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School of Engineering

Technology Modular Degrees Scheme

Level 1

Work Book

(DC Electrics)

Instructions to Candidates

This work book contains questions similar to those expected in your final degree

examination for you to use as a revision aid. A separate answer book will be

issued by your tutor.

Table of Contents

1

ATOMIC STRUCTURE...........................................................................1-1

STATIC ELECTRICITY...........................................................................2-2

ELECTRICAL TERMINOLOGY..............................................................3-1

PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY..........................................................4-3

OHMS LAW............................................................................................6-3

RESISTORS IN DC CIRCUITS...............................................................9-1

11 ENERGY & POWER IN DC CIRCUITS..................................................11-1

12 CAPACITANCE & CAPACITORS...........................................................12-1

13 CAPACITORS IN DC CIRCUITS............................................................13-1

14 MAGNETISM..........................................................................................14-1

15 ELECTROMAGNETISM.........................................................................15-1

16 INDUCTION & INDUCTORS..................................................................16-1

17 INDUCTORS IN DC CIRCUITS..............................................................17-1

1 Atomic Structure

Answer the following questions in your own words.

1.

Elements. An element is a substance which cannot by any known

chemical process be split into two or more chemically simpler

substances.e.g Oxygen

Compounds. A compound is a substance, which contains two or more

elements chemically joined together.

Eg: Salt (Sodium and Chlorine) Water (Hydrogen & Oxygen)

Mixtures. A mixture consists of elements or compounds, which are

brought together by a physical process.

Eg: Salt and Sand

2.

on the fundamental particles?

A Atom Consist of a core or nucleus with a particle called an electron

travelling around it in an elliptical orbit.

The nucleus has a positive charge of electricity and the electron an equal

negative charge; thus the whole atom is electrically neutral and the

electrical attraction keeps the electron circling the nucleus. Atoms of other

elements have more than one electron travelling around the nucleus, the

nucleus containing sufficient positive charges to balance the number of

electrons.

3.

An atom (or possibly a group of atoms) which loses an electron has lost

one of its negative charges and is therefore left with an excess of one

positive charge; it is called a positive ion. An atom that gains an electron

has an excess of negative charge and is called a negative ion.

4.

The higher the number of electrons in the valence shell (6-8) prevents

having electrons in the conduction bands, conversely the lower the number

of electrons say 1-2 can transfer from atom to atom and are conductors

5.

the shells and determine how many electrons there are in the valence shell

of the following materials:

a.

Aluminium

b.

Silver

c.

Copper

d.

Gold

e.

Germanium

6.

Are there any elements that have more than 8 electrons in their outer

shell? (shell K,L,M,N,O,P or Q, not sub-shells)

Palladium (10) and Iridium (9).

7.

any way of working out the maximum number of electrons that each shell

can hold?

2n2 where n is the shell number.

2 Static Electricity

8.

Separation of charge from one material to another or one part of a material

to another. Material receiving electrons is negatively charged and vice

versa. If the charge accumulation remains stationary after the electron

transfer this is static electricity.

9.

Why must maintenance engineers consider static electricity when working

on aircraft:

a.

electronic equipment

sensitive or very low current devices such as Integrated circuits, if the

Technician/Engineer has not dissipated the static build up

b.

structures

Static electricity can build to very high levels (KV) in aircraft airframes due

to friction of the aircraft when flying through the air. All aircraft structures

should be at the same potential using Bonding leads and structure

electrical Bonds. Aircraft should be earthed to disperse any static build up

especially near fuel or volatile gas or liquid areas. Engineers should

always earth themselves with the structure at an earth or bond point before

working in these or sensitive avionic bay areas

10.

The different levels of charge with respect to cotton (the reference

material), is contained in what is known as the Triboelectric Series

11.

What sort of potentials can be created by somebody walking across a

carpet and does humidity have any effect on the value?

Up to 35 000 volts. As humidity increases, static charge decreases.

12.

As two charged bodies are moved apart, the force of attraction or repulsion

between them decreases by the square of the distance (i.e. if the distance

between them is increased from 1cm to 2 cm, the force decreases by a factor of

4. If the distance is increased to 3cm, the force decreases by a factor of 9),

why ?

unit long. Double base length to 2 units and

calculate new height it has also doubled.

The same reasoning can be used along the

horizontal.

If both sides double in length, from one unit to

two, the area increases from one square unit

to 4 square units. That is the square of the

distance.

If the distance is increased by a further 1 unit,

the area will increase to 9 square units (the

square of the distance - 3)

3 Electrical Terminology

13.

a.

Potential

b.

Potential difference

c.

Electromotive Force

d.

Voltage

e.

Current

f.

Resistance

14.

Q2. What is the difference between conventional current flow and

electron flow ?

In conventional flow it is considered that the positive charge carriers move

from positive to negative terminals, where as electron flow the charge

carriers which are negative (electrons) move from the negative to the

positive terminal. Electron flow reflects the true properties of current flow

15.

Q3.

A is +4 volts with respect to (wrt) B

B is +3 volts wrt C

C is +2 volts wrt D

D is +1 volts wrt to ground

16.

i)A wrt ground (+10v)

17.

ii)

iii)

A wrt C

(+7v)

iv)

B wrt D

(+5v)

E is at the same potential as ground and 25 volts wrt D

D is 15 volts wrt C

C is 10 volts wrt B

B is 30 volts wrt A

1 December 2005

18.

ii)

(+40v)

iii)

(-40v)

iv)

(-50v)

E is at ground potential and A is +100 volts wrt ground

D is +50 volts wrt E

C is +15 volts wrt D

A is +20 volts wrt B

i)

(+80v, +65v, +50v)

ii)

iii)

19.

20.

Material. Some materials conduct better than others.

Length . Resistance is directly proportional to length thus if the

length is doubled (other factors remaining constant), resistance is doubled.

Cross Sectional Area (A). Resistance is inversely proportional to A.

Thus If the cross sectional area is doubled, resistance is halved.

Temperature. Temperature affects the number of free electrons and

hence resistance.

21.

Also, the conductance, G of a material is the reciprocal of its resistance

and is;

G

1

1

a

R

/a

the Greek symbol (sigma) and has the units siemens per metre (s/m).

Thus at 0C copper has a conductivity of;

1

1

64 52 106 s/m

-8

1 55 10

Conductance and conductivity are rarely used in the course, but a mention

is required.

1 December 2005

4 Production of Electricity

22.

If two metals, say copper and iron, are joined at two points and both

junctions are at the same temperature, the contact potentials cancel each

other out and no current flows in the loop of wire. However, if the two

junctions are kept at different temperatures, there is a drift of electrons

around the circuit, that is to say, current flows.

The magnitude of the voltage produced by this method is small only a

few millivolts per degree centigrade but it is sufficient to be measured.

The current flow is a measure of the difference in temperature between the

hot junction and the cold junction.

23.

24.

Accelerometers for acceleration or vibration measurement.

25.

Investigate the construction and operation of a common primary cell and

write a brief report on your findings.

1 December 2005

26.

Primary not re-chargeable / re-useable.

Secondary re-chargeable / re-useable.

27.

A 25 A-h at the 10 hour rate battery can supply what maximum current

continuously and for how long?

2.5 Amps for 10 Hours.

28.

A 35 A-h at the 1 hour rate battery can supply what maximum current and

for how long?

3.5 Amps for 10 Hours.

29.

If a 40 A-h at the 10 hour battery was discharged at 8 Amps how long

would you expect it to be able to provide this current?

Answer cannot be calculated, but it will be less 5 hours. Battery should be

able to provide 4 amps continuously for 10 hours, but will not be able to

provide 8 amps for 4 hours because its capacity decreases with increase

in load.

30.

When carrying out a capacity test on a 20 A-h battery, it only achieved

80%, what is the actual battery capacity?

80% of 20 A-hr = 16 A-hr.

31.

A battery was discharged at 10 Amps for 10 hours in order to test its

capacity. What was the batterys rating?

100 A-hr @ 10hr rate.

32.

If four 2 volt, 1 ampere-hour cells, each with an internal resistance of 2

ohms are connected in series to form a battery, what is the battery voltage,

capacity and internal resistance?

8 volts , 1 A-hr and 8 Ohms.

1 December 2005

33.

How can a 4 volt, 6 A-h supply be obtained from six 2 volt, 2 A-h cells?

Connect 6 cells to make 3 pairs of 2 in series, and then connect these in

parallel.

34.

Two 12 volt, lead acid, aircraft batteries are connected in parallel to give a

greater capacity. Draw a circuit diagram depicting the individual cells of these

two interconnected batteries.

35.

What happens if a 4 volt battery is connected in parallel with a 2 volt

battery?

Actual battery voltage will depend on internal resistance of individual

batteries. If both batteries have the same resistance, the total battery

voltage will be 3 volts. It is suggested you investigate this using

Electronics Workbench during one of the Laboratory sessions.

36.

When 3 identical cells are connected in series across a filament, in which

order do they discharge?

They all discharge together at the same rate.

37.

In your own words, describe the construction of a typical lead acid aircraft

battery.

38.

In your own words, describe the construction of a typical Nickel Cadmium

battery aircraft battery.

39.

State some typical A-h ratings for lead acid and Ni-cad aircraft batteries.

40.

1 December 2005

6 Ohms Law

41.

Ohms Law and see notes.

42.

Voltage

12 volts

24 volts

940 volts

240 volts

12 volts

68 volts

6 volts

1020 volts

200mV

500mV

200 volts

540 volts

15 volts

3000 volts

Current

Resistance

05 amps

1/3 amp

200mA

12 Amps

5 mA

001 Amps

03 amps

150A

50mA

20A

10 Amps

200A

15 A

05 A

24

720 Ohms

4K7

200

2400 Ohms

6.8 k

20

68M

4

25k

20

2.7M

1

6k

43.

If the voltage across a component is doubled what affect will it have on the

current flowing through it?

Doubled

44.

If the value of a resistor in a circuit is doubled, but the current is kept

constant at its original value, what affect will it have on the voltage across the

resistor?

Doubled

1 December 2005

45.

Moving parts / mechanical electronic.

46.

Parallax error.

47.

The meter is connected into the circuit in such a way that the circuit current

flows through the meter. If the meter had resistance, it would cause a

decrease in the circuit current.

48.

The meter is connected in parallel across the two points where the

potential difference is to be measured. When resistors are connected in

parallel, the total resistance is always less than the value of any of the

individual resistors. The meter will therefore reduce the resistance of the

component across which it is connected and therefore decrease the

voltage drop measured.

49.

Find out what the internal resistance of one of the laboratory meters is on

the voltage and current ranges.

50.

They must be positioned as they are when calibrated.

51.

52.

53.

1 December 2005

54.

Two 10M resistors are connected in series across a 300 volt supply. If a

meter, having an internal resistance of 10M on the appropriate range, is used to

measure the voltage drop across the two resistors, what values will be indicated

on the meter.

When meter connected across either resistor, the circuit becomes 100

ohms in series with 50 ohms because of the meter loading (100//100 =

50). The meter will therefore indicate 100 volts across either resistor.

55.

Determine the internal resistance of the Electronic Workbench multi-meter

when it is set to measure voltage. Explain how you obtained your answer.

56.

The meter places a known voltage (the meter cell) across the unknown

resistor and measures the current. Current is directly related to the

resistance (by Ohms law), so the meter is calibrated to indicate resistance.

1 December 2005

57.

If the length of a conductor is doubled and its cross-sectional area halved,

what affect will this have on its resistance?

Resistance is doubled by doubled length and doubled by halving the

cross-sectional area. Therefore resistance is increased by a factor of 4.

58.

If the length of a conductor is doubled and its cross sectional area

doubled, what affect will it have on its resistance?

Resistance is doubled by doubled length, but is halved by doubling the

cross-sectional area. The resistance therefore remains unchanged.

59.

Do the following have positive or negative temperature co-efficient of

resistance:

60.

a.

Battery electrolyte

(-ve)

b.

Thermistors

(-ve)

c.

Copper wire

(+ve)

d.

Aluminium wire

(+ve)

e.

Carbon

(-ve)

Calibration resistor almost no change in resistance with changes in

temperature.

61.

Use the colour codes to work out the values of the following resistors:

a.

b.

c.

(75M +-10%)

d.

(55 +-5%)

e.

(11 +-1%)

f.

(2.5)

1 December 2005

g.

(1.8)

h.

(056)

i.

(649M +-2%)

j.

(31400 +-2%)

62.

Assuming you want to use resistors with a 10% tolerance, what are the

closest preferred values for the following resistance values:

a.

13M Ohms

(12M)

b.

3.0K Ohms

(27k)

c.

4.9K Ohms

(47k or 33k)

d.

54K Ohms

(56k)

e.

14.5K Ohms

(15k)

63.

For the preferred values selected in answer to the previous question,

above, what are the maximum and minimum values one could expect to find?

This is simply of calculating the preferred value plus 10% and the preferred

value minus 10%. Using (i) as an example - 12M + 12M = 132M

and 12M - 12M = 108M.

64.

65.

A resistor is connected across a potentiometer and the slider is increased

from minimum resistance to maximum. What affect will this have on the voltage

across the resistor and the current flowing through it?

As wiper moved from zero to max resistance (L to R on the diagram), the

potential across the load increases, the increased potential leads to an

increase in load current.

66.

A resistor is connected in series with a rheostat and the slider is moved

from minimum to maximum resistance. What affect will this have on the voltage

across the resistor and the current flowing through it?

1 December 2005

the current through the load decreases, therefore the voltage across the

load also decreases.

67.

When current flows through a resistor, what affect is it likely to have on its

value of resistance? Explain your answer.

The resistance is likely to increase due to the increase in temperature.

68.

Explain how can a thermistor be used to stabilise the current flowing

through a coil of wire that tends to get hot when used.

Attach thermistor to coil. Thermistor has ve temp co-efficient of resistance

as the temperature increases, the resistance of the coil increases, but the

resistance of the thermistor decreases. So the overall resistance and

therefore current remains constant.

1 December 2005

9 Resistors In DC Circuits

69.

This law states that in any closed circuit the sum of all the potential

differences (voltage drops) is equal to the total applied voltage in that

circuit.

70.

Using Ohms law and Kirchoffs second law, derive the formula for the total

resistance of resistors connected in series.

Hence E = V1 + V2 + V3

But from Ohms Law V = IR

Therefore E = IRTOTAL

So V1 = IR1 V2 = IR2 V3 = IR3

Thus IRTOTAL = IR1 + IR2 + IR3

= I (R1 + R2 + R3)

So RTOTAL = R1 + R2 + R3

71.

A 12k resistor is connected in series with a 24k resistor across an 18

volt supply. What is the circuit current and the voltage drop across each resistor?

RTotal = 36k

V12k 6volts

v24k 12 volts

72.

Two 4.7k are connected in series across a 12 volt battery. What is the

circuit current and the voltage drop across each resistor?

12/94k = 13mA voltage drop = 6v and 6v

73.

When a 1.2k resistor is connected in series with a 3.6k across a power

supply, the current is 150mA. What are the voltage drops across the resistors?

V = 12 x 103 x 150 x 10-3 = 180V (across 12k resistor).

V = 36 x 103 x 150 x 10-3 = 540V (across 36k resistor).

1 December 2005

74.

If three resistors of equal value are connected in series across a power

supply, what proportion of the supply voltage will be dropped across each

resistor.

One third of the supply voltage.

75.

Calculate the current flowing in the

circuit of Figure 1.

Total resistance = 923k.

I = V/R = 6/923 x 103 = 065mA

Figure 1

76.

Multiply each resistor by the current found in question 7.

1k = 065V, 2k2 = 14V, 4k7 = 306V, 330 = 021V.

77.

Calculate the voltage drops across each of the

resistors in Figure 2.

The easiest way is to use ratios. 36V will be

dropped in the ratio 12:6:36. Each Ohm is

therefore 2/3 of a volt.

The other way is to calculate the total

resistance (54) and then the circuit current

(V/RTOT). Having found the circuit current,

multiply each resistor by this current.

12 - 8V, 6 - 4V, 36 - 24V.

78.

Calculate the current flowing in the circuit of

Figure 2

Figure 2

2/3 Amps.

79.

-8V

80.

Assuming a ground is placed at point C in Figure 2, what will be the

potential at point B wrt C?

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook

1 December 2005

+4V

81.

Assuming a ground is placed at point B in Figure 2, what will be the

potential at point B wrt C?

+4V

82.

Assuming two resistors R1 and R2 are connected in series across V Supply,

complete the following table.

VSupply

R1

R2

RTOT

ISupply

VR1

VR2

100V

1.2k

2.8k

4k

25mA

30V

70V

12V

800

1600

2400

5mA

4V

8V

24V

2666

5333

80

300mA

8V

16V

95V

20

30

50

190mA

3.8V

5.7V

36V

3K6

7K2

10k8

333A

12V

24V

9V

60

120

180

50mA

3V

6V

120V

20

40

60

2A

40V

80V

1000V

44M

12M

56M

1786mA

786V

214V

2080V

1k

300

13k

1.6A

1600V

480V

24V

300

700

1000

24mA

72V

168V

100V

33k

1700

5k

20mA

66V

34V

182V

400

1000

14k

13mA

5.2V

13V

83.

The off-load voltage of a power supply is 100 volts. When the supply is

connected to a 200 resistor the terminal voltage falls to 90 volts. Calculate the

internal resistance of the power supply.

90/200 = 045mA 10/045 = 222

1 December 2005

84.

The off-load voltage of a power supply unit is 28 volts, the on-load voltage

is 26 volts. If the load is 600, calculate the internal resistance of the power

supply unit.

26/600 = 43mA 2V/43mA = 46

85.

The internal resistance of a 30 volt power supply is 60, calculate the

terminal voltage when it is connected to a 240 load.

Ratio of the voltage drop across RInt : RLoad is 1:4. Therefore voltage drops

are 6 volts to 24 volts. Ans. 24V

1 December 2005

Refer to Figure 3 to answer the following questions

86.

a.

through R1 and R2.

120mA

b.

between points A and B.

(12V:12V therefore 0 volts)

c.

Figure 3

potential difference between points A and B ?

No effect

87.

a.

Derive R4 from:

R1

R2

R3

R4

R1 R 2 R 4 R 2

R 2 xR3

R4

R3 R 4

R3

R1

R1

3k

b.

V=IR:

Resistance in R2 & R4 leg = 600 +3k = 1.6K

V

16V

I

4.44mA

R

3600

4.44mA

c.

1 December 2005

V=IR I

V

16

13.33mA

R 1200

V=IR = 13.33x10-3 x 200 = 2.66V

Subtract result from Supply Voltage = 16-2.66=13.33Volts

13.33Volts

88.

a.

5.5k

b.

between points A and B.

(A=14V, B=15V therefore pd A-B = 1 volt)

c.

between points A and B.

(A=7V, B=15V therefore pd A-B = 8 volts)

89.

On connecting the Wheatstone Bridge circuit shown, the meter indicated

full scale deflection. Discuss possible fault conditions that would exhibit these

symptoms.

Open circuit R3 or in R3 limb, or an open circuit R2 or in R2 limb.

90.

On connecting the Wheatstone Bridge circuit shown, the meter needle

abutted against the zero end-stop. Discuss possible fault conditions that would

exhibit these symptoms.

Short circuit R3 or in R3 limb, or short circuit R4 or in R4 limb.

1 December 2005

91.

How much work is done if 3 coulombs of charge is moved through a

potential of 20 volts.

Q = Charge, V = Volts

Work = Q X V Joules

3x20

60 Joules

92.

How much work is done when 10 amps flows through a potential of 6 volts

for 2 minutes.

V = Volts, I= Amps, t = time (seconds)

Work(Joules) = Vit, = 6x10x2x60

7200 Joules

93.

How much energy is used when 3 amps flows through a potential of 5 volts

for 10 minutes.

V = Volts, I= Amps, t = time (seconds)

Energy = Work(Joules) = Vit, = 5x3x10x60

9 kJoules

94.

The voltage across a 3k2 resistor in an electrical circuit is 6 volts. How

much energy is used in pushing the current through this resistor for 1 minute.

First you need to calculate Current in the circuit

V=IR = I

V

6V

1.875mA

R 3200

Energy = Work(Joules) = Vit, = 6 x 1.875X10-3 x 60

675m Joules or 0.675 Joules

95.

a.

518.4kJ

b.

518.4kJ

b.

Rate at which work is done is represented by the Watt and can be

calculated as shown

P = VI = 12 x 6

72W

96.

Assuming the circuit comprises a single resistor connected across a

voltage source, complete the following table.

Voltage

(v)

Resistance

()

Current

(I)

Power

(W)

Work Done in

10 mins (J)

10 Volts

600

167mA

1667mW

100J

24 Volts

048

50A

1200 Watts

720J

0333V

0167

2 Amps

067W

400 Joules

24 Volts

1080

0022A

053W

320 Joules

8W

200

40mAmps

032W

192J

28 Volts

2613

107A

300 Watts

180kJ

120 Volts

3k6

0033A

4W

24kJ

97.

If a 2.5kW kettle is left switched on for 10 minutes, how much energy is

used in kWhs.

Calculate how much Energy is used in one minute:

2500

41.66 W

60

0416kWhrs

98.

If 1kWh costs 7 pence, how much will it cost to keep a 100 Watt light on for

6 hours per day for 7 days.

Calculate how many Watts are being used then multiply by hourly rate

100x6x7 = 4.2KWh x 7 =

29.4 pence

99.

What is the maximum voltage and current that can be applied to a 300

resistor with a 20 Watt power rating.

V2

V 2 RxP 300 x 20

R

6000 V 77.45

V=IR

V

77.45

I

258.2mA

R

300

258mA, 775V

100. What is the maximum voltage and current that can be applied to a 4k7

resistor with a 30 Watt power rating.

80mA, 3754V

101. A 28 volt power supply with an internal resistance of 100 is connected to

a 100 load. Calculate the:

a.

circuit current.

0.14A

b.

1.96W

c.

14V

102. A light bulb, rated at 100 Watts, is connected across a 240 volt supply.

Calculate the circuit current and the resistance of the filament when the light is

on.

576, 417mA

103. A light bulb, rated at 100 Watts is connected across a 28 volt supply.

Calculate the circuit current and the resistance of the filament when the light is

on.

36A, 78)

104. How much power will be dissipated by a 3k6 resistor with 6 amps of

current flowing in it?

130kW

105. A simple parallel plate capacitor has plates with an area of 10cm 2, a

distance of 001mm between the plates and a dielectric material between the

plates with a relative permittivity of 40:

a.

o (Permitivity in a vacuum) = 8.85x10 -12

r (Dielectric constant or relative permitivity)= 40

Use the Capacitance equation not forgetting to standardise

units i.e. convert cm2 to meter2 for plate area

C

d

0.01x10 3

35.4nF

b.

double the capacitance of the capacitor?

Half the distance.

c.

plates to half the capacitance of the capacitor?

Half the area.

d.

permittivity, what affect will it have on the capacitance of the

capacitor?

Capacitance will double.

106. Calculate the capacitance of a simple parallel plate capacitor, which has

plates of cross sectional area of 100cm 2, a distance of 0015mm between the

plates and a dielectric material between the plates with an absolute permittivity of

8x10-9 Fm-9.

o (Permitivity in a vacuum) = 8.85x10 -12

r (Dielectric constant or relative permitivity)= 350

(Absolute Permitivity) Is derived from or

Use the Capacitance equation not forgetting to standardise

units i.e. convert cm2 to meter2 for plate area

C

d

0.015 x10 3

533 F

107. Calculate the capacitance of a simple parallel plate capacitor which has

plates of cross sectional area of 200cm 2, a distance of 0025mm between the

plates and a dielectric material between the plates with a relative permittivity of

300.

o (Permitivity in a vacuum) = 8.85x10-12

r (Dielectric constant or relative permitivity)= 300

Use the Capacitance equation not forgetting to standardise units

i.e. convert cm2 to meter2 for plate area

d

0.025 x10 3

2124F

108. A simple parallel plate capacitor has plates with an area of 150cm 2, a

distance of 002mm between the plates and a dielectric material between the

plates with a relative permittivity of 350. Calculate the:

a.

o (Permitivity in a vacuum) = 8.85x10 -12

r (Dielectric constant or relative permitivity)= 350

Use the Capacitance equation not forgetting to standardise

units i.e. convert cm2 to meter2 for plate area

C

d

0.02 x10 3

23F

b.

C= capacitance (farads), Q = Charge (Coloumbs), V = Volts

Transpose the equation for Charge and use values from above:

C

Q

VxC Q 28 x 2.3 x10 6 64.4 x10 6

V

65C

c.

Use the equation for storing Energy and use the values calculated

E= CV2

E = 0.5 x 2.3x10-6 x 784

902J

109. A multi-plate capacitor has 9 plates each with a cross sectional area of

4cm2. The distance between the plates is 015mm and the dielectric material

between the plates has a relative permittivity of 50. Calculate the:

a.

944nF

b.

264nC

c.

37J

110. A multi-plate capacitor has 3 plates each with a cross sectional area of

500cm2. The distance between the plates is 10mm and the dielectric material

between the plates has a relative permittivity of 4. Calculate the:

a.

354nF

b.

9912nC

c.

1.39J

13 Capacitors In DC Circuits

111. Q1. A simple parallel plate capacitor has plates with an area of 12cm 2, a

distance of 001mm between the plates and a dielectric material between the

plates with a relative permittivity of 40:

a.

425nF

b.

connected across a 28 volt supply.

1665J

c.

increased to 100 volts.

4248C

112.

Capacitor 1

Capacitor 2

Capacitor 3

Connection

Total

Capacitance

100F

200F

none

Series

6666F

200F

100F

none

Parallel

300F

100F

300F

200F

Series

5454F

470F

470F

none

Series

235F

47F

100F

none

Series

32F

30F

470F

100F

Parallel

600F

200F

47F

150F

Series

304F

200F

100F

200F

Series

50F

30F

47F

100F

Parallel

177F

200F

400F

400F

Series

100F

120 volts supply. Assuming the capacitors are fully charged, calculate the:

a.

40V, 80V

b.

320mJ, 640mJ

28 volts supply. Assuming the capacitors are fully charged, calculate the:

a.

896C

b.

19V, 9V

c.

85mJ, 4mJ

d.

Series connected so same as A above.

115. C1=100F, C2=200F and VSUPPLY = 60 volts. Assuming the capacitors are

connected in series across the power supply, calculate the voltage drop across

each capacitor (C1 40 volts, C2 20 volts)

CTOT = 6666F, C1 40 volts, C2 20 volts

116. Q6. C1=100F, C2=200F, C3=400 and VSUPPLY = 120 volts.

Assuming the capacitors are connected in series across the power supply,

calculate the:

a.

Total capacitance.

5714F

b.

(V1 - 6857 volts, V2 3428 volts, V3 - 1714 volts)

V1 - 6857 volts, V2 3428 volts, V3 - 1714 volts

c.

69mC series connected

d.

235mJ, 118mJ, 59mJ

the capacitors are connected in series across the power supply, calculate the:

a.

Total capacitance.

395F

b.

(V1 - 329 volts, V2 2323 volts, V3 - 4387 volts)

V1 - 329 volts, V2 2323 volts, V3 - 4387 volts

c.

65mJ, 46mJ, 87mJ

d.

the capacitors are connected in series across the power supply, calculate the:

a.

Total capacitance.

863F

b.

(V1 - 8629 volts, V2 863 volts, V3 - 508 volts)

V1 - 329 volts, V2 2323 volts, V3 - 4387 volts

c.

65mJ, 46mJ, 87mJ

d.

119. A 100F capacitor is connected

in series with a 900 resistor across a

20 volt power supply. Calculate:

Figure 4

a.

TC = CR = 100x10-6 x 900

= 90mS

b.

how long will it take for the circuit current to fall to zero when the

switch is moved to position A.

When the capacitor is fully charged, the voltage across it will be

equal and opposite the supply voltage and current will stop flowing.

This occurs after 5 x TC = 450mS.

c.

VS = 20V. After 1TC the voltage will have reached 632% of this

value. Therefore VR = 732V

d.

The current is a maximum the instant the switch is moved. At that

time VS is across the resistor, so I = V/R = 20/900 = 222mA.

e.

the energy stored in the electric field when the capacitor is fully

charged.

Energy = CV2 = x 100 x 10-6 x 202 = 20mJ.

120. For the previous question above, sketch a graph to show the circuit current

and the voltage across the capacitor with respect to time when the switch is

moved to position A.

you MUST use the fact that QT = Q1 = Q2 = Qn, or inverse ratios to

determine the voltage drops across series capacitors. You CANNOT simply

use the ratio of the capacitor values.

Take three capacitors: 100F, 200F and 10nF connected across a 400 Volts

power supply.

= + +

CTOT = 99985 x 10-9 F or 99985nF

and QTOT = 99985 x 10-9 x 400 = 39994 x 10-6 C

Now Q = CV

Q1 = C1V1

and V1 =

So V1 =

and V2 =

and V3 =

V1 = = 0039994 volts

V2 = = 0019997 volts

V3 = = 39994 volts

Finally you should confirm your calculations by adding these 3 voltages

together and ensuring the total equals the supply voltage.

Using straightforward ratios (INCORRECT)

100F : 200F : 10nF

is

10 000 parts equals 10 000 x 0013332888 = 133328889 (V across 100F)

and 20 000 parts equals 20 000 x 0013332888 = 266657778 (V across 200F)

If these voltages are added, you will see they also add up to 400 volts (the supply

voltage), but the answers are wrong. This should be spotted straight away,

because the largest voltage is across the largest capacitor, which is wrong.

If you intend to use ratios, you must use inverse ratios.

Inverse ratios (CORRECT)

That is : :

or 2 : 1 : 20 000.

V1 = 2 times this value = 0039994 volts

V3 = 20 000 times this value = 39994 volts

V2 = 1 times this value = 0019997 volts

If these are added together, the total is 400 volts (the supply voltage). If you

compare the answers with the previous two sets, you will see they are the same

as the first answers, which are also correct.

14 Magnetism

121.

In domain theory it is assumed that magnetic materials are composed of

tiny individual magnets called domains, a single domain is very small about 1012 atoms.

Considering each atom - orbital electrons not only orbit the nucleus but

spin axially on their own axis.

In non magnetic materials the same number of electrons spin clockwise as

anti-clockwise. In magnetic materials more electrons spin one way than

the other way

The unbalanced spin creates twists called magnetic moments.

In unmagnetised state the moments of the electrons are in the same

direction in a single domain, but the domains produce random pockets of

magnetism.

As the magnetic material becomes magnetised the domains become

partially aligned. In fully magnetised material all domains become fully

aligned

122.

Magnet, paper and iron filings.

123. Describe the Earths magnetic field and explain the terms dip and

variation.

124. Describe one use for a hard iron material and one use for a soft iron

material. Explain how the materials magnetic properties are exploited.

Hard magnetic materials are difficult to magnetise BUT retain most of their

magnetism once the magnetising force has been removed Used for

Permanent magnets eg Titanium & Copper, Aluminium

Soft magnetic materials are more easily magnetised BUT loose their

magnetism relatively quickly once the magnetising force has been

removed. Used for Electromagnets eg Stalloy & Mumetal

125.

Surrrounding them with soft iron material, which has a lower reluctance

than air and has a low reluctance value, hence the lines of flux concentrate

in the soft iron rather than the equipment being screened

126. Explain why might it be necessary to shield components from magnetic

fields.

Two reasons. The component may induce emfs in other components, or

other components may induce emfs in it. The shielding will contain flux

within the shield, or prevent flux from outside the shield getting inside.

15 Electromagnetism

127. Describe the field around two adjacent current carrying conductors if the

currents are flowing in opposite direction.

128. Explain how the right hand gripping rule and end rule can be used to

determine the magnetic north end of a coil

129. A coil of 200 turns is wound uniformly in the form of a toroid with an air

core. The mean circumference is 60cm and the uniform cross-sectional are is

5cm2. If the current flowing in the coil is 4 amps, calculate the:

a.

Magnetising force

1333 At/m

b.

Flux density

1.68 mT

c.

Total flux

084 Wb

mmf = 200 x 4 = 800At

H = = = 133333 At/m

B=

S = =

So mmf(0 r A) = x length

=

0 = 4 x 10-7 H/m and r Air = 1

=

= 083776 x 10-6 Wb

B =

130. The air gap in a certain magnetic circuit is 01cm long and has a crosssectional area of 30 cm2. If 600 AT are available to produce flux, calculate the flux

density in the air gap.

0755T

131. An iron ring has a mean diameter of 50 cm and a cross-sectional area of

10cm2. 500 turns of wire are uniformly wound on the ring and a flux of 125mWb

is produced by a current of 2 amps. Calculate the relative permeability of the

iron.

1560

132. An air gap in a magnetic circuit is 012cm long and has a cross-sectional

area of 25cm2. Calculate the reluctance of the air gap, the number of ampereturns to send a flux of 800Wb across the gap and the magnetising force H in the

gap.

382000 At/Wb, 306 At, 255000 At/m

133. A coil of 300 turns is wound on an iron ring having a mean circumference

of 40cm and a cross-sectional area of 5cm 2. The coil has a resistance of 8 and

is connected to a 20V d.c. supply. Taking r = 900, calculate:

a.

mmf

750 At

b.

magnetising force

1875 At/m

c.

total flux

106 mWb

d.

Flux density

212 T

e.

707000 At/Wb

134. An iron ring of mean circumference 50cm has an air gap of 01cm and is

wound with a coil of 120 turns, If the relative permeability for the iron is 350 when

a current of 25 amps flows in the coil, calculate the flux density.

264mT

135. A steel ring has a mean diameter of 20cm and a cross-sectional area of

1.5cm2 broken by a parallel sided air gap of length 05cm. Taking r = 500,

calculate the current necessary in 3000 turns of wire wound on the ring to

produce a flux density of 05 Tesla in the air gap and the total flux in the steel ring.

830mA, 75Wb

136. A steel ring having a mean diameter of 35cm and a cross-sectional area of

24cm2 is broken by a parallel sided air gap of length 12cm. Short pole pieces of

negligible reluctance extend the effective cross-sectional area of the air gap to

12cm2. Taking r = 700 and neglecting leakage, determine the current necessary

in 300 turns of wire wound on the ring to produce a flux density in the air gap of

025 Tesla.

13.17 Amps

Worked solution to Electromagnetism question above

mmf = x S and

mmf = I x N

= BAIR x AAIR

from B =

= 025 x 12 x 10-4

= 3 x 10-4 Wb

SSTEEL = =

SAIR = =

= 796 x 106 At/Wb

I = = 1317 Amps

137. A steel ring having a mean diameter of 25cm and a cross-sectional area of

12cm2 is broken by a parallel sided air gap of length 16cm. Short pole pieces of

negligible reluctance extend the effective cross-sectional area of the air gap to

10cm2. Taking r = 600 and neglecting leakage, determine the current necessary

in 3000 turns of wire wound on the ring to produce a flux density in the air gap of

05 Tesla.

36 Amps

138. The current flowing in a 200 mH inductor is changing at a rate of 10 amps

per second, calculate the back emf in the coil.

Remember:

dl

dt

dl

= the rate of change of current

dt

However as this Back EMF answer is -2 volts

139. Two inductors of 100mH each are connected in series aiding. What is the

total inductance if the coupling factor is:

a.

Zero

M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

100 x100

= 200mH

b.

0707

M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

100 x100

=341mH

c.

one

M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

100 x100

400mH

140. A 100mH inductor is connected in series aiding with a 300mH inductor.

What is the total inductance if the coupling factor is:

a.

025

487mH

b.

05

573mH

c.

095

730mH

What is the total inductance if the coupling factor is:

a.

025

M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

100x 200

) =70.71mH

= 229.2mH

b.

0707

M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

= 100.03mH

100x 200

) = 199.96mH

c.

095

M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

100x 200

) = 268.70

= 31.29mH

142. If two similar inductors (coils) are lying at 90 degrees to each other, what

value of coupling factor would you expect?

Zero

143. A 100mH inductor is connected in parallel with a 60mH inductor and

positioned so that no mutual coupling exists between them. Calculate the total

inductance.

To calculate Inductors in parallel and aiding

M (Coupling factor) =

So:

1

1

1

+2M

LT

L1 L 2

L1xL 2

1

1

1

= 37.5mH+ 2 x (0 100x60 )

LT 100 60

375mH

144. A 100mH inductor is connected in parallel with a 60mH inductor and

positioned so that a mutual opposing coupling exists between them of 0.6.

Calculate the total inductance.

M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

1

1

1

-2M

LT

L1 L 2

So:

1

1

1

LT 100 60

=14.27mH

145. Two 200mH inductors are connected in parallel and positioned so that no

mutual coupling exists between them. Calculate the total inductance.

100mH

17 Inductors in DC Circuits

146. Q1. A 100mH inductor is connected in series with a 500 resistor

across a 20 volt power supply.

a.

200S

b.

Calculate how long will it take for the circuit current to reach its

maximum value.

c.

1264 volts

d.

40mA

e.

Show that at the instant the switch is closed, the back-emf produced

by the inductor is equal to the supply voltage.

-L = -100 x 10-3 x = -20 volts and see notes.

f.

Calculate the energy stored in the magnetic field when the current

has reached its maximum value.

80J

147.

60mH inductor is connected in

series with a 900 resistor,

across a 12 volt power supply.

a.

the circuit current with

respect to time when the

switched is moved to

position A.

Figure 1

b.

Sketch a graph to show the voltage across the inductor with respect

to time when the switched is moved to position A.

c.

Sketch a graph to show the voltage across the inductor when the

switch is moved directly from position A to position B.

d.

Sketch a graph to show the circuit current when the switch is moved

directly from position A to position B.

points where calculations can be made)

148. A 10mH inductor is connected in series with a 36k resistor across a 14V

power supply, calculate the:

a.

27S

b.

39mA

c.

2.5mA

d.

52 volts

e.

energy stored in the magnetic field when the current has reached its

maximum value.

195 x 10-6 J

volt power supply, calculate the:

a.

32S

b.

16mA

c.

7.6V

d.

energy stored in the magnetic field when the current has reached its

maximum value.

49J

150. When an inductor of unknown value was connected across a 12 volt power

supply, the current settled at 300mA after 200mS. Calculate the:

a.

40

b.

40mS

c.

4416 volts

151. If an ideal capacitor was fully charged on a power supply and then

connected across an ideal inductor. Explain what would happen. (an ideal

capacitor has no inductance or resistance and an ideal inductor has no

capacitance or resistance)

The capacitor discharges through the inductor creating a magnetic field.

When the capacitor is discharged the magnetic field collapses producing a

back-emf that charges the capacitor again. With no resistance, there is no

loss. Therefore the cycling would continue indefinitely.

152. A real capacitor is fully charged on a power supply and then connected

across an actual inductor. Explain what happens.

153. Explain how a coil, connected into 24 volt d.c. circuit, could produce a back

emf of 2000 volts.

When switch opened.

TC = L/R

but R is infinite and therefore the time-constant is zero.

The current and field collapse instantly.

Back-emf is proportional to .

If is infinite then the back-emf must be infinite.

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