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Chapter 3

Special Types of Transformer

3.1 Introduction:
The electrical network contain other types that entirely different power transfo
rmer, this chapter devoted to four special transformers. Their design aspects an
d features, different from those of conventional distribution and power transfor
mers, are enumerated.
This chapter gives some knowledge about it .
3.2 Auto-transformer:
Auto transformer is kind of electrical transformer where primary and secondary s
hares same common single winding. So basically it s a one winding transformer.
3.2.1 Theory of Auto Transformer
In auto transformer, one single winding is used as primary winding as well as se
condary winding. But in two windings transformer two different windings are used
for primary and secondary purpose. A diagram of auto transformer is shown in fi
gure 3.1
Single phase auto-transformer Fig. 3.1
The winding AB of total turns N1 is considered as primary winding. This winding
is tapped from point ?C? and the portion BC is considered as secondary. Let's as
sume the number of turns in between points ?B? and ?C? is N2.
If V1 voltage is applied across the winding i.e. in between ?A? and ?C?.
The relationship between the voltage across the winding 'A' and 'C' and the vo
ltage across the winding 'C' and 'B' is
V_1/N_1 = V_2/N_2 =k
Where N1 and N2 is the number of turns per the winding 'A' and 'C' and the windi
ng 'C' and 'B' respectively.
k is turns ratio or voltage ratio of that auto transformer.
When load is connected between secondary terminals i.e. between ?B? and ?C?, loa
d current I2 starts flowing. The current in the secondary winding or common wind
ing is the difference of I2 & I1.
3.2.2 Copper Savings in Auto Transformer :
Auto transformer requires less copper for the same output than that required by
a two winding transformer
W_tw-W_a=kW_ta
Where Wa and Wtw are weight of copper in auto transformer and two winding transf
ormer respectively.
3.2.3 Advantages of using Auto Transformers:
1) For transformation ratio = 2, the size of the auto transformer would be appro
ximately 50% of the corresponding size of two winding transformer. For transform
ation ratio say 20 however the size would be 95 %. The saving in cost of the mat
erial is of course not in the same proportion. The saving of cost is appreciable
when the ratio of transformer is low, that is lower than 2. Thus auto transform
er is smaller in size and cheaper.
2) An auto transformer has higher efficiency than two winding transformer. This
is because of less ohmic loss and core loss due to reduction of transformer mate
rial.
3) Auto transformer has better voltage regulation as voltage drop in resistance
and reactance of the single winding is less.
3.2.4 disadvantages of using Auto Transformers:
1) Because of electrical conductivity of the primary and secondary windings the
lower voltage circuit is liable to be impressed upon by higher voltage. To avoid
breakdown in the lower voltage circuit, it becomes necessary to design the low

voltage circuit to withstand higher voltage.


2) The leakage flux between the primary and secondary windings is small and henc
e the impedance is low. This results into severer short circuit currents under f
ault conditions, therefore this types of transformer required reactor .
3.2.5 Applications of Auto Transformers:
1) Compensating voltage drops by boosting supply voltage in distribution systems
.
2) Auto transformers with a number of tapping are used for starting induction an
d synchronous motors.
3) Auto transformer is used as variac in laboratory or where continuous variable
over broad ranges are required.
3.3 Grounding Transformer:
Figure 3.2