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NOTE POLAR CHARACTERISTICS

GLANDS
Endocrine: hormone, no duct, acts long distances
Exocrine: non-hormone secretions into ducts
Autocrine: local chemicals that act short distances on THEMSELVES
Paracrine: local chemicals that act short distances on OTHER cells
Memorize
Hypothalamus: releasing hormones for the pituitary, ADH, and
oxytocin (PEPTIDES) (stimulates the pituitary to secrete its hormone)
o GnRH: Gonadotropin releasing hormone (for FSH and LH)
o CRF: corticotropin releasing factor
o TSH: thyroid stimulating hormone
o Dopamine: inhibits prolactin release
o GHRH: growth hormone releasing hormone
o ADH (antidiuretic hormone, or vasopressin): increases water
resorption in kidney, increasing BP
o Oxytocin: stimulates uterine contractions during labor, milk
secretion
ANTERIOR Pituitary: makes FLATPEG, stores ADH and oxytocin
(PEPTIDES)
o FSH (Follicle Stimulating hormones): stimulates ovary follicles to
mature, testis to produce sperm
o LH (Luteinizing hormone): surge triggers ovulation, stimulates
testis to produce testosterone
o ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone): stimulates adrenal cortex
to release glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids (cortisol,
stress!)
o TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone): stimulate thyroid to release
TH
o PRL (Prolactin): stimulates breast to produce milk
o Endorphins
o Growth hormone: stimulates growth of muscle, bone, burns fat
Posterior Pituitary: Oxytocin, ADH STORED (PEPTIDES)
Pineal: makes melatonin (sleepy at night!)
Thyroid: thyroid and calcitonin (MODIFIED AA)
o thyroid hormones: increase metabolism, requires iodine
o calcitonin: turns blood Calcium into bone (TONES down the
calcium)
Parathyroid: PTH (Ca2+ increase) (PEPTIDES)
o PTH (parathyroid hormone): increases blood Ca2+ via bone
resorption with osteoclasts, dietary calcium absorption, and
calcium reabsorption in kidneys
Thymus: T-CELLS
o Thymus hormones stimulates T-cells to develop

NOTE POLAR CHARACTERISTICS

Adrenal: adrenaline, fight or flight response tings, androgens


o Medulla: see MEDUSA, so your fight or flight response hormones
kick in
Epinephrine and norepinephrine: fight or flight response
o Cortex: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens
Mineralocorticoids (ALDOSTERONE): Na+ reabsorption, K+
excretion, water retention, raise blood pressure
Glucocorticoids (CORTISOL): stress hormone, increases
blood sugar
___corticoids (RAISES THE PREFIX FOR THE FLIGHT
OR FLIGHT RESPONSE)
androgens: testosterone
pancreas: blood sugar! (PEPTIDES)
o glucagon (alpha cells): increase blood sugar (breaks down
glycogen, stimulates gluconeogenesis)
o insulin (beta cells): decrease blood sugar (stimulate glucose
uptake)
o somatostatin (sigma cells): inhibits gastrin secretion, other
digestive processes
ovary: make estrogen, progesterone a lil bit of testosterone
(STEROIDS)
testis: make testosterone (STEROID)
kidneys: erythropoietin (synthesize new RBCs) (PEPTIDES)
duodenal mucosa: enterogastrone, which targets the stomach to
decrease gastric emptying if digested fat is in the duodenum
renin (kidney): enzyme with pressor effect via angiotensinogen
(liver), angiotensin I, angiotensin II