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9/6/2016

Bad Apple Theory


Micro Level
The root of corruption is found in defective human charac

THEORIES OF CORRUPTION

Moral vices may lead to bad character


Wrong values are therefore the cause of corruption
Strong moral values are named as antidote

Public Choice Theory


Rational Choice

Organizational Culture
Theories
Meso Level

Individual level
Expected Advantages over Disadvantages
Benefits-probability*penalty>benefits of not being caught =
be corrupt
Causal Chain
Individual making decision that leads to pre-determined
outcome.

The concern in this theory is not in the corrupt


official, but in the contextual features that makes
for the setting of corruption.
Failure is in the proper machinery of the
government not on faulty character.

9/6/2016

Causal Chain
Certain culture

mental state

corruption

Clashing Moral Values


Theories
Macro Level
Values of the certain norms of society that directly
influence the values and norms of individuals.

Contagious

Values are assumed to determine behaviour


Loyalty to friends and family
Reciprocity

Alter the organizations leadership

There is a danger that we simply describe the


symptoms rather than identifying underlying causes.

Code of conduct Ethical Training

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Ethos of Public
Administration

FORMS OF CORRUPTION
POLITICAL CORRUPTION
A result in gaining political power

Macro- Societal level

Power is used to service the private interest

Lack of attention on integrity and focus on effectiveness of the


official.
Causal Path: societal pressure through level of organization
Public awareness campaign

Correlation Theory
Individual, organizational or societal

Economic corruption
Sacrifice of the principals interest.

income and corruption- the lower the income the higher


the tendency of being corrupt.
Lack of commitment to public integrity of leadership

Economic corruption results in making profits.

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Public Administration
Corruption
Behaviour of public officials that neglects the
principles of efficiency, truthfulness and
rightfulness

Collusion
Subversion of the flow of information within an economic,
societal or political unit.
Paying bribes to officials.

Public benefits to private benefits eg. Nepotism


EMBEZZLEMENT AND THEFT
Taking or conversion of money, property or other valuables for
personal benefit.
Taking property by someone to whom it has been entrusted

Bribery

Fraud

Lucrative profits and the giving of some form of


benefit to unduly influence some action or
decision.

Misleading information to induce someone to turn over the


property voluntarily.

Incentives for over-regulation and over


bureaucratisation of procedures.

Sales-buy relationships between public and private sector.


EXTORTION
Coercive incentives such as the use of threat, violence or the
exposure or damaging information in order to induce
cooperation.

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Abuse of Discretion
Abuses and corrupt government agency practices for private
gain without external inducement or extortion.
FAVORITISM, GIFT-GIVING, NEPOTISM, CLIENTILISM AND
PATRONAGE