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Cargo Stowage

Cargo should always be stowed in a manner which:

1.

2'

danger;

Preserves the crew and the ship from


Protects the eargo from damage, ross or deterioration;
Makes best and economic use of carga space;

el

3,
4, Frovides
5"

the highest possible port speed;


Avsids over-stewage and over-earriage of cargo.

To achieve these objectives, carful regard


must be given to the following:

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The distribution and disposition of the cargo should


be arranged so that the ship is in a stable
condition throughout the voyage.
The stability should be sufficient to meet
the needs of loading and discharging at several ports
and
to maintain a comfortable condition in a seaway.

when cargo has to be discharge at more than one port,


they should be arranged such that the
cargo for a particular port is accessible without
having to disturb or shift other cargoes.
where cargo is designated 'optional', specialcare
must be given to its positioning.
After discharge at each port, the remaining cargo
shourd be adequately secured for the next
pas$age' careful planning at the
time of loading may be enough to achieve this.

over-carriage and short-randing of cargo shourd


be avoided,
Care and attention should be paid to cargo
handling.
careless or improper handling of cargo often
results in cargo damage, giving rise to
claims against
the shipping company.
consideration should be given to the problems
of leakages, drainage, moisture, sweat and damage
by eontamination, chaffing and over-heating,
Broken stowage should be filled with
suitable cargo or firmly packed with dunnage, in
order to
prevent shifting of cargo with its
attendant problems for the vessel.
The distribution of the cargo should be
done to sbtain the grreatest number of working
hatches at
each port.

Deck Cargo
These are cargoes which are:

L. not permitted under deck because of their dangerous nature.


2. that will not fit below deck.
3. that if placed berow deck, wiil consume a tremendous amount
of space;
4. that can be exposed to the weather without any damaging effect
on them.
5. that are difficult to stow below deck but can be safely carried
on deck.

The three (3) principal concerns of the chief


officer when cargo is carried on deck should be:
a) The safety of the ship and her crew;

b)

c)

The security of the cargo;


The accessibility of the equipment needed
to operate the ship safely i.e. the management
of the
ship and her safe navigation.

Phllosophy for the Chief Offiser


Lashings and bracings should be applied
with the assurnption that during the first night
at sea, the
ship will pass through a full hurricane or
typhoon.
DECK CARGO

The loading of deck cargo must comply with


MS (Deck cargo) Regulations 196g (s.1.196g
PART

10g9)

Deck cargb is

a)

to be distributed and stowed

To avoid excessive loading of the deck and


integral supporting structure (consult the capacity
plan);

b) To ensure adequate stability throughout the voyage


with particular regard being given to
vertical distribution

c)
d)
e)

f)
g)

of the cargo and its effect on GM;


the expected wind moment, especially, timber and
container cargoes,
information of which are contained in the ship,s
stabirity data;
By considering the loss of ftuid, especially, bottom
fluid due to the consumption of fuel and
fresh water and their effect on GM (assume 90%
consumption of fuel, stores and water);
By taking into consideration the possible
absorption of water by the timber deck cargo (assume
15% absorption rate) and possible ice accretion;
By taking into account

So as

not to impair the watertight integrity of the ship;

5o as to ensure the protection of vents and air pipes;

h)

i)
j)
k)

l)

that the height of the eargo, or where it stands will not interfere with the safe navigation and
management of the ship;

So

that access to the steering gear, including the emergency arrangement, is not obstructed;
So that safe aceess to the crew quarters, machinery spaces and work areas are not obstructed;
5o as not to interfere with the use of fire hydrants;
So that guard rails or wire on the side of the walkway can be secured to the cargo, as well as the
So

stane hions;

m) Thatthere will be no movementof the cargo in the worstsea and weatherconditions normally
to be expected, Lashings and fittings are to be of adequate strength (M1110).
PART II

Additional requirements applicable to timber deck cargo

minimum GM

0.

l0m"

Section A
Vesselq not uqine

timber load lines:

Maximum height of timber deck cargo:


ln summer, a height commensurate with the safe management and navigation of the ship"

ln winter, a height not greater than 1/3 beam of the ship (provided there is adequate lashing
arrangement).
Section B
Vessel$-usins tim bqr, lpa

d, li

nesj

Height sf timber deck cargo:

ln summer, the maximum height is a safe height, but there is also a minimum height, which is the
standard height of the super-structure (e.g. vessels of length greater than 125m, standard height of
super structure is 2,3m) vessels of length, less than 75m, height of super structure is 1.8m, pro-rata
in between.
ln winter, the maximum height is L/3 beam, while the rninimum height is the standard height of the
super-structure.
Double bottom tanks lscated amidships. L/2 must have longitudinal division and specially stiffened.
(Meze).
Timber deck cargoes stowed in wells must be stowed as solidly as possible over entire
length of the

well.

lrregularly packed timber may not qualify for buoyancy allowance.

to loading, deck cargo is to be secured by independent overall lashings, consisting of 19mm


close link chain, or flexible steel wire rope of equivalent strength, fitted with bottle screws and slip
hooks (M1110). lt is recommended that slip hooks with straight tongue should not be used
because of the tendency to slip accidentally. Again, because slip hooks may jam, additional slip
hooks are recommended to be used back to back. Furthermore, a set of wire cutters should be
Prior

available in case there is the need for it.


Jettisoning of deck cargo may be made safer by the use of temporary lashing so that release can be
made from a safe distance.

ln ships with no poop and yet having timber deck cargo stowed to the after end of hatch, the first
lashing from aft must be 0.5m and second one 1.5m from the end and thereafter at 3m intervals,
except that the first lashing from a masthouse shall be 2.0m.

HEAVY LIFT

PREPARATION

1. lf necessary, rig the derrick as per rigging plan and ascertain if extra mast stays are required.
2. Check the operation of the derrick; run the winch and where necessary, put into double gear.
3. Ensure there will be adequate stability for the operation. Calculate the GM, lf necessary, fill

4.

and/or press up double bottom ballast tanks to avoid F.S,E,


Ensure the deck can take the load, having ascertained the weight and size of the lift, and the
stowage position. Consult the Capacity Plan to obtain deck loading capability, and make the
best use of transverse bulkhead, under-deck girders and shore up from between deck, where
necessary,

5.

Plan a lashing arrangement and

if necessary, arrange for extra lashing points to be welded in

place.

6,

Ensure removable rails are free to

lift out and if the heavy lift is to be taken by a shore crane,

make sure that overhead is clear,

7. lf necessary, prepare dunnage for the heavy lift. lt is usual to construct

cradles and bearers

from L2" x 1.2" boards.

8.

Check that the associated gear is available. Slings, shackles and screws, and ascertain where the

location of its centre of gravity is.


9" lnform everyone on board of the impending operation.
1.0, lt may be necessary to ship the gear used in loading so that
operation at the discharge port.

it can be used to facilitate the

lmmediately Prior tq and during Loadlng:

1. lnform everyone on board,


2. The operation should be supervised by experienced personnel.
3. Station hands to tend the moorings ropes and the gangway.
4, Attach steady or control lines to steer the lift, and if necessary, attach or secure a guy on the
inboard side to give a better control on the derrick,

5.

lf there are two heavy lifts to be loaded, place the first one on the outboard.side and the second

on the inboard side. This way, the first one will not obstruct the second and also that the
vessel will not list too much during the entire operation"
lf the discharge is to be carried out with the ship's gear, it should be borne in mind that as soon as
the weight is on the quay, the ship will tend to come upright quickly. This may cause the cargo to
CIne

drag. Therefore, the winch or crane operator should 'come back" quickly on both the lifting
purchase and topping lift to forestall this.

STOWAGE PLAN

This is a diagrammatical representation of the various cargoes which have been stowed or loaded

on a particular ship" Copies of this plan are then made for distribution to all stakeholders e.g.
Master of the ship, and by fax or e-mail to the Shipowner, Stevedores, Agents etc.
The Chief Officer (C/Ol, who is in charge of Cargo and the Maintenance of the vessel, usually,
prepares a PRE-STOWAGE PLAN of the cargo(es) to be loaded. The actual loading may differ from
this plan, as modifications may be made to it. However, the Pre-stowage plan is exceptionally,
important as it makes it possibte for the C/O to see how the distribution of the cargo(es) will,
among other things, affect:

1.
2.
3.

The stability of the ship;

4.

How many gangs of stevedores could be used to load the cargo(es).

The stresses and bending moments which the vesselwill be subjected to;
The approximate quantities to be loaded into each compartment;

The foreman of the stevedores is, particularly, interested in the Pre-stowage plan because armed
with it, he can discuss at length with the C/O, the loading to be carried out and may make some

recommendations which his experience at the port will endear him to come out with. Once
agreement is reached with the C/O concerning any modifications which may have been made to
the stowage plan, cargo-work can then begin, provided there are no other hindrances e,g. Cargo
Surveyor's report.
When all cargo(es) have been loaded and secured, the Final stowage plan is prepared, usually, after

the vesseJ has sailed from the final port.


The FinalStowage Plan shows:
/
1. The name of the vessel:
2. The port(s) of loading;
3. The port(s) of discharge or the area of discharge e.g. West Africa;
4. The exact quantities loaded into each compartment, the total for each port and the overall total

loaded;

5. The date of sailing from the last port of loading;


6. The Final Draft, Fore & AfU
7. A 'KEY' indicating the port of loading/discharge.

Different ports are shaded with different

colours so as to make identification easy.


Again, several copies of the Final Stowage plan are made for distribution. Dangerous cargoes are
highlighted and, sometimes, coples of a separate stowage plan for dangerous cargoes are even
made, depending upon the ports of discharge"