478.5
5808.6
2372.1

518.9
6074.2
2417.9

460.8
6154.7
2492.4

400.0
5387.3
2294.2

South and Central America


Andean Community
CACM
CARICOM
MERCOSUR

51.5
22.5
15.0
221.2

64.9
25.1
20.3
257.4

76.9
28.2
20.3
295.6

94.0
30.6
26.4
375.3

78.6
27.1
15.0
276.8

99.4
31.9
17.8
349.1

134.0
38.2
23.2
448.6

142.6
39.8
22.2
435.9

138.2
39.7
21.4
425.3

132.3
40.6
19.8
386.9

96.4
38.5
14.2
300.6

22.9
66.0
49.6
67.1
97.9
12.7

26.8
82.9
61.6
78.1
116.7
14.2

30.2
98.7
78.0
87.5
144.2
15.0

42.7
127.0
111.3
111.9
177.7
18.5

27.0
92.6
71.7
83.4
131.3
19.3

35.7
118.5
92.0
114.8
181.0
20.7

44.6
98.7
119.1
155.1
223.0
24.0

44.5
134.5
122.7
155.7
218.8
23.8

41.2
119.2
116.5
146.4
215.3
25.9

39.0
94.6
105.9
137.9
202.2
26.1

23.2
69.3
63.9
84.1
159.6
22.9

656.6
397.6
133.0

769.8
480.7
159.3

865.1
555.0
190.4

989.7
762.5
241.3

813.8
525.9
206.8

1049.8
661.7
277.6

1239.5
950.0
365.3

1253.7
1061.2
358.1

1272.6
1084.1
381.6

1294.9
1022.1
391.3

1162.6
649.6
334.2

226.8
82.3
10275.2

269.9
103.3
11832.3

316.9
128.1
13660.2

399.2
167.8
15678.8

288.8
127.6
12237.3

391.6
162.4
14905.5

495.1
202.7
17849.7

484.7
205.2
17996.1

469.0
212.8
18505.3

443.2
205.7
18580.1

320.7
154.4
16204.2

Africa
CEMAC
COMESA
ECCAS
ECOWAS
SADC
WAEMU
Middle East and Asia
ASEAN
GCC
SAPTA
Memorandum:
ACP
LDCs
WTO Members (162)
Imports

10870.5

12461.5

14330.5

16572.3

12781.6

15510.7

18503.5

18704.9

19011.2

19104.3

16725.0

North America and Europe


EFTA
European Union (28)
NAFTA

187.0
4249.7
2283.4

211.8
4870.3
2540.6

248.2
5655.2
2700.8

280.1
6358.4
2906.8

228.0
4809.2
2176.7

257.5
5421.1
2682.1

303.8
6330.1
3090.7

388.0
5950.9
3193.3

416.3
6005.0
3195.8

370.3
6137.0
3304.1

333.4
5316.1
3149.6

South and Central America


Andean Community
CACM
CARICOM
MERCOSUR

46.4
36.5
20.2
137.9

56.5
41.8
23.0
173.2

70.7
48.2
26.3
228.9

93.6
54.9
31.7
308.4

74.3
41.6
23.6
227.8

96.7
49.5
24.9
306.0

124.3
60.3
30.3
382.4

135.6
63.0
30.9
375.9

139.5
63.9
30.7
397.6

144.6
64.0
30.2
371.2

123.0
61.8
26.2
291.4

7.9
65.1
19.8
43.6
99.7
15.3

10.5
76.0
23.2
51.9
119.6
16.0

14.2
93.7
32.4
66.1
140.4
20.0

17.4
119.4
44.4
89.5
171.3
25.5

17.3
114.7
45.7
67.1
140.6
22.0

20.0
134.9
43.2
83.6
165.2
24.5

25.6
140.5
54.2
103.1
208.7
25.1

25.7
172.6
58.7
104.4
221.8
29.7

25.5
173.8
61.4
114.6
227.6
34.8

27.5
183.3
66.2
115.3
224.2
33.6

24.2
165.0
55.6
96.7
192.6
28.8

602.7
188.3
196.8

687.7
225.1
241.1

774.9
295.0
299.6

938.8
383.0
409.7

727.0
318.4
330.0

953.5
350.0
441.6

1154.3
426.3
579.8

1223.2
484.5
604.8

1245.2
521.3
583.1

1234.2
533.1
590.2

1090.8
490.6
509.7

216.5
86.9
10672.2

260.0
100.4
12251.4

309.5
124.5
14078.0

388.2
161.6
16243.0

314.0
153.5
12476.4

369.9
169.2
15170.5

455.5
209.4
18131.2

477.5
230.3
18314.2

498.7
250.1
18614.8

500.2
266.3
18707.7

439.6
241.8
16387.1

World a

Africa
CEMAC
COMESA
ECCAS
ECOWAS
SADC
WAEMU
Middle East and Asia
ASEAN
GCC
SAPTA
Memorandum:
ACP
LDCs
WTO Members (162)

a Includes significant re-exports or imports for re-export.

132

Statistical Tables

A57. Trade in commercial services by selected groups of economies,


2006-2015
(Billion dollars)
2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Exports
World

2942.0

3522.9

3964.0

3533.6

3842.0

4349.5

4468.0

4747.3

5063.8

4754.0

North America and Europe


EFTA
European Union (28)
NAFTA

103.9
...
478.3

124.5
...
554.0

140.0
...
604.9

127.8
...
574.1

137.0
1706.3
634.1

150.1
1924.7
704.8

157.3
1915.9
737.5

165.1
2074.1
773.9

170.2
2216.0
796.4

152.6
1998.8
789.0

South and Central America


Andean Community
CACM
CARICOM
MERCOSUR

7.8
9.2
9.6
27.8

8.7
11.2
10.3
36.6

10.1
12.1
10.6
45.2

9.9
9.8
9.7
41.5

10.6
11.3
10.1
47.3

12.1
12.5
10.0
56.3

13.9
13.8
10.3
58.2

15.5
14.7
10.5
56.9

16.1
15.5
10.9
58.2

17.0
16.6
11.1
51.9

Africa
CEMAC
COMESA
ECCAS
ECOWAS
SADC
WAEMU

1.4
24.2
2.0
6.3
20.1
2.3

1.8
29.9
2.6
6.6
23.8
3.0

2.1
36.4
3.2
7.9
22.9
3.5

1.9
32.0
3.4
7.2
22.3
3.0

2.2
36.3
3.6
8.1
26.0
3.4

3.0
34.3
4.5
8.9
28.8
3.6

2.8
39.1
4.2
10.2
30.9
3.6

3.3
36.0
5.3
9.7
30.1
3.9

3.4
39.0
5.6
8.8
31.5
4.0

3.3
36.2
5.7
13.4
29.4
3.8

134.2
36.0
74.7

167.7
41.2 I
93.2

190.9
37.5
113.4

175.5
37.2
100.0

213.9
38.7
125.7

251.8
43.9
148.8

275.6
48.7
156.4

303.7
53.9
161.4

315.7
59.8
170.6

304.4
66.5
170.9

Middle East and Asia


ASEAN
GCC
SAPTA
Memorandum:
ACP
LDCs
WTO Members (162)

56.8
11.3
2896.2

64.5
14.2
3467.5

67.4
18.2
3896.5

62.7
18.5
3467.4

70.7
20.8
3774.6

78.3
25.8
4284.0

85.5
28.3
4402.2

86.7
32.4
4664.4

88.0
35.6
4981.2

88.8
36.0
4678.7

Imports
World

2810.2

3328.6

3805.9

3375.7

3692.5

4162.4

4319.0

4581.3

4913.2

4611.7

North America and Europe


EFTA
European Union (28)
NAFTA

82.7
...
409.1

100.4
...
449.7

113.7
...
493.6

104.1
...
460.2

116.4
1481.2
497.0

133.0
1635.9
536.5

141.1
1624.1
561.0

151.3
1752.5
578.3

157.3
1877.8
590.3

140.9
1716.4
594.0

South and Central America


Andean Community
CACM
CARICOM
MERCOSUR

12.3
6.0
6.4
41.4

14.3
6.7
6.7
57.3

17.3
7.1
6.9
72.1

16.2
6.2
5.9
70.5

19.2
7.1
6.2
88.1

21.8
7.7
6.8
107.2

24.3
8.4
7.4
115.0

25.8
8.9
7.6
121.8

27.3
9.4
8.1
122.6

24.3
9.8
7.3
104.0

Africa
CEMAC
COMESA
ECCAS
ECOWAS
SADC
WAEMU

8.1
23.3
16.2
19.5
28.4
5.0

9.6
29.2
23.5
24.4
37.9
6.1

11.4
36.0
34.4
33.1
48.3
7.2

10.4
31.8
30.9
26.6
44.0
6.8

12.3
36.1
31.5
31.0
48.5
7.5

14.0
37.3
39.8
35.3
59.2
8.1

13.5
43.0
37.2
36.6
57.3
8.2

14.7
44.3
39.0
36.0
57.2
9.4

14.9
47.5
42.6
38.9
59.5
9.5

...
...
34.7
35.8
51.0
9.1

157.3
75.0
71.7

184.0
104.3 I
84.9

216.4
122.1
104.5

190.1
109.6
92.6

228.7
122.6
129.2

267.2
153.3
142.1

290.9
164.6
147.9

316.8
169.0
145.7

328.1
190.6
149.4

309.6
185.0
146.5

116.2
54.3
3710.2

102.2
50.4
3280.2

117.4
55.2
3600.1

136.9
68.4
4064.0

138.5
72.3
4202.7

138.9
75.4
4448.0

144.4
81.1
4778.9

128.4
75.0
4489.4

Middle East and Asia


ASEAN
GCC
SAPTA
Memorandum:
ACP
LDCs
WTO Members (162)

74.3
30.0
2746.2

92.5
39.5
3250.3

133

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A58. World merchandise exports by region


and selected economy, 2005-2015
(Million dollars)

:RUOGD
North America
Bermuda
Canada
Mexico
United States
South and Central America
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Aruba (the Netherlands with respect to)
Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Bolivia, Plurinational State of
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Curaao
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatemala
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Netherlands Antilles
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Sint Maarten
Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of
Europe
Albania
Austria
Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark

134









    







  













1475820

1664141

1840749

2035212

1601883

1964302

2283428

2372077

2417940

2492408



49
360475
214207
901082

27
388178
249961
1025967

27
420693
271821
1148199

24
456471
291265
1287442

29
316094
229712
1056043

15
387481
298305
1278495

13
451335
349569
1482508

11
455592
370770
1545703

12
458318
380015
1579593

21
474725
397129
1620532

20
408475
380772
1504914

371456

448945

514118

617101

474211

591869

761380

752147

732446

684889

539656

83
40351
4416
549
359
319
2827
118529
41267
21190
7026
2319
42
6145
10100
3418
28
5381
553
470
5048
1532
608
1654
7050 |
3153
17368
34
64
40
997
9942
3422
55716

74
46546
4716
694
510
419
3952
137807
58680
24391
8200
3159
41
6610
12728
3706
25
6025
588
509
5277
1948
695
1932
8034
3472
23830
40
94
38
1175
14155
3989
65578

59
55779
5206
802
524
416
4504
160649
67972
29991
9337
3981
37
7160
14321
4015
33
6898
679
522
5784
2254
676
2186
8821
4724
28094
34
98
48
1359
13396
4518
69980

65
70018
5456
956
488
469
6525
197942
64510
37626
9504
3957
40
6748
18818
4641
31
7737
795
480
6199
2439
1088
2531
9817
6407
31019
51
164
52
1743
18650
5942
95021

51
55672
1952
711
379
381
4960
152995
55463
32853
8784
3092
33
5483
13863
3866
29
7214
763
576
4827
1316
810
2391
10717
5080
26962
38
166
49
1402
9126
5405
57603

46
68187
265
702
429
478
6402
201915
71109
39713
9448
4914
37
6754
17490
4499
25
8463
880
579
6264
1328
807
3251
10987
6505
35803
32
215
42
2026
10982
6724
65745

56
84051
5180
834
475
604
8358
256040
81438
56915
10408
6440
928
29
8492
22322
5308
31
10401
1129
767
7977
1623
4133
14555
7763
46376
45
160
38
127
2467
14944
7912
92811

63
79982
1389
984
565
627
11254
242578
77791
60125
11433
5900
948
34
9069
23765
5339
35
9979
1416
815
8359
1712
4686
16215
7283
47411
46
182
43
131
2695
12983
8709
97340

68
75963
279
955
457
609
11657
242034
76477
58824
11603
5566
705
35
9651
24848
5491
38
10028
1375
885
7805
1569
4794
14755
9456
42861
41
174
49
164
2394
12770
9067
88753

55
68335
259
859
435
589
12266
225101
75675
54795
11252
5187
702
36
9920 |
25724
5273
37
10834
1167
951
8072
1452
5126
13184
9636
39533
42
161
48
132
2145
11806
9133
74714

55
56752
450
520
483
545
8261
191134
63362
35691
9624
4400
510
37
9450
18331
5485
30
10752
1100
990
7810
1240
4839
11300
8361
34157
40
188
45
135
1680
7285
7675
36700

4404322

4979263

5803062

6483418

5021188

5650067

6654099

6464042

6774158

6803608

5958012

658
125182
334400
2400
11739
8795
1465
78110
85121

798
136751
366745
3323
15064
10361
1333
94929
92558

1078
163620
430952
4152
18518
12340
1394
122498
103171

1355
181289
471840
5021
22362
14112
1633
146799
116923

1091
136989
370125
3954
16318
10403
1257
112955
93984

1545
152560
407692
4803
20630
11806
1402
132982
96440

1951
177428
475672
5850
28208
13338
1818
162939
111864

1968
166611
445939
5162
26686
12371
1740
157041
105469

2332
175156
468760
5687
29579
12659
2019
162274
110107

2431
178248
472319
5891
29285
13858
1811
175095
110887

1930
152335
398158
5100
25690
12903
1829
158164
95293

Statistical Tables

A58. World merchandise exports by region


and selected economy, 2005-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)










7716
599
65498
463428
2041
970914
17278
62936
3091
109657
373135
5161
11807
19120
2399
406372
103759
89437
38738
27688
5065
31889
19248
192644
130962
130930
73476
390860
4082707
1305672

9692
651
77206
495868
2401
1108107
20749
75255
3453
108726
416875
6155
14142
22980
2796
556
463629
122208
110780
44750
32458
6428
41862
23230
213717
147793
147856
85535
450907
4606066
1446904

11010
746
90025
559612
3398
1321214
23578
95400
4783
121543
499882
8308
17144
22933
3437
626
550755
136354
140146
52482
40488
8825
58516
30102
253297
168817
172078
107272
441831
5366012
1691637

12458
852
96455
616240
3991
1446171
26382
108504
5382
125719
542748
10144
23646
25694
3481
617
637918
171764
170458
57137
49535
10972
71142
34128
281493
183327
200759
132027
472168
5954870
1925494

9048
762
62854
484781
2708
1120041
20469
83008
4057
115928
406909
7702
16454
21339
2857
388
497891
116778
136503
44211
40567
8345
56082
26177
227338
130781
172474
102143
354893
4613534
1525858

11591
839
69518
523767
3351
1258924
27950
95483
4604
116497
447301
9532
20748
19748
3586
437
574251
130657
159724
49406
49579
9795
64664
29200
254418
158549
195609
113883
415959
5183906
1793930

16709
1008
79142
596473
4478
1473985
33819
112312
5347
125740
523258
13130
28050
20866
4386
628
667101
160410
188696
59617
63035
11779
79830
34682
306551
186963
234819
134907
506570
6092183
2163418

16087
952
73077
568708
4015
1401113
35441
103570
5064
116773
501306
14112
29611
18833
4250
469
655374
160953
185374
58090
57841
11229
80612
32163
295250
172345
312464 |
152462
472792
5808581
2163939

16321
1087
74437
580963
4299
1445067
36601
107503
4998
114356
518268
14467
32598
18445
3637
494
671556
156022
204984
62823
65835
14613
85750
34019
317833
167550
357851
151803
540616
6074182
2305944

16052
1128
74361
580471
4934
1494608
36163
110619
5053
118908
529899
14557
32364
19243
2930
441
672671
144591
220152
63907
69737
14845
86460
35969
324536
164362
311203
157610
505205
6154677
2261191

12906
1000
59445
505897
4490
1329469
28617
98578
4745
120439
459068
12054
25573
17298
2576
353
567217
105372
198243
55271
60586
13355
75584
31949
281836
139889
289874
143883
460446
5387310
1984965

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)


Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Moldova
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan

343707
974
7649
15979
865
27849
672
1091
243798
909
4944
34228
4749

430954
985
13015
19734
936
38250
891
1052
303551
1399
7156
38368
5617

520475
1152
21269
24275
1232
47755
1321
1342
354403
1468
8932
49296
8029

702540
1057
30586
32571
1495
71172
1856
1591
471606
1409
11945
66954
10298

450312
710
21097
21304
1134
43196
1673
1283
303388
1010
5000
39782
10735

589214
1011
26476
25284
1677
59971
1756
1541
400630
1195
6500
51478
11695

785950
1334
34495
41419
2189
84336
1979
2217
522011
1257
13000
68460
13254

799811
1380
32634
46060
2376
86449
1894
2162
529256
1360
16500
68530
11210

780649
1479
31703
37203
2910
84700
2007
2428
523276
1162
16800
64338
12643

735872
1547
28260
36081
2861
79460
1884
2340
497764
977
17500
54199
13000

500344
1487
14500
26676
2204
45726
1676
1967
340349
900
14000
37859
13000

Africa

310977

370710

436512

562212

393483

521371

610678

639670

600484

551337

388245

46002
24109
578
4425
468
58
18
2861
128

54613
31862
736
4529
588
58
21
3576
158

60163
44396
1047
5174
623
59
19
4230
178

79298
63914
1282
4951
693
57
32
5241
150

45174
40828
1225
3456
900
67
35
3552
120

57053
50595
1282
4693
1591
101
44
3878
140

73489
67310
1410
5882
2399
123
69
4517
190

71866
71093
1443
5971
2182
134
56
4274
203

64974
68247
1982
7911
2356
91
69
4514
116

62886
59170
2563
8509
2453
132
81
4926
96

37787
34151
2032
6141
2132
111
58
3760
90

Estonia
Faeroe Islands
Finland
France
FYR Macedonia
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Montenegro
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Serbia
Serbia and Montenegro
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
European Union (28) b
extra-EU(28) exports

Algeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cabo Verde
Cameroon
Central African Republic













135

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A58. World merchandise exports by region


and selected economy, 2005-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)

Chad
Comoros
Congo
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
Cte d'Ivoire
Djibouti
Egypt
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia, Republic of
Libya
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
The Gambia
Togo
Tunisia
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Middle East
Bahrain, Kingdom of
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait, the State of
Lebanese Republic
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of

136









3081
12
4745
2403
7697
40
12912
7064
11
903
5065
2802
853
89
3420
651
131
31358
855
509
1101
625
2143
11190
1783
2070
489
50467
125
7
1578
340
158

51626
4824
1640
1679
7
660
10494
813
1810
1850

3352
10
6078
2705
8477
55
16728
8207
12
1043
5450
3727
1033
74
3502
718
158
40260
985
668
1550
1367
2329
12744
2381
2647
508
58726
147
8
1594
380
231

58175
5657
1660
1865
11
630
11694
962
3770
2000

3666
14
5635
3100
8669
58
19224
10210
13
1277
6309
4195
1203
107
4081
830
200
46970
1238
869
1556
1454
2238
15340
2412
2922
663
66606
177
7
1674
360
245

69784
8879
1740
2139
13
677
15165
1337
4617
2400

4169
7
8325
4400
10390
69
26224
15218
11
1602
9566
5270
1342
128
5001
884
242
62100
1310
879
2097
1788
2384
20345
2653
3141
910
86274
268
11
2170
430
216

80782
11671
1570
3121
14
853
19320
1724
5099
2200

2800
15
6100
3500
11327
77
23062
9100
11
1618
5356
5840
1050
122
4463
734
149
36951
1052
1188
1774
1364
1939
14054
2147
3146
1000
56742
235
8
2017
395
231

61677
8257
1660
2982
66
903
14445
1568
4312
2269

541236

659499

766232

1034138

722224

10242
56252
23697
42770
4302
44869
2337
18692
25762
180711

12200
77012
29361
46789
5204
56016
2814
21585
34051
211305

13634
88733
41268
54091
5725
62691
3574
24692
42020
233329

17316
113668
61273
61337
7938
87457
4454
37719
67307
313462

11874
78830
41929
47935
6375
54008
4187
27651
48007
192314









4800
26
11851
6600
12635
93
30528
13500
430
2875
9766
12785
1433
242
5756
1172
367
18996
1590
1425
2374
2749
2565
21654
3604
4407
1250
116000
464
11
2542
483
350

108815
10193
1910
4735
95
1179
17847
2159
9001
3512

4800
20
10275
6300
12124
118
29409
15500
480
2891
9493
13552
1928
131
6127
972
460
60946
1516
1183
2610
2641
2649
21446
3856
4389
1450
114700
591
12
2532
497
1122

99606
4066
1926
5547
119
1314
17007
2357
9365
3882

3900
21
9028
6200
13247
120
28493
14700
337
4077
8950
13752
1701
153
5856
847
559
43500
1923
1208
2339
2652
2869
21972
4024
4629
1600
102400
703
13
2666
578
1917

95938
4790
1895
4953
106
1522
17060
2408
10594
3507

3900
23
8977
6900
12574
129
26367
12600
664
4469
8473
13217
2007
166
6115
826
587
21000
2196
1342
2779
1935
2650
23826
4725
4620
1450
94200
723
17
2814
539
1552

91047
4454
1902
5046
104
1326
16756
2262
9688
3064

2900
...
4650
5800
11158
132
19051
6700
500
3825
5074
9551
2071
259
5906
775
260
10200
2258
1375
2532
1502
2457
21886
4195
4082
1050
48400
659
15
2532
429
727

81673
2985
1697
4924
108
1227
14073
2245
6961
2716

906815

1267385

1348514

1346506

1286906

840573

14971
101316
52483
58413
7028
69978
5021
36601
74964
251143

19650
132000
83226
67796
8006
102103
5664
47092
114448
364699

19768
104000
94392
63141
7887
118912
5615
52138
132962
388401

20927
82500
89742
66781
7913
115105
5170
56429
136767
375873

20520
88800
84630
68686
8385
104315
4548
53221
126703
342299

11200
63000
49320
63673
7829
55092
3982
39244
77294
201739

3600
21
9400
5300
11410
85
26438
10000
13
2330
8686
7960
1471
127
5169
878
222
48673
1149
1066
1996
2074
2261
17771
3000
4026
1150
84000
297
11
2161
400
341

91347 |
11404
1800
4051
68
976
16427
1619
7200
3199





Statistical Tables

A58. World merchandise exports by region


and selected economy, 2005-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)

Syrian Arab Republic


United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Asia a
Afghanistan
Australia
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia
China
Fiji
French Polynesia
Hong Kong, China
domestic exports
re-exports
India
Indonesia
Japan
Kiribati
Korea, Republic of
Lao People's Dem. Rep.
Macao, China
Malaysia
Maldives
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Northern Mariana Islands
Pakistan
Palau
Papua New Guinea
Philippines
Samoa
Singapore
domestic exports
re-exports
Solomon Islands
Sri Lanka
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Tonga
Tuvalu
Vanuatu
Viet Nam





















8708
117287
5608

10919
145587
6654

11546
178630
6299

15410
239213
7584

10855
192000
6259

12796
214000
8100

11000
302000
9700

4000
349000
8300

2000
379000
8300

2000
375000
7800


2200
265000
1000

3060839

3576140

4141180

4724686

3890700

5076344

5975096

6120021

6295824

6440019

5961206

384
106097
9297
258
6249
3092
761953
701
217
292119
20050
272069
99616
86996
594941
4
284419
553
2476
141626
162
1065
3776
863
1093
21730
691
16051
13
3273
41255
87
229649
124546
105103
103
6347
198432
110936
8
10
0
38
32442

416
123437
11802
414
7636
3692
968978
694
235
322669
22765
299904
121808
103527
646725
6
325465
882
2557
160749
225
1543
4539
838
1352
22409
509
16930
14
4166
47410
65
271807
143176
128631
121
6886
224017
129722
8
10
0
49
39826

454
141358
12453
675
7668
4088
1220456
755
197
349386
18109
331276
150159
118013
714327
10
371489
923
2543
175966
228
1889
6253
868
2104
26943
329
17838
11
4681
50466
97
299308
156038
143270
165
7740
246677
153867
8
8
0
50
48561

540
187257
15370
521
10319
4708
1430693
922
195
370242
16958
353284
194828
139606
781412
8
422007
1092
1997
199414
331
2539
6882
939
1300
30580
115
20323
10
5713
49078
72
338176
175702
162474
210
8452
255629
177778
13
9
0
57
62685

403
154331
15083
496
7200
4196
1201612
630
148
329422
16839
312583
164909
119646
580719
6
363534
1053
961
157244
169
1903
6662
823
993
24933
9
17523
6
4394
38436
46
269832
138064
131769
165
7345
203675
152422
8
8
0
57
57096

388
212634
19194
641
8907
5143
1577754
841
153
400692
14798
385894
226351
157779
769774
4
466384
1746
870
198612
198
2899
8661
856
1493
31396
5
21410
6
5742
51496
70
351867
182726
169141
224
8602
274601
193306
16
8
0
49
72237

376
271733
24439
675
12465
6704
1898381
1069
168
455573
16846
438727
302905
203497
823184
9
555214
2190
869
228086
346
4818
9238
919
1663
37669
2
25383
6
6908
48305
66
409503
223913
185590
418
10236
308257
222576
13
14
0
67
96906

429
256675
25127
535
13001
7838
2048714
1221
139
492907
22371
470537
296828
190032
798568
6
547870
2271
1021
227538
314
4385
8877
911
1326
37305
4
24567
9
6328
52099
76
408393
228161
180232
500
9380
306409
229106
31
16
0
55
114529

515
252981
29114
544
11447
9248
2209005
1108
151
535187
19826
515361
314848
182552
715097
7
559632
2264
1138
228331
331
4269
11233
879
1226
39445
4
25121
7
5951
56698
62
410250
219114
191135
448
10208
311428
228505
16
17
0
39
132033

571
241238
30405
409
10509
10860
2342293
1373
170
524065
15599
508466
322694
176293
690217
5
572664
2662
1241
233927
301
5775
11031
889
1602
41622
2
24706
6
5670
62100
50
409787
216297
193490
456
11298
320092
227524
14
19
0
63
150217

470
188445
32379
585
6600
11960
2274949
1200
130
510596
13075
497521
267147
150282
624939
9
526755
2340
1339
199869
240
4670
5950
720
1314
34359
2
22188
5
5520
58648
53
350506
173834
176672
402
10470
285421
214375
15
16
0
62
162107

11911140 14409249 14851641

15179769

15101552

13079871

3005921

2910121

2555667

0HPRUDQGXPLWHPV
World excluding a
intra-EU (28) exports

7732111

8971372 10348918 12130988

9467322

Europe excluding
intra-EU (28) exports

1627287

1820101

1933511

2128687

2454042

2260091

2725334

2819401

a Includes significant re-exports.


1RWH Breaks in the continuity of the value series for particular countries and regional groupings are indicated by an 'I'. They result mainly from changes in the methods of collecting and reporting merchandise trade
statistics.
It should be noted that the World and Asia totals contain a significant element of double counting due to the use of the general system of recording merchandise trade statistics which includes re-exports.
Recent figures for a number of countries and territories have been estimated by the Secretariat.

137

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A59. World merchandise imports by region


and selected economy, 2005-2015
(Million dollars)

:RUOGD
North America
Bermuda
Canada b
Mexico
United States
South and Central America
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Aruba (the Netherlands with respect to) b
Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Bolivia, Plurinational State of
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Curaao
Dominica
Dominican Republic b
Ecuador
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatemala
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras b
Jamaica
Netherlands Antilles
Nicaragua b
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Sint Maarten
Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of
Europe
Albania
Austria
Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark

138







   
















     

2284427

2541720

2702089

2908063

2177865

2683150

3091742

3194299

3196937

3305200

3150588

985
322411
228240
1732706

1094
359000
263476
1918077

1167
390188
290246
2020403

1159
419011
318304
2169487

1064
329907
241515
1605296

972
402690
310205
1969184

900
463640
361068
2266024

900
476296
380477
2336524

1012
475778
390965
2329060

969
479985
411581
2412547

900
436372
405280
2307946

308822

374046

467798

608591

451766

584680

735618

746358

770058

739347

621837

624
34152
4723
2727
1697
660
2916
95838
38406
26162
11548
10258
167
12174
12114
7663
299
11915
889
1619
7303
5650
2209
3404
10775
4744
15312
250
592
271
1013
6484
4806
33616

728
44706
5126
2956
1746
684
3586
126645
47164
32897
12952
10886
196
13597
13893
8821
365
13576
1059
1682
8888
6893
2549
3989
13269
5859
20368
272
614
327
1044
7663
5628
46097

743
57462
6011
3199
1920
837
5081
182377
62787
39669
15372
15373
247
15993
18852
9818
363
14547
1312
2315
10453
8465
3079
4731
15737
9033
29953
325
656
373
1304
9591
9069
50450

534
38786
2449
2535
1449
669
4545
133677
42806
32898
11395
9619
225
12296
15090
7325
282
11531
1161
2124
7372
5064
2607
3929
13877
6940
21814
296
520
333
1390
6955
6907
41540

501
56793
1394
2591
1569
706
5590
191537
59207
40486
13570
11496
224
15489
20591
8416
318
13838
1397
3146
8907
5225
2622
4792
16737
10033
30030
270
662
338
1398
6480
8622
39000

430
74319
5917
2966
1805
831
7927
236964
74695
54233
16220
14243
2130
226
17409
24438
9965
336
16613
1771
3020
11126
6439
6355
21802
12366
37747
247
697
332
734
1638
9511
10726
48000

492
67974
2046
3386
1780
861
8578
233398
80073
59048
17591
13869
2254
208
17739
25477
10258
341
16994
1997
3170
11371
6331
6778
22821
11555
42545
226
644
356
768
1994
9065
11652
51331

503
74442
1377
3166
1759
928
9338
250556
79249
59381
18014
14773
1906
203
16873
27146
10772
368
17515
1875
3403
10953
6219
6688
21795
12142
43670
249
620
370
924
2174
8871
11642
48773

500
65229
1350
3309
1739
1004
10519
239152
72159
64029
17186
13114
1819
230
17288 |
27726
10513
340
18276
1791
3733
11070
5838
6946
21200
12169
42346
268
627
362
959
2012
8386
11485
43170

500
59787
1270
2780
1618
975
9602
178798
63039
54058
15503
15000
1560
220
17200
21518
10416
355
17636
1550
3400
11180
5070
7090
18770
10291
37850
280
570
325
995
2030
6495
9489
33000

4579875

5252937

6117235

6895464

5217038

5904385

6923232

6620836

6720446

6798446

5898820

2618
127327
318700
7070
18163
18599
6316
76512
75581

3058
137212
351635
7345
23270
21477
6928
93191
85507

4188
163037
411558
9720
29961
25617
8615
118169
98027

5251
184293
466307
12189
36908
30728
10644
142038
109362

4550
143063
353364
8773
23539
21123
7835
105048
83133

4406
159009
391177
9223
25513
20067
8569
126652
83052

5396
191417
466943
11051
32582
22663
8678
152125
95663

4882
178513
439128
10019
32710
20832
7296
141412
91925

4902
183277
451677
10295
34303
22022
6314
144259
96589

5230
182006
454632
10990
34698
22790
6761
154375
99349

4318
155235
375267
9000
29298
20460
5567
140479
85522

506
28689
4288
2312
1604
593
2431
77628
32735
21204
9824
8084
165
9869
10287
6690
328
10499
788
1454
6545
4739
1950
2956
9600 |
3715
12502
210
486
240
1050
5694
3879
24027

Statistical Tables

A59. World merchandise imports by region


and selected economy, 2005-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)










10238
743
58766
504124
3228
777073
54436
66552
4979
68565
384790
8697
15548
22607
3681
363822
55488
101639
63921
40518
11635
34649
20337
288786
111697
126574
116774
519273
4249661
1472931

13449
790
69375
541919
3763
906684
63619
78262
6137
73118
442555
11541
19373
27145
4307
1842
416832
64261
126989
70684
51160
13172
44986
24141
328696
127547
141400
139576
612671
4870288
1713400

15677
1016
81704
630861
5281
1054983
78532
95565
6738
83822
511662
15322
24412
28029
4801
2867
492616
80297
165710
82129
70314
19164
60616
31559
389301
153226
161180
170063
638263
5655159
1982854

16026
988
91781
716795
6883
1185067
92580
108940
6205
83965
561919
16143
31099
32157
5300
3731
580937
90293
208804
94416
84053
24331
73912
37034
420803
168503
183574
201964
657783
6358376
2331558

10140
783
60889
560873
5073
926347
69448
77761
3604
62704
415105
9811
18304
25330
4478
2313
443153
68970
149459
71663
54324
16047
55650
26507
293218
119876
155378
140928
519078
4809188
1723465

12287
780
68803
611070
5474
1054814
66913
88178
3920
60276
487049
11691
23403
25092
5062
2182
516409
77330
178049
77749
62109
16735
65026
30094
327016
148946
176281
185544
591095
5421065
2031090

17459
987
84264
720028
7027
1254869
67475
102440
4841
66606
558787
16290
31773
28860
6293
2544
594366
90784
210597
82896
76480
19862
79842
35531
376606
177026
208220
240842
676896
6330061
2401296

18085
18459
1153
1115
76468
77570
674415
681467
6522
6620
1154852 1181233
63329
62166
95176
100111
4772
5020
62769
65853
488600
479447
17227
17865
31965
34806
27543
26916
6598
6142
2336
2349
586927
589697
87308
89808
199060
207607
72429
75719
70207
73481
18925
20543
77398
81735
32035
33373
337338
340598
164436
160609
295961 | 321509
236545
251661
695220
660034
5950949 6004976
2306307 2236738

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)


Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Moldova
Russian Federation b
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan

215610
1802
4350
16708
2490
17353
1102
2292
125434
1330
2947
36136
3666

279773
2192
5269
22351
3678
23677
1931
2693
164281
1723
2560
45039
4380

378973
3268
6045
28693
5215
32756
2789
3690
223486
2455
3619
60618
6340

500089
4426
7574
39381
6302
37889
4072
4899
291861
3273
5600
85535
9277

333314
3321
6514
28569
4500
28409
3040
3278
191803
2570
6800
45487
9023

415446
3783
6746
34884
5257
31107
3223
3855
248634
2657
5700
60911
8689

541197
4145
10166
45759
7065
36906
4261
5191
323831
3206
7600
82594
10472

571863
4261
10417
46404
8037
46358
5374
5213
335446
3778
9900
84639
12034

Africa
Algeria
Angola b
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cabo Verde
Cameroon
Central African Republic

256523
20357
8353
1018
3161
1260
269
438
2735
175

302868
21456
8778
1228
3086
1319
431
542
3150
203

374929
27631
13661
2037
4067
1678
319
750
4657
249

481396
39479
20982
2289
5211
2018
403
825
5686
300

411217
39294
22660
2064
4728
1870
402
709
4442
270

478977
40473
16667
2054
5657
2048
509
742
5133
300

566650
47247
20228
2129
7272
2406
752
947
6800
310

615618
50378
23717
2339
8025
3129
751
766
6515
323

Estonia
Faeroe Islands
Finland
France
FYR Macedonia
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Montenegro
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Serbia
Serbia and Montenegro
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
European Union (28)
extra-EU(28) imports













18301
1065
76747
676603
7277
1207041
63774
104923
5375
73089
474193
17650
34394
26701
6818
2367
589440
89185
223674
78350
77790
20609
81953
33945
358924
162217
275742
242177
690466
6136962
2243476

14510
900
60089
572661
6400
1050025
48417
92600
5295
71336
408932
14312
28278
23431
5772
2049
505806
76228
192601
66701
69867
18173
73509
29706
309292
137625
251873
207199
625806
5316085
1913739

571380
4386
10321
43023
8012
48806
6070
5492
341335
4151
10000
76787
12998

506153
4424
9332
40502
8593
41296
5735
5317
308027
4297
10300
54330
14000

344536
3254
9400
30312
7724
30186
4070
3987
194087
3400
7800
36317
14000

635498
55028
26344
3010
8352
3823
811
725
6649
213

648750
58580
28587
3823
8071
3136
769
772
7049
381

559117
51501
21703
3028
6348
2647
755
563
6661
348

139

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A59. World merchandise imports by region


and selected economy, 2005-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)

Chad
Comoros
Congo b
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
Cte d'Ivoire
Djibouti b
Egypt
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau b
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia, Republic of
Libya
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
The Gambia
Togo
Tunisia
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Middle East
Bahrain, Kingdom of
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait, the State of
Lebanese Republic
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of

140











1350
115
2013
2892
5820
336
27300
2020
495
5207
1725
6754
956
127
7233
1500
467
6041
1804
1207
1820
1167
3627
23980
2869
2884
949
26523
591
71
3671
757
389

78715
8074
1910
4246
259
1085
15007
2557
3074
2300

1800
138
2530
3400
6683
473
37100
2767
510
5809
2157
8061
1218
168
8989
1738
499
6733
2635
1378
2185
1432
3894
32010
3050
3520
1149
34830
771
79
4871
859
445

88450
8775
1840
5337
321
1237
19099
3493
4007
2550

2000
180
3050
4300
7884
574
48382
3787
600
8277
2563
10269
1366
199
11128
1800
813
9150
3781
2204
3339
1941
4651
42366
4008
4340
1696
49951
1174
114
6528
1087
534

101640
9352
1580
7703
322
1509
24638
4526
5060
2950

2000
210
2900
3900
6960
451
44946
5200
590
7668
2501
8046
1060
202
10202
1850
551
12859
3199
2022
2486
1498
3733
32881
3764
4980
2200
33906
1308
103
4713
794
520

74054
9691
1780
6411
304
1509
19096
4247
3832
2900

2400
233
4000
4500
7849
374
52923
5200
660
8602
2983
10922
1405
196
12093
2300
710
17674
2584
2173
3428
1935
4386
35381
4600
5570
2476
44235
1431
112
4782
984
770

96835
10045
1960
7874
285
1683
22215
4664
5321
3800

3300
277
5007
5500
6720
511
58903
6500
950
8896
3665
15838
2106
240
14782
2500
1044
8000
2905
2428
3352
2467
5149
44272
6312
6593
2190
56000
2039
134
5909
1049
1717

124430
9236
1950
10799
341
2187
23952
5631
7178
4400

2800
273
5485
6100
9770
564
69200
6900
970
11913
3629
17763
2254
182
16290
2602
1005
22000
3094
2360
3524
3129
5354
44872
8688
7256
1900
51000
2300
131
6434
1071
1604

127154
9230
1848
11346
380
2380
24471
6044
8805
4400

3000
284
6080
6300
12483
719
59662
5800
1030
14899
3754
17600
2230
183
16358
2175
1150
27000
3260
2845
3807
3044
5397
45190
10099
7143
2020
56000
2302
152
6659
1083
1780

126359
9918
1693
12120
350
2769
24266
5818
10162
4300

3100
278
7475
6600
11178
803
71282
5600
1131
18991
3857
14600
2242
214
18396
2144
2100
19000
3227
2774
4009
2646
5610
45832
8747
7883
2190
60000
2563
170
6557
1143
1568

121965
9211
1690
11998
387
2529
24828
6074
9539
4200

2200
232
7747
6200
9915
890
65044
4200
1053
19063
3033
13291
1971
229
16093
1954
2237
13000
3173
2932
3167
2053
4792
37514
8293
7426
1990
48000
2570
150
5675
991
1477

104620
8585
1432
10285
410
2127
20221
5780
8451
4000

335424

375848

469613

603448

512323

581379

679446

736505

768948

782320

706574

9393
40041
23532
47142
10498
15801
9633
8971
10061
59459

10515
40772
20892
50334
11548
17243
9647
11039
16440
69800

11488
44942
21516
59039
13681
21362
12251
16025
23429
90214

14980
57401
33000
67656
16995
24840
16754
23137
27900
115134

10100
50768
38437
49278
14236
19892
16574
17936
24922
95552

12260
65404
43915
61209
15564
22675
18460
19973
23240
106863

12730
61760
47803
75830
18930
25090
20750
24019
29888
131586

12830
57092
56234
75392
20752
27259
21945
28636
34200
155593

14360
49000
61000
74861
22067
29299
22024
35577
34900
168155

13910
51000
59000
75483
22930
31484
21135
29305
34600
173834

9700
42500
52000
64813
20332
31539
18438
10100
37000
172252

950
99
1304
2690
5865
277
22449
1310
490
4095
1471
5347
820
106
5846
1410
310
6079
1706
1165
1544
1428
3157
20790
2408
2577
943
20754
471 |
50
3498 |
675
345

62304
6757
1890
3287
260
1060
13177
2054
2558
2350











Statistical Tables

A59. World merchandise imports by region


and selected economy, 2005-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)

Syrian Arab Republic
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Asia a
Afghanistan
Australia
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia b
China
Fiji
French Polynesia
Hong Kong, China
retained imports
India
Indonesia
Japan
Kiribati
Korea, Republic of
Lao People's Dem. Rep.
Macao, China
Malaysia
Maldives
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Northern Mariana Islands
Pakistan
Palau
Papua New Guinea
Philippines
Samoa
Singapore
retained imports
Solomon Islands
Sri Lanka
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Tonga
Tuvalu
Vanuatu
Viet Nam





















10862
84654
5378

11488
100057
6074

14655
132500
8511

18105
177000
10546

15443
150000
9185

17562
165000
9255

16800
203000
11260

7300
226000
13273

5400
239000
13305

6700
250000
12940

5000
230000
12900

2889469

3333931

3819456

4574836

3677709

4861780

5965599

6219457

6347915

6324101

5443484

2471
125281
13889
386
1491
3927
659953
1607
1723
300160
75269
142870
75725
515866
74
261238
882
4514
114324
745
1184
1908
2283
1774
26219
591
25357
105
1729
49487
239
200047
94944
185
8834
182614
118178
109
121
13
149
36761

2744
139253
16034
420
1676
4771
791461
1804
1656
335754
86097
178410
80650
579064
62
309383
1060
5236
130441
927
1486
2538
2492
2117
26424
489
29825
115
2260
54078
275
238710
110079
217
10258
202698
128773
101
116
13
217
45015

3022
165336
18596
526
2101
5439
956116
1800
1863
370132
93791
229370
93101
622243
70
356846
1067
6045
146170
1096
2117
3247
3122
2809
30882
300
32590
116
2945
57996
266
263155
119885
294
11301
219252
139966
183
143
16
229
62682

3020
200273
23860
543
2572
6508
1132567
2264
2169
392962
98927
321032
127538
762534
75
435275
1403
5880
156348
1388
3616
4256
3590
3233
34369
160
42329
130
3510
60420
288
319780
157306
328
13953
240448
179225
269
168
26
314
80714

3336
165471
21833
529
2449
5830
1005923
1440
1717
352241
88672
257202
93786
551981
67
323085
1461
4751
123757
963
2131
4348
4384
2574
25574
70
31668
90
3210
45878
231
245785
114016
268
10049
174371
133709
295
145
14
294
69949

5154
201639
27821
854
2538
6791
1396247
1808
1726
441369
112587
350233
135663
694059
73
425212
2060
5629
164622
1091
3278
4760
5133
3312
30617
90
37807
107
3950
58468
310
310791
141650
404
13512
251236
182921
246
159
16
285
84839

6515
243701
36214
1043
3629
9300
1743484
2182
1796
510855
131822
464462
177436
855380
92
524413
2404
7927
187473
1465
6598
9019
5774
3698
37105
90
44012
129
4760
63693
346
365770
180180
469
20269
281438
228787
319
193
25
304
106750

9069
260940
34173
991
3572
11350
1818405
2253
1705
553486
136229
489694
191691
885843
109
519585
3055
8982
196393
1554
6738
9201
6066
3245
38254
90
44105
142
5330
65350
346
379723
199491
486
19190
277324
249115
664
199
30
296
113780

8724
242140
37085
909
3612
12800
1949990
2826
1815
621417
142411
465397
186629
833166
97
515584
3081
10140
205897
1733
6358
12043
6571
3240
39641
100
44647
169
6080
65705
367
373016
181881
521
18003
278010
250407
843
198
14
313
132033

7729
236933
42268
927
3599
13500
1959233
3250
1762
600613
149882
462910
178179
812185
95
525514
4271
11396
208851
1993
5237
16226
7561
3323
42518
125
47434
180
4000
67719
384
366247
172757
509
19417
281850
227748
858
219
12
313
147849

5571
208419
39460
1170
2585
14400
1681951
2940
1527
559427
133872
391977
142695
648494
100
436499
3860
10603
175961
1870
3797
15920
6380
2715
36563
129
44219
190
3400
69920
334
296745
120073
418
19050
237549
202654
850
205
11
388
166103

0HPRUDQGXPLWHPV
World excluding a
intra-EU (28) imports

8093754

9304605 10658179 12545480

9695897

Europe excluding
intra-EU (28) imports

1803146

2096049

2131315

2444930

2868646

12120694 14574719 15060295 15242945 15210831 13322611


2514409

2994467

2976195

2952208

2904959

2496475

a Includes significant imports for re-export.


b Imports are valued f.o.b.
1RWH Breaks in the continuity of the value series for particular countries and regional groupings are indicated by an 'I'. They result mainly from changes in the methods of collecting and reporting merchandise trade
statistics.
It should be noted that the World and Asia totals contain a significant element of double counting due to the use of the general system of recording merchandise trade statistics which includes re-exports.
Recent figures for a number of countries and territories have been estimated by the Secretariat.

141

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A60. World exports of commercial services by region and


selected economy, 2006-2015
(Million dollars)

World
North America
Bermuda
Canada
Mexico
United States
South and Central America
Anguilla
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Aruba (the Netherlands with respect to)
Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Bolivia, Plurinational State of
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Curaao
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatemala
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Montserrat
Netherlands Antilles
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Sint Maarten
Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of
Europe
Albania
Austria
Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia

142

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2942000

3522900

3964000

3533600

3842000

4349500

4468000

4747300

5063800

4754000

479800
1490
64883
15888
397516

555600
1585
69289
17233
467475

606300
1431
73471
17667
513733

575400
1273
67075
14821
492184

635400
1342
75297
15233
543549

706200
1393
83665
15581
605590

738800
1330
87765
16146
633576

775200
1316
88722
20194
664948

797700
1317
85181
21086
690127

790300
1308
76292
22609
690061

83420
122
462
7713
1290
2403
1579
343
673
16978
7861
3675
4015
7201
99
6560
965
1477
129
1410
148
140
1810
2613
14
1991
500
3936
277
2533
172
342
169
214
802
1361
1445

99156
133
510
10007
1452
2566
1667
371
676
22615
9030
3899
5584
8588
108
6779
1118
1516
167
1619
173
203
1831
2670
14
2111
625
4315
425
3022
168
354
159
219
910
1804
1748

113706
122
547
11689
1586
2493
1792
356
734
28822
10738
4496
5765
9252
111
6813
1357
1506
166
1977
212
373
2006
2763
14
2089
803
5125
397
3514
155
362
151
232
918
2241
2028

103213
109
499
10542
1518
2311
1465
317
702
26245
8493
4495
3913
8444
106
6210
1245
1263
150
1982
170
429
1841
2616
12
2060
814
5457
451
3499
126
350
137
257
758
2283
1944

116144
113
466
13173
1545
2456
1601
325
688
29273
11149
5023
4719
10546
131
5170
1375
1466
150
2168
248
402
2076
2600
11
1965
848
6350
573
3552
129
368
136
207
869
2654
1617

132624
128
469
15088
1663
2446
1257
311
927
35331
13105
5543
5492
11149
1342
143
5446
1490
1578
157
2123
298
487
2221
2587
12
1048
8021
650
4121
137
378
137
899
191
1020
3607
1621

140766
127
470
14813
1741
2648
1206
371
1105
37393
12387
6335
6292
12760
1486
108
5778
1694
1805
161
2318
298
493
2210
2661
13
1157
9243
667
4770
137
389
138
1039
160
...
3567
1806

143967
136
452
14369
1863
2631
1385
421
1197
36482
12452
6772
6737
13027
1636
115
6095
1911
2019
161
2417
165
595
2304
2641
14
1237
10035
772
5665
145
406
138
1063
165
...
3447
1849

146807
141
463
13488
2022
2671
1359
465
1329
39047
10967
6782
6890
12663
1753
117
6691
2218
2165
184
2687
181
643
2465
2828
16
1302
10721
824
5721
156
444
140
1122
198
...
3311
1562

140030
147
473
13652
2082
2695
1429
468
1528
32989
9737
7150
7676
10551
1511
130
7200
2217
2257
194
2644
...
677
2634
2912
16
1342
11176
794
6070
159
445
147
...
167
...
2967
1456

1571700
1623
45138
59994
1137
...
11170
...
15516
52289
3781

1885100
2083
53872
74713
1985
8283
13012
...
18970
62281
4658

2104100
2674
62465
94829
2238
9753
15771
10445
23695
73707
5644

1845600
2589
53303
90406
1880
8342
12626
9111
20570
56748
4568

1890000
2536
52178
96527
1860
8075
11944
9060
21463
61035
4676

2128200
2776
58564
103167
1867
8983
13073
9855
24676
66810
5577

2127600
2384
57266
104340
1725
8791
12458
9220
24314
66942
5688

2298900
2242
63883
110572
1768
9098
13038
10240
24578
70947
6425

2450800
2455
66638
121977
1832
8948
13602
10030
25202
72502
7003

2209200
2208
57947
109347
1640
7923
12510
8774
22838
60919
5820

Statistical Tables

A60. World exports of commercial services by region and


selected economy, 2006-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)
2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

175
17891
164544
738
175175
35744
13471
2182
66114
101047
3004
3590
49794
5220
...
...
31813
22510
18195
12242
...
7343
4545
...
43188
69899
25756
264987

214
23476
195791
1034
205412
43098
16947
2996
81357
115102
4336
4198
63261
6594
933
...
37600
31700
22979
13046
3131
8633
5751
...
53261
83939
29601
311472

252
31913
223126
1241
236270
50503
20351
2757
90431
114703
5327
5009
67674
9790
1193
...
42385
38136
25792
16318
4002
9434
7435
...
58654
94885
36649
303617

170
28121
192817
1086
217755
37854
18427
2662
85172
95994
4355
4043
57095
9831
1053
...
35166
31288
22383
11759
3481
6590
6138
...
49908
90012
35355
261373

191
27616
201110
975
220044
37093
19301
3001
89922
99779
4004
4457
61979
10025
1053
159758
41206
35173
22573
10348
3512
6402
6156
...
52812
92796
35970
265793
1706251
744461

207
29176
235006
1443
245239
39153
24056
3436
104716
109065
4788
5525
72197
11011
1276
173467
40882
41212
26577
12038
4200
7261
6810
...
64683
105784
40753
304080
1924750
845211

200
28512
233702
1361
242023
34583
20488
3480
109507
107065
4803
6059
75473
10644
1211
166448
46372
41763
25502
12608
3967
7761
6553
121870
65423
107407
42815
317153
1915884
863637

...
29347
255311
1527
261184
37044
22498
3975
122703
110628
5140
7098
88528
11320
1317
177060
48575
44491
28869
17812
4544
9143
7046
125639
71320
112501
47400
332276
2074090
944066

...
27916
274699
1690
272441
40954
24359
4249
134651
114116
5064
7699
99455
12202
1368
194824
49305
48011
31112
19925
5033
9062
7350
132044
75580
116629
51030
361350
2216048
1005359

...
24184
239682
1515
247309
30757
21412
4250
127713
98553
4442
6587
95111
10637
1347
178068
40290
43425
27775
18534
4232
8031
6600
117442
70980
108013
45910
345052
1998792
914715

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)


Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Moldova
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan

58200
584
867
2657
829
2584
351
517
35482
110
...
11713
773

72700
755
1380
3522
989
3254
654
700
43563
116
...
14734
962

92500
828
1576
4553
1167
3988
795
950
56531
134
...
18699
1196

76100
776
2020
3683
1241
3823
628
764
45357
142
...
14411
1036

85600
1001
2397
4761
1556
3900
586
745
48644
399
...
17729
1328

101100
1286
2934
5573
1927
4078
846
956
57345
531
...
20618
1773

111100
1376
4681
6276
2465
4606
951
982
61465
746
...
21373
2343

121900
1493
4106
7466
2885
4906
1027
1098
69111
737
...
21851
2526

111400
1594
4269
7853
2954
6110
890
1093
64818
310
...
14582
...

93700
1484
4423
6620
3066
5941
838
942
50984
197
...
12129
...

Africa
Algeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cabo Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros

65400
2512
195
196
763
55
6
900
366
22
80
43

77700
2787
311
281
836
78
7
1239
474
26
111
51

87400
3412
329
328
201
115
3
1355
581
29
129
56

80800
2745
623
204
841
142
2
1141
472
28
234
51

90200
3442
857
348
940
265
7
1240
487
34
273
55

91900
3527
732
391
1155
394
20
1809
569
37
294
64

99200
3570
780
414
1009
408
16
1543
577
35
290
61

95000
3701
1316
500
1167
458
32
1888
628
48
278
70

99200
3460
1681
456
1245
427
35
1866
608
...
...
74

96600
3622
1751
...
1118
...
...
...
497
...
...
...

Faeroe Islands
Finland
France
FYR Macedonia
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Montenegro
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Serbia
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) exports

143

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A60. World exports of commercial services by region and


selected economy, 2006-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)
2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Congo
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
Cte d'Ivoire
Djibouti
Egypt
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
The Gambia
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia, Republic of
Libya
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Tunisia
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe

251
219
815
97
15834
23
...
859
121
92
1243
38
3
1987
35
143
385
565
62
291
76
1663
10857
364
505
84
2057
171
8
710
410
40
...
12757
246
268
1467
159
4020
458
562
294

303
253
889
92
19660
26
...
1114
138
128
1614
44
33
2418
39
156
109
846
70
360
74
2194
13390
404
579
79
1097
203
6
1088
456
43
...
14519
468
486
1836
197
4620
503
672
250

352
451
987
131
24668
32
...
1592
160
118
1559
95
44
2531
45
182
208
1102
72
443
121
2530
14725
489
538
126
1834
351
9
1169
464
59
...
13588
382
252
1966
253
5649
687
619
222

358
522
1010
142
21302
28
...
1516
142
104
1522
67
32
2198
36
142
385
736
75
336
140
2225
14388
544
638
100
1760
265
10
905
418
100
...
12836
283
202
1795
265
5076
857
529
262

409
291
1026
149
23618
44
...
1911
163
131
1344
61
42
3016
42
40
410
961
75
356
105
2656
14329
245
664
119
2619
259
13
936
440
56
...
15676
212
250
2001
289
5298
1033
571
308

562
326
870
144
19031
48
...
2549
266
144
1679
71
43
3326
41
365
40
1160
81
379
185
3215
15486
366
723
64
2314
368
18
1029
465
157
...
16950
300
296
2256
464
4286
1614
665
363

572
225
846
147
21336
45
...
2537
346
151
3200
156
21
3880
37
350
152
1308
100
312
128
3364
14947
792
1059
69
2067
359
17
1080
672
176
...
17203
861
225
2753
405
4754
1942
990
359

686
167
790
169
17881
48
...
2867
385
205
2353
100
38
4042
29
321
180
1253
106
372
168
2734
13935
645
912
141
1916
393
36
1177
818
219
...
16401
1019
214
3142
437
4577
2272
758
...

729
163
797
...
20262
49
...
2734
402
...
1977
...
45
4027
28
216
79
1294
95
404
255
3119
15223
725
1021
271
1495
325
70
1160
825
202
...
16458
1414
269
3376
439
4555
1828
851
...

...
...
...
...
18156
...
...
2851
...
...
5712
...
...
3692
...
223
...
1114
98
...
...
2654
13746
675
1100
...
2742
352
67
...
839
...
...
14665
1397
316
3665
...
3022
1945
...
...

Middle East
Bahrain, Kingdom of
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait, the State of
Lebanese Republic
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of
Syrian Arab Republic
United Arab Emirates
Yemen

78700
3462
5544
353
19020
2850
7495
11657
1311
3484
13973
2649
6259
468

90700
3681
6791
839
21372
3436
9104
12748
1683
3129
16160 I
3561
7434
578

98800
3916
7629
1249
25009
4353
11362
17620
1826
2276
9132
4145
8958
1049

96400
3831
7888
1730
22516
4197
10891
16895
1620
1943
9428
4583
9503
1085

105100
4233
8657
2199
25356
5221
8429
15972
1808
2826
10351
7040
11028
1471

112800
3296
8202
2159
29426
5250
9503
19621
2330
5580
11116
2434
12063
1111

117500
3085
8259
2657
32884
6030
8250
14484
2689
8851
10575
...
15276
1412

126100
3302
8776
3092
34463
6026
5594
15051
2931
10294
11308
...
20422
1551

133600
3335
9342
3873
35358
6597
5684
13725
3066
12775
11962
...
22982
1507

140900
...
9592
4961
34452
5760
5676
...
...
14103
13807
...
26358
...

144

Statistical Tables

A60. World exports of commercial services by region and


selected economy, 2006-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)

Asia
Afghanistan
Australia
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia
China
Fiji
French Polynesia
Hong Kong, China
India
Indonesia
Japan
Kiribati
Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of
Korea, Republic of
Lao People's Dem. Rep.
Macao, China
Malaysia
Maldives
Micronesia, Federated States of
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Philippines
Samoa
Singapore
Solomon Islands
Sri Lanka
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Tonga
Tuvalu
Vanuatu
Viet Nam
Memorandum items:
World excluding
intra-EU (28) exports
Europe excluding
intra-EU (28) exports

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

604700
...
32524
922
42
745
1272
93492
850
876
54384
69166
11157
107229
8
...
55703
203
10564
20971
549
22
483
291
252
296
9739
2214
305
11064
138
59013
47
1604
28818
24414
25
22
2
140
5060

741900
...
39745
1021
52
813
1396
124895
902
977
64383
86235
12148
119438
10
...
70030
255
14337
28988
1572
25
575
313
340
355
11490
2185
313
13502
167
73995
51
1755
32940
29876
32
27
2
177
6415

861300
1129
42431
1100
51
867
1495
144677
1097
1004
69841
105668
14885
138696
12
...
90127
359
18024
30714
1633
26
517
328
494
389
11693
2517
318
13055
168
89421
44
1981
36525
32781
23
32
3
225
6956

756200
1752
39195
968
53
915
1746
121613
786
847
64602
92484
12691
118447
11
...
71638
374
18977
28249
1538
29
415
315
600
346
10088
2522
160
14084
162
81593
55
1874
31201
29893
24
28
2
241
5666

919600
2060
45836
1236
67
462
1917
153606
928
774
80468
116583
16331
131833
11
...
82244
489
29007
34588
1804
32
483
337
583
409
11448
2931
279
17770
172
100575
89
2454
39976
34086
31
41
3
271
7355

1076600
2687
51733
1419
80
502
2603
200294
1078
866
91232
137935
21316
137871
13
...
89706
526
39844
38751
2098
29
617
727
775
404
13092
3457
387
18866
181
118649
108
3062
45499
41280
26
49
3
279
8581

1133000
1391
53046
1352
97
483
3054
200586
1113
845
98425
145030
23070
133838
12
...
102298
553
45364
40498
2173
30
959
1183
769
387
12980
3205
433
20425
196
127475
115
3773
48616
49306
30
70
4
295
9510

1186200I
931
52604
1526
121
493
3354
205778 I
1109
857
104656
148188
22334
132650
11
...
102531
761
53619
42005
2586
30
707
2679
968
420
13318
3309
384
23321
206
139955
123
4657
50696
58251
49
70
3
339
10585

1324300
1159
53368
1627
123
557
3713
279423
1164
934
106566
155670
22920
158626
11
...
110961
746
53134
41860
3020
33
573
4127
1078
413
14201
3509
177
25483
196
150449
109
5574
56520
54993
62
49
...
320
10833

1283300
799
48374
1684
122
577
3775
285476
1169
...
104152
155288
21259
157863
...
...
96844
790
39902
34759
3040
...
646
...
1139
...
14135
3277
79
28153
...
139335
95
6366
56473
60280
57
59
...
295
11054

...

...

...

...

2880200

3270000

3415700

3617200

3853100

3669900

...

...

...

...

928200

1048700

1075300

1168900

1240100

1125100

145

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A61. World imports of commercial services by region


and selected economy, 2006-2015
(Million dollars)

:RUOG
North America
Bermuda
Canada
Mexico
United States
South and Central America
Anguilla
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Aruba (the Netherlands with respect to)
Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Bolivia, Plurinational State of
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Curaao
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatemala
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Montserrat
Netherlands Antilles
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Sint Maarten
Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of
Europe
Albania
Austria
Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia

146









































410000
837
72185
23128
313812

450800
1091
81383
24051
344315

494600
1021
88317
25092
380172

461200
966
82024
22822
355341

498000
995
97239
22451
377353

537400
879
105957
26104
404468

561900
881
110621
26203
424152

579200
879
111547
28364
438366

591300
953
106721
30341
453265

594900
882
95405
29495
469110

80861
91
249
8105
722
1510
643
143
807
26183
8736
5973
1535
1258
50
1510
2271
1205
101
1756
245
574
1027
1969
15
750
509
1641
365
3277
96
182
80
251
311
937
5782

102253
103
271
10395
751
1502
607
159
880
34700
10352
6751
1723
1325
63
1691
2487
1290
104
2017
273
491
1058
2226
16
789
660
2078
443
4224
100
199
103
293
327
1079
10723

123734
102
270
12887
759
1306
700
161
993
44396
11946
7823
1776
2079
69
1895
2950
1277
106
2010
325
592
1213
2304
17
866
804
2602
569
5577
121
209
98
367
271
1462
12831

116446
70
217
11716
650
1069
652
154
990
44075
10503
7917
1483
1673
65
1741
2574
952
91
2106
272
633
942
1824
16
927
696
2118
515
4671
97
185
87
246
335
1233
12949

143001
54
214
14259
641
1101
672
154
1125
57813
13046
9275
1832
1923
65
3156
2941
1054
89
2388
344
731
1143
1767
16
911
680
2709
700
5893
107
200
86
237
371
1470
13836

170961
54
203
17117
807
1258
499
162
1625
70984
16178
10748
1792
2462
820
64
2763
3046
1152
91
2498
434
755
1417
1884
17
805
4235
864
6359
112
197
80
238
553
468
1989
16231

181636
55
197
17568
785
1522
487
177
1895
75832
15131
12112
2054
2406
888
65
2804
3090
1301
89
2525
526
773
1689
2088
15
851
4214
906
7183
113
183
82
262
611
...
2350
18340

191879
56
212
17899
841
1615
683
195
2302
81053
15855
12683
2100
2306
904
68
2621
3401
1429
93
2739
503
780
1643
1978
15
1024
4868
1048
7458
119
181
86
263
589
...
3179
18594

193563
57
219
16357
877
1713
678
213
3007
85916
14724
13381
2182
2074
887
70
2687
3423
1434
91
3006
426
858
1745
2170
15
988
4546
1085
7514
125
174
86
289
800
...
3141
16104

170450
58
238
17490
845
1194
683
207
2352
68921
13444
11084
2618
2125
988
72
2970
3118
1498
93
3011
...
766
1746
2076
16
902
4357
1071
7794
139
176
88
...
713
...
2608
13921

1356900
1541
35109
55833
458
...
3754
...
12097
46975
2521

1611800
1892
40922
72956
487
5785
4158
...
14570
56426
3131

1812500
2354
45142
89028
585
6691
5237
5669
18333
65992
3515

1587300
2216
38923
82177
631
5577
4379
4922
16175
54182
2587

1624200
1989
38643
87383
533
4568
3802
4977
17381
54448
2921

1797500
2235
44363
94754
549
4966
4011
5253
20065
61266
3769

1792700
1861
44044
97702
506
5286
3927
5037
20288
60866
3983

1935400
1921
50884
103820
498
5474
4030
6125
20857
62321
4695

2067500
2029
53207
116806
526
5597
3995
6149
22456
62109
4800

1886000
1644
45505
105530
483
4927
3796
5440
19767
53526
4005

Statistical Tables

A61. World imports of commercial services by region


and selected economy, 2006-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)




















274
19002
145260
538
223313
17623
11953
2415
81807
104426
2026
2485
34377
4282
...
...
31558
19590
10948
6934
...
6088
3342
...
38826
48686
11017
184817

359
22960
168222
728
257577
21844
15602
2862
98720
125564
2791
3316
44098
5199
386
...
41134
24042
13188
8887
3436
7759
4374
...
46739
56397
14933
207493

382
31533
193844
942
286977
26662
18328
2409
114654
129596
3295
4120
46072
7890
596
...
47551
30394
15215
11941
4266
9896
5245
...
52883
63734
17092
210460

343
27853
175159
784
248828
21274
16780
1960
107516
107711
2385
2954
39594
8389
452
...
36781
24019
13615
10379
3427
7781
4474
...
45013
65316
15971
176637

366
27317
180898
779
262101
19819
15800
2171
109690
110950
2301
2924
45526
8436
439
135650
44950
30707
14128
8260
3485
7244
4469
...
46385
69235
18507
178485
1481219
602455

394
29626
202017
920
294464
19082
19148
2579
118795
116482
2751
3710
53491
9168
434
149982
47625
33916
15592
9657
3938
7623
4765
...
54570
82805
19574
191445
1635868
657478

200
31125
202228
941
292143
15659
15583
2722
119615
106426
2739
4211
56615
8873
438
142570
52328
33771
13476
9386
3768
7164
4543
63905
55498
86012
19422
195675
1624139
656289

...
31506
226193
1005
324691
16145
17196
2806
123550
108415
2806
5213
67386
9416
441
151233
56210
34243
14395
11475
4070
8586
4651
62716
59402
92261
23018
202225
1752544
713200

...
30523
251769
1193
329354
16779
17644
3097
145054
113659
2774
5458
77029
9890
437
172714
56052
36537
16008
12070
4373
8948
4999
68013
66465
98136
23054
210230
1877800
790217

...
25756
228159
1119
289475
12048
15592
2807
151566
99260
2506
4596
71997
8341
459
157116
45758
32461
14171
10786
3498
7933
4280
64579
59542
92378
20819
207704
1716384
732313

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS


Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Moldova
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan

71900
665
2859
1691
693
8672
455
461
45237
393
...
8623
402

93500
931
3331
2063
874
11612
599
619
59201
590
...
11104
390

116700
1123
3852
2735
1162
11014
904
794
75704
453
...
15831
427

95000
1040
3613
2208
913
9898
737
682
61209
289
...
11125
415

111300
1252
3845
3000
1003
11198
792
678
73226
524
...
12189
486

131600
1351
5741
3347
1206
10848
955
802
89388
666
...
12759
557

156400
1479
7330
4038
1369
12644
1314
877
106717
885
...
13994
943

179800
1611
8176
5245
1480
12095
1098
946
125742
1064
...
15538
1032

173500
1686
10187
5729
1615
12639
1218
968
118909
608
...
11702
...

134300
1549
8553
4332
1614
11489
949
797
86868
356
...
9787
...

Africa
Algeria
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cabo Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros

85600
4533
6860
346
571
346
193
1426
251
120
2124
54

108800
6358
11997
491
727
435
173
1719
292
147
1702
62

141400
10484
20451
500
402
590
241
2596
357
164
1838
77

126000
11159
18210
488
633
546
160
1902
315
156
1851
83

140500
11489
16028
503
824
817
156
1717
297
196
2376
93

158500
12034
22415
497
958
1130
189
1952
326
201
2390
107

162400
10470
21151
575
727
1170
188
2058
361
193
2299
103

163000
10276
21269
761
774
1407
221
2626
338
161
2580
107

173500
11244
24230
884
681
1296
245
2735
362
...
...
113

156900
10522
18783
...
596
...
...
...
300
...
...
...

Faeroe Islands
Finland
France
FYR Macedonia
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Malta
Montenegro
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Serbia
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
European Union (28)
Extra-EU (28) imports

147

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A61. World imports of commercial services by region


and selected economy, 2006-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)




















Congo
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
Cte d'Ivoire
Djibouti
Egypt
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
The Gambia
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia, Republic of
Libya
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Tunisia
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe

2422
763
2239
81
10288
845
...
1154
1207
94
1442
238
40
1252
358
217
2324
600
142
674
387
1312
3562
720
420
327
12115
232
16
808
274
76
...
13803
2454
365
1212
261
2245
756
488
485

3523
1443
2423
99
13088
1128
...
1733
1426
87
1812
259
68
1499
354
219
2456
1005
141
776
487
1562
4527
820
504
369
15553
270
15
1214
243
87
...
15890
2615
495
1364
303
2570
958
807
502

3565
1856
2666
121
16335
1657
...
2361
1599
86
2038
400
85
1716
379
344
3572
1350
133
1024
732
1910
5612
918
578
600
22577
403
19
1388
241
112
...
16552
2464
629
1627
358
3109
1234
805
510

3209
1692
2608
114
12765
2058
...
2187
1253
83
2366
294
85
1653
397
141
4323
1114
136
817
607
1586
5301
987
569
736
16487
440
17
1108
235
123
...
14980
2079
540
1685
374
2710
1377
640
611

3678
2497
2740
104
12991
2564
...
2534
1805
73
2444
387
101
1890
410
234
5251
1097
205
1007
638
1951
5660
1176
723
845
19868
451
22
1076
259
242
...
19158
2406
652
1843
395
3054
1774
849
860

4368
2633
2635
127
13129
2603
...
3308
2507
68
3126
530
100
2003
462
266
3555
1144
225
1115
725
2428
6713
2209
775
868
22470
547
27
1242
262
418
...
20430
2123
867
2157
467
3002
2413
1052
1149

3594
1944
2773
127
15557
3068
...
3581
2303
80
3838
772
73
2287
424
420
6279
1118
203
1059
968
2382
6578
4448
718
828
22412
425
24
1298
383
518
...
18438
1985
808
2310
437
2989
2459
1290
963

4107
2309
3056
161
14808
2642
...
3363
2536
78
4371
619
87
2206
352
437
7388
1202
221
1214
941
2143
6418
3857
927
978
20079
511
43
1410
469
681
...
17599
1922
676
2436
471
3139
2739
1770
...

4981
2678
3140
...
16800
2889
...
4230
2524
...
3833
...
116
2698
311
634
6966
1084
246
1174
848
2426
7693
3624
1132
1038
22546
397
77
1414
500
1201
...
16625
1905
620
2599
426
3112
2709
1596
...

...
...
...
...
16658
...
...
4612
...
...
4948
...
...
2523
...
617
...
991
270
...
...
2176
7039
3285
1080
...
18836
427
62
...
496
...
...
15111
1671
516
2569
...
2590
2738
...
...

Middle East
Bahrain, Kingdom of
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait, the State of
Lebanese Republic
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of
Syrian Arab Republic
United Arab Emirates
Yemen

122500
1605
11407
5030
14864
2854
8805
8716
3896
6864
29488
2437
24322
1800

160000
1701
14760
4741
17462
3356
10494
9968
5095
7348
46331 I
2917
33372
1811

189400
2030
17100
7168
19582
3926
14799
13440
5878
7067
49571
3096
42773
2289

175100
1741
16937
8426
17169
3672
12886
14023
5484
5662
47039
2623
36752
2025

192500
1905
18153
9606
18539
4312
14323
13010
6364
7666
50996
3437
41337
2103

224500
1778
17285
10870
20004
4357
17585
12944
7724
15548
54954
2818
55702
2112

235000
1480
14881
13016
20504
4465
20014
11425
8767
22126
49889
...
62301
2296

242500
1560
15287
14353
20559
4500
19873
12828
9808
24844
51745
...
61157
2208

266400
1618
15679
14482
22225
4532
22338
12501
10228
30007
62683
...
63744
2486

257200
1621
13680
12200
22120
4578
22993
...
...
28390
56520
...
65650
...

148

Statistical Tables

A61. World imports of commercial services by region and


selected economy, 2006-2015 (continued)
(Million dollars)

Asia
Afghanistan
Australia
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia
China
Fiji
French Polynesia
Hong Kong, China
India
Indonesia
Japan
Kiribati
Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of
Korea, Republic of
Lao People's Dem. Rep.
Macao, China
Malaysia
Maldives
Micronesia, Federated States of
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Philippines
Samoa
Singapore
Solomon Islands
Sri Lanka
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Tonga
Tuvalu
Vanuatu
Viet Nam
0HPRUDQGXPLWHPV
World excluding
intra-EU (28) imports
Europe excluding
intra-EU (28) imports





















682500
...
32663
2309
61
1035
760
100332
530
542
63558
58041
21342
139755
30
...
69598
31
3107
23421
226
55
514
541
488
1119
7997
8177
1584
6491
62
66198
66
2359
31690
32430
45
29
10
66
5082

801400
...
41270
2872
86
1115
772
128269
515
602
68572
69757
24325
156856
39
...
83889
38
4655
28475
326
55
456
629
716
1313
9519
8562
1945
7418
62
76296
95
2568
34015
37814
52
35
20
70
7137

927500
565
48322
3588
118
1181
799
155477
622
707
72466
87238
28219
176769
43
...
96940
102
5893
30060
419
59
616
599
840
1318
10370
9366
1817
10875
63
90957
111
2975
34076
45772
102
48
23
129
7881

814600
658
41609
3184
95
1215
810
145139
462
698
60977
79628
22892
153971
39
...
81646
130
5050
27257
394
83
559
593
828
1040
8602
5966
1823
8965
66
83915
101
2487
28950
36300
292
44
19
106
8046

983000
1352
50765
4122
135
1076
947
181824
444
594
70246
114037
25971
162921
44
...
96546
258
7482
32400
446
77
768
754
845
1300
10135
6551
2737
11714
79
101020
180
3075
36987
44774
450
42
26
123
9771

1141900
1981
61671
4978
171
1541
1289
246779
533
556
74117
124198
31157
173807
54
...
102043
325
10546
38083
576
76
1770
1067
761
1371
12021
7408
2937
12013
77
118006
183
3973
41233
51965
710
62
35
143
11707

1228900
2257
65728
5230
188
2237
1501
280260
562
506
76467
128955
33639
182829
57
...
107794
333
11347
43131
567
78
2048
1434
882
1420
12291
7634
3715
13962
88
129548
188
4406
41833
52767
465
74
25
145
12353

1289600
2002
67085
6194
171
2423
1735
329419
551
488
75046
125189
34425
169040
58
...
109161
523
11757
44973
692
77
2019
2162
971
1387
12513
7241
3853
16058
87
146260
235
5232
41789
54598
331
87
17
148
13635

1447500
1809
62409
7195
184
1853
1854
450805
547
487
73797
126710
33076
190185
44
...
114741
479
10490
45161
791
74
2139
2561
1150
1303
13015
7751
2249
20607
73
155248
217
5590
45065
52919
359
78
...
143
14305

1412000
1686
53674
8745
178
1885
1878
466330
469
...
73909
122225
30222
173689
...
...
112345
554
10301
39814
860
...
1520
...
1225
...
11523
7378
1037
23599
...
143268
170
5886
46756
50473
357
70
...
180
15292

...

...

...

...

2813800

3184000

3351100

3542000

3825600

3627600

...

...

...

...

745400

819100

824900

896000

979900

901900

149

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A62. Sales by affiliates of foreign companies - resident affiliates primarily


engaged in services activities (inward FATS), 2011-2013
(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value

Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria a
Canada
China b
Costa Rica b, c
Croatia a
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark a
Estonia a
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hong Kong, China b, d
Hungary
India b, e, f
Ireland a
Israel a, e
Italy a
Japan b, c, f, g
Latvia h
Lithuania
Luxembourg a
Malta a, i
Netherlands
New Zealand b, f
Norway a
Poland a
Portugal
Romania
Serbia a
Slovak Republic j
Slovenia k
Spain
Sweden a
Thailand b, c
United Kingdom a
United States b, c
Viet Nam b, c
Zambia b, c
Memorandum item:
European Union a
Extra-EU a, l

Annual percentage change

2011

2012

2013

2008-2013

2011

2012

2013

52.6
75.9
6.1
177.5
134.0
...
...
1.5
44.1
39.3
2.9
20.7
229.4
281.8
...
155.4
30.8
8.7
79.5
13.0
119.4
85.6
4.0
4.5
13.4
1.1
113.3
5.8
39.5
39.0
23.5
19.3
3.7
10.6 |
3.4
117.0
69.1
35.6
360.6
761.5
7.4
1.3

50.1
74.6
6.1
191.9
...
...
4.0
1.4
40.5
35.4
2.8
20.7
208.2
293.7
9.8
167.9
27.8
...
79.8
...
110.5
172.5
4.1
4.7
14.5
1.3
103.8
...
42.1
36.3
19.0
19.5
3.0
12.7
3.2
103.5
69.9
29.8
379.8
751.3
...
1.2

53.3
...
6.3
196.5
...
2.6
4.6
1.7
38.2
37.8
2.9
...
223.6
315.6
9.3
185.7
28.8
...
...
...
115.7
143.4
4.0
5.1
16.8
...
113.1
...
43.2
41.5
20.3
20.8
3.5
10.0
3.2
110.5
...
10.6
...
800.3
...
1.5

0
21

-2
0

-2
-1

6
-3

-2

2
1

1
3
-7

-1

-2

14
-29
15
14

38
5
7
15
17
3
12

8
15

30
9
7
-1
20
27

11

9
14
-10

5
17
61
14
3
69

-5
-2
1
8

-10
-8
-10
-1
0
-9
4

8
-10

-7
102
3
4
8
21
-8

7
-7
-19
1
-19

-7
-12
1
-16
5
-1

-4

2
2

15
21
-6
7
3

7
7
-5
11
4

5
-17
-3
9
16

3
14
7
7
18
-21
1
7

-65

24

1520
672.5

...
...

13
49

-2
5

1549.5
643.3

Excluding wholesale and retail trade as well as repair activities. Unless otherwise specified:
- all or a large part of financial service activities are excluded;
- insurance activities and/or activities auxiliary to financial and insurance activities are included;
- all or a large part of community, social and personal services activities are excluded.
* Data for 2011 for China refer to 2008. Data for 2011 for India refer to 2009.
a Insurance activities and activities auxiliary to financial and insurance activities are not covered.
b Financial service activities are included.
c Community, social and personal services activities are included.
d Includes other income.
e Output instead of sales.
f Fiscal year as reference period.
g No estimation for non-response. Real estate activities are not covered.
h Insurance activities and administrative and support activities are excluded in 2013.
i Accomodation and food services excluded in 2011.
j No insurance activities prior to 2012.
k No insurance activities after 2011. No real estate activities in 2013.
l It refers to the sales by foreign affiliates which are established in the EU (28) and controlled by non-EU (27) entities.
1RWH : Given the recent development of this statistical framework, comparability and coverage of data may not always be complete. See the Metadata.

150

Statistical Tables

A63. Sales by foreign affiliates of resident companies - affiliates located abroad primarily engaged in services activities (outward FATS),
2011-2013
(Billion dollars and percentage)
Value
2011

Annual percentage change


2012

2013

2008-2013

2011

2012

2013

Australia a

23.3

...

...

Austria

38.2

37.2

38.5

-3

Belgium b

24.5

28.0

60.8

14

117

Canada c

158.6

163.2

171.2

Costa Rica

...

...

0.1

Cyprus

3.5

3.3

2.4

-13

15

-5

-27

Czech Republic

0.3

0.2

0.9

-23

-28

297

Finland

22.7

23.1

22.8

-25

-1

France

465.1

456.4

482.1

10

-2

Germany

573.8

533.8

551.3

10

-7

Greece

4.1

4.4

4.6

36

Hungary

3.3

2.5

2.5

-5

41

-24

Israel b, d, e, f

3.7

...

...

Italy
R

188.8

184.5

190.3

-2

Japan g

37.9

143.4

172.3

26

-8

279

20

Korea, Republic of d, f, h

20.9

...

...

1.1

0.5

0.6

213

-57

28

Latvia
Lithuania i

0.6

0.4

2.7

80

174

-35

Luxembourg j

4.1

6.3

5.1

12

55

-18
48

Malta j

...

0.2

0.4

-3

Norway

36.7

41.3

44.1

25

12

Poland

2.9

3.5

1.7

22

21

-52

Portugal

20.2

19.0

22.8

11

-6

20

0.4

0.2

0.2

-16

49

-46

-20
8

Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden

United Kingdom i

United States

1.2

1.1

1.2

-9

211.4

169.2

171.1

28

-20

68.8

74.7

72.8

-10

-25

-2

699.9

781.0

719.9

-1

12

-8

1154.0

1198.7

1244.0

1296.9

1342.6

1351.6

Memorandum item:
8

Extra - EU k

Excluding wholesale and retail trade and repair activities.


a Refers to fiscal year 2009. Financial and insurance affiliates only.
b Classified under services according to activity of parent company.
c Part of professional, scientific and technical activities excluded.
d Financial intermediation activities are excluded.
e Refers to output.
f Part or all community, social and personal services are not covered.
g Also includes affiliates foreign owned by more than 10 per cent. Fiscal year as reference period. Excludes affiliates of mother companies active in finance, insurance and real estate. No estimation for non-response.
h Refers to 2009. Also includes affiliates in which a Korean corporation has invested capital of 10% or more. No estimation for non-response.
i Branches are excluded.
j Includes wholesale and retail trade and repair activities.
k It refers to the sales of affiliates which are established outside the EU (27) and controlled by EU (28) entities up to 2012. Starting in 2013, it refers to extra-EU(28) sales.
1RWH : Given the recent development of this statistical framework, comparability and coverage of data may not always be complete. See the Metadata.

151

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A64. Services supplied by United States affiliates established abroad


(outward FATS) and by foreign affiliates in the United States
(inward FATS) by economy of affiliate, 2013
(Million dollars and percentage)
Supply of services abroad
Value
2013

Share

Supply of services in the United States


Annual percentage
change

2013 2010-2013

Value

2012

2013

2013

Share

Annual percentage
change

2013 2010-2013

2012

2013

World
European Union (28)
Canada
Japan
Switzerland
Singapore

1320875
558724
127589
71568
64214
59522

100.0
42.3
9.7
5.4
4.9
4.5

5
3
3
1
1
13

3
1
1
2
-1
9

3
1
0
-7
6
9

World
European Union (28)
Japan
Canada
Switzerland
Australia

867683
451530
146509
84394
52024
22865

100.0
52.0
16.9
9.7
6.0
2.6

8
5
16
6
-2
20

4
4
7
1
-11
15

8
4
36
3
-1
4

Above 5
Australia
Mexico
China
Brazil
Hong Kong, China
India
British Virgin Islands
Bermuda
Korea, Republic of
Chile

881617
52580
43393
43257
39594
33770
21301
16264
15065
12571
11521

66.7
4.0
3.3
3.3
3.0
2.6
1.6
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9

5
8
14
10
3
14
18
1
5
11

0
8
14
2
0
5
4
17
0
15

4
7
9
3
3
25
43
-8
3
0

Above 5
Bermuda
Korea, Republic of
India
Singapore
Mexico
British Virgin Islands
China
Hong Kong, China
United Arab Emirates
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of

757322
17602
16121
11850
8331
7503
4464
4437
4214
2848
2451

87.3
2.0
1.9
1.4
1.0
0.9
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3

19
16
17
12
19
19
59
9
6

26
9
11
-4
15
42
222
-4
-7

3
16
8
-1
13
4
-1
4
5
52

1170933

88.6

Above 15

837143

96.5

Above 15

1RWH This information refers to supply of services products to foreigners by United States owned affiliates and supply of services products to United States persons by affiliates foreign owned. This differs from the FATS
data presented for the United States in the tables A62 and A63 which refer to sales of foreign affiliates operating in the services sector. For instance the latter include sales of goods of foreign affiliates whose primary activity
is classified as a service industry but not the supply of services of those whose primary activity is classified as a manufacturing industry.

152

Statistical Tables

A65. World merchandise exports of intermediate goods by region and


selected economy, 2004-2014 a
(Million dollars)

:RUOG
North America
Canada
Mexico
United States
South and Central America
Argentina
Bolivia, Plurinational State of
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of























4031777

4484826

5200590

6060378

6738733

5213156

6512978

7753929

7732032

8010560

7995717

142721
73650
472631

158036
83025
512476

175622
92810
581161

193198
95240
644353

199363
102411
717289

139413
79252
540369

176547
106075
664837

206109
127228
758953

201398
140162
764037

199507
143156
763970

201778
151179
770612

20426
1091
57657
24461
5614
3185
1657
1694
759
664
1354
654
415
149
1312
9812
2232
1410
5736

22896
1138
69007
31860
6919
3859
1539
1878
889
855
1881
747
465
159
1307
12813
2403
1561
5983

25837
1731
81059
47626
8410
4282
320
2130
1121
1110
1708
1196
463
1241
1298
18730
2817
1864
4164

33670
2128
92382
55401
10705
5180
1514
3159
1351
1262
2870
1479
611
1282
2274
21949
3965
2269
8500

42696
2919
116028
49114
11835
5413
1355
2440
1733
1585
3430
2146
948
1659
3590
23905
4893
2903
4571

32317
2824
94829
42453
9762
3474
909
1591
1669
1189
3175
1551
651
3437
2343
20822
1630
2784
2036

41489
3498
127797
57169
10380
4776
1136
1909
1971
1308
4066
1934
979
3289
3292
28060
3664
3567
3810

52640
4581
167830
64243
12466
5646
1674
2856
2629
1842
5298
2478
1274
5517
4361
35719
6966
4210
2536

48580
5411
155387
60931
12808
6386
1201
3041
2901
1894
4957
3329
2088
420
3765
34911
6854
4845
1358

45686
4939
157925
58453
11166
6346
1271
4137
2897
1871
4774
3335
2041
383
5650
30881
6273
5273
1861

41225
5656
147957
56920
10830
25741
950
4650
3611
1648
5070
3079
2032
343
5584
27057
6130
5157
4149

166
54039
150721
1016
4937
3075
239
38768
26480
3543
36023
186849

205
58342
165091
1599
5933
3499
243
44162
28578
4318
36103
194745

260
67140
181764
2276
8039
4091
272
52382
31766
4765
42806
217838

389
83285
219300
2724
9841
5275
336
66693
36445
5908
49226
252267

571
91423
233503
3108
11860
6054
437
78262
41810
6923
50616
275280

344
68485
180104
2085
8345
4465
389
57480
33536
4560
31829
207704

619
78207
209244
2719
10732
5058
522
67896
34327
5859
42233
233779

759
91664
243187
3403
15408
5878
711
85728
40452
7710
47717
268969

715
84797
227365
3175
13976
5560
622
81882
38444
7818
42835
249055

777
87573
250616
3355
15782
6079
570
86571
40015
8191
44254
254345

272
90016
231342
3542
15786
6372
559
92613
40985
7750
41248
251909

Europe
Albania
Austria
Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France

153

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A65. World merchandise exports of intermediate goods by region and


selected economy, 2004-2014 a (continued)
(Million dollars)

Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macedonia FYR
Malta
Moldova
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Serbia
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom























412508
6590
27975
1017
53517
161792
2643
3275
8275
504
1826
276
130296
16236
37790
18369
11199
0
14858
8477
77836
62803
57156
24584
150837

458604
7213
31737
1010
57536
170416
2943
4170
8408
611
1603
346
142530
18038
44083
19601
13358
2688
16461
9365
83392
65197
59577
28099
160446

532832
8813
36262
1233
55179
194557
3287
4836
9847
771
1910
349
163867
21595
55778
23118
16780
3941
19561
11338
94104
73380
66546
34976
178290

614244
9706
42772
1808
65345
233663
4540
7127
11217
976
2111
496
193500
28170
71975
27824
22047
5327
26410
14043
113525
86197
78336
44942
191004

681989
11932
47699
2728
68833
250225
5230
8780
12454
1215
2004
649
207852
29024
85240
29050
27044
6528
31382
15305
122612
92447
89637
61545
192154

505383
8920
34644
1965
60369
183628
3687
5899
8286
1956
1571
435
164041
21786
61289
21765
19749
4362
24976
10802
93290
65043
76278
46267
140461

591016
9658
41981
2459
61270
206921
4792
7359
9860
2079
1875
557
190210
24883
74973
25432
25940
5688
29591
12553
109338
81028
89044
52324
165787

701656
11543
52316
2806
69096
246027
6111
9912
11667
776
2022
952
238045
26996
92472
30733
33757
6921
36362
15173
135729
94980
104364
62658
197022

656515
10612
49610
2595
65999
230297
6340
10489
9747
1662
1983
840
225553
24941
88291
29041
32290
6203
36925
14089
125057
86605
186565
76925
187179

673168
10502
53753
2611
63706
235587
6202
11248
9636
2537
1895
1037
236559
24824
97967
30210
36524
7177
37837
14792
132562
83560
231867
69936
261787

690623
10501
56432
2546
64067
238863
6228
12196
10019
2537
1693
1045
238779
25015
103334
30570
39014
7434
37655
15495
134114
82304
177341
70293
232064

522
348
5366
332
6775
564
51857
568
22746

715
459
5677
396
7901
445
61563
702
24802

763
590
6790
513
11251
448
75109
794
28978

848
537
8727
727
15466
543
93153
958
36775

768
801
12127
977
21308
766
105425
867
50787

510
394
7526
642
12840
675
67167
673
29291

749
474
9904
868
15719
844
80314
926
36973

908
675
14618
1061
23706
1292
99737
871
49154

867
669
15600
1054
26232
912
119034
1015
50238

871
637
12496
1197
18426
1097
113823
756
47897

876
621
13193
1205
16448
929
112530
645
43165

752
254
346
838
609
3493
4611
446

830
233
296
824
598
3362
5393
507

1046
166
331
1173
736
3440
7086
555

1227
195
417
1394
279
3844
9108
990

1812
301
427
1667
320
4685
9558
1177

938
248
759
1434
305
5907
10282
1059

1200
241
1241
1683
243
6006
11562
1595

1692
254
2213
1725
246
7108
14336
1817

1740
329
2071
1576
172
6474
13130
2000

1765
445
2258
2402
197
6036
12970
2149

2276
589
2380
2036
151
7690
11601
2666

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)


Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Ukraine
Africa
Algeria
Benin
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Congo
Cte d'Ivoire
Egypt
Ethiopia

154

Statistical Tables

A65. World merchandise exports of intermediate goods by region and


selected economy, 2004-2014 a (continued)
(Million dollars)

Gabon
Ghana
Kenya
Lesotho
Madagascar
Malawi
Mauritania
Mauritius
Morocco
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
Senegal
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Tunisia
Uganda
Zambia





















576
1485
718
43
189
335
262
630
4415
1107
278
1030
76
524
26622
0
994
1109
324
3144
394
1461

712
2682
947
89
203
366
382
638
5232
1289
347
1170
106
589
30531
0
957
1269
286
3532
487
1675

734
3036
1095
122
247
515
620
666
6063
1761
326
434
104
494
34641
0
1143
1416
438
4009
573
3615

948
3244
1416
245
405
718
767
617
7191
1838
486
1812
133
623
42232
0
944
1615
249
5057
786
4361

934
3464
1803
124
274
757
1024
649
12083
1944
888
3563
211
823
48876
0
542
2279
468
7777
1092
4903

833
4688
1530
140
267
988
844
530
6490
576
560
3639
120
851
34128
0
462
2228
586
5589
908
4091

1625
5025
1751
136
301
875
412
565
10148
1536
401
9411
179
1027
51244
0
1312
3111
499
6548
939
6994

1624
8853
1779
182
384
1166
555
507
12816
2458
814
12898
285
1391
71311
0
1247
3883
697
6832
1310
8733

1216
10496
1850
175
430
994
1706
512
11874
2253
848
18116
299
1382
62220
3194
1561
4482
645
6645
1278
8829

1444
8417
1850
445
778
1009
1995
535
11114
2177
826
10194
370
1294
60338
3349
1728
3283
687
6876
1462
9517

1329
8191
1818
541
1229
972
1505
577
12017
2941
565
10061
390
1284
55387
2842
1706
4203
586
6474
1378
9187

1551
3179
25928
1660
1816
982
789
2259
11682
1086
12325
128

2041
4937
27693
1741
2051
1017
1138
1629
15212
1203
16620
187

2111
6503
29381
2106
2119
1349
1542
2592
17816
2593
18922
196

2421
7747
32181
2243
2355
1653
2190
3768
21285
2766
25506
315

3492
11008
42807
4122
3348
2117
3356
1755
20038
4231
37497
291

2092
8104
32341
3089
3890
2124
3670
4084
15726
2471
34400
198

3512
14047
39697
3521
5092
2403
4568
1701
28417
2692
44634
265

5640
16888
48086
4398
5995
2809
6706
2492
38918
1761
56433
364

4943
14893
43526
4159
6411
2855
7230
14914
41481
1009
85497
417

5838
14026
47922
3960
4639
1977
7949
5151
43325
728
85339
862

5796
12512
48731
4169
4487
1595
7205
454
51077
384
75334
351

41588
972
47
699
225730
232

48157
1281
137
682
293784
264

61365
2040
199
768
388368
237

72858
1918
396
686
495629
237

90537
1740
14
1108
600190
320

77017
1553
255
2228
458677
220

112872
2184
377
1982
627380
254

151339
2445
410
1918
772710
310

140914
1917
320
2653
818960
349

146462
1920
152
2916
909193
295

135261
1924
169
4388
963168
421

Middle East
Bahrain, Kingdom of
Iran
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanese Republic
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of
Syrian Arab Republic
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Asia
Australia
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Cambodia
China
Fiji

155

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A65. World merchandise exports of intermediate goods by region and


selected economy, 2004-2014 a (continued)
(Million dollars)

French Polynesia
Hong Kong domestic exports
India
Indonesia
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Macao, China
Malaysia
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
Sri Lanka
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Viet Nam
a Includes Secretariat estimates.

156





















129
8452
40983
34530

146
8181
53639
40973

129
10584
61837
50468

122
8792
75842
61273

123
9696
92679
71228

105
12543
79171
57673

99
9793
110649
80469

105
12583
136943
98890

104
18577
134076
88492

112
16072
155134
87268

119
6862
139897
83389

291509
131596
522
71579
678
935
272
8277
4893
26414
121302
1438
111139
47611
5277

311236
148064
483
76837
908
1161
319
8590
5565
27451
138123
1797
120734
52826
6439

334612
167259
509
87095
1356
1124
263
8972
5874
32409
165503
2010
148544
64051
9278

366646
193393
511
98464
1666
1364
377
10716
6269
32451
176256
2266
165582
78413
12257

397616
212502
349
91454
1595
1548
492
11296
6965
31418
184783
2303
170731
85135
16699

321557
183938
202
90804
1181
1309
477
9108
6177
23594
155739
1720
138987
75088
14797

420433
247531
50
115194
1837
2861
486
11138
7663
24284
202778
2256
186826
98781
20813

450837
290724
54
132576
2399
2786
510
13484
10564
25998
217860
3040
209291
121925
28708

436897
293165
77
125643
2247
2381
489
13408
10129
32895
218804
2670
203319
113757
37392

394556
308481
663
124048
2536
3878
461
14169
10201
38175
224365
2594
205793
113237
38855

375382
320424
152
127592
4169
15013
491
14227
9555
41076
225995
2890
221670
111877
44248

Statistical Tables

A66. World merchandise imports of intermediate goods by region and


selected economy, 2004-2014 a
(Million dollars)






















4195964

4673125

5352153

6286928

7024194

5382631

6766775

8036183

7952647

8186120

8230554

132753
125096
535025

146848
136831
596206

160277
155485
662813

169066
157058
682139

174059
178876
706164

137383
140303
518898

170419
182902
655606

194251
209386
772033

199447
220494
806015

195903
225752
805167

197676
237228
857887

90
12222
391
593
426
132
916
37628
9479
9887
4599
2208
59
2560
3555
1920
97
3311
241
1465
1378
772
2100
963
4718
73
132
88
281
1765
1416
7286

106
15284
239
756
484
140
1107
42712
11739
11303
5249
2901
61
3462
4254
3017
156
4938
294
1723
1678
880
1346
1185
5801
81
148
89
364
2059
1629
9585

160
18225
510
951
522
163
1293
51260
13530
13747
6492
2980
66
4498
4989
3549
114
3772
310
1965
1764
891
2475
1663
7031
102
193
101
382
2237
1884
10040

184
23492
544
962
534
173
1608
60872
16400
16935
6614
3062
74
5637
5959
3939
121
6092
381
2367
2089
1206
3167
2004
9038
106
144
123
447
2881
2298
12298

196
30244
526
933
575
234
2209
93737
20985
20293
8247
4399
91
6609
8335
4575
121
6747
442
4858
2433
1342
4443
2841
13441
124
159
134
572
3440
3124
21724

136
19874
341
831
452
204
1931
67826
14519
15733
4992
2523
80
5174
6799
3070
96
5138
387
2170
1723
1151
5008
2170
10220
111
123
123
605
2292
2442
19260

101
29211
308
809
439
207
2357
94536
19696
19477
7228
3040
83
6207
8701
3744
73
6226
454
2458
1689
1357
5853
3028
13867
102
122
116
538
2094
3243
16074

84
36781
413
941
497
212
3148
115536
24041
24987
8913
3713
107
8038
11005
4496
69
7482
511
3173
2048
1771
8364
3917
17472
102
119
114
629
2827
4189
22655

95
34532
381
1101
475
241
3418
114494
25366
25888
9253
3645
74
7192
11706
4614
63
7415
588
3032
1995
2038
3729
3690
18337
76
125
122
679
2716
4036
27970

97
35537
282
1054
484
258
3515
122443
25015
25575
8964
3830
94
7177
12528
4751
71
7635
590
5029
1852
1985
3913
4031
18096
79
112
119
905
2965
4436
21446

116
31820
378
1165
483
321
4053
117908
23747
27266
6567
3338
101
7436
12955
4686
71
7780
556
2927
1651
2002
4406
4119
18666
100
164
86
672
2763
3974
17801

Europe
Albania

980

1142

1339

1720

2180

1996

2008

2284

1925

1986

1141

Andorra

368

351

373

394

395

320

268

261

229

235

263

51088
139359
2064
6512
6523
1762
37750
28536
4439
225
23366

55261
151233
2985
7647
7093
1769
42519
30650
5082
207
26017

63408
168795
3319
9992
8211
1997
53016
36148
5925
254
31639

76554
202803
4343
13288
9985
2642
67266
42746
6645
327
38422

83926
214904
5219
15360
11616
3266
77642
46947
7211
334
39475

63205
162600
3422
9619
8130
2263
56164
32360
4384
258
23917

73478
188981
3861
11087
7966
2437
69078
33584
5898
215
29804

89793
230214
4596
14793
8945
2402
84114
39119
8353
251
35052

80892
212577
4216
14275
7904
1854
77399
36806
8393
333
30339

83602
229364
4406
14912
8647
1660
79777
37922
8486
291
30056

83836
216411
4818
15729
8944
1690
85928
38965
8588
350
30688

:RUOG
North America
Canada
Mexico
United States
South and Central America
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Aruba
Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Bolivia, Plurinational State of
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatemala
Guyana
Honduras
Jamaica
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay
Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of

Austria
Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Faeroe Islands
Finland

157

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A66. World merchandise imports of intermediate goods by region and


selected economy, 2004-2014 a (continued)
(Million dollars)






















196667
314181
17905
33997
1383
28034
156814
3074
4895
7595
1396
2054
711

112947
22222
47053
26125
16965

16238
9564
114348
46106
49681
53566
195161

208616
357533
17956
34218
1787
29797
164279
3283
5658
7511
1381
1966
896

121851
25541
52449
27559
19843

18024
10672
119780
49643
53097
61050
198266

229966
426980
21142
40196
2162
32798
193609
4129
7002
8705
1675
2290
1010
628
143425
30135
65746
30850
24830
5717
23255
12344
139477
55926
61338
71586
225012

272891
495994
26144
49898
2546
35695
231530
5572
9378
9622
2209
2368
1416
932
171160
38072
83251
36108
33423
8131
34147
15676
172227
71050
72885
90482
264108

296238
547138
30157
54646
2908
33482
241616
5707
10424
10828
2805
2292
1720
1302
189240
41512
102141
39855
39060
9416
40205
17097
181201
74845
80383
104521
265535

224651
407750
20921
39004
1766
22380
167724
3141
6148
7648
1982
1625
1168
852
140080
30582
73472
29879
28059
5709
29316
11892
121629
49673
64697
70514
177082

255136
495667
19357
46721
1949
21506
214027
4085
7516
8510
2414
2130
1403
821
163124
32960
88544
32928
33403
6429
35696
13711
133881
63844
73713
94007
223861

294701
598222
20635
53895
2356
24352
250006
5572
9997
11483
2927
2302
1875
918
211876
39367
106487
37407
41833
8478
40757
15782
154718
75393
87926
120360
258109

272609
540615
17301
47380
2180
24727
209453
5514
9785
9838
2777
2122
1859
778
194100
37682
95200
32050
37968
8439
39713
14034
133457
65814
178992
116541
241543

277182
548954
17278
51651
2249
25542
211186
5586
10746
9513
3008
2176
1991
771
202631
37628
103114
33277
40625
9982
41237
14404
139415
62094
205523
129474
250999

276894
567067
17381
55540
2268
27411
216244
5728
12168
9437
3604
2007
1959
769
201851
38754
110178
34244
42292
9603
41855
14621
148916
62986
158721
123129
269849

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)


Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Russian Federation
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Ukraine

687
2004
7264
726
5467
473
27360
400
1220
10393

869
2319
6330
838
7341
411
34740
501
1550
13521

995
2512
8256
1145
9290
546
46028
698
1776
16725

1373
2930
10353
1668
12769
818
65531
849
2550
23522

1774
3699
14443
2017
15499
1093
85942
1149
3168
31589

1464
3229
9075
1367
13255
918
57723
985
2101
15716

1499
3641
12816
1774
9940
920
80854
1153
2624
21210

1617
4980
15176
2138
14715
1307
106570
1407
3537
27518

1601
5051
16193
2765
17958
1678
123882
1473
3263
27640

1712
5968
16209
2623
19444
2014
123853
1633
3525
27032

1820
4822
14162
2925
16460
2721
114262
1857
4088
20171

Africa
Algeria
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Congo
Cte d'Ivoire
Egypt
Eritrea
Ethiopia

9983
316
1167
412
67
1032
134
58
562
1321
12642
223
1291

10362
298
1229
459
132
1052
149
53
777
1566
15802
153
1837

12192
327
1178
581
158
1149
188
131
911
1639
18545
117
1966

15557
496
1547
612
163
1590
236
109
634
1999
24324
114
2552

23597
569
2185
749
173
1947
306
86
809
2375
33559
110
3903

22455
536
1974
735
190
1793
228
89
796
2321
27029
144
3939

23663
636
2591
840
210
1850
253
99
791
2357
30854
210
3819

27148
726
3188
932
464
2274
328
104
1031
2183
37948
228
4197

24800
731
4094
1145
573
2271
223
93
1416
2987
39177
249
5241

27145
930
3841
1645
313
2762
228
59
1463
3198
37252
217
7047

30955
835
4357
1304
255
2666
265
80
1636
3622
40696
210
10389

France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macedonia FYR
Malta
Moldova
Montenegro
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Serbia
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom

158

Statistical Tables

A66. World merchandise imports of intermediate goods by region and


selected economy, 2004-2014 a (continued)
(Million dollars)






















Gabon
Gambia
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Tunisia
Uganda
Zambia

408
88
1946
366
14
2096
224
829
499
555
292
1251
9649
687
908
248
6924
141
13
1170
123
163
17410
2262
976
1279
243
7745
818
1241

665
95
2112
383
23
2412
188
762
662
657
319
1201
10425
741
973
270
8753
188
15
1185
151
149
19622
3918
830
1497
221
7644
921
1511

773
95
2306
391
43
2881
195
883
586
736
464
1265
11476
831
1079
333
12065
324
22
1250
171
147
23630
4395
552
1995
942
8708
1079
1436

978
109
2929
485
64
3769
226
1197
723
906
530
1489
16514
864
1514
343
18206
305
27
1750
191
240
28092
5088
605
2467
292
11498
1383
2021

1104
116
3530
681
74
4677
368
1960
1178
1516
555
1763
21506
1239
1769
421
14807
527
35
2219
269
225
30926
5166
214
3348
343
14688
1940
2600

1259
110
2971
710
72
4491
567
1850
1014
866
589
1378
15728
1287
2308
668
17654
575
33
1675
218
211
22458
4387
151
2761
367
11093
1874
2089

1045
100
3697
793
70
4990
610
1303
1219
1873
671
1641
17051
1113
2341
1077
22712
680
35
1559
215
312
29889
6628
972
3317
400
12804
1977
3176

1343
115
5396
1126
101
6402
594
1274
1325
1338
992
1955
22752
2775
2654
772
30008
821
48
1888
232
531
35599
5172
778
4451
528
14029
2214
4252

1516
111
5968
1234
109
6451
751
1203
1199
1384
1277
2116
21823
2806
2937
740
17052
895
41
2342
222
589
34616
3089
786
4407
769
13058
2066
4886

1554
117
5410
874
107
7040
740
1258
1552
1322
1169
1845
22365
3247
3156
743
20149
947
42
2324
243
521
35020
4061
709
4607
1020
13689
2180
5883

1551
139
6354
867
108
7640
674
1639
1359
1301
1167
1864
23918
3727
3172
970
20756
1020
49
2318
255
460
33510
3699
784
5416
799
12467
2379
5074

Middle East
Bahrain, Kingdom of
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanese Republic
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of
Syrian Arab Republic
United Arab Emirates
Yemen

2063
19323
3330
23423
3840
3671
3319
4251
2575
21939
4073
28192
1931

2868
19477
4644
24698
4193
5087
3249
4077
5396
29447
5016
35834
2603

2165
4731
5379
25573
4253
7544
3109
4976
8876
35038
5158
41022
2752

3099
29586
5486
29317
5486
9316
4308
7444
12859
46120
6400
58224
3910

5744
33250
7920
31202
6970
10596
5630
10358
15199
29341
9158
87057
4150

3541
31181
9793
21471
5655
5852
5335
7748
10031
22022
9762
63020
3887

5636
32409
12353
28466
6014
7793
6571
8446
12360
51013
9505
72650
3908

5339
34678
15017
34679
6882
8039
7975
10877
7556
64174
9190
94827
4087

5194
40401
16619
32586
7531
8481
7482
12333
11066
72734
4121
131302
4075

4482
33589
19304
32781
8429
11597
7487
14156
12839
76793
3029
135037
4564

5790
37333
16627
33567
8736
12287
7444
13934
14731
66540
3175
126256
6662

914
38105
7041
79
648
1300
371583

1420
42941
7645
193
655
1520
440343

1508
47380
9379
229
805
1854
517237

1605
57073
10695
262
860
2184
632740

811
69125
16475
248
1062
2697
716313

882
56886
15153
229
1024
2305
659229

1217
66466
20350
397
1191
3078
888857

1156
74277
27715
462
1351
3588
1055805

529
75322
22268
539
1531
4160
1063001

1020
68902
23829
121
1599
5785
1142917

1196
68203
26116
91
1271
12948
1147033

Asia
Afghanistan
Australia
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia
China

159

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A66. World merchandise imports of intermediate goods by region and


selected economy, 2004-2014 a (continued)
(Million dollars)

Fiji
French Polynesia
Hong Kong, China retained imports
India
Indonesia
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Macao, China
Malaysia
Maldives
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Philippines
Samoa
Singapore
Sri Lanka
Chinese Taipei
Thailand
Tonga
Vanuatu
Viet Nam
a Includes Secretariat estimates.

160

















528
413
18056
51680
25202


551
437
18150
70689
28636


573
412
21871
81700
29180

589
438
24166
104964
35757

750
572
21766
135915
70408

513
445
22150
134272
51169

592
465
29709
181632
72705

682
424
30771
236951
92148

694
431
33736
228124
99670

775
450
51758
212275
98463

942
439
31234
212631
94345

182336
121611
1417
73377
256
410
1615
545
470
7929
8982
684
34998
63
98448
4554
97433
58728
27
32
19455

197550
133761
1460
78067
268
420
1735
501
521
8628
11833
656
36010
70
114957
4941
104079
68533
33
34
22377

226130
152633
1749
88381
318
511
1982
515
582
8645
12560
717
38051
74
133081
5307
117021
73779
30
49
27996

251994
181548
1752
99664
411
762
2854
781
572
10153
14488
979
39252
66
142224
5687
125410
87351
34
58
38229

283519
210006
1456
93816
461
855
3111
1035
834
11913
19160
1219
36444
69
153400
7247
131285
104749
37
72
48024

203378
162431
905
82136
288
691
3297
1995
740
8778
15165
1340
28946
59
122948
5180
97543
77804
35
88
42281

267574
210469
667
108778
324
911
2009
2665
879
10237
17448
1653
35961
102
155461
6463
141987
111131
46
81
55508

311282
247020
784
120232
425
1672
6158
3131
851
12491
20574
2670
28809
108
166865
9532
157594
132931
54
75
69629

295747
233742
953
117379
418
1791
7484
3113
832
12461
19458
3181
36903
112
170765
8842
142616
135226
54
105
76817

279138
234235
2198
120451
447
1905
8705
3587
875
12612
21072
2304
35904
119
173685
8581
136576
135783
47
83
92842

281896
236160
1468
123341
528
1697
10175
3835
902
13320
23095
1998
36298
119
173143
9037
143929
120915
67
73
103306

Statistical Tables

A67. Export prices of primary commodities, 2005-2016


(Index, 2005=100)
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Food and beverages

100

110

127

157

136

153

182

175

175

171

144

151

146

144

136

138

Food
Cereals
Wheat
Maize
Rice
Barley
Vegetable oils and protein meals
Meat
Beef
Lamb
Swine meat
Poultry
Seafood
Fish
Shrimp
Sugar
Bananas
Oranges
Beverages
Coffee
Cocoa beans
Tea

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

111
122
126
124
106
123
103
95
97
96
94
94
121
125
105
133
118
98
108
112
103
112

127
159
167
166
116
181
143
99
99
101
94
106
113
112
116
102
117
114
123
129
127
98

157
222
214
227
243
211
193
103
102
106
96
115
113
119
91
117
146
132
152
150
167
125

134
161
147
168
205
135
154
98
101
91
82
116
114
121
85
152
147
108
154
132
187
145

150
166
147
189
181
167
170
117
128
91
110
116
140
151
98
172
153
118
176
165
203
146

180
230
207
297
192
218
209
134
154
93
132
118
139
146
115
211
169
102
206
231
193
160

176
236
206
303
202
251
216
132
158
63
122
128
113
117
97
175
171
99
167
180
154
161

178
218
205
263
180
217
206
136
155
66
128
141
160
166
136
148
161
111
147
147
158
123

170
180
187
196
148
154
191
159
189
81
152
149
162
163
160
146
162
90
178
185
198
110

141
149
143
173
132
135
154
137
169
67
100
155
132
131
136
118
166
77
173
154
203
157

148
159
158
177
141
139
162
141
182
76
97
154
140
137
151
124
169
80
170
168
189
135

143
152
151
171
133
135
157
140
171
70
106
156
132
126
152
114
170
71
170
156
199
148

141
146
138
172
130
135
152
141
174
63
109
156
133
129
145
107
165
75
176
147
211
179

132
138
125
170
124
130
143
125
148
59
89
154
123
130
96
128
162
84
174
144
214
168

136
136
125
163
128
126
144
122
142
59
89
152
148
159
107
125
178
79
159
140
193
134

Agricultural raw materials

100

109

114

113

94

124

153

133

136

139

120

129

126

114

111

110

Timber
Cotton
Wool
Rubber
Hides and skins
Minerals and non-ferrous metals
(excluding crude petroleum)

100
100
100
100
100

108
105
104
140
105

107
115
144
153
110

109
129
138
174
98

102
114
115
128
68

101
188
153
243
110

111
280
234
321
125

107
162
215
225
127

107
164
196
186
144

109
151
178
130
168

105
128
162
104
133

105
125
155
115
161

103
131
171
119
147

105
129
164
97
116

106
126
159
84
109

105
121
167
87
107

2015

100

156

183

169

136

202

229

190

182

164

126

137

135

121

111

109

Copper
Aluminum
Iron ore
Tin
Nickel
Zinc
Lead
Uranium

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

183
135
119
119
163
237
132
171

194
139
130
196
251
235
265
355

189
136
219
250
143
137
215
230

141
88
285
184
99
120
177
167

205
114
522
276
148
157
221
165

240
126
597
353
155
159
246
201

217
106
457
286
119
141
212
175

199
97
482
302
102
138
220
138

187
98
345
297
114
157
215
120

150
88
196
218
80
140
184
132

159
95
222
249
97
151
186
136

165
93
206
211
88
159
199
132

143
84
194
206
72
134
176
130

133
79
164
204
64
117
173
129

127
80
170
209
58
122
178
117

Total of above

100

123

140

151

127

161

190

171

169

162

134

142

138

131

124

124

Energy

100

119

132

185

117

147

201

203

196

180

99

105

115

95

82

65

100
100
100

115
121
104

117
133
138

174
182
266

110
116
149

113
149
206

154
204
254

171
208
202

165
201
177

160
184
149

107
97
121

137
100
130

102
116
125

98
94
120

91
80
110

75
61
108

100

121

135

172

121

152

197

191

186

173

112

119

124

109

97

86

Natural gas
Crude petroleum
Coal
All primary commodities

1RWH The indices are period averages based on dollar prices. The quarterly figures are not seasonally adjusted. For sources and methods, see the Metadata.

161

World Trade Statistical Review 2016

A68. Export prices of Germany, Japan and the United States


by commodity group, 2005-2015
(Index, 2005=100)

7RWDOPHUFKDQGLVH
Germany
Japan
United States





















100
100
100

103
98
104

113
99
109

124
106
115

115
104
110

113
108
115

123
117
124

115
114
125

118
104
124

118
99
124

99
88
116

100
100

105
104

122
123

137
147

121
132

124
139

142
165

135
174

141
178

139
176

115
153

100
100

125
121

143
129

166
149

123
104

146
130

178
160

167
152

162
145

153
142

117
103

100
100
100

101
96
102

111
97
106

121
103
110

114
103
109

110
106
113

118
112
119

110
111
119

114
99
119

114
95
118

97
86
116

100
100
100

105
100
...

126
114
...

145
141
...

119
105
...

120
115
...

137
132
...

122
126
...

121
114
...

119
108
...

97
91
...

100
100
100

104
103
105

116
109
110

131
119
119

122
105
112

119
119
118

131
139
125

124
135
125

127
127
126

128
122
124

106
102
118

100
100
100

100
95
100

108
94
101

116
97
102

110
101
103

106
102
104

112
105
104

105
104
106

108
91
106

108
87
106

93
80
106

100
100
100

93
90
94

90
84
91

88
82
88

81
81
86

75
79
82

74
78
80

67
73
80

67
66
78

66
62
76

56
57
74

Germany
Japan
United States

100
100
100

102
99
101

112
100
102

120
102
103

115
106
103

112
104
104

119
112
105

112
112
108

115
104
109

115
101
110

100
93
109

Germany
Japan
United States

100
100
100

102
99
...

113
102
...

124
109
...

117
111
...

113
117
...

125
134
...

117
136
...

121
133
...

122
130
...

103
118

Germany
United States

100
100

101
...

111
...

119
...

114
...

110
...

118
...

109
...

114
...

114
...

97

Agricultural products
Germany
United States
Fuels and mining products
Germany
United States
Manufactures
Germany
Japan
United States
Iron and steel
Germany
Japan
United States
Chemicals
Germany
Japan
United States
Machinery and transport equipment
Germany
Japan
United States
Office and telecom equipment
Germany
Japan
United States
Automotive products

Textiles

Clothing

Memorandum item:
World, unit value indices
7RWDOPHUFKDQGLVH























Agricultural products

100

105

120

140

125

134

154

150

154

153

Fuels and mining products

100

123

137

180

122

154

202

200

193

180

Manufactures

100

102

109

117

111

112

121

118

119

118

1RWH For sources and product group definitions, see the Metadata

162

Statistical Tables

A69. Import prices of Germany, Japan and the United States


by commodity group, 2005-2015
(Index, 2005=100)






















7RWDOPHUFKDQGLVH
Germany
Japan
United States

100
100
100

105
108
105

116
115
109

130
142
122

113
117
108

115
134
115

129
158
128

122
157
128

122
147
127

120
142
125

97
110
113

Agricultural products
Germany
Japan
United States

100
100
100

104
103
101

120
119
106

137
141
116

123
123
114

126
138
125

143
165
140

135
162
143

140
153
146

140
148
150

118
134
145

Fuels and mining products


Germany
Japan
United States

100
100
100

127
124
119

142
136
132

182
193
173

127
129
116

154
166
145

201
224
190

192
227
187

185
214
183

170
204
175

112
124
105

Manufactures
Germany
Japan
United States

100
100
100

100
98
101

109
100
103

117
109
107

108
107
105

105
111
107

112
116
110

105
115
112

107
106
111

106
102
110

91
95
108

Iron and steel


Germany
Japan
United States

100
100
100

102
98
104

130
124
121

147
183
162

110
140
114

121
148
136

138
165
154

120
140
142

116
124
131

114
125
133

91
104
109

Chemicals
Germany
Japan
United States

100
100
100

106
104
104

119
110
112

134
131
123

120
119
114

121
129
126

135
142
138

126
141
140

130
129
137

129
121
137

108
110
129

Machinery and transport equipment


Germany
Japan
United States

100
100
100

98
96
99

102
96
100

106
100
101

99
100
100

95
101
100

97
101
101

90
99
102

92
89
101

91
86
101

78
80
99

Office and telecom equipment


Germany
Japan
United States

100
100
100

91
92
96

84
88
92

78
88
89

68
84
85

63
84
83

59
80
80

54
75
78

53
66
77

52
63
77

43
59
75

Automotive products
Germany
Japan
United States

100
100
100

101
97
100

111
96
101

121
106
104

116
112
104

110
117
104

117
130
107

108
132
109

111
122
109

111
115
109

94
103
107

Germany
United States

100
100

102
...

111
...

120
...

114
...

112
...

125
...

118
...

122
...

121
...

104
...

Germany
Japan
United States a

100
100
100

101
98
100

109
98
101

118
109
103

114
118
103

110
125
103

124
140
110

119
144
114

123
133
113

123
127
114

109
121
114

Textiles

Clothing

a Includes products classified under HS heading 42.02.


1RWH : For sources and product group definitions, see the Metadata.

163