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Vikesha Vega

Honors History
Period 3
March 21, 2015
II.

Working People Gained more influence


a) By, 1850 some of the worst abuses of the Industrial Revolution were slowly being
corrected. A number of people tried to solve these problems in new ways. Many
reformers had come from the middle and upper classes.
b) Such upper class reformers saw themselves as protecting the common people
from the greed of the new entrepeneurs. In the late 1800s, working people
themselves became more active in politics. The made their voices heard.
c) However reformers disagreed on how to improve society.
1. Socialist sought to reform society
a) The misery and the poverty of the working class that resulted from the Industrial
Revolution shocked a British reformer named Robert Owen. Under this system, to
support life you must be tyrant or slave. It is all about wealth and power.
b) Owen sought to develop a model for improving conditions for workers. Owen
treated his workers well. He built houses near the factory and rented them to his
employee at low rates.
c) Owens most ambition experiment was the founding of the a sooperative village at
New Harmony, Indiana in 1825. Other reformers wanted to offset the effects of
industrialization with a new kind of economic system called socialism.
d) The approach involved state or community ownership of property such as
factories, mines, railroads and other key industries.
2. The Communist Manifesto
a) The moderation of the early socialists was challenged in the 1840s by a more
extreme form of socialism developed by Karl Max. Marx believed that he was a
utopian socialists.
b) Marx described his own ideas as scientific socialism because he claimed that
they were based on a scientific study of history.
3. Marx and Engels
a) Marx was born in Germany in 1818. While a student, he became a radical
activist and journalist. By 1848, Marx had been exiled from France. He spent
the rest of his life writing with Frederick Engels.
A. Class Struggle
a) Marx outlined his ideas on a pamphlet entitled the Communist Manifesto. The
Manifesto set forth the theory that economic forces are key to understand
history.

b) Marx pointed out that there are never enough products available to satisfy
peoples needs or wants. As a result, human societies have always been divided
into two classes- the have and the have nots.
c) The haves control the means of producing goods and thus posses great wealth
and power. The havenots perform backbreaking labor but receive low wages
while enduring poor working conditions.
d) The manifesto argued that the exploitation of the havenots by the haves has
caused a continuous struggle.
e) Marx maintained that the Industrial Revolution had created a new struggle
between social classes. He used the word bourgeoisie to describe the facory
owning middle class.
f) Marx used the word proletariat to describe the working class. Although it is the
workers labor that gives value to a product, they go only wages.
B. A working Class Revolution
a) He predicted that the workers would join together to overthrow the
bourgeoisie. After overthrowing the bourgeoisie the triumphant proletariat
would create new classless society based upon the principle of communism.
b) Marx described communism as a from of complete socialism in which the
means of production- all land, mines, factories, railroads and businesseswould be owned by the people.
c) Private would in effect cease. The result would be that all goods and services
would be shared equally.
C. Importance of Marxism
a) The Communist Manifesto was published on February 1848. Although the
revolts caught Europes rulers by surprise, they were quickly put down. The
communist Manifesto produced a few significant short term results.
b) The consequences of the Communist Manifesto were felt mainly in the
twentieth century. Their work aided the extension to the suffrage and the
founding of the Labour Party, which gave workers representation.
c) Finally Marx believed that economic forces dominated society. However not
only the factors that influence peoples lives.
D. The Failures of Marxs Predictions
a) The gap between the rich and the poor did not widen as he expected. While
the rich continued to prosper, the lives of the poor also improved. The
tremendous growth of trade and production brought benefits to everyone.
b) Marx also underestimated the ability to democratic governments to make
peaceful reforms. As workers won the right to vote. They were able to win
the passage of reforms.
4. Working men won the vote
a) Although workers did not revolt, many did strive for changes in society.
Brought together in factories, mines and mills. Workers soon saw that there
was strength in numbers.

b) Trade unions did not try to remake society, as the socialists did. Unions
tried to raise wages and improve working conditions. By 1875, British
trade unions had won the right to strike and picket peacefully, and had built
up a membership of a million people.
c) The basis for workers growing influence was the righto vote. The right to
vote is often called suffrage. By the end of the 1800s, several industrial
countries had manhood suffrage.
d) However, the great numbers of blacks who were slaves had no voting
rights. It was many years before either black or white people could vote.
5. Realism replaced romanticism in Art
a) Artist and writers turned away from the romantic, idealized views of the
past and of nature. Novels and paintings began to reflect the lives of
ordinary people and current social issues.
A. Realism in Painting
a) In 1855, artists in Paris held a grand exhibit of French paintings. The
works on display were mainly romantic landscapes, formal portaits, battle
scenes and figures from ancient myths.
b) Gustave Courbet set up a large wooden shack labeled the Pavilion of
Realism. The paintings within were all by Courbet and included a huge,
stark.
c) Realist painters as Courbet scorned romantic art. Another understanding
artist of the relist school was Honore Daumier. He became famous for his
scathing pictures of what her saw as pompous middle class.
B. Realism in Literature
a) Realist authors turned to the novel as the best suited to their goals. Mant
Europeans countries produced realist authors. France had Gustave
Flaubert and Honore De Balzac.
III.
Italy and Germany Formed nations
a) Many early nationalists had been romantic like Byron and Mazzini. In
politics as in art, realism was replacing romanticism.
b) During the late 1800s, a new group of national leaders practiced what they
called realpolitik. As Nationlism grew in strength, it destroyed the balance
of power that Metternich had so carefully set up in 1816.
c) In Germany and Italy, people were determined to form untied nationstates. These conflicting goals touched off vie wars among the Great
Powers between 1854 and 1871.
1. Cavour united Italy
a) The Congress of Vienna left Italy divided and almost entirely under
foreign control. In the north, Austria ruled Venetia and Mobardy and also
dominated the small states of Tuscany.
b) During the fateful year of 1848, revolts broke out in eight separate tate on
the Italian peninsula. Giuseppe Mazzini the early leader of nationalism
briefly headed a republican government at Rome.

c) Within months the former rulers of Italian stated returned and drive
Mazzini and other nationalist leaders into exile.
d) After 1848, Italian nationalists looked to the Kingdom of Sardinia for
leaderships. Sardinia was the only Italian state ruled by an Italian dynasty.
It was the largest and most powerful of the Italian states and had the most
liberal government.
e) In 1852, Sadinias King Victor Emmanual II named Count Camillio di
Cavour his prime minister. He made uniting Italy his highest priority.
2. An alliance with Napoleon III
a) The greatest roadblock to Italian unity was Austria. Cavour knew that
Sardinia was going to need help from another great power to drive
Austria out of Northern Italy.
b) Cavour foun an ally in France. Napoleon III hoped to make France
Europes greatest power as it had been under his uncle. Napoleon III
lacked his uncles brilliance.
c) Napoleon III believed that France could dominate Italy if Austria were
out of the way. In 1858, the French emperor and Cavour had a secret
meeting at which Napoleon agreed to help drive Austria out of
Lombardy.
d) Cavour soon provoked a war with Austria. A combined French-Sardinian
army won two quick victories against the Austrians. They demanded that
Sardinia take over their lands
e) He considered going to war against Sardinia. Cavour had been careful to
maintain good relations with the other Great Powers so that France was
isolated.
3. Garibaldi and the Red Shirts
a) While Cavour was uniting the north, he was also secretly helping
nationalists rebels in southern Italy. In May 1860, a small army of
Italian nationalists sailed from Genoa to Sicily.
b) Garibaldi was victorious in Sicily and began marching north.
Volunteers flocked to his banner. Everywhere he was greeted as
liberator. Garbaldi spoke excited of freeing the rest of Italy.
c) He had given Nice to france as a consolation prize, and hedid not want
to provoke Napoleon III again.
4. A United Italy faced Problems
a) In 1871, Italy took over the Papal States. Rome becae the national
capital of a united Italy. The movement of the capital to Rome was a
triumphant movement for Italian nationalists.
b) Many centuries had passed since the peninsula had last been united
and fierce rivalries. The greatest tension arose between the
industrialized north and the agricultural south.

c) After Cavours death, Italy lacked strong national leadership. Garibaldi


tried to head a government, there were no well-organized parties with
clear cut policies.
d) Between 1860 an 1910, Italians moved to the United States and
antoher million went to Argentina.
5. Austria and Prussia were rivals
a) Austria was still considered the natural leader of Germany. Austria
faced serious problems. Most of the people in the Austrian empire
were non Germans who yearned to break away.
b) Prussia had everything to gain from nationalism. Prussia had taken
the lead by forming the Zollverein.
c) Prussia was a conservative state. Although most mean could vote, the
Prussian parliament had little control over politics. The king William
1 of the Hohenzollen family had almost unlimited power.
d) In 1862, William I choses as his prime minister a junker and a staunch
conservative named Otto Von Bismarck.
e) A mater of realpolitik Bismark set out to make Prussia the head of a
united Germany.
f) Bismarck had only contempt for the liberals who had let the
movement for German unity in 1848.
6. Bismarck united Germany by blood and iron
a) In 1864, Bismarck took the first step toward increasing Prussian
power. He led Prussia into war against Denmark to win two border
provinces.
A. The Seven Weeks War
a) In 1866, Bismarck purposely provoked Austria into declaring war on
Prussia. This conflict was known as the Seven Weeks War. Prussian
generals could move their troops to the battlefield more quickly than
Austrian leaders could.
b) It lost some German lands to Prussia. It lost Venetia to Italy which
had fought alongside alongside Prussia, Austria was forced to
withdraw from the German Confederation.
c) Prussia now took control of northern Germany. In 1867, the
remaining states in the north joined the North German Confederation
which Prussia dominated.
d) The emperors biggest problem was the discontent of the many
nationalists it ruled. The Hungarians, who had rebelled in 1848.
e) In 1867, Austria agreed to a dual monarchy Austria and Hungary
become two independent and equal states with one ruler.
7. The Franco-Prussian War
a) By 1867, only a few southern German states remained independent
of Prussia. Bismarck felt certain he coul win their support if they
faced a threat from outside Germany.

b) Napoleon III of France, whose ckumsy diplomacy had helped


Cavour unite Italy, soon gave Bismarck a chance to win southern
Germany.
c) In 1868, Spanish Revolutionaries overthrew Spains Queen Isabella
II pffered the throne to Leopold of Hohenzollen a idstant cousi of
Prussia of William I.
d) During the crisis, the French ambassador met with the Purssian
king. Bismarck deliberately gave German newspaper a misleading
account of the two mens conservation.
e) The Prussian army struck at once. Before most French soldiers. In
September 1870, the Purssian army surrounded the main French
force at Sedan.
f) Only the city of Paris held out against the Germans. France was
crushed. It had to pay Prussia the huge sum of 5 million francs. The
Franco- Prussian War was the final step in German unification.
8. The Second Reich
a) On January 18, 1871, at the conquered French palace of Versailles,
King William I of Prussia was crowned Kaiser of the newly
formed German empire.
b) The new German nation had solid economic foundation. Bu 1870,
Germany was the worlds biggest producer of manufactured goods,
after Britain and the United States.
9. The Balance of Power broke down
a) That war pitted France and Britain against Russia. Thes three
countries had competing interests in the Ottoman Empire, now
weak and crumbling.
b) Although the Crimean War cost it was fought far from most
European capitals. It did not lead to general warfare in Europe. It
most important result was to reveal the military weakness of the
huge Russian empire.
c) The political situation in Europe had changed greatly since 1815.
At the Congress of Vienna, there had been five Great Power .
d) In 1815, all the Great Powers had been fairly equal in strength. In
1871, Britain and Germany were clearly the strongest.
e) The balance of power had broken power and the risk of a major
war.
f) The Industrial Revolution had military as well as economic
impact. Victory usually went to the side with the most advanced
weapons and the best transportation.
g) It also become nationalized France. By the end of the 1800s all
industrial countries relied on such armies/