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Gabriella Guzik
Mr. Hull
Honors English

Criminology
There are approximately 12 million crimes committed in the United States every single
year. That is the most crimes committed in the world. No other nation has more than 6 million
crimes reported per year. Criminology is best explained through going into depth with penology
and sociology, helps to know about the type of jobs that involve criminology, some of the types
of crimes that are committed. The study and use of Criminology helps better understand why
people commit crimes. The use of their research helps prevent crimes and teaches law
enforcement on how to better deal with situations in the criminal essence.
Criminology involves analyzing illegal human behaviors and crime prevention methods.
In the field of criminology, criminal justice is blended with social science and psychology. It
mostly focuses on things that can influence crime such as race, ethnicity, education and social
status. It sometimes look at history and the success rates of criminals and the success of law
enforcement. Criminologists examine how individuals react to specific types of crime and the
overall effect of crime on American culture (What is criminology). Criminology is a sub-group
of sociology. Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior. Sociology isnt the only field
that deals with criminology; there is also biology, statistics, psychology, psychiatry, economics,
and anthropology. Criminology has several sub-groups itself, including: penology, biocriminology, feminist criminology, and criminalistics. Penology is the study of prisons and
prison systems. Bio-criminology is the study of biological basics of criminal behavior. Feminist

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criminology is the study of women and crime. Criminalistics is the study of crime detection
(Crowe). Examining American culture and how it effects everyone is a crucial part of the law
system (Koopmans 14). There are many different theories that have come and go throughout
history. The creation of criminology as a field of study can be traced back to the 18th century.
Two social theorist, Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, believed that such criminal act should
be punished. Beccaria and Bentham created the classical school of criminology, the classical
school of criminology soon was replaced by the positives in the early 19th century. The positives
believed that the punishment should fit the criminal, not the committed crime. Soon after the 19th
century into the 20th century, two more theories were developed. These theories where socialstructure criminology and social-process criminology. Social-structure criminology is the study
on how criminal behavior is affected by structures and social situations. Social-process
criminology is the study of how individuals engage in criminal acts (Crowe).
Penology is a sub-group of criminology, it is the study of prisons, prison management,
and system. A penologist is someone who works directly with inmates within the prison system.
The job also involves working with prison architecture, the treatment of offenders, self-help
programs, and management. The word penology comes from Latin roots. Criminal punishments
have ranged from being imprisoned, forced labor, and death. Throughout world history, and
even today, criminal punishments and other harsh forms of retribution are debated topics. The
treatment of prisoners is another area of controversy within the study of penology. Some
prisoners forfeit some or all of their human rights after they have been convicted of a crime. In
many parts of the world, penology has been based on historical texts, such as the Bible and the
Quran (Penology).

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Sociology is the study of human social behavior and the behavior of a society. Sociology
has crime split up into different categories. They range from crime to religion, family to the state,
divisions of race, social class, and common culture. Sociology investigates the social causes and
consequences of such things as romantic love, racial and gender identity, family conflict,
behavior, aging, and religious faith. Sociology first originated from Latin language. Sociology
first came about around the 1800s. Saint-Simon was one of the first sociologists in 1813. In
those times it encouraged a way of enlightenment. A French scholar, named Auguste Comte,
gave sociology the definition it holds today (What is sociology).
Since the first recorded police death in 1791, there have be over 20,000 law enforcement
officers killed in the line of duty (Law enforcement facts). Police officers focus on protecting
people. They usually patrol the areas that they are assigned too. Police officers respond to calls,
enforce laws, make arrests, provide first aid, and occasionally testify in court cases. They must
spend their time patrolling, writing reports, and filling out forms. To be a police officer you
typically must be a U.S. citizen, 21 years of age, and have no felony convictions. Officers must
be physically fit and meet the medical, hearing and vision requirements. The education
requirements, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), only require a high school
diploma. While some others require some college coursework or a college degree. To meet the
educational requirements you have a knowledge of the law, the criminal justice system and
criminal behavior. Through the law enforcement academy trainees receive training in areas such
as defensive tactics, driving, firearms, and laws and regulations. Training in the academy takes
around 12 to 18 months. After they graduate they become a probationary officer. An average
salary is around $53,540 a year. However, what they earn depends on several factors, the agency
they work for, location, performance, and the amount of experience (Police officers).

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Detective and criminal investigators sometimes are referred to as an agent or secret
agents. Criminal investigators are able to effectively conduct witness interviews, suspect
interrogations, examine evidence, observe suspect activates, and serve as experts in courtroom.
They need extended police training, academy training and a college degree in some cases.
Becoming a detective has many requirements. They must be a U.S citizen, be a resident of the
state, be at least 21 years old, no felony convictions, possessing a high school diploma, collage
coursework, and a college degree. They usually must have strong areas such as demonstrating an
understanding of the criminal justice process from investigation to arrest, applying legal concepts
like the use of force, understanding risk factors, studying crime using tested techniques, and be
able to gain knowledge while doing so. Most detectives are chosen if they majored in criminal
justice, criminology, justice administration, sociology, psychology, forensic psychology, police
science, crime scene investigations, forensic science and penology. Criminal investigators
usually work to apprehend lawbreakers, investigate criminal cases, and solve crimes. Detectives
complete their evidence by observing suspects, interviewing witnesses and suspects. They must
always keep reports and maintain documents on their cases. Detectives and criminal
investigators usually specialize in different crimes such as homicide, drug trafficking, and fraud.
On average, detectives salary is around $80,540 (Detectives and criminal investigators)
Each FBI agent must have the knowledge, skills, commitment, and fortitude to
investigate terrorists, spies, and other numerous amounts of dangerous criminals. The FBI was
first established in 1908. Training to become an FBI agent lasts around 20 weeks. It includes
over 800 hours of a variety of courses such as academics, case exercises, firearm training, and
operational skills. Academics include subjects about fundamentals of law, ethics, behavioral
science, interviewing and report writing, basics and advanced investigators, techniques,

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interrogation, and forensic science. They also learn how to manage and run counterterrorism,
counterintelligence, weapons of mass destruction, cyber, and criminal investigations. There are
also cyber special agents. Case exercises are set up to teach real life situations. They show the
students what they will experience in the field. An example of this would be an integrated case
scenario that starts from a single arrest that further leads to multiple arrests. FBI agents have
been authorized to carry firearms since 1934. They do this as part of a preparation of potential
deadly force encounters. Newly agent trainees receive training with a Bureau-issued pistol,
carbine, and shotgun. They learn instructions on firearms, safety, weapon handling skills, and
live fire training. The present firearm training takes around 110 hours of instruction comprised
into 28 sessions with approximately 5,000 round of ammunition. FBI agents must be in excellent
physical condition. Trainees must pass a standardized physical fitness test. To pass the test
trainees must achieve a score of 12 points with at least one point in the four areas: sit-up, 300meter sprints, pushups, and a timed 1.5 mile run. FBI agents on average make $63,596 per year
depending on the experience one has had (FBI agents).
Next there are white collar crimes. White-collar crimes are non-violent crimes that are
committed by someone, who typically commits it for a financial gain. Some white-collar crimes
are committed by an office worker, business managers, fund manager or executive. Most whitecollar crimes are committed by business and government professionals. A typical white-collar
crimes include fraud, bribery, insider trading, embezzlement, cybercrime, copyright
infringement, money laundering, identity theft, and forgery. They do not involve violent or drugrelated activities. There are a bunch of different white-collar offenses. Some offenses are small
scale. These are crimes when individuals fill for liquidation bankruptcy fail to disclose their
personal assets. Suspects often become aware they are being investigated days, weeks, or even

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months before an arrest is made. In an ordinary criminal trial several witnesses and police
officers are called to testify (White-collar crimes).
Likewise, cybercrime is a fast-growing area of crime. There is really no single universal
definition of cybercrime. Cybercrime is split up into two different main types of internet crime:
Advanced cybercrime and Cyber-enabled crime. Advanced cybercrime are sophisticated attacks
against computer hardware and software. Cyber-enabled crimes are traditional crimes that uses
the internet to cause crimes against children, financial crimes, and even terrorism
(Cybercrimes). In past years, cybercrime was committed mainly by individuals or small groups
(MacKay 26). Today, more cybercrimes are becoming more complex and are bringing together
individuals from all across the globe. Cybercrimes such as theft, fraud, illegal online gambling
and sale of fake medicines, are becoming more widespread and damaging. Law enforcement are
constantly upping their cyber intelligence to keep up with cyber suspects. The main focuses on
cybercrimes are: operational and investigated support, cyber intelligence and analysis, digital
forensics, innovation and research, capacity building, and national cyber reviews
(Cybercrimes).
In the United States, an estimated 50 million students are enrolled in pre-kindergarten
through 12th grade (About school violence). School violence is a subset of youth violence.
Violence is the use of physical force or power against another individual, group, or community.
This behavior can cause physical or psychological harm (Roleff 37). Youth violence typically
includes individuals between the ages of 10 to 24 (About school violence). Examples of
violent behavior include: bullying, fighting (punching, slapping, kicking, etc.), weapon use,
electronic aggression, and gang violence (Netzley 71-72). School violence mostly occurs: on

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school property, on the way to or from school, during or on the way to a school-sponsored event
(About school violence).
By studying criminology people can begin to better understand motives behind certain
crimes. The advancements made by studying criminology will help further the prevention of
crimes and help police officers how to better deal with crime scenes. Every single crime comes
back to the field of criminology in some way, shape, or form. Criminology is a sub-group of
many different types of sciences. Police, FBI agents, detectives and criminal investigators, and
other different types of law enforcement all use criminology in their everyday life and this helps
them work together to keep the peace and the order. Different types of crime have different
punishments depending on how dangerous the crime that was committed is. If criminology never
existed then society really wouldnt have a good way of handling crime and punishment and
would soon later turn into chaos.

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Works Cited
"About School Violence." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, 30 Apr. 2015. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.
<http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/schoolviolence/>.
"Cybercrime." / / Crime Areas / Internet / Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.
<http://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime>.
"FBI Agents." FBI. FBI, 11 Aug. 2010. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. <https://www.fbi.gov/aboutus/training/sat>.
Koopmans, Andy. Crime and Criminals. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven, 2003. Print.
"Law Enforcement Facts." National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund:. N.p., n.d. Web.
20 Feb. 2016. <http://www.nleomf.org/facts/enforcement/?referrer=https%3A%2F
%2Fwww.google.com%2F>.
"Learn.org -." Learn.org -. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2016.
<http://learn.org/articles/What_is_Criminology.html>.
MacKay, Jenny. Criminal Profiling. Detroit: Lucent, 2009. Print.
Michael Snyder. "10 Facts About Crime In The United States That Will Blow Your Mind." End
Of The American Dream. N.p., 6 Apr. 2010. Web. 19 Feb. 2016.
<http://endoftheamericandream.com/archives/10-facts-about-crime-in-the-united-statesthat-will-blow-your-mind>.
Netzley, Patricia D. What Impact Does Mental Illness Have on Violent Crime? N.p.: n.p., n.d.
Print.

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Detective and criminal investigators Florida tech. online.
Web. <http://www.floridatechonline.com/resources/criminal-justice/detective-andcriminal-investigator-career-and-salary-profile/>.
"Penology, the Study of Prison Management - Criminal Justice Degrees Guide." Criminal
Justice Degrees Guide. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2016.
<http://www.criminaljusticedegreesguide.com/uncategorized/penology-the-study-ofprison-management.html>.
"Police Officer Careers, Jobs and Degree Information - Criminal Justice USA." Criminal Justice
USA. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2016. <http://www.criminaljusticeusa.com/police-officer/>.
Roleff, Tamara L. What Encourages Gang Behavior? San Diego, CA: Greenhaven, 2002. Print.
"Steps to Becoming a Detective in Criminal Investigations." How to Become a Detective. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2016. <http://www.detectiveedu.org/>.
"What Is Criminology? - Definition, History & Theories - Video & Lesson Transcript |
Study.com." Study.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2016.
<http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-criminology-definition-history-theories.html>.
"What Is Sociology?" Department of Sociology. University of North Carolina, Web. 20 Feb.
2016. <http://sociology.unc.edu/undergraduate-program/sociology-major/what-issociology/>.
"White-collar Crimes." Legal Resources. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. <http://www.hg.org/white-collarcrime.html>.