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Bhaktapur city core areas which are scattered within the Bhaktapur Municipality are the good
examples of under-utilized resource that bear the potential to become a major tourist interest with
a concept of “Open Museum” and the key tourism attraction in this historic city-Bhaktapur,
responding to the current intense interest in Bhaktapur. The proceeding chapters attempt to give
an insight views how the tourism promotion strategy can be combined to the poverty reduction
programme particularly the urban poverty as case study mainly deals about the Bhaktapur city.

Market led development

Tourism product development is likely to be the most successful if it is market led in a proper
manner. This requires matching proposed tourism products to market segments, maintaining the
balance between the demand and supply of tourism products with concentration on products that
respond and strengthen market image. Products recommendations have been influenced by
“picking winners” that are achievable and most likely to be successful in commercial terms.

Add value to tourism products

Adding value to the existing products is proposed as a key strategy. This is both cost effective
and creates tourists attractions whereas, at present, there is only a little to encourage visitors.
Fostering value and enhancing quality tourism must involve in improving service standards and
trend positioning upwards towards some higher yield market segments, thus increasing the
revenue generating possibilities. Adding value to the current tourist experience in Bhaktapur
Durbar Square, Taumadhi Square, Dattatraya Square and Pottary Square could along include the
culture and heritage sites and conservation areas within the Bhaktapur city.

Promotional traditional events, organizing cultural shows and mini musical concerts in the
historic city would create the correct “cultural heritage” ambience and reinforce pride in the
existing traditional skills. Other examples of supplementing value include the introduction of
“Heritage Cafes and Cultural events to explore Bhaktapur” and street and floodlighting to create
an evening destination.

Conservation and Facilitation Program:

Our cultural heritage is an organic whole of the human civilization. Its conservation is a major
important task. We have understood the cultural and economical value of our heritage only on
late eighties. Since one and half-decade, the Municipality has been working with a great concern
in the conservation of its heritage.

It has not been able to achieve the desired level in the sector due to constraint of resources. The
central government’s grant for conservation and development to municipality is so small that it is
not sufficient even to conserve one building in a year.

Realizing the needs for searching locally available resources, Bhaktapur Municipality tried to
mobilize locally available resources. Today levying different taxes, municipality collects revenue
amounting USD120, 000.00 from its citizen.

Similarly municipality had since July 1993 initiated to collect USD 1 for a fund for conservation
and development as a tourist service fee for visiting the city core area. It had raised the entrance
fee to USD 5 from July 1996 on ward. Again, it has been raised to USD 10 effective from
January 2001 which has contributed in a several aspect in preserving the heritage sites.

Although, only 40% tourists landed in Nepal have found to pay visit Bhaktapur, the municipality
was able to raise the funds amounting USD 3.3 million for monument conservation and urban
environment improvement. Total amount collected till 2001 since municipality started to charge
tourist entry fee is USD 3.323,209.00 of which USD 1.798.230.00 has spent on the conservation
of the Cultural Heritage alone which is a milestone for sustainable tourism.

Heritage Conservation and Urban Environment Activities:

The Bhaktapur Municipality has given highest priority in heritage conservation and environment
improvement. Almost 70% of municipal development budget is chanalized towards conservation
of the arts, culture and heritage along with cleanliness of the city. In the past 7 years, Bhaktapur
Municipality has renovated, reconstructed or conserved 36 old ponds, 38 well, 24 water spouts,
41 public inns, 37 temples and entire city core’s lanes, streets and courtyards have been paved
with traditional paving materials.

 No permission is given to pollution–prone industries such as carpet, dying, garments, saw

mills, beaten rich mills within the densely populated core city area. Previously
established such industries are also being relocated away from the core city.

 Heavy vehicles are completely banned to enter into old city core and all motor vehicles
are prohibited strictly in Durbar Square area.

 Locally published newspapers Shramik weekly and Majdoor daily are continuously
publishing the importance of heritage.

 To encourage the traditional folk dance, prayers, and trusts, the Gaijatra festival has been
observed as a competitive event every year.

 8th September has been observed as solidarity day in accordance with the proclamation
of the Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC).

 The stone marker with inscription of the ‘world heritage’ has been installed and the old
traditional buildings, temples, in city have metal plates inscribed ‘World Heritage’.

 With the sole purpose of conserving cultural heritage within the city, municipality has
brought motto in operational usage with these words of commitments-“Creation of our
predecessors: our art and culture”.

During the last seven years (1993–2000) Bhaktapur Municipality had spent USD 864,000.00 for
city cleaning and USD 57,333.00 for information dissemination, USD 189,333.00 for managing
tourist service centers. To meet ever-increasing demand for housing and for planned extension of
the urban area, Libali Land Development Project in 35 hectors of land have been implemented
with support from landowners and tenants. Thus USD 2,884,806.00 had been spent within the
span of seven years for cultural heritage management and urban environment improvement.

Municipality had allocated approximately 57% of its total development budget for conservation
and management of the heritage in the fiscal year 2000/2001. With an aim to converge
Bhaktapur city into tourist’s destination, the Bhaktapur Festival was held in 1997 for the first
time in Nepal. It had paved the path for the year 1998’s “Visit Nepal Program”.

With a view to promote and present cultural heritage of Bhaktapur in the international arena, the
Municipality participated in the World Tourism Marts 1998 in London. Meanwhile, it would be
worthwhile to mention about the UNESCO Peace Price 1998 awarded to the Municipality in
recognition of the endeavors made toward the safeguarding of the cultural heritage. Municipality
has gained a standing membership of the “Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC).”

Study on the structural condition for conservation of the 55 Windowed Palace and national level
workshop and seminars were also held under the auspices of Bhaktapur Municipality. Beside
them, the skilful woodcarvers from Bhaktapur had been to Palpa mid western Nepal in order to
conserve the Tansen Temple.

Similarly, the male group of flute players had participated Nepal Era 1120 eve at Pokhara while
the female group at Hetauda in 2001. In connection with the safeguarding of the folk dances and
folk songs, series of programs have long been staged in the town in a competitive method.
Among them is Bansuri (Flute) Competition, Recognition of the Artists, Gaijatra Festival and
Comic Competitions, etc are worthy.

Under the joint venture of the UNESCO and Bhaktapur Municipality, a week long workshop on
Cultural Heritage Management and Tourism was organized in April 2000 participated by more
than 20 experts and stakeholders the workshop heralded by nine city experts paper presentation
and discussions resolutely determined to work closely hand in hand for the cause of Heritage
Conservation and submit to the people at large.

In tune with the resolutions reached so far the municipality is undertaking a continued process to
impart training in languages (English and Japanese) along with culinary training to stakeholders.
Subsequently, group of males and females are under the carpentry-training course. It is expected
that it will help in transforming skills in woodcraft to the younger generation. April workshop
participants might have idea of how big Bhaktapur is encompassed by the Heritage conservation.
As decided by the HMG, the Durbar Square, the Taumadhi Square, the Dattatraya Square and the
houses between the streets leading to and from Taumadhi to Dattatraya square are protected
monument zone for safeguarding the heritage site. In spite of this, the Municipality has ventured
to undertake a decision to encompass the core city as indicted by mediaeval city wall structure.

Tourist Facilities in Bhaktapur:

Nepalese have the culture of considering visitors as Gods and treating them likewise. The basic
requirements of tourism industry like attraction, transportation, accommodation and other
facilities are properly maintained in Bhaktapur. Some of the facilities that tourists enjoy in
Bhaktapur are-Guide facilities of various languages, comfortable access/transportation to from
Bhaktapur, basic facilities like parking, toilets information etc., standard accommodation, travel
related facilities and communication, tourist information and service center providing the
services like (Hotel booking, trekking information).

Mountain bike hire, taxi/car service, Long- route bus services, mountain flights, balloon sunrise
bookings, rafting, airline ticketing, etc.), are also available in the city. New tourism products
(product diversification), promotion of new tourism activities, night/evening tourism, traditional
ritual dances and festivals, medieval music of various typical instruments are the main service.

Foster Private Sector and Community Investment:

One of the keys for tourism development in Bhaktapur is to create right business environment in
stimulating the involvement of private sector and local communities in prospective investments
for tourism. There are many chances for commercial ventures using Newari entrepreneurship.
Lying within the Kathmandu Valley, Bhaktapur relatively has the ultimate benefit of easily
available human resources, better infrastructure, services and facilities and educated people.

It is recommended that Bhaktapur Municipality aspire to be a catalyst or instigator, creating a

healthy environment for local businesses to flourish. These might range form small-scale shops
and cafes, to the more ambitious restaurants and privately run tourist enterprises. For example,
various programs organized on different occasions like cultural heritage shows, food carnivals,
and typical musical concerts etc. can also be run by private sectors and community investments.

Standardization of restaurants and other tourist consuming products have been called by the
Bhaktapur Municipality and Bhaktapur Tourism Development Committee (BTDC), and will
assist private entrepreneurs. BTDC could also help Nepal Tourism Board (NTB) in upgrading,
regulating and monitoring the general standards of tourism products in Bhaktapur in an attempt
to overcome the damaging reputation of poor hygiene and sanitation.


Cultural and Heritage Impact:

Our cultural heritage has a significant place in our society due to its “spiritual and cultural uses”
value. Therefore, the conservation of our heritage is imperative for our identity and continuity of
the culture and furthering its development in the future. The urban heritage conservation of
Bhaktapur includes not only the important monuments, but also the surroundings, courtyards and
squares, lane and streets and its skyline and townscape as well. Municipality spends almost half
of the total fund generated from the tourists’ service fees on keeping the city clean and in the
improvement of urban infrastructure.

The remaining fund is being used for the heritage conservation and management. Sustainable
development of Bhaktapur emphasizes that “the improvement of the living areas and their
surroundings with the efficient management of garbage and waste disposal, sanitation and water
supply” for a healthy living, working and recreation activities within the Municipality.

The Environmental Improvement Projects are being implemented in the historic city with respect
to richness of art and architecture and the functional values of the heritage by providing technical
and financial help to the heritage house owner for maintenance and up-keeping of the heritage
house intact. The Municipality also emphasizes in the improvement of the ecosystem by cleaning
river, improving Ghats and by greening public open spaces wherever possible.

Social Impact:

Bhaktapur Municipality believes that the management of its urban heritage and resource
mobilization has to be taken up in partnership with the user’s group, government agencies,
I/NGOs, Heritage Society and the people engaged in the tourism industry. Success of the
conservation efforts through sustainability depends upon the awareness among the people and
the government levels. Appropriate government policies and investment for sustainable planning
and the conservation work are also needed.

Bhaktapur realizes the widely accepted view that the benefits from tourism should be invested in
the conservation and management of the heritage. Its plan, programs and actions of past decades
clearly demonstrate that the revitalization of the old city core area is possible only with the
cooperation from visitors, its citizens and investment in heritage conservation.

Economic Impact:

In Bhaktapur, there are 172 temples, monasteries, and mosques. Likewise, Bhaktapur has 172
parts (public shelters), 27 sattals (public inns), 19 maths (priest houses), 152 wells, 34 ponds and
77 sunken stone waterspouts.

It is Nepal’s cultural capital, in which, diverse cultural events, festivals and traditions are found.
Tourists visit Bhaktapur to enjoy this unique architecture and cultural events. The tourist number
visiting Bhaktapur ranges from 500-600 daily.

Municipality’s record also shows that as many as 1200 visitors had visited the city during tourist
peak season. Average growth in tourist arrival is around 15%. In year 2000, more than 2, 00,000
tourists visited Bhaktapur to see its architectural monuments, festivals, culture and lifestyles.

Thus, the ever-increasing flow of tourist possesses economic potentiality as well as threat to the
cultural heritage, which in principle reflects the history of the socio-economic development of
the society. The economic developments are rapidly taking place and the impact on the heritage
is visible. It is very essential to timely address the negative socio-cultural impacts in the city/

It has also brought changes in the cultural landscape with the introduction of modern technology
in communication (cable TV, disc antennas) and concrete structures in old city core areas, either
destroying the old heritage house or dwarfing it altogether on the cultural landscape.


Priority Amenities for Tourism

Neat environment:

There is no question that a clean city environment and effective solid waste management will
contribute greatly to making Bhaktapur a more attractive destination than ever. The government
and the people together must remain absolutely sanitation conscious that is a part of civilization.
Though Bhaktapur is the cleanest city in the Kathmandu valley, still control in the pollution is
definitely required. Pedestrianization to the Bhaktapur Durbar Square is a priority to achieve an
atmosphere conducive to the visitor appeal in a world heritage site. Involving community in
these activities is more likely to ensure sustainability.

Basic Amenities:

Basic tourism amenities as toilets, telephones, information and paving are being implemented
under Municipality’s ‘Conservation and Facilitating Program’. Similar programs can be
developed for all parts of the city. It is highly desirable that any new buildings in the historic city
area blend in with the existing structures. The toilet maintenance is most likely to be successful if
the commercially sustainable and the community manage with responsibility. Pay toilets are also
quite suggestible to improve the foreigners for their kind of innocent habit to the rest room and
lavatory back home. Planned tourism information manuals and maps should be carefully sited
and designed so as not to further contribute to any “urban clutter”.

Create an Evening Destination:

A key attraction to increase the length and quality of visitation would be the establishment of the
historic city of Bhaktapur as an evening destination. BTDC is very well placed to achieve this
and plans are already underway. The Municipality is exploring proposals to improve the street
lighting. The four squares have already been floodlighted.

Local Guides and Improvements:

It is recommended that all guide trainings in solid conjunction with a comprehensive guide
manual be linked with the heritage walks in order to maximize the chances of their success,
ensure the same interpretation story is disseminated and to focus guides in a direction that will
achieve certain objectives like:

 To involve the community into the increased tourism benefits by organizing a cadre of
special category local guides for Bhaktapur Chapter based in the NTB Site Office and
training conducted by NATHM for two weeks.

 Organizing Tourist Escorts for Bhaktapur Chapter based in the NTB Site Office by
TURGAN for one week could benefit more residents.

 To establish Heritage Walks by offering a two-day refresher course by Nepal Heritage
Society for licensed tourist guides and journalists to familiarize them with heritage walk
routes and to attract the media coverage.

 To improve visitor experience by offering better interpretation of the Durbar Square Area
and heritage walk routes.

With the main objective to control the wrong practices, irresponsible activities and uncontrolled
services being practiced by the unauthorized local guides, Bhaktapur Tourism Development
Committee and Bhaktapur Municipality in joint venture, conducted “Bhaktapur Area Local
Guide Training” from May 14-29, 2002.

Cultural Heritage Conservation and Tourism:

At the moment, the cultural heritage has become the center of attraction. Generally, five to six
hundred tourists visit the city. They vividly observe life style, cultural events and festivals along
with seasonal melodies and lively drama played by the local people. Municipality has not been
succeeded in attracting by Nepal Television, Radio Nepal and the government owned mass
media toward the direction. However, municipality is on the verge of imparting knowledge, skill
and behavioral attitude to the emerging generation from now on.

Some newspapers like Majdoor, Simrik and municipal’s monthly magazine has been putting
emphasis on heritage conservation along with diversified articles from all over the globe.

The people’s representatives are also indulging in the task of making people aware of the facts
leading to heritage conservation. The Municipality has made a conscious effort to preserve its
temples and unique environs. Besides the reconstruction work, which was undertaken in the
1970s, the Municipality has launched an ambitious campaign for the purpose. Other steps have
also been taken. For instance, Municipality has banned on any type of vehicle in and around 55
Windowed Palace the Durbar Square and heavy means of transportation all around the core city.
Bhaktapur, therefore, is the least polluted city in the valley.

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HMGN has made a policy declaration with regard to make official announcement on the Cultural
City to Bhaktapur through the ninth five-year plan document. In tune with the applied principle
the local governance act, 1999 and the by laws, has promulgated clauses and regulations for the
same. There should be no debate on announcing Bhaktapur as the cultural city.

Hence, to enhance promotional tasks on the conservation of cultural heritage-embracing a wide

spectrum of life tangible heritage like Maths, Temples, Taverns, Inns, Rest Houses, Bihars and
Bahis (Buddhist Shrine), Water Spouts, Ponds and intangible cultural heritage like festivals,
songs and melodies, Dafas (Community Songs), Bhajan (Community Prayers), etc.

For this, Municipality may work with the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation along
with the Department of Archaeology. And, ultimately the inhabitants of Bhaktapur in all the
good sense, must be mobilized and motivation for it.

Large number of Maths, Taverns, Inns, Buildings and other f properties under the management
of the Guthi Sansthan, are being misused either by individuals and controlled or rented out at a
nominal rent for contemporary use-Jangam sattal (Taverns) at Tachapal, Café at Taumadhi, plot
of land in the north Nyatapola (Five Storied Temple) are glaring examples of it.

Foster New Plans:

Fostering new products, especially attractions that involve revenue opportunities for the local
community appeals to target markets and reinforce the cultural heritage image may include:

 Fostering bicycling tours around Municipality area using dedicated biking routes.

 Promoting heritage biking routes would serve to further spread of tourism opportunities
and draw awareness throughout the city.

 All the world heritage sites should be given priority for any further tourism development
as they already lure strong visitor flows.

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 The tourism potential needs to be assessed of new conservation areas proposed “as areas
shouldering special architectural or historical interest which Municipality wishes to
preserve and enhance.”

 Improving local lifestyles and promoting opportunities for Bhaktapur residents spending
their life in their native town.

 Fostering culture shows and typical musical concerts occasionally.

 Establishing the standard accommodation facilities so that business and first class tourists
can spend overnights in Bhaktapur.

 List of implemented urban fabric conservation and development projects (monuments

and building conservation related projects).


Establish Market Image:

 A separate transparent fund being used for the Service Charge.

 Daily cleaning activities, beautification and solid waste improvements in the core city
areas and beyond as well.
 Pedestrianization plans.
 Developing new tourism products in the historic city.
 Stone paving task in different parts of the city.
 Restoration of important buildings with examples such as water waterspouts
 Fostering the imminent re-use of historic buildings.
 Frequent training and organizing of the local guides as “World Heritage Site Volunteers”
to provide an added value for the alien visitors increase an awareness of historic sites and
bring direct tourism benefits to the community.

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 Improve interpretation materials and displays.
Published Materials:

From the tourism perspective, the priorities are likely to be as follow:

 A series of high quality posters could send the message to the stakeholders. If beautiful
enough, these can be used as revenue generating sales items. Black and white posters can
be traced effective if well designed and are much cheaper than the color ones.
 A guide training should most focus on establishing the heritage walks tourism products.
 Hanging in the Internet gives more thresh of enchantment in the tourism perspective.

Support NTB promotional Activities:

It is recommended that there are opportunities to support NTB and other promotional activities
belonging to the private sector. These might include:

 Provide detailed information about the time and location of traditional festivals, cultural
events, music recitals and local happenings within Bhaktapur Municipality.
 Encourage agents for familiarization trips.
 Convince visiting media programs.
 Joint marketing and advertising of special events on the waiting list.
 Support the subsequent production of suitable notion-pictures including documentary and
feature films, especially those tat nurse the market image in target markets.
 Support the imminent promotion of destination videos and audio-visuals.
 Encourage the publication of art books, guidebooks, novels and CD ROMs stressed on
Bhaktapur, especially those that support the market image.
 Help with the collection of a high quality photographic library and review-room.
 Foster close links with the tourism industry Internets, websites, WebPages, homepages
and other electronic sales tools.

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 Help encourage international meetings, conventions, forums, symposiums, carnivals,
conferences, incentives and exhibitions in Bhaktapur.
 Develop the NTB product initiatives in the Bhaktapur area.
Conservation and Tourism Awareness:

Conservation and tourism awareness objectives have been woven into product development and
marketing strategies. They are crucial to establishing linkages between tourism and conservation
with the resident communities so existing.

Municipality and Peoples’ Participation:

Bhaktapur Municipality is launching her overall programs through active people’s participation
and strictly under the ethics of transparency. All participants might know the completion of the
conservation of the Bhairav Nath temple at the expense of Rs. 29, 18,189.38. The estimated cost
of which was Rs 78,09,156. The conservation work of the five-storied temple was accomplished
at an expense of Rs 17, 27,423 against the estimated cost Rs 38, 01,364. The conservation of The
Siddha Pokhari was accomplished at Rs. 22, 78,462 against the estimated cost Rs 35, 45,616.
The long-term and sustainable conservation cannot be achieved with too much dependency on
others as our predecessors on their own erected all monuments. It does not mean to reject
cooperation from global human community for the World Heritage Conservation Participation
and involvement of the people can be achieved through maintenance of transparency in
conservation. This is what municipality has learnt through practical experience. All projects
under Bhaktapur are being implemented through the people’s users committees and not through
contractors. Berlin based Transparency International has made Bhaktapur Municipality an
“Island of Integrity” having evaluated its overall tasks.

In the long run it is far more essential to bring entire Kathmandu valley into the fold of a
conservation master plan for a judicious Heritage Conservation and Tourism Promotion. It has
also become a live necessity to all those environmentally unfriendly and polluting factories such
as carpet factories, garment, textile, and dying industries in order to preserve the precarious
natural and cultural resources. These factories and industries are required to be relocated out the

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Kathmandu valley economic decentralization. And, for pollution free Kathmandu Valley’s
Heritage Conservation and Tourism Promotion; strict enforcement of the existing laws and
control over haphazard mushroom growth is the must.
Challenges Ahead:

In spite of willingness to conserve the heritage people are suffering from the scarcity and soaring
cost of the construction materials like timber, tiles for roof, typical brick called Dachi Apa as
well as ornamental carved bricks with floral designs.

HMGN had made a decision in 1999 in favor of help to conserve the individually owned private
houses with archaeological values. In absence of the implementation of the decision, on the
contrary, made the people faced much with problem.

In realization of the problems faced by the people the municipality has reached a decisive point
to give leverage through extension of cooperation in terms of bearing 100 percent of the total
cost on Dachi Apa, roof tiles and 75 percent of the total cost on timbers required for standard
windows, doors and roof to the house owners of architectural values. Some major challenges
ahead for the Municipality are as follows.

 Need to support the house owner financially and technically.

 Need to produce good quality traditional materials to make traditional building material
easily available at affordable price.
 Need to reduce the intrusion of cement concrete structure.
 Need of waste product management and cleaning of river surrounding the city along with
the appropriate management of sewerage and treatment plant.
 Traditional building materials such as various kinds of brick Dachi Apa, tile, timber, etc.
should be easily and economically available according to regulations.
 The importance of heritage must be publicized regularly in electronic and paper media
such as TV, radio, and national magazines and newspapers.
 Bhaktapur city must be proclaimed as ‘A Cultural City’.

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National and International Opportunities:

There could be training opportunities through Bhaktapur Tourism Development Committee and
Municipality to enhance the potential capacity of culture, heritage and tourism development in
Bhaktapur. These could be both national and international and could include capacity building
for tourism, “training of the trainers”, museum interpretation and displays, and study tours to
neighboring destinations as Thailand, China, Japan that possess partner agencies.

The BTDC is conducting village tourism training in the near future whereas it had successfully
conducted a 15 days training on “Bhaktapur Area Local Guide” in joint venture with the
Municipality that proved successful in developing local guides.

An effort from Local Government Municipality has been attending maximum efforts to improve
tourism. 14 counters are established for the tourist entrance. Main counter is located in front of
the Durbar Square. Municipality has managed all counters and information center.

Bhaktapur is aimed to be the cultural city so non-Nepali television cable networks are strictly
prohibited throughout the municipality so that it would preserve from the cultural encroachment.
To introduce the new generation of Bhaktapur with traditional architecture, Municipality has
established Khowpa Engineering College by own effort.

The college is providing technical and behavioral education for the native students. Municipality
has provided training on heritage education for school children, community people and local
entrepreneurs. About 400 foreign tourists visit Bhaktapur daily and the necessity of skilled
manpower is realized.

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More than 25 local people are facilitated with tourist guide training. Peaceful parking facilities
are available around the city. No vehicles are allowed to enter within the Durbar Square, which
has helped to keep fresh and clean environment.
Municipal council meeting was held before 3 months and through which, following policies and
programs are obtained for the current fiscal year: Formulation of building by laws and enforces
the whole inhabitants to construct traditional houses. It is being compulsion to use traditional
bricks while constructing houses.

Municipal government has adopted the program of great renovation of ancient city structure. To
maintain the city's shape of medieval malla period, It is performing the renovations of Temples,
monuments, public shelter, ponds, 55-window palace, Taleju Bhawani, Nawadurga and so on.

Arniko conference hall is located within the Durbar Square and Municipality has proposed to be
replaced outside the core areas. Local people should be updated for the interpersonal skills with
foreigners. Municipality has adopted program of foreign language training to make easy
communication with tourist through out the city.

Message to Other Cities:

The municipality is earning about 80 million rupees every year from the tourism. A lot of
renovations held by the municipality are performed only through the internal sources. Sanitation
system of the municipality is another important example to other cities. Streets and chowk are
maintained always clean by the municipal efforts. Such goodwill discussed in the previous steps
of the municipality are mentioned as follows:

Self- sufficiency
 Preservation of traditional lifestyle
 Heritage education to school children and community people
 Good Sanitation system
 Protected city
 Commitment from the decision makers

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 It is now developed as one of the clean city of Asia and Pacific region. UNESCO has
announced the Peace Prize for 1998/99 to the municipality.


Tourism industry plays an inevitably important role in Nepalese economy. The existing market
situation and the prevailing passive economic activities after the drastic fall in foreign visitors to
Nepal due to national and international political causes have proved the fact to its maxim. In
Bhaktapur itself, tourism is the next major economic source after agriculture. Bhaktapur
Municipality depends on tourism for almost 60% of its direct financial sources (tourist service
fee). Thus it is beyond doubt that for the overall development of the district, tourism important.

With the beginning of official-modern tourism in Nepal four decades back, tourism activities in
Bhaktapur also gained momentum as”Cultural Tourism" destination. Abundance of historic,
artistic and uniquely architecture, monuments; cultural riches, festivals, dances, music art, life
style with in Bhaktapur city, and beyond has attracted millions of tourists since then. Likewise,
"Changu Narayan" one of the oldest existing monuments of Nepalese history has established
itself as another popular destination for "Cultural Tourists".

Being situated towards the eastern side of Kathmandu valley, Bhaktapur is surrounded by green
mountains almost around its three sides. Fresh mountain air, clean and natural environment,
green fields and beautiful view of the mountain range, life style of the villages, innumerable
wilderness of flora and fauna are main attractions of most of the villages around Bhaktapur.

Breathe taking views of the northern and Northeastern mountain range including Mt. Everest,
romantic sun rise and sun set, exciting nearby village walks and beautiful and fresh mountain
environment in Nagarkot has established itself as one of the most popular destinations among
eco-tourists and village-tourists alike. It is an established tourist sight where all kinds of tourist
facilities are available.

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Within the Bhaktapur side of Nagarkot area (about 20% of the main area) alone there are over 7
good hotels with over 110 bed capacity and many restaurants with the capacity of over 400 pax.
Apart from these, small and medium sized hotels/restaurants are scattered in Bhaktapur.

Though there are profound potential of tourism promotion in almost every VDC in Bhaktapur,
most of the tourism activities are concentrated within the core city area of Bhaktapur. Almost
70% tourist oriented guesthouses and restaurant facilities are based in this area. There are 23
guesthouses with 170 bed capacities, 18 restaurants, 350 gift shops and service establishments
and many temporary gift shops directly involving a large number of local populace.
Development of tourism has helped created market for local handicrafts and gift items.

With the local traditional craft and craftsmen are getting opportunities to preserve and promote
their ancient skills that have been handed down generation by generations. Official data on total
tourist arrival, in Bhaktapur district, their length of stay and the average spending are not
available, but according to the data available with Bhaktapur Municipality, 141312 tourists from
third country entered Bhaktapur Municipality in 2057-2058, which is about 40% of the total
tourist arrival of Nepal the same year.

According to Nepal Tourism Board, 60% of the tourists coming to Nepal come for pleasure or as
cultural tourists, 20% are trekkers and mountaineers, 5% are business travelers, 5% are official
visitors and 10% visit with other purposes. Hence, it is evident that there still is an immense
possibility of tourism development in the city and if we plan properly we can expect over 90% of
the tourists visiting Nepal to come over to Bhaktapur, stay longer and spend more.

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Municipality has been doing a lot in preserving historic monuments and cultural heritage. It has
changed once the filthiest city in the valley to the cleanest city today. Still there are more
things to be done for promoting tourism in Bhaktapur. To exploit the tourism potentials of
the district to the fullest for economic up liftmen of its inhabitants, following measures are
to be considered:

The quality man-power, security, comfortable and pleasant, access basic facilities (like parking,
toilet and general information on do's and don’t dos, standard accommodation,
communication facilities, new tourism products, night (evening) tourism programs

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