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partial safety factor of steel

1.15

partial safety factor of steel

1.5

Modulus of Elasticity for steel

Es

200

Modulus of Elasticity for concrete

Ecm = 22 ( fcm / 10 ) 0.3 Gpa

mean cylinder compressive strength

fcm = fck + 8 Mpa

second moment of area for rectangular


beam or column

bh3 / 12

Permanent Actions

Variable Actions

Accidental Actions

Gpa

22 ( fcm / 10 ) 0.3 Gpa


fck + 8 Mpa

Properties of concrete
Elastic modulus, Ec =

24 ~ 32

Secant or static modulus, Ecm =

KN/mm2

( 1.25Ed - 19)

KN/mm2

Dynamic modulus of elasticity, Ed =

Properties of reinforcement

Elastic modulus, Es =

200

KN/mm2

2.2 Characteristic strength and design strength


a)

The characteristic strength of concrete, fcu is the cube strength after 28-days of standard
The characteristic strength of reinforcement, f y is the tensile yield stress.
Concrete, fcu =

25 - 50

N/mm2

Mild Steel , fy =

250

N/mm2

High Yield Steel , fy =

460

N/mm2

b) The characteristic strength is the value below which only 5% of the test results would be
to fall.

Design strength =

Characteristic strength
Partial factor of safety

Values of m for the ultimate limit state


Materials/ stress type

Reinforcement
Concrete in flexure or axial load

1.15
1.5

Shear strength
Bond strength
Others (eg.bearing stress)

1.25
1.4
1.5

2.3 Characteristic loads and design loads

a) The characteristic or service loads are the actual loads. They have 95% probability of no
exceeded during the life of the structure.

b) Loads are divided into:


Dead load, Gk or gk

- self weight, finishes, partitions, services

Imposed load, Qk or qk

- people, furniture etc.

Wind load, Wk or wk

- depends on wind speed, building size

c) Design load = Characteristic load x partial factor of safety ( F k x f )


Values of f for various load combination
Load type
Load combination
1. Dead and imposed
2. Dead and wind
3. Dead, wind and imposed

Dead, Gk
Adverse
1.4
1.4
1.2

Beneficial
1.0
1.0
1.2

Imposed, Qk
Adverse
1.6
1.2

2.4 Load combinations for the ultimate limit state

In the design of members such as beams and slabs, it is normally sufficient to consider lo
combination 1 only (Dead and Imposed).

In the design of a structuref for which stability consideration is important, load combinat
3 must be considered.

Load combination 1
a) Simply supported beam:
An adverse load (1.4gk + 1.6 qk) will produce the worst possible
sagging moment, shear and deflection.

b) Simply supported beam with an overhang: Three possible load arrangements:


minimum load on AB & maximum load on BC maximum support
moment at B

maximum load on AB & minimum load on BC maximum sagging


moment in AB

maximum load throughout maximum support moment and


maximum reaction at B

Load combination 2 & 3


LC2 : Dead and wind loads

1.0 Gk

1.4 Wk

1.4 Gk

LC2 gives maximum uplift at support A

4 Reinforced concrete beam

a) Assumption 1: Strains in concrete and steel

Fig. B shows a linear distribution of strain over the section. The strain in concrete and steel is
strain. The concrete is assumed to fail when the compressive strain reaches a limiting value of 0.

b) Assumption 2: The concrete stress blocks

Two concrete stress blocks may be used for flexural design: the rectangular parabolic stress dist
simplified stress block is much simpler to use and gives results that are very close to those obtain

Fc = 0.45 * cu * b * 0.9x
z = d - 0.45x
Using the simplified stress block, three fundamental equations are derived:
1) Equilibrium of forces : Fc = Ft
0.45 * cu * b * 0.9x = 0.87 * y * As
2) Equilibrium of moments:
The ultimate moment of resistance of the section is given by either of

M = Fc * z = 0.45 * cu * b * 0.9x * z
M = FT * z = 0.87 * y * As * z
3) Depth of neutral axis

To ensure a ductile type failure, the depth of neutral axis x is not to exceed d/2. This will ensure t
the yield strain of steel, ie, s > 0.002 for fy = 460 N/mm2; and the corresponding tensile stress
0.87 fy

5 Design Procedure
2
1) Calculate K = M / ( cu * b * d )

2) Check K :
K'
K'

design as singly reinforced section ( K' = 0.156 )


design as doubly reinforced section

5.1 Singly Reinforced Section Design:


1) Calculate z = d * [0.5 + (0.25 - K / 0.9 ) ]
2) Calculate As = M / (0.87 * y * z)

5.2 Doubly Reinforced Section Design:

if K 0.043 then z = 0.95d

1) Calculate z = d * [0.5 + (0.25 - K' / 0.9 ) ]


2) Calculate = ( d - z ) / 0.45
3) Check d' / :

0.43
> 0.43

continue on to stage 4
compression reinforcement elastic ; substitute 0.87

2
'
4) Calculate As' = ( K - K' ) * cu * b * d / [ 0.87 * y * ( d - d ) ]

2
5) Calculate As = [ ( K' * cu * b * d ) / ( 0.87 * y * z ) ] + As'

28 days characteristic strength (N/mm2)


Static (secant) modulus Ecm (kN/mm2) Mean

25
30

Notation
Acv

Area of section for shear resistance, mm2

Ag

Gross area of cross-section, mm2

As

Area of tension reinforcement, mm2

A's

Area of compression reinforcement, mm2

Asc

Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, mm 2

Asv

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, m

Asv / sv
a
b
b'
bf

Depth of the compression block, mm


Width or effective width of the section in the compres
Shorther section dimension, mm

bw

Average width of a flanged beam, mm


Compression force, N
Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm
Depth to centre of compression reinforcement, mm

C
d
d'
Ec
Es

er 28-days of standard curing.

Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the me

emin

Width or effective width of flange, mm

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, Mpa

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 20


Minimum eccentricity, mm

fcu

Characteristic cube strength at 28days, Mpa

f's

Compressive stress in a beam compression steel, Mpa

fy

Characteristic strength reinforcement, Mpa

fyv

Characteristic strength of link reinforcement, Mpa (<4

h
hf

Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm

Normalized design moment, Mu / bd2fcu

K'

Maximum Mu / bd2fcu for a singly reinforced concrete


distribution is limited to 10%

k1
k2

Shear strength enhancement factor for support comp


Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu /30]1/3

fk

le

Effective height of a column, mm

lo

Clear height between end restraints, mm


Design moment at a section, Nmm

e test results would be expected

M
M1 , M2
Mi

Flange thickness, mm

Smaller and larger end moments in slender column, N

Initial moment at the point of maximum additional mo

Mx , My

Applied moments about the major and minor axes of


Ultimate axial load, N

N
Sv

Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm


Tension force, N
Design shear force at ultimate design load, N

T
V

c
95% probability of not being

Design shear stress at the beam cross-section or at a


Design ultimate shear stress resistance of a concrete

'c

Design concrete shear stress corrected for axial force

x , y

Design ultimate shear stress of a concrete section, Mp

bal

ons, services

uilding size

ad type
Imposed, Qk

Neutral axis depth, mm


Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm

Lever arm, mm

Partial safety factor for load

Partial safety factor for material strength

Maximum concrete strain, 0.0035

Strain in tension steel

's

Strain in compression steel

Effective length factor


Moment distribution factor in a member

Wind, Wk

Beneficial
0.0
1.2

1.4
1.2

sufficient to consider load

portant, load combinations 2 and

1.4 gk + 1.6 qk

1.4 gk + 1.6 qk

1.0 gk

C
A

B
1.4 gk + 1.6 qk

1.0 gk

C
A

1.4 gk + 1.6 qk

C
A

LC3 : Dead and wind and imposed loads

1.2 Gk + 1.2Qk

1.2 Wk

LC3 gives maximum axial load in column B

in concrete and steel is directly proportional to the distance from the axis of zero
hes a limiting value of 0.0035 at the top.

ular parabolic stress distribution in Fig c and the simplified stress block in Fig d. The
ery close to those obtained using the rectangular parabolic stress distribution.

ed d/2. This will ensure that the strain at the level of tension reinforcement exceeds
esponding tensile stress in the reinforcement is always taken as fy / m = fy / 1.15 =

' = 0.156 )

en z = 0.95d

titute 0.87 y with 's = Esc [ 1 - ( 2d' / d ) ]

30

37

45

50

55

60

75

85

31

33

34

35

36

37

39

41

reinforcement, mm 2

at the neutral axis, mm 2

unit length of the member, mm 2/mm

ction in the compression zone, mm

cement, mm
einforcement, mm

ment, assumed as 200,000 Mpa

8days, Mpa

mpression steel, Mpa

nforcement, Mpa (<460MPa)

plane of bending, mm

reinforced concrete section, assuming that moment

or for support compression

in slender column, Nmm

ximum additional moment, Nmm

r and minor axes of a column, Nmm

gth of the beam, mm

sign load, N

cross-section or at a punch critical section, Mpa

stance of a concrete beam, Mpa

ected for axial forces, Mpa

concrete section, Mpa

ed section, mm

95

105

42

44

Concrete strength, cu =

40

N/mm2

Rebar strength, y =

460

N/mm2

Shear links strength, yv =

250

N/mm2

Width of Beam b =

300

mm

Depth of Beam h =

500

mm

Concrete cover =

30

mm

Assume top Bar dia, ' =

16

mm

effective depth d' =

Assume bottom Bar dia, =

25

mm

effective depth d =

Assume shear link Bar dia, =

10

mm

Design Moment M =

500

KNm

Design Shear V =

500

KN

max. aggregate size hagg =

Flexural Design
1)

K = M / ( cu * b * d2 )
= 0.199
0.156
>
Design as Doubly Reinforced Section

2)

z = d * [0.5 + (0.25 - K' / 0.9 ) ]


=
355
mm

3)

As' = ( K - K' ) * cu * b * d2 / [ 0.87 * y * ( d - d' ) ]


A's min
mm2
=
442
>
>> OK
Provide 3T16 as compression steel ( 604 mm )

4)

As = [ ( K' * cu * b * d2 ) / ( 0.87 * y * z ) ] + As'


As min
= 3196 mm2
>
>> OK
Provide 7T25 as tension steel ( 3438 mm )

Spacing requirements (to control cracking)


1) Minimum requirements, between bundles of bars
2 hagg / 3
Vertical :

mm
hagg + 5
Horizontal :

mm
2) Maximum requirements
Horizontal (fy = 460 N/mm2) :

s1 160mm

Diagonally (from corner of the beam) :


Vertical (d750mm only) :

s2 s1 / 2 mm
s3 250mm (sides of beam only)

Shear Design
Max allowable shear stress (CP65~3.4.5.2)
max = min ( 0.8 fcu , 5 )
1)
=

5.00

N/mm2

Design shear stress


2)
= V / ( bw*d )
=

3.643

N/mm2

<

max

>> OK

Shear capacity of concrete


c = 0.79*[ 100As / (b*d) ]1/3 * (400/d)1/4 * (fcu/25)1/3 / m
3)
=

0.980

N/mm2

< 2, provide nominal links at mid-span and shear


check

m =

Design of links
Asv = 2(2/4 )
4)
157.14 mm2

cu =
400 / d =
100As/(bv*d) =

Links at midspan
Sv = 0.87Asvyv/(0.4bv)
5)
=

285
mm
< 0.75*d = 343 mm
Provide R10 at 250 mm centres

>> OK

Links at support
Sv = 0.87Asvyv/[bv*(v-vc)]
=

43
mm
< 0.75*d = 343 mm
Provide R10 at 0 mm centres

>> OK

WORKINGS
Maximum concrete strain
c = 0.0035 - [fcu-60]/50000

(=0.0035, if fcu60

= 0.0035
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement
Es = 200000 Mpa

Singly Reinforced Section Design


K=
38

mm

458

mm

20

mm

0.199

z = d * [0.5 + (0.25 - K / 0.9 ) ]


=
306
mm
As = M / ( 0.87 * y * z )
=

4078

mm2

Nos. of bo

Area of bot

Doubly Reinforced Section Design


K=

0.199

z = d * [0.5 + (0.25 - K' / 0.9 ) ]


=
355
mm
check
A's min = 0.2%b*h
=

300

if d' / 0.043,
substitute 0.87 y w

= ( d - z ) / 0.45
=
227
mm
mm2

As min = 0.13%b*h
=
195
mm2

d' = cover + rebar '/2


=
38
mm2
d' / =

0.168

>

0.043

>> not OK, subst

As' = ( K - K' ) * cu * b * d2 / [ 0.87 * y * ( d - d' ) ]


=

442

mm2

As = [ ( K' * cu * b * d2 ) / ( 0.87 * y * z ) ] + As'


=

3196

mm2

Nos. of bo
Area of bot

-span and shear links near support

1.25
40

40 N/mm2

1.00

2.33

3 & 0.15

(=0.0035, if fcu60MPa)

Check K
if K > 0.043, z = d * [0.5 + (0.25 - K / 0.9 ) ]
=
306
mm
if K 0.043, z = 0.95 * d
=
435
mm

' =
Nos. of bottom bars required =

25
9

Area of bottom steel provided =

4420

K' =

mm
mm2

0.156

Check d' /
if d' / 0.043,
substitute 0.87 y with 's = Esc [ 1 - ( 2d' / d ) ]
=

584

>> not OK, substitute 0.87fy with f's

* b * d2 / [ 0.87 * y * ( d - d' ) ]

' =
Nos. of top bars required =
Area of top steel provided =

* d2 ) / ( 0.87 * y * z ) ] + As'

Nos. of bottom bars required =


Area of bottom steel provided =

16
3
604

mm

25

mm

7
3438

mm

mm

gk = 20 kN/m ; qk = 16 kN/m

B
6m

gk =

20

kN/m

qk =

16
20

kN/m
kN

Wall =

VA =

312.53

kN

Wall = 20 kN

C
2m