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Management Spectrum

BSIT 3-1

Montesa, Judy
Lunas, Venus
What is Management Spectrum?
Management Spectrum describes the management of a software project or how to make a project
successful. It focuses on the four Ps; people, product, process and project.
The People
People of a project includes from manager to developer, from customer to end user. But mainly
people of a project highlight the developers. It is so important to have highly skilled and
motivated developers that the Software Engineering Institute has developed a People
Management Capability Maturity Model (PM-CMM), to enhance the readiness of software
organizations to undertake increasingly complex applications by helping to attract, grow,
motivate, deploy, and retain the talent needed to improve their software development capability.
Organizations that achieve high levels of maturity in the people management area have a higher
likelihood of implementing effective software engineering practices.
The Players
The software process is populated by players who can be categorized into one of five
1. Senior managers who define the business issues that often have significant
influence on the project.
2. Project (technical) managers who must plan, motivate, organize, and
control the practitioners who do software work.
3. Practitioners who deliver the technical skills that are necessary to engineer a
product or application.
4. Customers who specify the requirements for the software to be engineered and
other stakeholders who have a peripheral interest in the outcome.

Team Leaders
In an excellent book of technical leadership, Jerry Weinberg [WEI86] suggests a MOI model of

Motivation. The ability to encourage technical people to produce to their best ability.
Organization. The ability to mold existing processes (or invent new ones) that will

enable the initial concept to be translated into a final product.

Ideas or innovation. The ability to encourage people to create and feel creative.

The Software Team

3 generic team organizations:
1. Democratic decentralized (DD) : This software engineering team has no permanent
leader. Rather, "task coordinators are appointed for short durations and then replaced by
others who may coordinate different tasks." Decisions on problems and approach are
made by group consensus.
2. Controlled decentralized (CD). This software engineering team has a defined leader
who coordinates specific tasks and secondary leaders that have responsibility for
subtasks. Problem solving remains a group activity, but implementation of solutions is
partitioned among subgroups by the team leader.
3. Controlled Centralized (CC). Top-level problem solving and internal team coordination
are managed by a team leader. Communication between the leader and team members is

Coordination and Communication Issues

Formal communication is accomplished through writing, structured meetings, and other

relatively noninteractive and impersonal communication channels.
Informal communication is more personal. Members of a

software team share ideas on an ad

hoc basis, ask for help as problems arise, and interact with one another on a daily basis.

The Product
Product is any software or project that has to be developed. To develop successfully, product
objectives and scope should be established, alternative solutions should be considered, and
technical and management constraints should be identified. Without this information, it is
impossible to define reasonable and accurate estimates of the cost, an effective assessment of
risk, a realistic breakdown of project tasks or a manageable project schedule that provides a
meaningful indication of progress.
Problem Decomposition sometimes called partitioning or problem elaboration, is an activity that
sits at the core of software requirements analysis.
The Process
A software process provides the framework from which a comprehensive plan for software
development can be established. The project manager must decide which process model is most
appropriate for the customers who have requested the product and the people who will do the
Software Engineering Paradigms :

Linear sequential model

Prototyping model
RAD model
Incremental model
Spiral model
WINWIN spiral model
Component-based development model

The Project

Concurrent development model

Formal methods model

The project includes all and everything of the total development process and to avoid project
failure the manager has to take some steps, has to be concerned about some common warnings
10 signs that indicate an information system is in jeopardy :

Software people dont understand their customers needs.

The product scope is poorly defined.

Changes are managed poorly.

The chosen technology changes Business needs change [or are ill-defined].

Deadlines are unrealistic.

Users are resistant.

Sponsorship is lost [or was never properly obtained].

The project team lacks people with appropriate skills.

Managers [and practitioners] avoid best practices and lessons learned.

5 part commonsense approach to software projects :

Start on the right foot - This is accomplished by working hard (very hard) to understand
the problem that is to be solve.

Maintain momentum - To maintain momentum, the project manager must provide

incentives to keep turnover of personnel to an absolute minimum

Track progress - For a software project, progress is tracked as work products are
produced and approved (using formal technical reviews) as part of a quality assurance

Make smart decisions - In essence, the decisions of the project manager and the
software team should be to keep it simple.

Conduct a postmortem analysis