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Storage reservoirs and overhead tanks are used to store water, liquid petroleum, petroleum

products and similar liquids. The force analysis of the reservoirs or tanks is about the same
irrespective of the chemical nature of the product. All tanks are designed as crack-free
structures to eliminate any leakage. Water or raw petroleum retaining slab and walls can be of
reinforced concrete with adequate cover to the reinforcement. Water and petroleum do not
react with concrete and, therefore, no special treatment to the surface is required. Industrial
wastes can also be collected and processed in concrete tanks with few exceptions. The
petroleum products such as petrol, diesel oil, etc. are likely to leak through the concrete walls;
therefore such tanks need special membranes to prevent leakage. The present chapter deals
with the design of water tanks. Reservoirs below ground level are built normally to store
large quantities of water whereas those of overhead type are built for direct distribution by
gravity flow and are usually of smaller capacity.
The reservoirs can be made with a minimum of M20 concrete so to provide not only strength
but also higher density to prevent leakage. A well-graded aggregate with water cement ratio is
less than 0.5 is desired for making impervious concrete. As the head of water increases, there
is a tendency of seepage; however, water heads upto 15m should not present any problem of
seepage provided crack-free design method is applied. Mild or high yield strength steel
reinforcement bars can be used in storage tanks. The permissible stress in the reinforcement is
controlled by the strain and the crack widths rather than the strengths. Plain concrete may
fracture at about 0.0002 tension but when it is strengthened by reinforcement, the level of the
cracking strain is decreased by one-third to one-fifth, depending on the nature of the bond
between the concrete and the reinforcement. Deformed bars or ribbed steel improve the level
of cracking capacity in the concrete. A crack width of 0.1 mm has been accepted as a
permissible value in water retaining structures. This crack width is not a real crack width but
is an imaginary value which really does not cause apparent cracking. In view of the
complexities and uncertainties associated with the crack widths, a simplified approach
through allowable stresses is presented. The fracture strength of the concrete is given by


= flexural fracture strength in N/mm2

= characteristic strength of 150 mm cube in N/mm2

The allowable direct and bending tensile stresses in concrete can be expressed as


= allowable axial tensile stress in concrete in MPa

= allowable bending tensile stress in concrete in MPa

The above values are for reinforced cement but not for plain concrete. Table xx gives
recommended allowable tensile stresses in reinforced concrete to ensure no leakage.
Table xx allowable tensile stresses in reinforced concrete (MPa) on water face
Direct tension
Bending tension

Direct tension
Bending tension



Grade of concrete



Grade of concrete


The face of the concrete away from the water face can be designed as a cracked section,
provided a minimum of 115 mm uncracked section is available on the water face for a head
of 5m. The allowable stresses in the reinforced bars are listed in table xx.
Table xx allowable stresses in reinforcement (MPa)

Nature of stress

plain mild steel

High yield

1.Tension in steel placed within 225 mm from water face

2.Tension in steel placed beyond 225 mm from water face
3. Compression



It should be stated that all the tensile force either due to hoop tension or bending tension must
be resisted by the reinforcement with the allowable stresses listed in table xx. The allowable
tensile stresses in the reinforced concrete correspond to the uncracked composite section. The
minimum recommended covers to the reinforcement are

Cover = 20 mm in direct tension or the diameter of the bar

= 25 mm in bending tension
= 35 mm alternating wetting and drying condition
Table xx Minimum reinforcements (HYSD-Fe415)
1. Dummy concrete with no tension at all
2. Concrete upto thickness of 100 mm
3. Concrete with thickness more than 425 mm
4. Concrete below the ground level
5. Concrete subjected to freezing and thawing


A minimum reinforcement in the concrete is must since the allowed stresses exceed the
normal limits of plain concrete, to minimise cracking due to shrinkage and temperature.
Concrete submerged under water or under soil is less sensitive to shrinkage and temperature
effects when compared with that exposed to alternative drying and wetting.

Design of Intze Tank

Out of several shapes used in the overhead water tanks, intze tank has gained some popularity
because of its dominant membrane action. Structurally and architecturally it has some
advantages making the best use of circular shapes. The intersections between the elements
when made symmetrical will result in only minor perturbations. The main structural
components of a typical intze tank are

Roof dome
Top ring beam
Vertical wall
Middle ring beam
Conical dome
Lower dome
Bottom ring beam

In addition there are other structural components such as:

1. Staging which consists of
a) Column and brace system or
b) Cylindrical shaft
2. Foundation which can be of
a) Independent footing or
b) Ring strip of beam and slab
c) Mat foundation
d) Pile foundation
3. Balcony, staircase. Etc. Minor items
The designer has to select the structural system of the foundation depending on the soil
conditions. The intze tanks are commonly employed for capacities ranging from 100kl to
Member analysis of each of the elements is normally applied in the design of the Intze tank.
This analysis is discussed in detail in this chapter and it is applicable in the following cases:
1. The thicknesses of the shells are small when compared with the radii of the shells. R/t
ratio greater than 30 is the safe accepted limit. However, the thin shell theory with

minor edge perturbations can be accepted in some of the elements even if R/t is in the
range 20
2. The boundary membrane forces of different components must be properly balanced
by ring beams so as to minimize the transverse shear forces on the shell elements. The
ring beams must be placed properly at the correct locations with no eccentricities. The
eccentricity of the radial or meridional forces with respect to the centroid of the ring
beam will cause end moments on the shell.
3. The reinforcement details play an important role. As far as possible small diameter
bars be provided at closer intervals. Proper anchor lengths, minimization of
congestion of reinforcement and overlaps be maintained. Proper bending of the bars
be applied so as to have smooth transmission of forces.
The membrane theory is an equilibrium method; therefore, improper geometrical alignments
and poor detailing though structurally strong, can lead to cracking and leakage. The notations
used in the design are given below
t = thickness of shell or wall, h = height
r = radius in plan, R = radius of curvature of the shell
b = width of the beam, D = depth of the beam
= density of water, c = density of concrete.
The subscripts refer to
1 or t = top dome or top ring beam, w = wall
m = middle ring beam,
b = bottom dome or bottom ring beam
Geometric properties and capacity calculations: Let
r1 = radius of the inside face of the cylindrical wall at top
h1 = rise of the top or roof dome
t = semicentral angle of the top dome
Rt = radius of curvature of the top dome
t1 = thickness of the top dome
Usually the radius r and the rise h1 are selected a priori. The rise of the top dome can be
selected in the range of r1/6 to r1/3 depending on the size of the tank. The relation between the
radius of the dome and that of the cylindrical shell is:

Therefore ,

The semi-central angle is given by

Volume of the liquid in the cylindrical portion of the tank (excluding the free board)

Where h6 = free board, r2 = radius at the base of the wall. Volume of a frustum of a cone is.


Allowable stress and other codal specifications
Allowable stresses in RCC water retaining concrete M20 are
ct = 1.2 cbt = 1.7
The reinforcement is HYSD-Fe415 bars
Allowable stresses in HYSD-Fe-415 basr
st1 = 230 ( in ordinary RCC)
st2 = 150 ( up to 225 mm from water face)
st3 = 190 (beyond 225 mm from water face)
Design by member analysis
Design of roof dome
Let the thickness

= t1


= 0.12 m

Rise of dome

= h1

= 1.5 m

Chord radius

= r1

= 5m

Surface radius

= 0.5(5.12/1.44 + 1.44)
= 9.75 m

= 32.22
Let the density of concrete be 25 kN/m2
Live load = w1 = 0.75 kN/m2
Dead load = wd = 0.12(25) = 3 kN/m2
Total load = w = 3.75 kN/m2
Total live load on the shell is

Self weight of the dome

Meridional thrust

Compressive stress

The hoop stress is compressive over the entire domain and it is less than meridional stress.
The actual compressive stress is far less than the allowable compressive stress therefore,
provide a nominal reinforcement.
Minimum reinforcement in the either direction is

Provide 8 mm bars at 270 mm c/c bothways.

Hoop thrust on the ring beam is same as the horizontal component of the meridional thrust
from the top dome. The hoop tension in the ring beam is therefore, equal to

Area of tension steel required is

Provide 5 numbers of 12 mm bars

As provided = 565.2 mm2
Let the width of the beam b1 = 200 mm
Let the depth required be D1
The tensile stress in the concrete is

Provide 5 numbers of 12 mm bars with 6 mm ties at 300 mm c/c

Weight of the ring beam is


Wall height

h = 5m

Maximum hoop tension is at h =5m

Hoop tension at 4m from top

Total hoop tension at the bottom 1m depth

Area of tension steel required in the bottom 1 m depth of the wall

Provide 8 numbers of 16 mm bars on each face.

As(provided) = 1607 mm2
The tensile stress in the concrete is

Thickness required = 168216/1000 = 170 mm

Thickness at bottom = t3 = 200 mm
Thickness at top

= t2 = 100 mm

The average thickness between 4 and 5 m depth is

Table xx HYSD-Fe415 reinforcement 12 mm dia in there vertical wall

Distance from top(m)


0 to 1
1 to 2
2 to 3
3 to 4
4 to 5


Required mm2
Number of 12

The reinforcement details in the vertical wall are given in table xx

Weight of the wall

Average thickness of the wall = 190 mm

Minimum percentage of mild steel is 0.3% for 100 mm thick wall and 0.2% for 450 mm
walls. The linear interpolation of the percentage for 190 mm thick is

Minimum area of the reinforcement needed is

(80% of the mild steel for HYSD-Fe415 bars)

Provide 8mm bars at 250 mm c/c on both faces

As(provided) = 452.16 mm2/m


Width of the walking gallery = 1m
The gallery is used by the workmen; therefore, the working load is taken as that of a roof
balcony. The live loads on roof are taken as 1500 N/m2 or 1000 N placed near the tip of the
balcony (say 75mm from the free end of the balcony). The load that governs the design is
usually the latter case.
Let the width of the ring beam be equal to 500 mm so as to serve partly as a balcony at this
height. So the cantilever span of the slab = 1-0.5 = 0.5 m
Let the thickness of the slab be

= 75 mm

Self weight of the slab = 0.075x1x25000x0.5

= 940 N/m

Let the railing load (at 75 mm from tip)

= 750 N/m

Bending moment due to self weight =

= 235 Nm/m

Bending moment due to railing = 750(0.5-0.075)

= 320 Nm/m

Bending moment due to UDL (live load) = 1500(0.5)2/2

= 188 Nm/m

Or the bending moment due to end live load = 1000(0.5-0.075)

= 425 Nm/m

The latter case of live load governs the design.

The total design moment is

The working moment capacity of the section is

The slab thickness provided

= 75mm

The effective depth = 75-30

= 45mm

Area of steel needed is = As =

= 105 mm2

Provide 8 mm radial bars at 200 mm c/c and anchored into the ring beam.
As(provided) = 250 mm2/m
Distribution reinforcement =

Provide 2 numbers of 8 mm bars in 500 mm projection.

As(provided) = 100.5 mm2
Total weight of the slab

Total live load on the gallery

Total railing load


Let the size of the beam for the purpose of computing self weight be 500x600 mm.
Self weight = 0.50.625 = 7.5 kN/m
Total self weight

LL from the dome

W1 = 344.45

Weight of the top dome

W2 = 275.56

Weight of the top ring beam

W3 = 43.24

Weight of the vertical wall

W4 = 558

Weight of the gallery slab

W5 = 33.56

LL on the gallery

W6 = 53.69

Weight of the railing

W7 = 26.85

Weight of water on the slanting edge of the vertical wall

The load transferred to the conical wall is equal to the weight of the components of the tank
up to the top of the cone plus the live loads etc., and it is

Hoop tension on the ring beam is

Area of tension steel in the ring beam is

Provide 10 numbers of 12mm bars.

There are two membrane stress resultants in the conical shell. The meridional thrust is
maximum at the base of the cone whereas hoop tension varies along the depth.
Let the average thickness of the shell be

= 250 mm

The slope of the wall =

= 45

Height of the cone = h3

= 1.5 m

Self-weight of the slab = 0.25(25)

= 6.25 kN/m2

Length of the slab = 1.414(1.5)

= 2.12 m

Weight of the conical wall

Weight of the water over the conical wall

Total load on the conical slab

Meridional thrust in the slab of the cone

Horizontal component of the thrust H1 = N cos = 80.4 kN/m

The meridional thrust

This stress is much smaller than the allowable compressive stress; however, the actual
thickness of the slab is governed by the hoop tension rather than the meridional compression.
The hoop tension is computed at a height (y) from the base = rx = (4+y) m
Height of the water at this level

Normal load on the slanting slab

px = water pressure + component of weight of slab

Hoop tension in the slab

Hoop tension in the slab at depth y=0, y = 0.75 and y =1.5 m are computed and are given

The maximum hoop tension in the slab occurs at the intersection of the middle ring beam.
The total hoop tension in the slab

Total area of hoop tension steel required is

Provide 12mm dia bars, 21 at the inner face and 22 at the outer face of the slab
Total area of steel provided is
As = 4860.72 mm2

The area of the concrete required is governed by the allowable tensile stresses in the concrete.
The hoop tension in the concrete is

Average thickness of the slab

Provide thickness of the slab at top as t4 = 260 mm

And at the base as t5 = 200 mm
The average thickness of the slab is 230mm. Revised weight of the conical wall

Therefore, total load on the cone at its base

Minimum reinforcement in the radial direction is 0.24% for 100 mm thick and 0.16 mm for
450 mm thick.
Percentage of reinforcement required

Provide 12 mm bars at 250 mm c/c in the radial direction at each surface

As(provided) = 565.2 mm2/m
Half chord length r3


Rise of the dome h2

= 1.5 m

Let the thickness of the shell t6 = t

= 0.2 m

Radius of the dome

Self weight of the dome is

Weight of the water over the dome

Total weight on the dome

Semicentral angle

Meridional thrust

Compressive stress

The compressive stress is only nominal, therefore, provide minimum reinforcement. The
hoop compression is also in the same range. The minimum reinforcement is

Provide 12 mm bars at 240 mm c/c.

Horizontal thrust

H2 = Ncos = 191.17cos 45 = 100.43 kN/m


The horizontal component of the thrust from the shell at the ring beam level is

The horizontal component of the meridional thrust from the bottom dome at the beam level is

The net force on the ring beam is H3

= 100.43 80.40 = 20.03 kN/m

The hoop compression T

= H3r3 = 20.034 = 80.1 kN

Provide a ring beam cross section of 500 x 300 mm

The compressive stress
The minimum reinforcement be 0.24%

= 80100/(500x300) = 0.53 N/mm2

So provide 12 mm bars and 8 mm ties at 300 mm c/c

Weight of the beam


Maximum overturning moment M for seismic forces = 6772.59 kN-m
Axial force on the column due to seismic forces

Total load of the overhead tank

= 2965.34 kN

Load on each column = 2965.34/6

= 494.2 kN

Let the self weight of each column

= 90 kN

Let the weight of the braces on each column = 76 kN

Total load on the column

= 660.2 kN

Use maximum DL+LL on each column

= 660.2 kN

Force due to earthquake load p1

= 1125.015 kN

Load on column under earthquake

= 1785.2 kN

Maximum shear force on each column

At the bottom panel

= total base shear/6 = 308.71/6 = 51.45 kN

c/c panel height

= 4.5 m

bending moment on the column M

= (4.5 0.6)(51.45)/2 = 100.32 kNm

M/p is small, therefore design the column as uncracked section.

Use 650 mm dia with 8 nos of 20 mm bars. Use 8 mm stirrups at 300 mm spacing

= 2512 mm2

Maximum bending moment occurs in the lower most brace, and it is

Use beam section of 0.3 by 0.6 with 2 numbers of 20 mm main bars at top and bottom faces.
Provide stirrups of 8mm bars at 400 mm spacing.
DL + LL on each column

= 494.2 kN

Column weight = (0.65)(18)(25)

= 292.5 kN

Weight of brace = 4(8.65)(0.6)25

= 519 kN

Load at base

= 1305.7

Difference of foundation concrete and soil


= ( = 134.56 kN

Total net load

= 1440.26 kN

Axial load due to earthquake

= 1125.015 kN

Design load

= 2565.275 kN

Provide independent footing for each column

Foundation area required = 2565.275/(1.25)60

= 34 m2

Provide 5.855.85 m footing A

=34 m2

Net bearing pressure = 2565.2/34

= 75.4 kN/m2

Effective pressure = 75.4 (134.56/34)

= 71.44 kN/m

Cantilever span

= 2.6 m

BM on the footing slab

Effective depth needed

Use 100 mm thick slab at the face of the column with 10 numbers of 20 mm bars