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Surface Finishes

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COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF MIO

A layer ofcement-sand or concrete cast ontonewor existingstructural floorsandroofs to form a


smoothandregularbase for fmishes; alayer ofconcrete or granolithic cast onto new or existing
structural floors and fmishedto form a smoothwearingsurface. The layers maybe cast
monolithically, mechanically bondedor unbonded.

INCLUDED
Cement-sand screeds.
Concrete screeds/flooring.
Granolithic flooring.
Lightweightaggregateconcrete screeds.
Lightweightaggregateno fines screeds with sand-cement surfacing.
Unbondeddry screedswithsand-cement surfacing.
Aeratedconcretescreeds.
Admixtures.
Floatingconstruction, includingboardorquilt insulation, separating sheet,wirenetting.
Separate construction, includingseparating sheet.
Bondedconstruction, includingmechanical scabbling, bondingagent.
Monolithicconstruction.
Providingtemporarydrainageholes at lowpoints on concreteroof slabs.
Cast-indryingout ductsfor roofscreeds.
Coves, skirtings, margins,treads,risers,etc.
Stairnosings,slip proofsections.
Expansionand contractionjoints, includingfillers and sealants(butsee joints in monolithictoppingsbelow).
-Vacuum dewatering.
Floated,brushed, trowelled,powerfloated,powergroundfinishes.
Surface hardeners.
Broadcastnon-slipmaterials.
Curingand protecting.

EXCLUDED
Jointsin monolithicconcretetoppingswhich coincidewithjoints inthe baseconcrete.
(Jointsin in-situconcrete, E40).
Directfinishingofstructuralconcreteslabs.
(Workedfinishes/Cutting to in-situconcreteMl).
Insituterrazzo.
(Terrazzo/Marble tiling/Insituterrazzo,M42).
Surfacescalers.
(Painting/Clear finishing,M60).
Workingaround pipes, conduits, etc.
(Holesand chasesforservices, P31).

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
BSI documents referredto inthis Worksection are:
BS 12:

1996: Portlandcement.

BS 146:

1996: Portlandblastfurnace cement.

BS 410:

1986: Test sieves+ AMD 8255.

BS 882:

1983: Aggregates from natural sources for concrete+ AMD 5150.


1990: Lightweightaggregates for masonaryunits and structural concrete
+ AMD 6796.

BS 3797:
BS 3984:

1982: Sodium silicates.

405

BS 8000:

Workmanship onbuilding sites.


Part 9: 1989: Code ofpracticeforcementlsandfloor screedsand concrete floor
toppings.

BS 8204:

Insitufloorings.
Part2: 1987: Codeofpracticefor concrete wearingsurfaces.

GENERAL
Clauses in this Worksection cover screeds and toppingseither laid on agreen concrete base
(monolithic), laid and bondedto ahardenedconcrete base or laid separately withoutbondingto
thesubstrate.

Althoughlightweight cementitious screeds laid on roofs enable the designerto obtainthe required
falls withoutimposingexcessiveloading they do not bythemselves, providethe degree of
insulation requiredunless laid to unacceptable thicknesses. All lightweight screedscan absorb
considerable amounts ofrainwater unless protectedand must notbe laid directly on a vapour
barrier. No fines lightweight aggregate/cement screeds should be toppedwith a sand cement
screed 13mmthick.
M060
M070

Sub-clause e. Onlyuse wherea fme screedsurfaceis requiredto the fme concretescreed


specifiedat b.
The advantages claimedfor proprietary modifiedsand cement screedsover traditionalmixes
includehigher initialstrength, greaterresistance to curlingand faster dryingout time. They cost
more thannon-proprietary screedsand the specifiershouldsatisfyhimselfthat the advantages
claimedoutweighthe extrainitialcosts.

It is often desirable to have manufacturers or suppliers laytheir ownproduct,thus assuringthat


thescreed laid has a 'backto back' guarantee coveringboth material and workmanship:from the
same company.

Alternativelysome proprietary admixture manufacturers recommend screedlaying firmslicensed


to laytheir product.
M090&
M100
M130

Ml40&

Wherethe choiceofaggregate is left to the Contractorincludeboth these clauses. Wherethe type


ofaggregateis restrictedto one ofthespecifiedaggregates delete inapplicable clause and
inapplicablemixproportionsin clauseMl20.
Wherethe structural slab is laid to fallsof 1 in 40 the screedsshouldbe laid to a constant
thicknessofnot less than 50mm Where distanace to rainwateroutletis such that screedlaid to a
1 in 40 fall would result in an unreasonable depth ofscreed, the fall can be reducedto 1 in 80
provideditreceivesan asphaltcovering.
Alternativeclauses. Deleteinapplicable clause. See GuidanceNotes to W080andW090.

M150

Ml70to
M190

M2l0&
M220

M210
406

These materials are includedfor the specification offloatingscreeds. Selectan appropriate


insulantfrom Worksection PlO and complete the cross reference. Floatingscreedsshouldbe of
fme concrete and laid to a thickness ofat least 75 mm wherethere is a risk ofcurling or cracking.
Floatingconstruction is bestincreased to a 100 mm thickmesh reinforcedslab, designedas a
separatefloor.
Wherethe screedisto receive afmishwhichwillaccommodate the movementjointfmish
treatmentwithinits depth, such details shouldbe includedin the appropriate fmishesWorksection.
Wherethe screed/topping isto receive athin finish egtiles on a thin bed, PVC flooringor
carpettingor form the wearingsurface eg grano,details shouldbe includedhere, selectingthe
required clause. As the sealantsspecified in Z22 are liable to indentation damagethey shouldnot
be usedin locations which carry such arisk.
Cross refer to clausein Worksection Z22 fortype ofsealantrequired.

M230 &
M240

Use these clauses wherea surface hardenedornon-slipfmishis requiredtotoppingswhichwill


not receive floor coverings.

M250

Completethe schedule ifnecessary(eg wheremore than one type ofscreedor toppingwith


variousthicknesses andbase preparations are required)by statingthe locationofeach type of
screedor topping;the thickness, methodofbase preparation and laying as applicable. Where
possible givethe clausereference(s)and ensureinapplicable clauses are deletedfromthe project
specification. Guidanceon selection ofthe variousapplications is given later in these notes.
BS8000:Part 9 specifies basic workmanship requirements. The remaining clauses in this
Worksection are eitheralternatives, supplementary or additionalto BS 8000 as stated inW020
and may be addedto wheneverthe individual requirements oftheproject demandit.

WO10

W050 to
W070&

wl00

Select the applicablebase preparations requiredand insert clausenumber(s)in column 4 of the


schedule at clauseM250.

W050

Use this clauseto specif'base preparation to be carriedoutwhen the concrete is still plastic. This
methodofpreparationshouldbe used for monolithic toppings.

W060

Wherethe base is athinlayerofconcrete (under 100mm) laid onprecastconcreteunits,


mechanical scabblingmay cause damage. In this situationamendthe clauseto includefor shot or
gritblastingwhichis equallyeffective in roughening thesurface as mechanical means.
Delete'and check base
makinggood' for new worksasthis applies only to work on
old
concrete
slabs.
existing
Alternativeclauses. Deleteinapplicable clause. The use ofcement grout as abondingagentmust
be thesubjectofclose supervisionon site. Use ofexcessgroutorallowingthegroutto drymay
result in debondingofthe screed.
Selectthe type ofscreed/topping and methodoflaying requiredand enter details by cross
referenceto the particularclauses in columns 1 and 5 ofthe schedule at clause M250.

W080 &
W090
W120 to
W210

Delete clauses not required.


W120 to

Wl70

Whetherscreeds/toppings are to be laid monolithically, bondedor unbondedwilldetenninetheir


thicknessand methodoflaying. Thicknesses shouldbe shown onthe drawings and enteredin
column3 ofthe schedule at clauseM250. Thefollowingguidance notes tothe particularclauses
areofferedas guidancewhen selecting thetype and method ofconstruction ofthevarious
screeds/toppings.

W120 &

Wl50

Separatebondedscreeds/toppings shouldbe usedwhereverpossible. Thicknessesofbonded


screedsand toppingsshouldbe withinthe followinglimits:
Screeds: not less than 25 mm - notmorethan40 mm.
Granoandconcrete: not less than20 mm - notmorethan40 mm.

W130,
W140 &
W160

Unbonded screeds/toppings should normally be usedonly whereitis impossible to achieve abondeg


screeds laid on damp proofmembranes or a concrete base containing a water repellent admixture or
where thebase is ofweakermix concrete thanthe screed andtherestraint likely to be imposed bythe
basewill be only slight. Thickness ofunbonded screeds and toppings shouldnotbe lessthan 75 mm
and 100mmrespectively. It isrecommended howeverthat screeds ofthis thickness should
preferably be offine concrete (clause Wl40) with monolithically appliedcement/sand screed finish
(5-10 mm thickof 1:4V2 cement:sand mix)where a fme fmishis required.

Anexceptionto therecommendation that unbondedscreedsshouldnot be less than 75 mmcan be


made in situations, suchas housingand areas ofsimilarsize andusage,wherecement/sand
screeds may be used with a minimumthicknessof50 mm.

407

T
SCREEDS,CONCRETE
LITmcocnJNG

AND

Guidance Nate

W140

Sub-clause c. Deleteifa fme finish(for thin floor coverings such as vinyl) is not required.

Wi70

Monolithictoppingsshouldnotbe less than 10mm thick and notmore than 20 mm thick.


Ensurethat clauseW140is includedin the projectspecification orrepeat its contentin place of

W210

sub-clause c.
W230

Sub-clauses e and f. Include eitherorboth these sub-clauses dependingon the type ofjoint
surface treatment(s) specifiedat M210 (withsub-clausee) and M220 (withsub-clausef). Ifthe
movementjointtreatmentis to be specifiedin the floor fmishWorksection deletethe sub-clauses
and associated materials clauses. See also guidance note to M210and M220.

M260&
M270

Use these clauses whereasurface hardened/non-slip fmish is requiredto toppingsnotto receive


floor coverings

W290

Ifa less exactingsurface regularitydeviation is requiredamend clauseaccordingly.

W300

This clause specifies the testing ofscreeds with the BRE (Impact)ScreedTesterwhichcan be
used for projectswith densescreeds laid on solidconcretefloors. Thetest shouldnot be used in
its standard form with dense screeds laid on hollowpot, waffle orsimilartypes offloors, nor on
toppingsor lightweight screeds which could suffer damage nor on floatingscreeds. BRE has
developedamodifiedprocedurefor the testingofsuch screeds andspecifiersare advisedto
enquire about its suitability for the particularprojectapplication before invokingitsuse.

See Table 1

ofBS8204:Part 2.

Testing is alwaysadvisable becauseofthe high incidencethe ofthe latent failures on screedsof

this type.
Insetnumber oflocations calculated from the table below:
No oftests

Room/Baysize
Roomsupto 15m2

3 testsatrandom locations plus


1 test ineachdoorway.

Baysupto 15m2

6testsper bay.

Baysover 15m2
and upto30m2

10testsperbay

Baysover30m2

4testsper each 10m2

Thenumber oftests requiredaboveare minimum requirements. Whereit is considered additional


testing is necessaryspecifiednumberoftests may be increased.
Whendetennininglocationoftests attestingstage these shouldbe randomlypositionedover full
area ofrooms orbays. Some tests shouldbetaken atthe edges ofbays or perimetersofrooms,
aroundcolumns orupstands, with other locations as necessary to ensure adequatesampling.
3 mm is the maximum acceptableindentation. The mixes at clauseM060will meet this test
subjectto a reasonable standard ofworkmanship being appliedonsite. Whereheavy loadsor
wheeledtraffic is to be takenbythe flooring, amaximum indentation of 1mm is the acceptable
limit. This can only be achievedbythe use ofhigh strengthconcrete topping,andwhere
specifiedthis clause shouldbe modifiedto state the lower limit.

408

i..:M:SflcASPllAL1LOOR

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF Ml!
Mastic asphaltappliedtonewor existingfloorsto providea damp-resistant finished surface or
substrate for other floor finishes.
INCLUDED
Preparingbases to give bond, eg cleaning, applyingprimer.
Isolationofflooring from baseby dusting, isolating membrane, sheathing felt orglass fibretissue.
Mastic asphaltfloor finishesincluding special types, eg lowtemperature, hightemperature, oil resistant, acid
resistant, anti-static, gutless.

Surfacefinishing,includingsand rubbed, steel float,polished, crimped.


Flooringasphaltlaid as sub-floors to receive other floor finishes.
Margins, skirtings,nosings,covedangles,etc.
EXCLUDED
Removesurfacelaitancefrom concrete.
(Worked finishes/Cutting to insituconcrete, E41).
Workingaroundpipes, conduits, etc.
(Holes/Chases/Covers/Supports for services, P31).
Masticasphaltpaving.
(Coatedmacadam/Asphalt roads/pavings, Q22).

REFERENCEDOCUMENTS
BSI documents referredto inthis Worksection are:

BS 410:
BS 747:
BS 1369:

1986: Testsieves+AMD8255.
1994: Roofmgfelts.

Steellathingforinternalplastering and externalrendering.


Part 1: 1987: Expandedmetal and ribbedlathing.

BS 5284:

1993: Methodsofsampling andtesting mastic asphaltused in buildingand civil


engineering.

BS 6925:

1988: Masticasphaltforbuilding and civil engineering (limestoneaggregate) +


AMD 7150.

BS 8204:

Screeds,basesand in situfloorings.
Part 5: 1994: Codeofpracticefor masticasphaltunderlaysand wearing
surfaces.

409

...nidance..Notes

GENERAL

This Worksection coversthe specification ofmasticasphaltfor flooringand also as awaterproof


substratemembranefor tankingupper suspended concretefloors topreventwater penetration
arisingfrom users eg ablution areas.
MO 10 &

M020

Masticasphaltis available in arange ofgradesas follows


GradeI for specialhardflooring
GradeII for light duty flooring
GradeIII for mediumindustrial flooring
GradeIV for industrial flooringwheretruckingandabrasionis anticipated
Appendix A ofBS 6925recommends grade andthicknesses ofasphalt flooringfor use in various
situations.

M020

M050&
M060

Colouredasphaltshouldnotbe specifiedwhereheavytrafficuse ofthe flooringis anticipated.


Alternativeclauses. An isolatingmembraneis necessary formasticasphaltcoatingsup to 20 mm
thick and:
a.

on timberdecksand suspended floors;

b.

on concrete with fme cracks, porousor open surfaces;

c.

on concrete whichhas received asurface treatment;

d.

when a polished surfaceis required;

e.

when movementofbase is anticipated;

f.

topreventblowingofhot mastic.

Use M050 formost situationsand alwayswhenthe floor fmishis acting as a damp proof
membraneon floors adjacentto the groundor is likelyto be subjected to water orwater vapour.
M100

Lathingis requiredfor reinforcing any vertical work (skirtings etc) over 300 mm high.
Includethis clausewhen sampling and testingis required. Such checking ensures that unsuitable
materialis notused. The BritishStandards for mastic asphalt contain requirements forhardness
tests to be carried out atthe time oflaying.

WO10

Whererequired, list specialistfirmsto lay asphaltflooring.

MO9O

W050 &
W060

Alternative clauses. Use W060wherean isolatingmembraneis specified.

W19O &

Alternative clauses. A polishedfmish is generallyspecifiedfor asphaltflooring.

W200
W22O

W270 &
W280
W380

Insertheight and profileeg 'square' or 'splayed' ofskirting.


Alternativeclauses. Use W280wherean isolatingmembraneis specified.
Sub-clause a. Insertheight required. Upstands/skirtings above300 mm are regardedas vertical
work and shouldbe applied in 3 coats, on top oflathing, to atotal thicknessofnot less than 20
mm.
Sub-clause d. Insertprofilerequiredeg 'square' or 'splayed'

410

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M20
Decorativeand/orprotectivecoatings ofgypsumplaster,lime plaster,cementmortarand other
similarmixes (includingglassfibrereinforcedmixes),appliedby throwing, projection,spray or
trowellingto newor existingwalls, ceilings andsoffits. Plasterboardandother rigid sheet
backingsare included.
INCLUDED
One, two and threecoat work
Waterproofrenderingnotrequiredto be executed by a specialistfirm
Dubbingout
Trowelled,floated, roughcast, scrapedand dry dashfinishes
Mouldedcornices, stringcourses,architraves, skirtings, cappings,etc
Plasterboardlath, baseboard, plankand expanded plastics thermalboardforplastering. Otherrigidsheets
and boards used as lathingforplaster
Newtonite lathing

Isolatedor small scalecomponents or precastplaster


Metalbeads, nosings, stops etc
Localmetalwork reinforcement
Joint reinforcement scrim
Bondingagents

EXCLUDED
Patchingexistingplaster,stucco orrendering.
(Alterations - spot items,C20)
Rakingoutjoints forkey to brickwork.
(Brick/Block walling,FlO)
Specialist waterproofrendering, J1O.
Plasterboarddiying lining,Kb.
Insulationwithrender finish,M21.
Sprayedmineralfibre coatings, M22
Metalmesh lathing/Anchored reinforcementfor plasteredcoatings, M30.
Fibrousplaster,M31.
Texturedcoatingsappliedby brush, rollerorliquid spray.
(Painting/Clearfinishing,M60)
Siliconewater-repellent treatment.
(Painting/Clearfinishing,M60)
Workingaroundpipes, conduits, etc.
(Holes/Chases/Covers/Supports forservices,P31)
Supports for plasterboard or other lathing.
(Varioussectionsbut usually Carpentry/Timber framing/Firstfixing,G20)

411

M20

PLASTI3REI), IENDEREDAND ROUGhCAST


COATINGS

Guidance Notes

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
BSI documents referredto in this Worksection are:
BS 12:

1996: Portlandcement.

BS 146:
BS 890:
BS 1191:

1996: Portlandblastfurnace cement.

BS 1199 & BS
1200:

BS 1230:

BS 3416:

MO 10

M070&
M080
M100

412

1995: Buildinglimes.

Gypsumbuildingplasters.
Part 1: 1973: Excludingpremixedlightweight plasters.
Part 2: 1973: Premixedlightweight plasters.
1976: Building sands from naturalsources
5126.

+AMDs4510,1200, 4834 and

Gypsum plasterboard.
Part 1: 1985: Plasterboardexcluding materials submittedto secondary
operations.
1991: Bitumen-based coatings for coldapplication, suitable foruse in contact

with potablewater + AMID 7288.

BS 3837:

Expandedpolystyreneboards.
Part 1: 1986: Boardsmanufactured from expandablebeads.

BS 4721:

1981: Ready-mixed buildingmortars+ AMID4120 +AMD 5041.

BS 5262:

1991: Code ofpracticefor external renderings.

BS 6452:

Beadsfor internalplastering and dry lining.


Part 1: 1984: Galvanized steel beads.

BS 8000:

Workmanship onbuildingsites.
Part 10: 1995: Codeofpracticefor plastering and rendering.

Foruse on cementrenderundercoat.
The choicefrom the alternatives specified in these clauses can normallybe left to the Contractor.
Insert 'fmeshingle' or 'limestonechippings'or locallyobtainedmaterialby referenceto source.

M130&
Ml40

Insertthickness(es) requiredin M140. BS 1230providesfor squareandroundededges in both 9.5


and 12.5mm thick boards and inboth 400 and 900mmwidthsbut only the followingtypes of
baseboards, complying with BS 1230: Part 1, type6, are generallyavailable:
9.5 mm thick, 900mm wide with square edges(as M130).
12.5 mm thick, 400 mm wide with roundededges.
9.5 mm thick, 400mm wide with roundededges.

M150

Insert width,thicknessand edgeprofilerequired. See note aboveregardingBS 1230 types.

M160&

Insertinsulantthicknessand thermalresistance required.

M170

M200&
M210

M220

PVAemulsionbondingagentsmay be necessary for smoothdense concrete containingbrick,


graniteor limestoneaggregate, andfor somestructurallightweightconcrete. This type ofbonding
agentis also usefulas a sealer in controlling the suction ofbackgrounds or dry undercoats.
Alwaysappliedin accordancewith themanufacturer'sinstructions, they must be quite damp and
stickywhenthe plasteror render is applied, particularly wherePVAmaterialsare concerned.
Iftheplastermanufacturermakesno recommendation, orifa non-proprietary mixisbeing used,
ensurecompatibility with background and plasterbefore specifying.
Foruse on old existingbackgrounds.

M240 &
M250

Alternativeclauses. For use in conjunction with doorsetswithouttimber architraves.

M310

Crossreferto clause in Worksection Z22 for type ofsealantrequired.

M320

Plasterand renderfmishesmustbe scheduled eitheron the drawings or in the project


'specifications, usingthis clause. Itis sufficient to state the requiredfmish eg 'lightweightplaster'
or 'two coatexternalrender'. Where thefmishesare scheduled/shown ontheproject drawings
deletethe schedule inthis clause and crossrefer to the applicable drawing number(s).

M330

Scheduled fmishes are relatedto suitability ofbackgrounds. Add anyparticularbackgrounds to


theprojectwhich are not includedinthetable togetherwith therequiredplasterfmish.
Deleteinapplicable items fromthe tables. A 1:3 cementlsand rendermay be too strong for some
substrates and can pull the face offweak blocks andbricks. It can also be subjectto excessive
dryingshrinkageor surface crackingand shouldthereforebe specifiedwith care.
BS 8000: Part 10 specifies basic workmanship requirements. The remaining clauses inthis
Worksection are eitheralternatives, supplementary or additionalto BS 8000as stated in W020
and may be addedto whenever the individual requirements ofthe project demandit.
Normallyalternativeclauses butuse both whereboth types ofjunction treatmentare required.

M340 &
M350
WOlO

W070 &
W080
W120

W170

Ensureproject drawings showwhichjunctionsrequirewhichtreatment.


Beforeauthorisingmachineapplication checkwith plastermanufacturer whether background is
suitable,ensurethat the Contractoremploysexperienced operatives and that the correcttype of
plasteris used.
Use as alternativeto scrim reinforcement to preventuncontrolledcrackingatjunctions.

W230 &
W240

Alternativeclauses. Throwing-onis likelyto producethemore durable rendering,due to better

W260

Statetype or types offmishto the externalrenderrequired. Examples ofpossiblefmishes are:


roughcast, dry dash,plain, scrapedortexturedandproprietary-machine applied.

adhesion.

413

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M21
Proprietaryconstructions ofboardinsulation and protectiverenderingusuallyappliedto the
external face ofexistingsingleleafwalls in orderto upgradethermalperformanceand providea
new, durablefmish.
INCLUDED
Expandedplasticsboards,with adhesives ormechanicalfastenings.
Adhesiverenders, withglassfibre mat.
Metal lathing, withmechanical anchorfastenings.
Protective renderingcoatings.
Metal beads,nosings, stops etc.
Trowelled, roughcast,dry dash and other integral finishes.
EXCLUDED
Plastered/Rendered/Roughcast coatings, M20.

Adaptationofexisting.detailsat eaves, verges,downpipes, quoins,heads,jambs, sills, plinths,etc to


accommodate thethicknessoftheinsulation and rendering.
(Varioussections)
Holesfor pipesetc (Holes/Chases/Covers/Supports for services P31).

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
BSI documents referredto inthis section are:
BS 476:

Firetests on buildingmaterials and structures.


Part4: 1970: Non combustibility tests for materials +AMI) 2483 + AMD
4390.
Part 6: 1989: Method oftestfor fire propogation forproducts.
Part 7: 1987: Methodfor classification ofthe surface spread offlame. of
products+ AMD 6249+ AMD 73:+ AMD 7612.

BS 6399:
MO10

Loadingfor buildings.
Part2: 1995: Code ofpracticefor windloads.

Avoid ifpossiblethe specification ofsystems employing plastics foam insulationboards


manufactured with or containingCFCgases.

a. Insert thetype ofsubstratematerial to whichthesystemis tobe fixed eg 'facing


brickwork'etc.
Sub-clause

Sub-clause b. Computation in accordancewith the directional methodis specified since this is


likelyto result in themost economical solution. Ifthe simpler, more conservative 'standard
method' is thought adequate, substituteaccordingly.
Sub-clause c. Insert therequired 'U' valueforthe wholeofthe wall construction.
Sub-clause e. The fire propagationindex and surface spread offlameclassificationmetthe
Class requirements ofthe Building Regulations. Thesesystemscannotbe classified as 'noncombustible'as defmedby BS 476: Part4 and any casewherethere may be any doubtas to their
application shouldbe subjectto specialist advice.
Sub-clause h. Insertdetails ofsurface fmish,colouretc. Refer to manufacturer'sliterature for
relevantdetails. Most systemsoffer a varietyofsurface fmish.

M020

414

Includethis clausewhenthe systemis tobe appliedtomulti-storeybuildings. See BRE'Defect


Action Sheets Nos 131 and 132 for furtherdetails.

M060

The use ofintumescent fillers and sealants maybe necessaryto preventjointlinesbeing exploited
by a fire to theextentthat insulantscouldbe exposed to thefire.

WO10

All Agrmentcertificates for such systems specify that the licensedapplicatoror the manufacturer
should carry out a surveyofthis type,thoughthe detail termsmay vary. Ensurethat the
manufacturers quotedin clause MOlOoffer certificates whichsuitthis clause ormodifythe clause
accordingly.

415

FIBRE COATINGS

Gui

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M22
Fireprotective, insulative and condensation controlcoatingsofmineral fibresand inorganic
binders, sprayappliedto new or existingand other structuresand to generalwall and soffitareas.
INCLUDED
Coatingsto beams, columns, walls and soffits.
Stippled or flatpressedfinish.
Spray ortrowel appliedcemetitious finishingcoatings.
Plasterboardlath and other rigidsheetsorboardsused as lathing.
Metalbeads, nosings, stops,etc.
Localmetalmesh reinforcement.
Preparatorytreatments,bondingagents.

EXCLUDED
Plaster,gypsum,etc finishcoatingsotherthan those specifically for finishingofsprayedmineralfibre.
(Plastered,rendered, roughcastcoatings M20).
Plain orribbed metallathing.
(Metalmesh lathingM30).
Supportfor plasterboardorother lathing.
(Varioussectionsbut usually Carpentry/Timber framing/First fixingG20).

R]FERENCE DOCUMENT

BSIdocument referredto inthis Worksection is:


BS 8202:

Coatings for fire protection ofbuildingelements.


Part 1: 1995: Coatingsfor fire protection ofbuildingelements:Code of
Practice forthe selectionand installation ofsprayed mineralcoatings.

GENERAL
Sprayed mineralfibre coatings consistofabase material,binding agentand filler. The base
materialis usuallyeithermineralfibre, exfoliated vermiculite or expandedperlite. Typical
bindingagentsare Portland cement, high aluminacementorgypsumplaster,typicalfillers are
hydratedlime, limestone or other aggregate. Wherethe coating isto be fmishedwith a decorative
or protective fmish, it is essentialthat thefmish is compatible with thesprayedmineralcoating
and doesnot impairitsperformance.
Formal requirements regardingcompliance with CDMregulationsare contained in Preliminaries
SectionA21. Specifiers shouldnevertheless be awareofthe healthand safetyimplications ofthe
use ofsprayedcoatings with regardtothe CDMregulations.
MO 10

Somesubstrates may need an alkali/water resistantprimer/sealer. Seek coatingmanufacturer's


advice. Alwaysdeleteclause ifprimingis notrequired.

M020

Sub-clause a.

416

All sprayed coatingsused for structural fire protectionshouldbe non-combustible


whentested to BS476: Part 4. Where coatings are requiredfor other purposes,eg insulation only,
this classification can be modified. Seek specialistfire advice inthis event;
Sub-clause b. The thicknessofthe coatingforagiven degreeoffire protectionis dependantupon
thesize and shapeofthesection to be coatedand theconstituentmaterials ofthecoating.
Minimumthicknesses can only be defmedtherefore in terms ofthe fire resistance required.
Wherecoatingsare requiredfor other purposes, modifythe clauseto state the requiredthickness
inmillimetres;

Sub-clause c. Retention, ifrequiredmay be by keyingmesh,reinforcing mesh or discontinuous


fixings. Refer to the coatingmanufacturer forthe necessity and types ofretentionsystem
required.

M030

Use this clausewhenevercoatingsare specified for structuralfire protection.

WO10

The application ofsprayedcoatings is a specialist operation and shouldbeundertakenonly by


contractingfirmswho are approvedby the material manufacturer. Obtaina suitablelistof
approvedfirmsfrom the manufacturer quotedin clauseM020.e.

W030

Sub-clause a. Where coatingisto be appliedto other substrates, consult manufacturer and


includeappropriate non-standard clause.

W040

Delete clauseifprimeris not specified.

417

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M23
Exposednaturalstone aggregate boundwith synthetic resin, appliedas a finishto newor existing
walls and soffits, eitheras apremixedrenderingoras an adhesiverenderingonto whichthe dry
aggregate is sprayed.
INCLUDED
Brushedon bondingcoats.

Premixedaggregaterenderings.
Resinadhesiverendering withsprayedon aggregate.
Resinsealingcoats.

EXCLUDED
Specialwaterproofrendering, JlO.
Trowelledon resin floor coatings, incorporatingaggregate.
(Trowelledbitumen/resin/rubber-latex flooring,Ml2).
Externalcementrenderingwith thy dash finish.
(Plastered/Rendered/Roughcast coatings,M20).
Paintedon floor coatingswith broadcast non-slipaggregate.
(Painting/Clear finishing, M60).

GENERAL
Formalrequirements regardingcompliance with the CDMregulations are containedin the
Preliminaries Section A21. Specifiers shouldnevertheless be aware ofthe healthandsafety
implications ofthe use ofmaterials whichinvolve the presence oruse ofsolvents andresins.
MOlO

M020to
M040

Primersare generallyrequired for trowel-on and one coatspraycoating, appliedto previously


decorated, porous orfriablesurfaces.
There are anumber ofproprietary resin boundmineral coatings on themarket whichincorporate
fine mineralchippingsofgranite, quartz, flint and orglass and similarhard, durableaggregates
about 2 nmiin size.
Theseclauses are alternativescovering resin bound mineralcoatings appliedby the following
methods:
1.

2.

as premixed coatingscomposed ofaresin bound base with mineralclippings


incorporated, trowelledonto the substrate;
as premixed coatingscomposed ofaresin bound base with themineral
chippings incorporated and blown onto the surface to be treated and fmished off
with a glazingcoat;

as a separate resin boundbase coat onto whichthemineral chippings are blown.


In some situations aresin sealingcoat is appliedprior to themaintreatmentin orderto preparethe
3.

surface.

418

wO10

Insert therequired dimensions ofthe samplepanel.

W040

Usethis clausewhereprimingifrecommended by coating manufacturerprior to theapplication


ofthefmish. See GuidanceNote to MOb.
Usethis clausewhen stabilizing is recommendedby coatingmanufacturerprior to theapplication
ofthefmish. Stabilizing is generallynecessaryfor multi-coatsprayappliedfmishes.
As these types ofcoatings are mainlyproprietary, methodsofapplication may vary. Substitute
detailedapplication instructions wherethese have beenobtainedfrom the manufacturer.

W050
W060 &
W070

419

M30

1'41TALMESIILATHINGANDANCllOR1)
REIN1'ORCEMENTFORPLASTEREDCOATINGS

Guidance Nitcs

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M30
Expandedmetal and wire mesh fixed to framedor solid backgrounds as abase and key for
plaster,renderingand sprayed mineralfibre.
INCLUDED
Plain expanded metal lathing.
Ribbed expandedmetal lathing.
Steelwirenetting.
Weldedmesh lathing withintegratedpaper.
Welded meshreinforcementmechanically fixed to solidbackingsas a precaution againstfailureofadhesion.
Steelrod stirrups, spacerrodsand hangers.
Steelchannelframingforcolumnand beam casings, suspended ceilings,etc.
Screws, staples, clips, cloutnails, wireties, steel banding and otherfixings.
EXCLUDED
Anchored meshreinforcementinthe repairofconcrete.
(Repairing/Renovating concrete/brick/block/stone, C40)
Permanentribbed steel meshformworkto concrete.
(Formworkfor in-situ concrete, E20)
Timberframingand support.
(CarpentrylFimber framing/First fixing,G20)
Localreinforcement and scrim, corner beads,nosings, stops,etc.
(Plastered/Rendered/Roughcast coatings,M20or Sprayed mineralfibre coatings, M22)
Metal lathing as part ofan external boardinsulation and protectiverendering proprietaryconstruction.

(Insulationwithrenderedfinish,M2l)

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
BSI documents referredto in this Worksection are:

BS 443:

1982: Testingzinc coatings on steel wire and forqualityrequirements+ AMID


6158.

BS

1202:

Nails.
Part 1: 1974: Steelnails+AMD 6740.

BS

1369:

Steellathingforinternalplastering and externalrendering.


Part 1: 1987: Expandedmetal andribbed lathing.

BS 1485:
BS 1521:
BS 8000:

420

1983: Zinc coatedhexagonal steel wire netting.


1972: Waterproofbuildingpapers +AMD 3519.
Workmanship on buildingsites
Part 10: 1995: Code ofpracticeforplasteringandrendering.

Guidance Notes

MOlOto
M040

METAL MESIItATtliNG AM1)ANCflOREI)


REINFORCEMENTFOR PLASTEREDCOATiNGS

BS 1369: Part 1 specifies steel type,designation, dimensions andtolerances for steel lathingfor
internalplastering and externalrendering.
The lathingis either galvanized or stainless steel and is designated as to type ie L for expanded
metal lath, CL for corrugated expandedmetal lath and RL forribbed lath; wherethe lath is
stainless steelthe designationletter is prefixedby S eg SL and SRL.
A referencenumberfollowsthe letter inthe designation whichidentifiestheweight ofthelath
required.

The following lath 'referencenumber' types are suggested as suitablefor each ofthe applications
coveredby the clausesie:

M020 M030 M040 MOlO

L3
SL1,SRL1,SRL2orRL6

L3, L4, L5, L6, CL3, CL4, CL5, RL3, RL4 or RL5
SRL2 orRL6

Insertthe requiredrefencenumber in the space provided.


WOlO

W050

BS8000:Part 10 specifies basic workmanship requirements. Theremainingclauses inthis


Worksection are eitheralternatives, supplementary oradditionalto BS 8000 as stated in W020,
andmay be added to wheneverthe individual requirements oftheproject demandit.
This is an effective methodfor the fire protection ofsteelwork.

421

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M32
Custom-made panels, units and featuresfor interioruse, gypsumplaster,whichmay include
polymer additives, reinforcedwith glassfibremat, rovingsor continuous filamentandincluding
any necessarysystemoffixing.

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
BSI documentreferredto in this Worksection is:
BS 476:

Firetests on buildingmaterials and structures.


Part4: 1970: Non-combustibility testformaterials + AMDs 2483 and 4390.
Part 7: 1987: Methodofclassification ofthe surfacespreadofflameof
products+ AMD 6249+AMD 7030+ AMD 7612.

GENERAL
Clauses inthis Worksection havebeen draftedin performance terms onthe assumptionthat much
ofthedetail designwill be carriedoutby themanufacturer. Designerswould be well advisedto
seekthe adviceofmanufacturers at an earlystage inthe designprocess where such specialist
components are concerned.
MO10

Sub-clauses e, and g. Wheretensile strength, impactresistance or hardnessare not critical


performancefactors (eg whereunits are situated outofreachor wherethey are lightlyloaded)
these sub-clauses may be omitted. Whererequired, figures are availablefrom manufacturers.
Sub-clause j. ORG can be manufacturered with avariety ofsurface fmishes. Insertthe fmish
requiredor state 'plain, for decoration'ifappropriate.

Sub-clausek. Insertmanufacturers'names andproductreferencesordelete the sub-clause ifnot


required.
M030

M050

422

It is importantto obtain adequatedrawings and designinformation from manufacturers to


reconcile their detailswith those forthe project as awhole. Insertnumber ofweeksbeforethe
commencement ofwork on sitebywhichdesignandproductioninformation is requiredto be
available to thePM.
Insert thenumber ofdays requiredfor PM'sapproval ofdesignand production information.

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M40
Stone, caststone, clay and ceramictile or mosaiccoverings to new and existingfloors,walls and
soffits.

INCLUDED
Stone, quartzite, marble, conglomerate marble,slate,cast stone, granolithic, clay quarry,ceramicand glass

tiling and mosaicto:


Walls and columns
Beamsand soffits
Floors and landings
Treadsand risers
Channels

Skirtingsand kerbs
Soapdishes,toilet roll holders, etc built in aspart ofthe walltiling.
Cutting,roundedangles,etc.
Dividingstrips.
Movementjoint angles and strips.
Separating sheets.

Beddingmortarsand adhesives.
Grouting, cleaning, sealingand polishing.
Holes and openingsother than for engineering services.
EXCLUDED
Concreteand stone slab claddings.
(RelevantsectionH50-H52)
Terrazzo tiling.

(Terrazzo/Insitu terrazzo, M41)


Holesforpipes, conduits, etc.

(Holes/Chases/Covers/Supports forservices, P31)


Stoneand concreteslab paving.
(Slab/Brick/Block/SettlCobblepavings,Q25).

423

REFERENCEDOCUMENTS

BSIdocuments referredto inthis Worksection are:


BS 12:
1996: Portland cement.
BS 1014:
1975: Pigmentsfor Portlandcement and Portlandcementproducts.
Part 2: 1973: Metricunits.
BS 1199 &
1976: Buildingsands from natural sources + AMDs 4510,4834 and 5126
1200:

BS 1217:

1986: Cast stone.

BS 5385:

Wall and floortiling.


Part 1: 1995: Code ofpracticefor the design and installation ofinternal
ceramicand natural stonewalltiling and mosaicsin normalconditions.
Part2: 1991: Code ofpracticefor the design and installation ofexternal
ceramicwalltiling and mosaics(including terracotta and faiencetiles).
Part3: 1989: Code ofpracticefor the design and installation ofceramicfloor
tiles andmosaics+AMD 7059.
Part5: 1994: Code ofpracticeforthedesignand installation ofterrazzotile
and slab, naturalstone and composition block floorings.

BS 5980:
BS 6431:

1980: Adhesives foruse with ceramictiles andmosaics+AIvID 5861.

BS 8000:

Ceramicfloor andwall tiles.


Part 1: 1983: Classification and marking, includingdefmitions and
characteristics + AMD 7088.
Workmanship on buildingsites.

Part 11: Codeofpracticeforwall and floor tiling.


Section 11.1: 1989: Ceramic tiles,terrazzotiles and mosaics+ AM!) 8623.
Section 11.2: 1990: Naturalstonetiles.

424

MOlO
M020,
M030,
M070,

M080&

Ml10

If samples ofthetiles arerequiredthen use this clauseto listthem.


BS6431: Part 1 defmes all ceramictiles (whichincludesquarries)according totheirmethodof
manufactureand water absorptionproperties. It covers twelve classifications in three
manufacturingcategories asthe table belowshows ie. TypeA for extruded,B for dust-pressed and
C for cast tiles. Each categoryoftile has a groupreferencerelatedto theirwater absorptionand
thegreaterthewater absorption, thegreaterwill be its expansion in damp orwet conditions. Type
C casttiles, areoflimitedavailability.
Method of
Manufacture

WaterabsorptionE
Group 1 3%

or less

Groupha

3-6%

Group lib

Group 11
10% ormore

6- 10%

A-extruded

Al

Alla

Alib

Alli

B-dustpressed

Bi

Blia

Blib

Bill

C-cast

Cl

Clla

Cub

Ciii

GroupAl for example is an extrudedtile (quarry) ofthe highest qualitywith a water absorption
ofless than 3%.
Eachcategoryofextrudedanddust pressedtile has its properties specifiedin aseparatepart ofBS
6431 as follows:
Tile category

PartnumberofBS 6431

Al

Alla
AlIb

AIll

2
3
4

Bi

Bila

Blib

7
8

Bill

Group 11a tiles are considered adequatefor internalsituationswherethere is low risk ofwater
spillage orwheretiles willbewashedatnot more than weekly intervals. Group 1 tiles shouldbe
specifiedfor externalsituations or wherethere is risk ofexcessivewetting.
Addthe particularBS partreferenceforthe tile specifiedafterthe BSnumber.

Iftiles conforming

to Parts2 and 6 areselected, then addthewords 'andmanufactured by a BSI Kitemark Licensee'.


Sub-clause b. Insert group referencefrom table above.
Sub-clause f.

Ifpossiblestate alternative, acceptable manufacturers.

M040

Use this clauseto specify cove skirtings, stairtreads, cappings, channelsetc. Fittingsshouldbe
obtainedfrom the same manufacturer as the floor/wall tiles. Insert details offittingsrequired.

M080

It is not necessaryto specify a particularproprietary type ofwhite tileunless other tiles are being
specifiedandthey are allto be obtainedfrom the same source.
Usethis clauseto specify wall tile fittingseg: internal and external angles,bends,roundedtop and

M090

base tiles etc.

425

M100

Use this clauseforaccessories, notcoveredas fittingsin clauseM090, such as integralsoap


dishes,toilet roll holdersetc whichareto be obtainedfrom the same manufacturer as thewall
tiles.

Ml10

Wheretiles are for externaluse, themanufacturershouldbe consultedabouttheirfrostresistant


propertiesas such tiles requireahigh degreeoffrost resistance and thereforemust havealow
water absorptioncapacity.
GroupBi tiles are requiredto be frost resistantand as aguide the following table can be used to
relate the water absorptioncapacityoftiles to their frostresistance:
Water absorption

Frost resistance

3% orless

Frostproof
Probablyresistant
Unlikelyto beresistant

3 -4%

4% and over

M130to
Ml50

Alternativeclauses. BS5385:Part 3, Tables3 and4 and sub-section 24 give guidance,


recommendations and workmanship requirements for the variousbeddingmethodsie:
a.

cement: sand bondedto the base;

b.

cement: sand over a separatinglayer;

c.

cement: sand usinga semi-drymix;

d.

cementbased and other types ofadhesives.

Cement: sand mortarbeddingis still the traditionalmethodfor bedding floor tiles in heavily
trafficked areas.

Thick bed adhesives are suitablefor beddingfloor tiles in light or medium traffickedareas.
Checkwith the adhesive manufacturer on suitability whenselectingadhesive.
M140

BS 5980 classifies adhesive in 5 types depending on their chemicalcomposition and into 3 classes
dependingon their resistance to water eg: class AA andA arewater resistant.

Ml50

Crossrefer to the type ofadhesive requiredie Z20.M050 or Z20.M060.

M160&

Alternativeclauses. Cement: sandgrout is generallyused with cement:sandbedding.

M170

Grout containingsand shouldnotbeusedwith glazed or polishedtiles or slabsas it may abrade

thesurface.
M160

Sub-clause b. Forjoints less than 6 mm insert 'to BS 5385: Part3, Table 2';

Ml80 &

Forjoints of6mmand greater insert 'to BS 1199: Table 1, type B'.


BS 5385: Part 3, Subsections 19 and23 give guidance, recommendations andworkmanship
requirements for the size, location, materials to be used and construction ofmovementjoints

M200

(includingperimeterand intermediate joints).


Selectmovementjointmaterials required. Wherethe tiling andbedwillaccommodate :thin its
depth the movementjointfmish, details shouldbe includedhere. Wherethe system,specifiedat
M200 is tobe bedded belowthe surface ofthe floor screedspecifiedin Worksection Mb,the
details shouldbe includedin that Worksection.
M180
M190
426

Useback-upmaterial with sealantspecified at M190.


Crossreferto clause in Worksection Z22 for type ofsealantrequired.

M2lOto
M240

Alternativeclauses. BS 5385: Part I givesrecommendations and guidance on the various


beddingtechniquesand includesbeddingin:
a.
thinandthick bed cementbasedadhesives;
c.

thinandthick bed organicbased adhesives;


thinandthick bed other adhesives;

d.

cement: sand mortar.

b.

M220to
M240

Proprietaryadhesives are availablefor most typesofsituations and backgrounds andthereforethe


cement: sandbeddingmethodhas largelybeen superseded.
Two types ofadhesives are available:
Thinbed - 3 mm or less in thickness.
Thick bed - over 3 mmin thickness.
Thinbed adhesives requirean exceptionally smooth andlevel bedding surface.
Checkwith the adhesivemanufacturer as to the suitability ofthe selectedadhesive.

M220

See GuidanceNote to Ml40.

M240

Adhesives based on polyvinylacetate (PVAC) shouldbe used in internalapplications only, but


not in conditions ofpermanentexposure towater.
Adhesives based on naturalrubber emulsions are suitable for internaland externaluse on most
substrates and forboth thin andthickbed applications.

M270

Alternativeclauses. Use M270 for groutsto be used in 'wet areas' such as showerrooms and also
in areas where highlysterileand hygienicconditions are required.

M290

Crossrefer to clause in Worksection Z22 fortype ofsealantrequired.

M250to

BS 5385: Part 1 for internalceramicwalltiling recommends that movementjoints shouldextend


throughthetile and bed (adjacent structural movementjoints then alsothroughthe depth of
plaster/render) and be locatedas follows:
a.

over existingmovementjoints;

b.

wheretiling abutsother materials;

c.

atjunctionsbetweendifferentbackground materials;
in large tiled areas, at internalverticalcornersand 3 m to 4.5 m centres horizontally and

d.

vertically.

For externalwall tiling Part2 ofthe BSrecommends that movementjoints shouldextendthrough


thetile claddingandbed (where substantial movementis anticipated it shouldbe carriedthrough
to theface ofthestructural wall) and be locatedas follows:
a.
as a, b and c above;
b.
c.
WOlO

at storeyheightshorizontally and 3 m to 4.5 m apartvertically;


at external anglesverticallywithin 0.25 m to 1 m from theangle.

BS 8000, Section 11.1 specifies basic workmanship requirements for floor tiling andBS5385:
Part 3 is invokedin respectofthoseparticularaspects referredto. The remainingclauses in this
partoftheWorksection arealternative, supplementary or additionalto these standards as statedin
W020 and maybe addedto wheneverthe individual requirements ofthe project demandit.
427

W030
W040 to
W060

Usethis clauseifa sample area oftiles/slabs is required.


Theseclausesspecify the alternative methodsofbeddingfloor tiles. Deleteinapplicableclauses.
The followingis offered as guidance whenmakingthe selectionand is based on that contained in
BS 8000and BS5385which shouldbe referredto for furtherinformation ifrequired:
W040- separating layersare usedto isolatethe floor tiles andbeddingfrom the base, preventing
stressesin the base affectingthe floor finish. This method is not suitable for heavilytrafficked
areas or exteriorapplications. A separating layer shouldalwaysbe used whenthe base is mastic
asphalt.

W050- onlyusethismethodofbedding on completely matured baseswherethere is noriskof


furthershrinkage. This methodis suitable forheavilytraffickedareas and exteriorapplications.
W060- this methodofbeddingis not generallysuitablefor heavilytraffickedareas.
W080 &
W090

See GuidanceNote to M160 and M170.


These clauses apply mainlyto ceramictiles andmay notbe applicable to other types ie:cement:
lime: sand grout is normallyusedwith stonetiles orslabs. Amend or add clauses to suitparticular
projectrequirements forthese.

Wl00

BS 8000: Section 11.2 specifies basic workmanship requirements forstone floor tiling. Add any
furtherrequirements wheneverthe individual needsoftheproject demandit.
Usethis clauseifa samplearea ofstonefloor tiling isrequired.
Theseclauses specify the alternative methodsofbeddingstone floor tiling. Delete inapplicable

Wi10
W120 to
W140

clauses.

A separatinglayer shouldalwaysbe placed under a cement and mortarbedwhenthebase is


masticasphalt.
W150&
W160

Jointsbetweentiles are usuallythe part ofthe tilingmost vulnerableto rupture,wear and


contamination and as a generalrule for:
a.

extrudedtiles (eg quarries)shouldbe between6 mm and 10 mmwide;

b.

dust pressedtiles shouldbe at least3 mm wide.

Widejoints are often used for decorative effectand it is thereforevery importantthat the correct
grouting techniqueand type is used.
W170
W180

Usethis clauseto specify jointwidthsto tiles/slabs otherthan ceramictiles.


Sub-clauses b and c. Include eitherorboth these sub-clauses depending on thetype ofjoint
surfacetreatment(s) specifiedat Ml90 (withsub-clauseb) andM200 (with sub-clausec). If
movementjointtreatmentis specified in Worksection M10(Screeds),deletethe applicable subclause and associatedmaterial(s) clause in this Worksection. See also GuidanceNote tO Ml80,
M190 and M200.

W190

BS8000: Section 11.1 specifies basic workmanship requirements. The remainingclauses in this
Worksection are alternative, supplementary or additionalto BS 8000as stated in W200,and may
be addedto whenevertheindividual requirements ofthe project demandit.

W210

Use this clause ifa samplearea oftiling is required. This may be necessarywheredetailed
applications/patterns are requiredand it is importantthat a standard is set and workedto.

W230

Paint strippersmay leaveadepositwhichcan seriously interferewith adhesion. Emulsionpaint is


not suitableto receive tiling.
This methodis suitable fortiles with deepkey profilesand allowstiles to be fixed to relatively
unevenbackgrounds and is an alternativemethodto adhesives for fixingtiles in internalwet areas

W260

and externally.

428

GuidanceNotes

W270
W280
W290
W3 10

W320 &
W330

STONE,CLAYAND

This methodis suitablefor internaltilingbut shouldnotbe used whenwater may penetrate behind
thetiles intothe voidsie shower rooms andother wet areas.
This methodis suitablefor fixingtiles in internalwet areas and externally.
The use ofthis methodis limited to positionswhereit is difficultor impractical to apply adhesive
by means ofanotchedtrowel,eg on windowreveals.
Joint widthsvary (for wall tiles generallybetween2 mm - 10 mm) depending on the types oftiles
specifiedand aesthetic requirements. For externaltiles thejointwidth shouldbe ofan adequate
size for the releaseofwater vapourvia the groutedjoints.
Consultthe tile manufacturer forrecommendations and insert requirements, althoughgenerally
for internaldust pressedtilesjoints shouldbe at least 1.5 mm and for externaltiles, 6 mm wide.
See Guidance Note to M290.

429

11I4

TIt1RAZZO TILING ANDINS1TUTEI&4ZZO

GuidanceNotes

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M41
Marble chippingswith a cementbinder, laid as an insitu toppingto floors, or appliedas a dado or
wallfmish, and groundto a polished fmish. Terrazzo tiles to floors andwalls, pre-polishedor
polishedinsitu. Combinations ofterrazzotiling and insituterrazzo.
INCLUDED
Terrazzotiling, terrazzo units (BS 4357) and insituterrazzo to new or existing:
Floors and landings.
Treads and risers.
Dados,walls and columns.
Channels.

Skirtingsand kerbs.
Decorativemotifs.
Marginsand featurestrips.
Cuttings, roundedangles.
Eboniteormetal dividingstrips.
Movementjoints.
Sand-cement beddingfor tiles orbaselayerforinsitutoppings.

Preparation ofbase, including mechanical scabbling, cleaning, bondingagents.

Non-slipaggregate,eitherintegral or surfacebroadcast.
Non-sliptile inserts.
Grinding, groutingand polishing.
Curingand protecting.
Anti-static terrazzoflooring.
Holesand openingsotherthan forengineering service.

EXCLUDED
Terrazzoslab cladding.
(Cast stoneslab cladding, H52)

Concrete/terrazzo partitions, K33.


Resinboundterrazzo.
(Trowelledbitumen/resin/rubber latexflooring,Ml2)
Stone/concrete/quany/ceramic tiling/mosaic, M40.
Holesforpipes, conduits, etc.
(Holes/chases/covers/supports for services, P31).

430

REFERENCEDOCUMENTS

BSIdocuments referredto inthis Worksection are:


BS

12:

1996: Portlandcement.

BS 146:

1996: Portland blast-furnace cement.

BS 882:

1992: Aggregates from natural sources for concrete.


1975: PigmentsforPortlandcementand Portlandcementproducts.

BS 1014:
BS 1369:
BS 1521:
BS 4131:
BS 4357:
BS 5385:

Part 1: 1987: Expandedmetal and ribbedlathing.


1972: Waterproofbuildingpapers +AMD 3519.
1973: Terrazzotiles.
1968: Precastterrazzounits.

Wall and floor tiling.


Part5: 1994: Code ofpracticefor thedesign andinstallationofterrazzotile
and slab, naturalstone and composition block floorings.

BS 8000:

Workmanshipon buildingsites.
Part 11: Code ofpracticefor wall and floor tiling.
Section 11.1: 1989: Ceramic tiles,terrazzotiles andmosaics+AMD 8623.

BS 8204

Screeds, bases and insitu floorings.


Part4: 1993: Code ofpracticefor terazzo wearingsurfaces.

GENERAL
Use ofinsitu terrazzohas declined and been largelyreplacedby precastterrazzotiles and units.
Clausesforinsitu terrazzohavebeen included, as this methodofapplication may still be required
andis oftenusedin conjunction with tiles atroom perimeters, margins,skirtings, kerbsetc.
When both tiles and insitu terrazzoareto be used in conjunction, then clausesregarding
preparationofbed, thicknessofscreed, laying,movementjoints etc shouldbe amendedto suit.
Consultterrazzosupplier/manufacturer for detailedguidance.
MO10

Ifsamples oftheprecasttiles/units arerequired, use this clauseto listrequirements.

M020

Althoughcompliancewith BS 4131 is required, it is still almostinvariablynecessaryto specify a


particularmanufacturerofthe tiles to ensure that project requirements regardingcolour,
matching, mixes, size ofmarble aggregate etc are met.

M030 &

BS4357 specifies requirements forprecastunits with terrazzofacing other than tiles coveredby
BS4131, and includes floor slabs, pavings,staircase treads and risers.
Use this clause to describedetails ofany samples ofinsituterrazzorequired. Ifpossible state type
and mixparticulars. Clause Wi 30 providesfor sampleareas ofinsitu terrazzo.
Aggregate size andthicknessofterrazzotoppingare relatedas follows:
a.
for 15 mm topping maximum aggregate size is 10 mm;
b.
for 20 mm toppingmaximumaggregate size is 15 mm.
Reinforcementisrequired for beddingscreedover 40 mm thickwhen laid on a separatinglayer.

MO4O

MO5O

M060

M190

431

M200to
M220

BS5385: Part 5, Sub-section 3.8, gives extensive adviceon movementjoints and their location.

The Standarddraws a distinction betweenstructural movementjoints, flexiblejoints and


contraction joints and the specifieris advisedto referto it beforecompletingthese clauses.
Forinsitu terrazzotopping,joints inthestructuralfloor shouldbe carriedthroughthetoppingand
bedding.

Ensureproject drawings showpositionanddetailsofalljoints.


Selectjointmaterialrequired, that is, anapplied sealantorformedproprietary system.
M200

Useback-up material with sealantspecifiedatM210.

M210

Cross referto clausein Worksection Z22 for type ofsealantrequired.

M230

Dividingstripsare generally available in brass, aluminium alloyand plastics in standardthickness


of3 mm and 6mm. Thesestripsarefixedinto beddingscreedto form panels in insitutoppings
andwhere insitu terrazzoabutsterrazzotiles.

M240

Use this clause to listand detail any anti-slip accessories including non-slipinserts,non-slip tiles
etc.

WO10

Use this clausewhere tiling is tobe laid by a specialist flooringcontractor. List suitably
experienced terrazzofloor tilers or seek recommendations from tiling manufacturer.

W020

BS8000: Section 11.1 specifies basic workmanship requirements for terrazzotiling. The
remaining clausesin this Worksection are alternative, supplementary or additionaltoBS 8000as
stated in W030andmay be addedto whenever the individual requirements ofthe project demand
it.

W040

Use this clauseifa samplearea oftiling is required, inserting the size ofpanelinthe space
provided.

W050

W060
W070
W080

Wherethebase is subjectto stress,vibrationand other structural movementand whereforminga


key for a bondwould be difficultsuch as to precastconcrete units, existingconcrete or,screeded
floors, thetiles and beddingshouldbe isolatedby meansofa separatinglayer. A separatinglayer
should alwaysbe used undercementand sandmortar whenthebase is masticasphalt.
Use this methodofbeddingwherethere is no risk offurthershrinkage ormovement. This
methodis suitablefor heavilytraffickedareas.
Insertjointwidth required. 2 mm is the maximum recommendedwidthwhen neatcement
groutingis used.
See GuidanceNote to M200to M220.
Sub-clauses b and c. Include eitherorboth these sub-clauses dependingon the type ofjoint
surface treatment(s) specifiedatM210 (with sub-clause b) and M220 (withsub-clausec).

Wl10

Use this clausewhereflooringis to be laid by a specialist contractor.

W130

Use this clauseifa sample areaoftopping is required, inserting the size ofpanel in the space
provided.

W210, W220,
W280 &

Selectmethodofapplyingscreedbed and corresponding base preparationclause.


Bondingthe screedbed is the preferredmethodfor insitu terrazzotoppingon insitu concrete
floors,but forbases subjectto shrinkage, vibrationand movementsand whereprovision for akey
is difficult, see GuidanceNoteto W050regardingtheuse ofan unbondedbed on aseparating
layer.

432

W300

Thickness ofinsitu terrazzoforflooringwill dependon situationand aggregate(seeGuidance


Note to M060). Minimumthicknessis normally15 mm (using 10 mm maximumaggregate).
Insert requirements in sub-claused.

W3 10

Use this clausewhenan insitu marginaground tiled areas is required. Insertmargin widthor use
secondoptionifprojectdrawings show details.
See Guidance Notes to M200 to M220.

W340

Sub-clauses a and b. Include eitheror both these sub-clauses depending on thetype ofjoint
surface treatment(s)specifiedat M210(with sub-clausea) and M220 (withsub-clauseb).

Ifinsitu terrazzois onlybeing used formarginsetc adjacentto tiled areasthendeletethis clause.


W360

Workmanshiprequirements formovementjoints will be specifiedatW080.


Grindingis not essential but is beneficial in good qualitywork as itremovesanyslight
projections,improvesappearance and assistsin the everyday maintenance ofthe floor.
Ifterrazzo is polishedto a 'finegrit'fmish it shouldhavea similarslip resistance to othersmooth,
hard coverings. Insert fmishrequiredeg 'fmegrit', 'eggshell' or 'polished'.

433

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M42
Woodand composition block flooring, parquetand similarwood basedthin tile, andblock floor
coveringsall fixedwith adhesive.
INCLUDED
Woodblockflooring.
Compositionblockflooring.
Parquetflooring.
Proprietaiythin tile, striporblock woodfloor coverings.
Beddingin adhesive.
Dividingstrips.
Movementjointanglesand strips.
Sanding, sealingand polishing.
Coverfilletstoboundaries.
Cutting holes and openingsother than for engineering services.
EXCLUDED
Sub floors to parquetand thin tile or stripfloors.
(Relevantsection,eg K! 1)
Timberboardflooring/sheathing/linings/cladding, K20.
Timbernarrowstripflooring/linings, K21.
Holesfor pipes, conduits, etc.
(Holes/Chases/Covers/Supports P31).

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
BSI documents referredto in this Worksection are:
BS 1187:

1959: Woodblocks for floors +AMD 21.

BS 8201:

1987: Code ofpracticefor flooring oftimber,timberproductsandwood based


panelproducts.

GENERAL

BS8201: Code ofPracticefor flooringoftimber, timberproductsandwood based panel


products,givesrecommendations formaterials used and methods oflaying varioustypes of

MO 10

M020

flooringofwood and wood productsincluding: block,mosaic, overlayandparquet.Tables 1 to


11 oftheBS show types ofhardwoodssuitable forvariousflooringapplications.
Section 1 ofthe BS givesrecommendations for provisionto accommodate movement. For
blocks,mosaicandparquetused in most circumstances, an unfilledexpansiongap ofbetween 10
mm and 12 mm aroundtheperimeterofthe floor will suffice (ofien maskedbythe skirting
thereforeconcealedand kept clear ofdebris). Blockslaid in 'brick'patternwillexpandonly
acrossthe widthofthe floor,thereforeprovision formovementneed only be madeatthe edges
parallelto the lie ofthe brick 'courses'.
Use this clauseifsamples ofthe specifiedflooringarerequired.

BS 1187specifies requirements for interlocking tonguedand grooved blocksforlaying on level


concrete or other rigidbases. Sizesofblocks coveredin theBS are: 150mm to 380 mm (230
mmto 300 nun being the most commonlyavailable) long, with a minimumwidthof90 mm and a
minimumthicknessof2l mm. The appendixto be BS recommends types ofhardwoodssuitable
for variousapplications.

Ifa proprietary type is not required, delete sub-clause e.


434

M050
M060
M070 &
M080

This clause is intendedfor the specification ofproprietary flooringblockssuch asthose


manufactured by GranwoodFlooringLtd.
Use for treatmentofjunction with adjacentfloor fmishes. See generalnote refening to the
necessity ofprovidingan expansion gap for wood block andparquetflooring.
Type ofadhesive,sealer and/orpolishwill dependon the type offlooringbeing laid.
Whereproprietaryflooringis specified, consult manufacturer and use these clauses to detail their
recommendations.

Refer to BS 8201: Section 3 for recommendations regardingsurfacefmishingofhardwood


blocks.

W020

Proprietarycomposition flooringcanbe laid in cement: sandmortar or thin bed adhesive


depending on base. Consultmanufacturerforrecommendations. Standardclauses are included
for beddinginmortar.
Usethis clauseparticularlyin conjunction with M050where it isrequiredthattheflooringis laid
by a specialistflooringcontractor. List suitably experienced flooring contractors.
Use this clausewheretimberflooringis specified.

W030

Use this clause ifa samplearea ofthe flooring isrequired.

M090

WO10

W120

In Appendix A, ofBS8201 amethodofaccuratelydetermining therelativehumidityofthebase


concreteor screedis given. Paragraph 6.4.6ofthe British Standardrequires arelativehumidity
of75% to be achievedbeforeany moisture sensitive flooring canbe laid. For50 mm screedthe
time that shouldbe allowedfor this figureto be achievedis given as I dayper millimeter,
followedby an increasingtime foreach millimeter abovethis thickness. A 50 mmthick screed
laid on amembranewould thereforebe sufficiently dry intwo months, concrete 150 mm thick
could require as much as a yearto dry ifonly one faceis exposed. This time period forexcess
water inthe base (aboveanymembrane)to evaporate shouldbe taken into accountatthe planning
stage.

W170

Refer to GuidanceNote M090.

Wi80

This clause couldbe deleted wherethe manufacturer'srecommendations for laying oftimber


flooringare adequately coveredby BS8201 (clause W020).

435

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M50
Flexible and semi-flexible tile and sheet coverings to new or existingfloors, walls,stairs and
soffits;carpettiles; tufted and similarcarpets securedwith adhesives.

INCLUDED
Unbacked,foam backedand anti-static rubbersheetsand tiles.
Unbacked,backedand anti-static PVC sheetsand tiles.
Thermoplastic and semi-flexible PVCtiles.
Cork and prefinishedcorktiles and cork carpet.
Hessianand felt backedlinoleum sheetsand tiles.
Carpettiles ofall types.
Tufted and needlepunch carpetsecuredwithadhesives.
Coveringsstuckor laid looseto:
Floors and landings.
Treadsand risers.
Kerbsand skirtings.
Walls and columns.
Beamsand soffits.
Weldedjoints.
Dividingstrips.
Coverstrips and filletsat boundaries.
Stairnosingsand stairtrims.
Thinply orother sheetsfixed to existingtimberflooring toprovidea level substrate for flexible
sheeting/tiling whererequiredto be laidby the floor finishcontractor.
Paperfelt, fibreboard, corkcarpet, feltbackedcorkand similar underlays.
Sealing and polishing.
Holes and openingsother than for engineering services.

EXCLUDED
Thin ply or other sheetsfixedto existingtimberflooringto providealevel substratewhere not required to
be laid bythe floor finishcontractor.
(Rigid sheetflooring/sheathing/lining/casings, K! 1).
Edge fixed carpeting, M51.
Holesforpipes, conduits, etc.
(Holes/chases/covers/supports for services,P31).

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
BSI documents referredto in this Worksection are:
BS 1711:

1975: Solidrubberflooring.

BS 2050:

1978: Electricalresistance ofconducting and anti-static productsmadefrom


flexiblepolymericmaterial + AMD 4280+ AMD 4499.
UnbackedflexiblePVC flooring.
Part 1: 1973: Homogeneous flooring.

BS 3261:

436

BS 5085:

Backedflexible PVC flooring.


Part 1: 1974: Needle-loomfelt backedflooring.
Part 2: 1976: CellularPVC backing.

BS 5325:

1996: Codeofpracticeforthe installation oftextile floor coverings.

BS 6826:

1987: Linoleum and cork carpetsheet and tiles.

BS 7131:

Performance rating oftextile floor coverings.


Part 1: 1989: Textilefloor coverings with yarn pile + AMD 7202.

BS 8203:

1987: Code ofpracticeforthe installation ofsheet and tile flooring.

GENERAL
Aesthetic considerations meanthat specifiers will wishto specify floor coverings by manufacturer
and reference. Althoughit may seem unecessaryto requirecompliance with a relevantBritish
Standard, especiallywhenmost manufacturers now claim afarbetterperfonnancethanthat
requiredby the BS, the Standards have beenincludedinthis specification to provide abasic
standardofcomparison whenContractors offer alternativeproductsto those specified.
Formalrequirements regardingcompliance with the CDMregulations are containedin
Preliminaries SectionA21. Specifiers shouldnevertheless be awareofthehealth and safety
implications ofthe use ofadhesives whichinvolve the presence oruse ofsolvents andresins.
MO10

List the materials forwhich samples arerequired.

M020

BS6826 classifies linoleumcomposition basedflooringsintothree types:


Type A: a linoleumwith a wovenbackingofnatural or syntheticfibres;
Type B: a linoleumwith anon-wovenfibrebacking;
Type C: cork carpet: a linoleumcomposition containingan increased quantity ofgranulatedcork
so improving thethermalinsulation properties.
Sub-clausea. Insertrequiredtype from aboveand statewhether 'tiles' or 'sheet'.
Sub-clauseb. TypesA and B are available in2.0 mm, 2.5 mm, 3.2 mm and 4.5 mm thicknesses.
Type C is available in 3.2 mm,4.5 mm and6.0 mm thicknesses.
Sub-clause c. Insertcolourreferenceaccording to manufacturer'sinformation.
Note that tiles manufactured tothis standard are available only in 300 mmsquare size.

M030

Flooringtothis standard is a homogeneous composition. Type A is specifiedowing to its harder


wearingproperties. Type B is suitedto domestic applications andmay be substituted if
appropriate.Insert 'sheet'or 'tiles' after classification letter.
Sub-clause a. Insertthickness from the following range: 1.5 mm,2.0 mm, 2.5 mm or 3.0 mm;
Sub-clauseb. Insertmanufacturer'scolourreference.

M040&
M050

Sub-clausec. Standardsquare tile sizes are 225 mm, 250 mmor 300 mm, thoughnon-standard
sizes canbeobtainedby arrangementwith mostmanufacturers. Deletethis sub-clause ifsheet
flooringis required.
Alternativeclauses. BS5085:Part 1 specifies PVC sheet with aneedle-loomfelt backing,
whereas Part2 covers sheetwith a cellular PVCbacking. Deletewhicheverclauseis notrequired
and insert colourandmanufacturer details.

437

M060

After the BS reference, insert 'sheet'or 'tiles' as required.


Sub-clausea. Inserttype ie 'plain' or 'studded'.
Sub-clauseb. Statecolourrequiredreferringtomanufacturer'sdata.
Sub-clausec. Statethe thickness required. The following thicknesses are listedin BS 1711: 3.0
mm, 4.0 nun,5.0 mm or 6.0 mm.
Sub-clause d. Statethetile dimensions requiredor deletethe sub-clause ifsheet flooringis
specified. BS 1711 givesstandardtile sizes of225 mm,250 mm and 300 mm square. Check
with manufacturerfor availability.

M070

Sub-clausea. Brieflydescribe the material, eg 'fibrebonded carpet' or 'low loop carpettiles' etc.
Sub-clause b. BS 7131:Part 1 givesfourclasses based on an overallperformancerating derived
from a seriesoftests relatingto pile mass, density and appearance retention. Theseclasses, which
align with the gradescoveredbythe BritishCarpetGrading Scheme, are familiarto those
operatingin the carpetindustry. Thetable belowshows the classes, their levels ofuse and gives
an indication oftheir application in adomesticsituation:

Class

Overall
Performance

LevelofUse
Domestic

Domestic

NonDomestic

Application

(Contract)
4

85

70

55

Heavy

---

Heavy

General

Living room,
hail orlanding

General

Moderate

Diningroom or

Moderate

---

study

35

Bedroom;

Sub-clause d. Delete this sub-clauseifsheet coveringis specified.


M080

Sub-clause a. Brieflydescribethematerialeg: 'solid rubbersheet' etc.


Sub-clause b. BS 2050 gives guidance on resistance figures as follows:

Forhospital(operating theatre)floors:
max=2 x 106 ohms

min=7.5x i ohms.

Forindustrialpurposes:
max=l08ohms

min=5x 10 ohms.

Forexplosivehandlingareas:
max =5 x

i ohms.

Whereprotection is requiredforelectronic datahandlingequipment, the equipment


manufacturers shouldbe approachedfor guidance.
Complete or deleteremaining sub-clauses as appropriate.
M090

438

For the surfacingofexistingconcrete or screeded floors. For floors inhealth and catering
accommodation, insert 'protein free type' after the clause heading.

ndane Notes
M100

R1JBBJjR PLAS

For fixing to existingtimberfloors to providea smooth, stable surface. Itwillusuallybe


hardboard or plywood, fixed by the generalcontractor and so shouldbe specifiedinWorksection

Ku.
Ml 10

Seethe generalnote on safetyat thebeginningofthese GuidanceNotes. Selecta suitable


adhesive from those specifiedin Worksection Z20 and complete this clause accordingly. Check
with flooringmanufacturers for the suitability ofadhesives forthe particularsituationinwhich
theyare tobe applied.

M120

Forjunctionsbetweendifferenttypes or patternsofflooringparticularlyat door thresholds.


Use this clauseifa samplearea ofthefloor coveringis required, inserting the dimensions ofthe
requiredarea inthe space provided.
Badlydamagedsurfaces may needtoberemovedcompletely and replaced.

W030

Wl00
W130

This clause applies to all flexiblefloor coverings, whichshouldnotbe conditioned and laid in
temperaturesless than those specified. It ensures that coverings, particularlyPVC and linoleum,
are the same temperatureas the ambientroomtemperaturein whichthey areto be laid. This
conditioning processmakesthe materialeasierto work and avoids risk ofsurface condensationor
excessive movement.

W170to
W210

Alternative clauses. Delete thosewhichareinapplicable. Anyunusual requirements should be added


in non-standard clauses.

W230

This will be unavoidableonly wheretheroom is nottruly rectangular.

W290

Positions offeaturestrips shouldbe shown on drawings.

W3 10

Selectwidthto suitthicknessofdoor. Otherforms ofthresholdtreatmentshouldbe describedin


additionalclauses or preferablyshown on drawings.

W320

The use ofadhesive as well as fixingscrews reduces clatterwhennosing iswalkedon.

439

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M51
Broadloomand seamed carpets mechanically edge fixedwithout adhesive to newor existing
floors,walls and stairs.
INCLUDED
Layingseamed and broadloomcarpetsto:
Floors and landings.
Treadsand risers.
Wallsand columns.
Rods,grippersand edgings.
Stairnosings.
Tapes,coverstrips and thresholdstrips.
Seamingand binding.
Mothproofing.

Dry paperfelt, resilientunderlaysoffelt, rubberor similar.


Holesand openings,other thanforengineering services, underlays.
EXCLUDED
Carpettiles; tufted and similarcarpetssecured with adhesives.
(Rubber/Plastics/Cork/Lino/Carpet tiling/Sheeting, M50).
Holesforpipes, conduits, etc.
(Holes/Chases/Covers/Supports and chasesfor services, P31).

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
BSI documents referredto in this Worksection are:

BS 3655:
BS 5325:
BS 5808:
BS 7131:

1981: Recommendations for informative labelling oftextile floor coverings.


1983: Codeofpracticeforthe installation oftextile floor coverings.
1991: Underlaysfor textile floor coverings.
Performance rating fortextile floor coverings.
Part 1: 1989: Textile floor coverings with yam pile +AIvil)7202.

GENERAL
Aestheticconsiderations makeit probable that specifiers will wishto specifycarpets by
manufacturerandreference. Althoughitmay seem unecessarythereforetorequire compliance
with the relevantBritishStandard, particularlywhenmanufacturers may claim abetter
performancefor their productthanthat requiredbythe BS, the standards havebeen invokedin
this Specification to providea basic standardofcomparison whenContractorsoffer alternative
productsto those specified.
MOlO

Sub-clause a. See GuidanceNote to clauseM50.M070.


Sub-clause c. Obtainroll width from manufacturer. Note that the tolerance
according to BS 3655could provecriticalon stairways or in corridorsetc.

440

of 1.25%allowable

M020

The following types ofunderlay are listedin BS 5808:


felt
cellular (rubberofpolymeric foam)
rubbercrumb
composite (composedofboth fibrous andpolymericmaterial).

Underlaysare gradedin BS5808 inthe following ways:


LDIU Lightdomestic use. Not suitable forstairs.
GD/U GeneralDomestic use.
L/U
Luxuryuse, domestic contract, wherehigh energyabsorptionis
desirable.
GC/U
HC/U
M030

M040&

GeneralContractuse, suitable fornormal footandwheel traffic.


HeavyContractuse, suitable for heavy foot andwheel trafficand
castorchairs.

Topreventtheadhesionoffoam-backed carpetto sub strates.


Forthepreparationofexistingfloor substrates. Ensurethat therelevantclauses ofKi1 are

M050

includedwhen specifying underlayment to existingtimberfloors.

M040

See GuidanceNote to M50.M090.

M060

M070

Carpetgripperis manufactured in timberand aluminium with the optionsoffixingwith nails(for


timberfloors), hardened steel pins (for concrete and screeded floors)orwith adhesive.
Mechanicalfixingsare supplied bythe manufacturer.
Forjunctionswith differenttypes offloor fmishand atthresholdsetc.

WOlO

Deletethis clause iftheprovisionmadein clauseW210 is adequate.

W020

Insertthe area ofcontrolsample required.


thelocationofthesampleroom.

WI00 to

Alternative clauses. Referto thecarpetmanufacturer forthe recommendedmethodofseaminghis


productanddelete thoseclauses not required.

W130
W140

W160
W170

Ifthis is to be a complete room, substitutedetails of

Particularrequirements aboutthe positionand directionofseamsshouldbe indicated on the


submitted drawings. It is advisable to avoid seamson trafficroutesbut ifthis is notpossible,they
shouldrun parallelto the route.
The shadeofthe carpetwill appeardifferentfrom length to length iflaid with thepile lying in
differentdirections.
Ideallythe numberandpositionsoffixturesshouldbe shown on drawings suppliedto the
contractor.

Wl90

The use ofadhesiveas well as fixingscrewsreduces clatterwhenthe nosing is walkedon.

441

M152

DECOTPAPERSANDFABRICS

GuidanceNotes

COMMONARRANGEMENTSCOPE OF M52
Preparingsurfaces and applying decorative papers,fabrics,liningand backingpapersofallkinds
to new and existingwalls and ceilings.
INCLUDED
Preparingsurfaces, new and existing, ofall kinds,including stripping,fungicidal treatment, and sizing.
Hangingor applying:
Lining papers.
Paperfacedaluminium foil linings.
Expandedpolystyrenelinings.
Decorativewall papers,anaglyptas, etc.
Hessianfabrics.
Linen,cotton,wool, silk, glassfibreand syntheticfibrefabrics.
Paperbacked grasses.
Paperbacked cork.
Paperbacked PVC (vinylpapers).
Fabric backedPVC.
Expandedpolystyrenelinings.
Bordersand decorative motifs.

EXCLUDED
Applyingprimersto plasterboard dry linings,new concrete, limebasedplasters, etc.
(To facilitatestrippingand/or alkaliattack).
(Painting/Clear finishing,M60).
Curtains, loosewall hangingsand fabrics.
(Generalbuildingfixture/furnishings/equipment, N10).

REFERENCEDOCUMENTS

BSIdocuments referredto inthis Worksection are:


BS 1248:
Wall coveringsin roll form.
Part 2: 1990: Finishedwall coverings +AMD 8008.
BS 3046:
1981: Adhesives forhangingflexiblewalicoverings.
BS 8000:
Workmanship on buildingsites.
Part 12: 1989: Codeofpracticefordecorative walicoverings and paintings.
BSEN 259:
1992: Heavyduty wall coverings in rollfonn.
BSEN 266:
1992: Textilewall coverings.

442

GENERAL
Metallic wallpapers shouldnot be usedwhereverthere is a dangerofcontact with electrical
equipmentand currentcarryingcables.
MO 10

Ifsamplesofanumberofwall coveringsare required, usethis clause to listthem.

M040to

See Guidance Note to M150in respectof schedule references.

M060

M070&
M080
MlO0

Ml50

Water-soluble adhesives to BS 3046 areusuallysuitable formost traditionalpapers. Specify


fungicidal adhesives for vinyl facedpapers. For more unusualmaterials,consultmanufacturers
for their recommendations.
Fungicides canbetoxic and thereforeshouldbe specified and used with care especially when
usedin areas wherechildren may be present.
Adhesivesfor impervious materials usuallyalreadycontaina fungicide to preventmouldgrowth.
Formalrequirements regardingcompliance with the CDMregulations are containedin
Preliminaries SectionA2l. Specifiers shouldnevertheless be awareofthe healthand safety
implications ofthe use ofadhesives containingpesticides.
Use the schedule,ifrequired, wherea numberofwall coverings used invarious locations areto
be specified.
Deleteifnot requiredand substitutedetails ofrequirements forreferencesto schedule in clauses

M040to M060.
WOlO

BS8000: Part 12 specifies basic workmanship requirements. The remaining clauses in this
Worksection are eitheralternatives, supplementary or additionalto BS 8000as stated in W020
and may be addedto whereverthe individual requirements ofthe project demandit.

443

COMMONA1RANGEMENT SCOPE OF M60


Preparingsurfaces and decorative/protective painting ofnew and existingwalls, floors,ceilings,
doors,windows, fixtures, fittings, features, services andother surfaces;sealing staining,
varnishingand polishing.
INCLUDED
Preparingsurfaces, new and existing, ofall kindsforpainting, varnishing, sealing,stainingand polishing.
Remedialpaintingofexistingsteelwork.
Flamecleaningand blastcleaning.
On site applicationby brush, spray orroller of:
Emulsion paints.
Oil paints.
Alkydpaints.
Polyurethane, epoxy resin,polymeror otherplasticsbasedpaints.
Micaceous iron oxidepaints.
Cementpaints.
Resinouscoatings, includingbroadcast non-slipfinished.
Texturedpaints,texturedcompounds.
Imitationstonepaints.
Multi-coloured paints.
Fleckand spatterfinishpaints.
Special purposecoatings such asheat resisting, anti-graffiti, anti-climb, flameretardant,
intumescent, insecticidal, fungicidal, luminous, roadmarking, etc.
Cellulose.

Boiled linseedoil.
Sealers.
Wood preservatives.
Stains.
Varnishesand lacquers.
Limewashes.
Siliconewaterrepellents.
Waxpolishing.
Frenchpolishing.
Gildingand gold leafwork.
Maintenance cleaningofgutters,cornices, etc.

EXCLUDED

Offsiteprimingorpainting.
(Relevantsectionforthe itemto whichthefinishis applied)
Surfacehardeners for concrete.
(Workedfinishes/cuttingto in situ concrete, E4l and sand-cementlconcrete, screeds/flooring, Ml()
Protective paintingofnew structural steel framing, bothoffsite and onsite, carriedoutby or undersubcontracttothe structuralsteelworkcontractor.
(Structural steel framing, GlO)
Offsite (only)protectivepaintingofisolatedstructural metalmembers.
(Structural metalmembers, G12)
Offsite application oftimberpreservatives and fire retardants.
(Relevantsection, egG20, H2I, L1O,L20, etc)
Bituminouscoatings dpcs and tanking.
(Liquidappliedtanking/dampproofmembranes, J30)
Sealers and polishesto certainspecialistfloor and wall finishes.
(Varioussections:Kl3, K21,M12, M42, M50 etc)
Brush, sprayand roller appliedpriming, bondingand finishing coatsto trowelled resin flooring.
(Trowelledbitumen/resin/rubber-latex flooring,M12)
Paint signs.
(Signs/notices, Nl5)
444

GuidanceNotes

PAINTINGAND CL1A

REFERENCEDOCUMENTS
BSI documents referredto in this Worksection are:
BS 245:
BS 476:

1976: Mineralsolvents (white spirit and relatedhydrocarbon solvents) for


paints and other purposes.
Fire tests onbuildingmaterials andstructures.
Part 7: 1987: Classification ofsurface spreadofflame ofproducts+ AM])

6249+ AMD 7030+AM!) 7612.

BS 1336:
BS 1710:
BS 2451:
BS 2523:
BS 3761:
BS 4310:

1971: Knotting.
1984: Identification ofpipelines and services + AMD 6012.
1963: Specification for chilled iron shot and grit.
1966: Lead-basedprimingpaints+ PD 6074+ AMD 3941.
1995: Solvent-based paintremover.
1968: Specification forpermissable limitoflead in low-leadpaints and similar
materials +AMD 1448.

BS 4652:

1995: Metalliczinc-richprimingpaint (organic media).

BS 4756:

1971: Specification for ready mixed almninium primingpaintsforwoodwork.

BS 4800:
BS 5082:
BS 5358:
BS 5493:

1989: Paint coloursfor buildingpurposes.

BS 6044:
BS 6150:
BS 6900:
BS 6949:

1993: Waterborneprimingpaints for woodwork.


1986: Solventborneprimingpaint for woodwork.
1977: Protective coatingofiron and steel structures againstcorrosion + AMD
4443.
1987: Pavementmarkingpaints+ AMD 5719+AMID 8787.
1991: Code ofpracticefor painting ofbuildings.
1987: Raw,refmedand boiled linseed oils forpaints and varnishes.
1991: Bitumen-based coatingsfor cold application, excluding use in contact

with potablewater.

BS 6952:

Exteriorwood coatingsystems.
Part 1: 1988: Guide to classification and selection.

BS 7079:
BS 7664:
BS 7719:
BS 8000:

Preparationofsteel substrates beforeapplication ofpaints andrelatedproducts.


1993: Undercoatand fmishingpaints+AMID 8777.
1994: Water-borneemulsionpaints for interioruse.
Workmanship on buildingsites.
Part 12: 1989: Codeofpracticefor decorative wall-coverings andpainting.

Other documents referredto in this Worksection are:


ControlofLead at WorkRegulations 1980.
TRADApublication'Finishes for exteriortimbers'.

445

GENERAL

It is assumedthat the project documentation would includea painting and decorationschedule,


detailingtypes offmishes,location, coloursetc.
BS6150 containsvaluable information on thespecification ofpaintingmaterials and healthand

M050
M070

safety considerations.
Formalrequirements regardingcompliance with the CDMregulations are containedin
PrelhninariesSection A21. Specifiers shouldnevertheless be awareofthe healthand safety
implications ofthe use ofmaterials whichare, or containsolvents, which are skin irritants,
poisons and whichcould cause permanentdamageifsplashedinto the eye.
Inresponseto an increasing demandformaterials oflow toxicity, manufacturers arecontinually
developing new and safer products. A recentdevelopment in this contextis the adventOflow
solvent paints and specifiers may well wishto specifysuch materials whereverthey are suitable.
Manufacturersshouldbe contactedfor advice on their latestproductsand theirapplication.
This coatingis for generaluse only and is not suitable foruse in contact with potablewater.

Forwallboardliningswhich are to be paintedorwallpapered. The primer sealers currently


available eliminate need for a slurry coat as part ofthejointing sequence. A two coat application
providesa water vapourbarrier,althoughit is not suitable foruse in damp orcontinuouslyhumid
environments. Application shouldform part ofthe overallpainting programmeto allow
maximum time for diying out

M090

A generaluse exterior/interior, solvent borne woodprimer suitable formost softwood.

Ml00

A permeableprimerallowingmore rapid uptakeand releaseofmoisture from wood and therefore


allowing faster dryingoutafter priming. Suitable forredecorationofwood that has been subject
to moisturepenetration, butfmishingcoats must notbe appliedwhenmoisturecontentofthe
wood exceeds18%.

Ml10

Forhardwood, resinoussoftwoods, softwood whereit is wishedto even out large differences


betweenearlyand late wood (egDouglasFir) andwoodstreatedwith metallicnaphthenate
preservatives.

M120
M130

Forsiteapplication but slow drying. Shouldnotbe scheduledfor use in areas ofdomesticuse


and/orwherepublichas access. Do notuse when alower leadprimer is equallysuitable.
Generalpurposeprimer for new and maintenance primingofblastor manuallycleanedsteel. Has
an equivalent performance to lead basedprimers. Shouldbeusedon steel in preferenceto lead
primersin locations wherelead paintmay be a healthhazard. On galvanized surfaces,etchprime
first.

Ml40
M150
M160
M170

M180
M190

446

Forinterior orshelteredexterioruse. Dries overnight. May be used in domesticbuildings.


Ongalvanized surfaces etch primefirst.
Preferredprimerforgalvanized steel whereoil-based fmishingpaintsare specified. Replaces
calciumplumbateprimingpaint.
Epoxyresin-basedtwo-packproduct. For factoryprimingblast-cleaned structural steelwrk or
for touching-indamagedareas ofgalvanized orzinc-sprayed coatings. Frequentstirring is
necessaryand applications shouldbe by brush,or sprayas appropriate.
Fornon-ferrousmetalpretreatment/priming.
Sub-clause a. Insert a briefgenericdescription ofthe paint systemrequiredeg. 'microporous',
'alkyd oil-based', 'low solvent' or 'mould resistant'etc.

LanceNotes

M200

PAINTINGANDCLIAR FINIShING

Two coats ofemulsion paintshouldnormallybe scheduledexcept wherewhite or similarlight


tints are to be selected, whenthreecoats may be necessary. Emulsionpaints shouldnotbe used
on lightweightmineral fibreliningsorinsulation, dueto the fire hazard.
BS7119 classifies threetypes ofemulsion paint as follows:

Type A: Generalpurpose,protective anddecorative (mattor mid-sheen). It is decorative and


protectiveinfunction,offeringgooddurabilityand wearing propertiesin most conditions. The
choiceofsheen level may dependon locationand aesthetic considerations, but, in general,
washabilityincreases with the level ofsheen.
Type B: Low wear resistance (matt). For use as first decorationofporous substrates containing
moisture, it can alsobeusedfor areas oflow wear,needinghigh obliteration. eg. ceilings. Higher
pigmentationgives increased hiding power andporositycompared with type A, but atthe expense
ofadecreaseinwashability. Only mattfmishis availableand increased porosity permitsthe
dryingout ofanyresidualmoisture in the substrate. It isunsuitableforredecorationwork.
Type C: Highwear andmoistureresistance (mattor mid-sheen). Similarto type Abut with a
higher resisitanceto wear and moisture and havingproperties much like oil basedfmishpaints.
This paint is suitable forhighlytraffickedareas or areas requiring a high degree ofmoisture
resistance.

M210
M350
M360

M370

M380

M390

Insert thetypereferencein sub-clause a. adding anyfurtherinformation required, eg. 'mould


resisting'. State'mart' or 'mid-sheen'in sub-clause b. as applicable.
This is a smooththin coating. Wherea textured fmish isrequireduse atexturedmasonrypaint
(clauseM410).
A 20% solutionofhouseholdbleachis as effective fungicidefor many organisms, buthas no
residualeffect.
Chlorinatedrubberpaintsusedto be specified for this purposeand for conditions ofvery high
humidity. Thesepaintswill shortlybewithdrawnfor environmental reasonsconcernedwith their
manufactureand specifiers wishingto fmd a substituteare advisedto contactmanufacturers to
obtain the best solutionfortheirspecificproblem.
Protectivepaintfor structural steel. The paint has limiteddecorativevalueand must be usedwith

an appropriate primer.
Heat resistantpaintforuse withoutprimer on steampipes, radiators etc at temperatures between
100Cand 130C. Avoid specifying white, creamandpastel tints asthese rapidlydarken. Black
only shouldbe specified for temperatures between 130 and204C.Generalpurposeoil paint
(M190) is suitable for low pressurehotwater pipework andradiators.
Manufacturers'claims offireretardancyshouldalwaysbe supported by certificatesfrom
approvedfire testlaboratories, for eachtype ofsurface. Flame retardantpaintsmay be water or
solvent based.

M420

Thick, viscousnon-dryingpaintfor coating upper parts ofwalls, etcto discourage intruders.


May containsand,stone dust or other gradedaggregates to give 'stone' texture. Availableas
polymer emulsion, solutionpolymeror oil basedproprietary products. Followmanufacturer's
instructionsrelatingto numberofcoats and requirements forpriming/sealing of surfaces.
Foruse on friablesurfaces beforeemulsion type masonrypaint.

M470

Durablevarnish-likematerialwith goodwood sealing properties.

M400
M410

447

1\1160

PAiNTINGAND CLEAR1ENISEENG

GuidanceNotes

M560

There is awide range ofvarnishes available(bothtraditionaltypes andmodern chemically cured


types). Theseclauses showsome ofthe most widely accepted. Varnishes on exteriorwoodwork
mayneed frequentrenewal.

M550

Forinterioruse only. Clearfinishes for external use arespecifiedat M560 and M570.

M560

A clear wood finishingsystem, havingsubstantially longer lifethan traditionalvarnishes. The


first coat is usuallyapreservativeprimer(base coat)and subsequent coats are varnish. A range of
tints (including'clear')maybeavailable.
Exteriorwood stainsare ofseveral types eg low-solids and water-borne. They have alsobeen

M540to

M570

describedas decorative wood preservatives, water-repellant preservativestains, water-repellant


fmishesand impregnation stainsand are classified in BS 6952. Generally these fmishespenetrate
thesurfacelayersofthetimber, ratherthan forminga transparent coveringfilm (zero build). In
addition,low and medium build wood stainsare available, whichleaveadiscemablefilm on the
surface. Durability is generallybetterthan that ofvarnishes and anumber ofcoloursare
available. Refer to TimberResearch and Development Association publication 'Finishes for
ExteriorTimber'.
M580

M590

Gold leafis available in 'regular' or 'fine' quality, single or double leaf. Fine quality should
normallybe used for exterior work and regularqualityforinteriorwork. Inexternallocations
exposedto the weather, where appearance is not ofparamountimportance, consider use ofbronze
metallicpaint in place ofgold leaf.
Includecompletedschedulein projectspecifications unless the appropriate information is
scheduledonthe drawings. Locations may be describedin the way most appropriate tothe
project eg on aroom by roombasis wherefinishes differ for each room or on awholebuilding
basis wherefinishesare common throughout. Note that clauseM620providesfor scheduling
colours for identification ofpipelines. Pipelines notso scheduled will be finishedin with surface
to whichthey are attachedas specifiedat W080. Anexample ofa completed scheduleis given
below:

Surface &
Location or
Component
Ceilings and
plasteredwalls
throughout

448

Primer Sealer or Base


Coat

Undercoator
IntermediateCoat

Finish
:

Clause

No of

Clause

No of

Coats

Reference

No of
Coats

Clause

Reference

Reference

Coats

---

----

M200

M200

I
.

Hardwood window
framesexternally

M570

M570

M570

Exposedsteelwork
Basement car park

M130

M190

Ml90

The followingtables are providedfor guidancewhen completing the schedulesand selecting


coats.

PRIMERS
Surface
Softwood generally

Primer

Notes

ClauseReference

Generalpurposeprimer for
wood

M090

Aluminium primer for wood

Ml10

Hardwood, resinous
soffivood and timber

treatedwithcopper
naphthenate
preservative

Iron and steel generally

Red leadprimer

(1)

M120

Red oxideofiron/zinc chrome

(2)

M140

(3)

M130

Zincrich primer

(4)

M170

Etching primer plus zinc


chrome primer

(5)

M180&M150

Etching primer plus zinc


phosphate primer

(6)

M180&M130

steel (low lead)

(7)

M160

Etching primer plus zinc


chrome primer

(5)

M180&M150

Etching primer plus zinc


phosphate primers

(6)

M180&M130

primer

Zincphosphate primer (low


lead)

Zinc and galvanized


surfaces generally

One packprimer for galvanized


Sprayedzinc coatings

Aluminium and
sprayed aluminium
coatings

Zincchrome primer

Smooth and polished


aluminium

Etching primerplus zinc


chrome primer

Smooth and polished


copperand lead

Etching primer

M150
.

M180&M150
M180

Notesto Schedule ofPrimers


1.

Exterior, site applied, slowdrying. Notto be used in domesticenvironment,wherepublichas


accessorwhere low-lead primer is suitable.

2.

Interior/Sheltered. Overnightdrying. Maybeused indomesticenvironment.

3.

Exterior/interior. Suitableforallsituations when aperformance equivalent tored lead primer is


needed. Overnightdrying. Replacesred lead in domesticenvironment, non-toxic, faster drying.

449

4.
5.
6.
7.

Highstandardofpreparationneededfor effectiveuse.
Interior/sheltered exterior. Replacement forcalciumplumbateprimer.

Aprimerforgalvanicprotection ofsteel.

Equivalentalternative to(5) whereuse ofchromateprimersmayberestricted.


Exterior/Interior. Preferred replacement for calciumplumbateprimer.

SEALERS

Surface

Sealer

ClauseReference

Oilpaint

Alkali-resistant primersealer

M060

Standard hardboard

Oilpaint

Proprietary hardboard
sealer

M080

Tempered hardboard

Oilpaint

Emulsion paint

M200

Proprietary hardboard
sealer

M080

Emulsion paintthinned

M200

Alkali-resistantprimersealer

M060

Dry plasterDry
concreteDry fibre-

Finish

cement

Concrete orplaster,

Emulsion paint

notfullydried out

450

Plasterboard

Oilpaint

Proprietary gypsum
wall-board primer
sealer

M070

Porous wall surfaces


generally

Emulsion paint

Emulsion paintthinned

M200

Bituminous paint, old


creosote

Oilpaint

Aluminium primer

Ml10

Cementitious surfaces

Finetextured masonry
paint(oil base)

Alkali-resistantprimer
sealer

M060

M600&
M610

Alternativeclauses. Wherecolourscheme canbe decided atthe specification stage, use second


alternative and complete schedule.

M620

This schedule is derived from BS 1710 and coversbasic identification coloursfor pipelines.
Wherethe alternative ofcolourbandingonly, or additional bandingin safetycoloursis required,
this shouldbe specifiedusing anon-standardclause.
Paint systemsfor pipesto be colouridentifiedmustbe separately scheduled at clauseM590. The
project M&EEngineerwill adviseonneed and extentofpipeline identification. In all other
circumstances pipework to be paintedwillbe finishedin with the surfacesto whichit is attached
as specifiedat W080, unless theclause is modified.

WOlO

BS8000: Part 12 specifies basic workmanship requirements. Theremainingclauses in this


Worksection are alternative, supplementary or additional to BS 8000 as statedin W020 andmay
be addedto whenever theindividual requirements oftheproject demandit.

W030

This clause shouldalwaysbe includedinproject specifications.

W060

Solventvapour levels must notbe allowedto exceedstatutorymaximumvalues, as given in HSE


GuidanceNote EH4O/95. Careful consideration shouldbe given to the safety aspects of
specif'ing paint systemsfor use in confmedspaces orlocationswhereprovisionofadequate
ventilationmay be difficult.
Wherecolourboundariesoccur other than as specifiedin standardclause, edit clause accordingly.

W090
W130

Samples fortesting maybetaken bythe PM or by the paintmanufactureractingunder the


authorisation ofthePM.

W150

W2i0

The ControlofAsbestosatWork Regulations 1987 andControl ofAsbestosat Work


(Amendment) Regulations 1992sets outcomprehensive provisionscoveringwork activities
involvingexposureto asbestos. See alsoWorksection C20 for additionalmaterial and guidance
on workingwith asbestosbasedmaterials.
Alternativeclauses. W170 shouldonly be used whereburningoffis unsuitable, since it is more
expensive and slower. Complete removal ofexistingpaintis only necessary in casesofadvanced
deterioration ofthe coating. Specifiers shouldalsobe awareofthe healthand safety implications
ofburning offlead-based paints andworkingwith causticmaterials.
Use wherepolish is generally sound, butrevivingofthe surface is required.

W220

Use wherecompleterepolishingisrequired.

W290

Appliesto all metallic paints.


Brush application ispreferableforthefollowing,butsprayingmay be permittedwhere
appropriateeg whereaccess isdifficult,largeareas ofpaint arerequired,or speedy application is

W160 &
Wi70

W3 10

important:
a.

firstcoatofbituminouspaintonbaremetal;

b.

firstcoats ofemulsionpaint;

c.

tar-basedpamts.andcreosote.

451

Construction
Materials
Reference
Book

DKDoran
A reference work that is surely a must for any in-house

library..lfyou need an extensive, one-volume state-of-theart referencesource on materials used in our industry then
this workmust be it.'
CMI EngineeringSurveyor

a definitive source of reference for construction


and students, who need a broader or deeper
understandingofthe materials used in their industry
Overfiftychapters byexpert contributors coveringa

This is

professionals,

wide rangeofmaterials
Materials covered rangesfromnew ceramics and
compositesto older materials still in use, such as cast
and wrought iron
Essentialfor cMl and structural engineers,
builders,surveyorsand architects

for material Metals and their alloys


Aluminium Cast iron
Steel Steel
Wrought iron
reinforcement Other metals Non-metals Adhesives Asbestos Bituminous materials
Bricks and brickwork Vitrified clay pipes liles and tiling (ceramic) Concrete overview
Admixtures and polymers Aggregates Blocks and blockwork
Cements Curing
membranes GRC Mortars, renders and screeds Mould oils and release agents Silica
fume Sprayed and sprayed fibre concrete Tiles and tiling (concrete) Cork Fabrics
Geotextiles Glass Mineralfibre products Paint: non-absorbent surfaces Preserving and
coatingtimber Paint: absorbentsurfaces otherthan limber Intumescent coatings Plaster and
Rubbers (natural and synthetic)
plasterboard Polymers overview
Acrylics and
polycarbonates Polymer dispersions Polyethylene Polyslyrene PIFE Vinyl compounds
Aramids GRP Resins Silanes Grouts and slurries Stone Timber Vermiculite.
CONTENTS: Models

'

1994 920pp 234 x 156pp

PAPERBACK

'

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