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Faculty of Technology

School of Engineering
Technology Modular Degrees Scheme
Level 1

Subject: AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A


Work Book
(DC Electrics)
Instructions to Candidates
This work book contains questions similar to those expected in your final degree
examination for you to use as a revision aid. A separate answer book will be
issued by your tutor.

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook - 1 December 2005

Table of Contents
1

ATOMIC STRUCTURE...........................................................................1-1

STATIC ELECTRICITY...........................................................................2-2

ELECTRICAL TERMINOLOGY..............................................................3-1

PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY..........................................................4-3

CELLS & BATTERIES............................................................................5-1

OHMS LAW............................................................................................6-3

ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS........................................7-4

RESISTANCE & RESISTORS................................................................8-1

RESISTORS IN DC CIRCUITS...............................................................9-1

10 THE WHEATSTONE BRIDGE................................................................10-1


11 ENERGY & POWER IN DC CIRCUITS..................................................11-1
12 CAPACITANCE & CAPACITORS...........................................................12-1
13 CAPACITORS IN DC CIRCUITS............................................................13-1
14 MAGNETISM..........................................................................................14-1
15 ELECTROMAGNETISM.........................................................................15-1
16 INDUCTION & INDUCTORS..................................................................16-1
17 INDUCTORS IN DC CIRCUITS..............................................................17-1

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook - 1 December 2005

1 Atomic Structure
Answer the following questions in your own words.
1.

What is the difference between an element, a compound and a mixture?


Elements. An element is a substance which cannot by any known
chemical process be split into two or more chemically simpler
substances.e.g Oxygen
Compounds. A compound is a substance, which contains two or more
elements chemically joined together.
Eg: Salt (Sodium and Chlorine) Water (Hydrogen & Oxygen)
Mixtures. A mixture consists of elements or compounds, which are
brought together by a physical process.
Eg: Salt and Sand

2.

Describe the structure of an atom. What is the significance of the charges


on the fundamental particles?
A Atom Consist of a core or nucleus with a particle called an electron
travelling around it in an elliptical orbit.
The nucleus has a positive charge of electricity and the electron an equal
negative charge; thus the whole atom is electrically neutral and the
electrical attraction keeps the electron circling the nucleus. Atoms of other
elements have more than one electron travelling around the nucleus, the
nucleus containing sufficient positive charges to balance the number of
electrons.

3.

What are ions and how are they formed?


An atom (or possibly a group of atoms) which loses an electron has lost
one of its negative charges and is therefore left with an excess of one
positive charge; it is called a positive ion. An atom that gains an electron
has an excess of negative charge and is called a negative ion.

4.

What is the significance of the number of electrons in the valance shell?


The higher the number of electrons in the valence shell (6-8) prevents
having electrons in the conduction bands, conversely the lower the number
of electrons say 1-2 can transfer from atom to atom and are conductors

5.

Locate a table of elements that shows the distribution of electrons within


the shells and determine how many electrons there are in the valence shell
of the following materials:
a.

Aluminium

b.

Silver

c.

Copper

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook - 1 December 2005

d.

Gold

e.

Germanium

6.

Are there any elements that have more than 8 electrons in their outer
shell? (shell K,L,M,N,O,P or Q, not sub-shells)
Palladium (10) and Iridium (9).

7.

Each shell is limited as to the number of electrons it can hold. Is there


any way of working out the maximum number of electrons that each shell
can hold?
2n2 where n is the shell number.

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook - 1 December 2005

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook - 1 December 2005

2 Static Electricity
8.

What is static electricity ?


Separation of charge from one material to another or one part of a material
to another. Material receiving electrons is negatively charged and vice
versa. If the charge accumulation remains stationary after the electron
transfer this is static electricity.

9.
Why must maintenance engineers consider static electricity when working
on aircraft:
a.

electronic equipment

Excessive build up of static in the human body can lead to damage of


sensitive or very low current devices such as Integrated circuits, if the
Technician/Engineer has not dissipated the static build up
b.

structures

Static electricity can build to very high levels (KV) in aircraft airframes due
to friction of the aircraft when flying through the air. All aircraft structures
should be at the same potential using Bonding leads and structure
electrical Bonds. Aircraft should be earthed to disperse any static build up
especially near fuel or volatile gas or liquid areas. Engineers should
always earth themselves with the structure at an earth or bond point before
working in these or sensitive avionic bay areas
10.

What is the Triboelectric series ?


The different levels of charge with respect to cotton (the reference
material), is contained in what is known as the Triboelectric Series

11.
What sort of potentials can be created by somebody walking across a
carpet and does humidity have any effect on the value?
Up to 35 000 volts. As humidity increases, static charge decreases.

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook - 1 December 2005

12.
As two charged bodies are moved apart, the force of attraction or repulsion
between them decreases by the square of the distance (i.e. if the distance
between them is increased from 1cm to 2 cm, the force decreases by a factor of
4. If the distance is increased to 3cm, the force decreases by a factor of 9),
why ?

Draw right angled triangle base and height 1


unit long. Double base length to 2 units and
calculate new height it has also doubled.
The same reasoning can be used along the
horizontal.
If both sides double in length, from one unit to
two, the area increases from one square unit
to 4 square units. That is the square of the
distance.
If the distance is increased by a further 1 unit,
the area will increase to 9 square units (the
square of the distance - 3)

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook - 1 December 2005

3 Electrical Terminology
13.

Define the following electrical terms in your own words:


a.

Potential

b.

Potential difference

c.

Electromotive Force

d.

Voltage

e.

Current

f.

Resistance

14.
Q2. What is the difference between conventional current flow and
electron flow ?
In conventional flow it is considered that the positive charge carriers move
from positive to negative terminals, where as electron flow the charge
carriers which are negative (electrons) move from the negative to the
positive terminal. Electron flow reflects the true properties of current flow
15.

Q3.

The following potential differences were measured in a circuit:


A is +4 volts with respect to (wrt) B
B is +3 volts wrt C
C is +2 volts wrt D
D is +1 volts wrt to ground

16.

What is the potential difference of:


i)A wrt ground (+10v)

17.

ii)

B wrt ground (+6v)

iii)

A wrt C

(+7v)

iv)

B wrt D

(+5v)

The following potential differences were measured in a circuit:


E is at the same potential as ground and 25 volts wrt D
D is 15 volts wrt C
C is 10 volts wrt B
B is 30 volts wrt A

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

i)What are the potentials at B,C and D wrt ground. (+50v,+40v,+25v)

18.

ii)

What is the potential difference of A wrt C.

(+40v)

iii)

What is the potential difference of C wrt A.

(-40v)

iv)

What is the potential difference of ground wrt B

(-50v)

The Following potentials were measured in a circuit:


E is at ground potential and A is +100 volts wrt ground
D is +50 volts wrt E
C is +15 volts wrt D
A is +20 volts wrt B
i)

What are the potentials at B, C and D with respect to ground.


(+80v, +65v, +50v)

ii)

What is the potential at C wrt B and D. (-15v, +15v)

iii)

What is the potential at B wrt E. (+80v)

19.

What is the difference between an emf and a potential difference?

20.

What factors affect resistance and how do they affect it?


Material. Some materials conduct better than others.
Length . Resistance is directly proportional to length thus if the
length is doubled (other factors remaining constant), resistance is doubled.
Cross Sectional Area (A). Resistance is inversely proportional to A.
Thus If the cross sectional area is doubled, resistance is halved.
Temperature. Temperature affects the number of free electrons and
hence resistance.

21.

What is conductance and conductivity?


Also, the conductance, G of a material is the reciprocal of its resistance
and is;
G

1
1
a


R
/a

The conductivity of a material is the reciprocal of its resistively. It is given


the Greek symbol (sigma) and has the units siemens per metre (s/m).
Thus at 0C copper has a conductivity of;

1
1

64 52 106 s/m
-8

1 55 10

Conductance and conductivity are rarely used in the course, but a mention
is required.

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

4 Production of Electricity
22.

Explain how a thermocouple produces electricity.


If two metals, say copper and iron, are joined at two points and both
junctions are at the same temperature, the contact potentials cancel each
other out and no current flows in the loop of wire. However, if the two
junctions are kept at different temperatures, there is a drift of electrons
around the circuit, that is to say, current flows.
The magnitude of the voltage produced by this method is small only a
few millivolts per degree centigrade but it is sufficient to be measured.
The current flow is a measure of the difference in temperature between the
hot junction and the cold junction.

23.

What happens when a force is applied to a piece of quartz crystal?

24.

Describe one aircraft related use of quartz crystals.


Accelerometers for acceleration or vibration measurement.

25.
Investigate the construction and operation of a common primary cell and
write a brief report on your findings.

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

5 Cells & Batteries


26.

What is the difference between primary and secondary cells?


Primary not re-chargeable / re-useable.
Secondary re-chargeable / re-useable.

27.
A 25 A-h at the 10 hour rate battery can supply what maximum current
continuously and for how long?
2.5 Amps for 10 Hours.
28.
A 35 A-h at the 1 hour rate battery can supply what maximum current and
for how long?
3.5 Amps for 10 Hours.
29.
If a 40 A-h at the 10 hour battery was discharged at 8 Amps how long
would you expect it to be able to provide this current?
Answer cannot be calculated, but it will be less 5 hours. Battery should be
able to provide 4 amps continuously for 10 hours, but will not be able to
provide 8 amps for 4 hours because its capacity decreases with increase
in load.
30.
When carrying out a capacity test on a 20 A-h battery, it only achieved
80%, what is the actual battery capacity?
80% of 20 A-hr = 16 A-hr.
31.
A battery was discharged at 10 Amps for 10 hours in order to test its
capacity. What was the batterys rating?
100 A-hr @ 10hr rate.
32.
If four 2 volt, 1 ampere-hour cells, each with an internal resistance of 2
ohms are connected in series to form a battery, what is the battery voltage,
capacity and internal resistance?
8 volts , 1 A-hr and 8 Ohms.

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

33.

How can a 4 volt, 6 A-h supply be obtained from six 2 volt, 2 A-h cells?
Connect 6 cells to make 3 pairs of 2 in series, and then connect these in
parallel.

34.
Two 12 volt, lead acid, aircraft batteries are connected in parallel to give a
greater capacity. Draw a circuit diagram depicting the individual cells of these
two interconnected batteries.

35.
What happens if a 4 volt battery is connected in parallel with a 2 volt
battery?
Actual battery voltage will depend on internal resistance of individual
batteries. If both batteries have the same resistance, the total battery
voltage will be 3 volts. It is suggested you investigate this using
Electronics Workbench during one of the Laboratory sessions.
36.
When 3 identical cells are connected in series across a filament, in which
order do they discharge?
They all discharge together at the same rate.
37.
In your own words, describe the construction of a typical lead acid aircraft
battery.
38.
In your own words, describe the construction of a typical Nickel Cadmium
battery aircraft battery.
39.

State some typical A-h ratings for lead acid and Ni-cad aircraft batteries.

40.

What is thermal runaway and what might cause it occur?

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

6 Ohms Law
41.

How are current, voltage and resistance related?


Ohms Law and see notes.

42.

Complete the table below.


Voltage
12 volts
24 volts
940 volts
240 volts
12 volts
68 volts
6 volts
1020 volts
200mV
500mV
200 volts
540 volts
15 volts
3000 volts

Current

Resistance

05 amps
1/3 amp
200mA
12 Amps
5 mA
001 Amps
03 amps
150A
50mA
20A
10 Amps
200A
15 A
05 A

24
720 Ohms
4K7
200
2400 Ohms
6.8 k
20
68M
4
25k
20
2.7M
1
6k

43.
If the voltage across a component is doubled what affect will it have on the
current flowing through it?
Doubled
44.
If the value of a resistor in a circuit is doubled, but the current is kept
constant at its original value, what affect will it have on the voltage across the
resistor?
Doubled

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

7 Electrical Measuring Instruments


45.

What is the difference between an analog meter and a digital meter?


Moving parts / mechanical electronic.

46.

What is the purpose of the mirror on an analog instrument?


Parallax error.

47.

Explain why an ideal ammeter should have zero internal resistance.


The meter is connected into the circuit in such a way that the circuit current
flows through the meter. If the meter had resistance, it would cause a
decrease in the circuit current.

48.

Explain why an ideal voltmeter should have infinite internal resistance.


The meter is connected in parallel across the two points where the
potential difference is to be measured. When resistors are connected in
parallel, the total resistance is always less than the value of any of the
individual resistors. The meter will therefore reduce the resistance of the
component across which it is connected and therefore decrease the
voltage drop measured.

49.
Find out what the internal resistance of one of the laboratory meters is on
the voltage and current ranges.
50.

Should analogue meters be laid down or stood up for an accurate reading?


They must be positioned as they are when calibrated.

51.

Describe in detail how a voltage measurement should be made.

52.

Describe in detail how a current measurement should be made.

53.

Describe in detail how a resistance measurement should be made.

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

54.
Two 10M resistors are connected in series across a 300 volt supply. If a
meter, having an internal resistance of 10M on the appropriate range, is used to
measure the voltage drop across the two resistors, what values will be indicated
on the meter.
When meter connected across either resistor, the circuit becomes 100
ohms in series with 50 ohms because of the meter loading (100//100 =
50). The meter will therefore indicate 100 volts across either resistor.
55.
Determine the internal resistance of the Electronic Workbench multi-meter
when it is set to measure voltage. Explain how you obtained your answer.
56.

Explain how a meter measures resistance.


The meter places a known voltage (the meter cell) across the unknown
resistor and measures the current. Current is directly related to the
resistance (by Ohms law), so the meter is calibrated to indicate resistance.

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

8 Resistance & Resistors


57.
If the length of a conductor is doubled and its cross-sectional area halved,
what affect will this have on its resistance?
Resistance is doubled by doubled length and doubled by halving the
cross-sectional area. Therefore resistance is increased by a factor of 4.
58.
If the length of a conductor is doubled and its cross sectional area
doubled, what affect will it have on its resistance?
Resistance is doubled by doubled length, but is halved by doubling the
cross-sectional area. The resistance therefore remains unchanged.
59.
Do the following have positive or negative temperature co-efficient of
resistance:

60.

a.

Battery electrolyte

(-ve)

b.

Thermistors

(-ve)

c.

Copper wire

(+ve)

d.

Aluminium wire

(+ve)

e.

Carbon

(-ve)

For what purpose would Eureka wire be used?


Calibration resistor almost no change in resistance with changes in
temperature.

61.

Use the colour codes to work out the values of the following resistors:
a.

Red Orange Yellow Gold

(230 000 +-5%)

b.

Orange Orange Orange Red

(33 000 +-2%)

c.

Violet Green Blue silver

(75M +-10%)

d.

Green Green Black Gold

(55 +-5%)

e.

Brown Brown Black Brown

(11 +-1%)

f.

Red Green Gold

(2.5)

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

g.

Brown Grey Gold

(1.8)

h.

Green Blue Silver

(056)

i.

Blue Yellow White Yellow Red

(649M +-2%)

j.

Orange Brown Yellow Red Red

(31400 +-2%)

62.
Assuming you want to use resistors with a 10% tolerance, what are the
closest preferred values for the following resistance values:
a.

13M Ohms

(12M)

b.

3.0K Ohms

(27k)

c.

4.9K Ohms

(47k or 33k)

d.

54K Ohms

(56k)

e.

14.5K Ohms

(15k)

63.
For the preferred values selected in answer to the previous question,
above, what are the maximum and minimum values one could expect to find?
This is simply of calculating the preferred value plus 10% and the preferred
value minus 10%. Using (i) as an example - 12M + 12M = 132M
and 12M - 12M = 108M.
64.

What is the difference between a potentiometer and a rheostat?

65.
A resistor is connected across a potentiometer and the slider is increased
from minimum resistance to maximum. What affect will this have on the voltage
across the resistor and the current flowing through it?
As wiper moved from zero to max resistance (L to R on the diagram), the
potential across the load increases, the increased potential leads to an
increase in load current.
66.
A resistor is connected in series with a rheostat and the slider is moved
from minimum to maximum resistance. What affect will this have on the voltage
across the resistor and the current flowing through it?

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

As the wiper is moved from zero to max resistance (R to L on diagram),


the current through the load decreases, therefore the voltage across the
load also decreases.
67.
When current flows through a resistor, what affect is it likely to have on its
value of resistance? Explain your answer.
The resistance is likely to increase due to the increase in temperature.
68.
Explain how can a thermistor be used to stabilise the current flowing
through a coil of wire that tends to get hot when used.
Attach thermistor to coil. Thermistor has ve temp co-efficient of resistance
as the temperature increases, the resistance of the coil increases, but the
resistance of the thermistor decreases. So the overall resistance and
therefore current remains constant.

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

9 Resistors In DC Circuits
69.

Explain Kirchoffs second law.


This law states that in any closed circuit the sum of all the potential
differences (voltage drops) is equal to the total applied voltage in that
circuit.

70.
Using Ohms law and Kirchoffs second law, derive the formula for the total
resistance of resistors connected in series.
Hence E = V1 + V2 + V3
But from Ohms Law V = IR
Therefore E = IRTOTAL
So V1 = IR1 V2 = IR2 V3 = IR3
Thus IRTOTAL = IR1 + IR2 + IR3
= I (R1 + R2 + R3)
So RTOTAL = R1 + R2 + R3
71.
A 12k resistor is connected in series with a 24k resistor across an 18
volt supply. What is the circuit current and the voltage drop across each resistor?
RTotal = 36k

Current = 18/3600 = 5mA

V12k 6volts

v24k 12 volts

72.
Two 4.7k are connected in series across a 12 volt battery. What is the
circuit current and the voltage drop across each resistor?
12/94k = 13mA voltage drop = 6v and 6v
73.
When a 1.2k resistor is connected in series with a 3.6k across a power
supply, the current is 150mA. What are the voltage drops across the resistors?
V = 12 x 103 x 150 x 10-3 = 180V (across 12k resistor).
V = 36 x 103 x 150 x 10-3 = 540V (across 36k resistor).

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

74.
If three resistors of equal value are connected in series across a power
supply, what proportion of the supply voltage will be dropped across each
resistor.
One third of the supply voltage.
75.
Calculate the current flowing in the
circuit of Figure 1.
Total resistance = 923k.
I = V/R = 6/923 x 103 = 065mA
Figure 1

76.

Calculate the voltage drop across each of the resistors in Figure 1.


Multiply each resistor by the current found in question 7.
1k = 065V, 2k2 = 14V, 4k7 = 306V, 330 = 021V.

77.
Calculate the voltage drops across each of the
resistors in Figure 2.
The easiest way is to use ratios. 36V will be
dropped in the ratio 12:6:36. Each Ohm is
therefore 2/3 of a volt.
The other way is to calculate the total
resistance (54) and then the circuit current
(V/RTOT). Having found the circuit current,
multiply each resistor by this current.
12 - 8V, 6 - 4V, 36 - 24V.
78.
Calculate the current flowing in the circuit of
Figure 2

Figure 2

2/3 Amps.
79.

Calculate the voltage at point B wrt point A in Figure 2.


-8V

80.
Assuming a ground is placed at point C in Figure 2, what will be the
potential at point B wrt C?
AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook
1 December 2005

+4V
81.
Assuming a ground is placed at point B in Figure 2, what will be the
potential at point B wrt C?
+4V
82.
Assuming two resistors R1 and R2 are connected in series across V Supply,
complete the following table.

VSupply

R1

R2

RTOT

ISupply

VR1

VR2

100V

1.2k

2.8k

4k

25mA

30V

70V

12V

800

1600

2400

5mA

4V

8V

24V

2666

5333

80

300mA

8V

16V

95V

20

30

50

190mA

3.8V

5.7V

36V

3K6

7K2

10k8

333A

12V

24V

9V

60

120

180

50mA

3V

6V

120V

20

40

60

2A

40V

80V

1000V

44M

12M

56M

1786mA

786V

214V

2080V

1k

300

13k

1.6A

1600V

480V

24V

300

700

1000

24mA

72V

168V

100V

33k

1700

5k

20mA

66V

34V

182V

400

1000

14k

13mA

5.2V

13V

83.
The off-load voltage of a power supply is 100 volts. When the supply is
connected to a 200 resistor the terminal voltage falls to 90 volts. Calculate the
internal resistance of the power supply.
90/200 = 045mA 10/045 = 222

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

84.
The off-load voltage of a power supply unit is 28 volts, the on-load voltage
is 26 volts. If the load is 600, calculate the internal resistance of the power
supply unit.
26/600 = 43mA 2V/43mA = 46
85.
The internal resistance of a 30 volt power supply is 60, calculate the
terminal voltage when it is connected to a 240 load.
Ratio of the voltage drop across RInt : RLoad is 1:4. Therefore voltage drops
are 6 volts to 24 volts. Ans. 24V

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

10 The Wheatstone Bridge


Refer to Figure 3 to answer the following questions

86.

If R1=R2=R3=R4 and E=24 volts:


a.

Calculate the current flowing


through R1 and R2.
120mA

b.

Calculate the potential difference


between points A and B.
(12V:12V therefore 0 volts)

c.

Figure 3

If E was decreased to 20 volts, what affect would it have on the


potential difference between points A and B ?
No effect

87.

If R1= 200, R2= 600, R3= 1k and E=16 volts:


a.

What value must R4 be to balance the bridge.


Derive R4 from:

R1
R2

R3
R4

R1 R 2 R 4 R 2
R 2 xR3

R4
R3 R 4
R3
R1
R1

3k
b.

What will be the current flowing in R2.


V=IR:
Resistance in R2 & R4 leg = 600 +3k = 1.6K
V
16V
I
4.44mA
R
3600

4.44mA
c.

What will be the potential at A.

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

Calculate current in resistor leg= 200 +1k =1.2K


V=IR I

V
16

13.33mA
R 1200

Calculate Voltage drop across R1


V=IR = 13.33x10-3 x 200 = 2.66V
Subtract result from Supply Voltage = 16-2.66=13.33Volts
13.33Volts
88.

If R1= 2k2, R2= 32k, R4= 80k and E=21 volts:


a.

What value of R3 will balance the bridge.


5.5k

b.

If R3 has a value of 4k4, what will be the potential difference


between points A and B.
(A=14V, B=15V therefore pd A-B = 1 volt)

c.

If R3 has a value of 1k1, what will be the potential difference


between points A and B.
(A=7V, B=15V therefore pd A-B = 8 volts)

89.
On connecting the Wheatstone Bridge circuit shown, the meter indicated
full scale deflection. Discuss possible fault conditions that would exhibit these
symptoms.
Open circuit R3 or in R3 limb, or an open circuit R2 or in R2 limb.
90.
On connecting the Wheatstone Bridge circuit shown, the meter needle
abutted against the zero end-stop. Discuss possible fault conditions that would
exhibit these symptoms.
Short circuit R3 or in R3 limb, or short circuit R4 or in R4 limb.

AE1313 Electrical Fundamentals A Foundation Degree Workbook


1 December 2005

11 Energy & Power In DC Circuits


91.
How much work is done if 3 coulombs of charge is moved through a
potential of 20 volts.
Q = Charge, V = Volts
Work = Q X V Joules
3x20
60 Joules
92.
How much work is done when 10 amps flows through a potential of 6 volts
for 2 minutes.
V = Volts, I= Amps, t = time (seconds)
Work(Joules) = Vit, = 6x10x2x60
7200 Joules
93.
How much energy is used when 3 amps flows through a potential of 5 volts
for 10 minutes.
V = Volts, I= Amps, t = time (seconds)
Energy = Work(Joules) = Vit, = 5x3x10x60
9 kJoules
94.
The voltage across a 3k2 resistor in an electrical circuit is 6 volts. How
much energy is used in pushing the current through this resistor for 1 minute.
First you need to calculate Current in the circuit

V=IR = I

V
6V

1.875mA
R 3200

V = Volts, I= Amps, t = time (seconds)


Energy = Work(Joules) = Vit, = 6 x 1.875X10-3 x 60
675m Joules or 0.675 Joules
95.

6 amps flows through a 12 volt filament in a circuit. Calculate the:


a.

work done by the circuit if the filament is on for 2 hours.


518.4kJ

b.

energy used by the filament in 2 hours.


518.4kJ

b.

rate at which work is being done by the filament.


Rate at which work is done is represented by the Watt and can be
calculated as shown
P = VI = 12 x 6
72W

96.
Assuming the circuit comprises a single resistor connected across a
voltage source, complete the following table.

Voltage
(v)

Resistance
()

Current
(I)

Power
(W)

Work Done in
10 mins (J)

10 Volts

600

167mA

1667mW

100J

24 Volts

048

50A

1200 Watts

720J

0333V

0167

2 Amps

067W

400 Joules

24 Volts

1080

0022A

053W

320 Joules

8W

200

40mAmps

032W

192J

28 Volts

2613

107A

300 Watts

180kJ

120 Volts

3k6

0033A

4W

24kJ

97.
If a 2.5kW kettle is left switched on for 10 minutes, how much energy is
used in kWhs.
Calculate how much Energy is used in one minute:
2500
41.66 W
60

Multiply by 10 = 416.6W convert to KW


0416kWhrs
98.
If 1kWh costs 7 pence, how much will it cost to keep a 100 Watt light on for
6 hours per day for 7 days.
Calculate how many Watts are being used then multiply by hourly rate
100x6x7 = 4.2KWh x 7 =
29.4 pence
99.
What is the maximum voltage and current that can be applied to a 300
resistor with a 20 Watt power rating.

Having Resistance & Power we can calculate the Voltage:

V2
V 2 RxP 300 x 20
R

6000 V 77.45

We can now calculate the max current using Ohms Law

V=IR

V
77.45
I
258.2mA
R
300

258mA, 775V
100. What is the maximum voltage and current that can be applied to a 4k7
resistor with a 30 Watt power rating.
80mA, 3754V
101. A 28 volt power supply with an internal resistance of 100 is connected to
a 100 load. Calculate the:
a.

circuit current.
0.14A

b.

power dissipated in the load.


1.96W

c.

power supply terminal voltage when connected to the load.


14V

102. A light bulb, rated at 100 Watts, is connected across a 240 volt supply.
Calculate the circuit current and the resistance of the filament when the light is
on.

576, 417mA
103. A light bulb, rated at 100 Watts is connected across a 28 volt supply.
Calculate the circuit current and the resistance of the filament when the light is
on.
36A, 78)
104. How much power will be dissipated by a 3k6 resistor with 6 amps of
current flowing in it?
130kW

12 Capacitance & Capacitors


105. A simple parallel plate capacitor has plates with an area of 10cm 2, a
distance of 001mm between the plates and a dielectric material between the
plates with a relative permittivity of 40:
a.

Calculate the capacitance of the capacitor.


o (Permitivity in a vacuum) = 8.85x10 -12
r (Dielectric constant or relative permitivity)= 40
Use the Capacitance equation not forgetting to standardise
units i.e. convert cm2 to meter2 for plate area
C

AErEo 10 x104 x 40 x8.85 x1012

d
0.01x10 3

35.4nF
b.

What would have to be done to the distance between the plates to


double the capacitance of the capacitor?
Half the distance.

c.

What would have to be done to the cross sectional area of the


plates to half the capacitance of the capacitor?
Half the area.

d.

If the dielectric is replaced by a material with twice the relative


permittivity, what affect will it have on the capacitance of the
capacitor?
Capacitance will double.

106. Calculate the capacitance of a simple parallel plate capacitor, which has
plates of cross sectional area of 100cm 2, a distance of 0015mm between the
plates and a dielectric material between the plates with an absolute permittivity of
8x10-9 Fm-9.
o (Permitivity in a vacuum) = 8.85x10 -12
r (Dielectric constant or relative permitivity)= 350
(Absolute Permitivity) Is derived from or

In this example has been given to you


Use the Capacitance equation not forgetting to standardise
units i.e. convert cm2 to meter2 for plate area
C

AErEo 1x10 2 x8 x10 9

d
0.015 x10 3

533 F
107. Calculate the capacitance of a simple parallel plate capacitor which has
plates of cross sectional area of 200cm 2, a distance of 0025mm between the
plates and a dielectric material between the plates with a relative permittivity of
300.
o (Permitivity in a vacuum) = 8.85x10-12
r (Dielectric constant or relative permitivity)= 300
Use the Capacitance equation not forgetting to standardise units
i.e. convert cm2 to meter2 for plate area

AErEo 2 x102 x300 x8.85 x1012

d
0.025 x10 3

2124F
108. A simple parallel plate capacitor has plates with an area of 150cm 2, a
distance of 002mm between the plates and a dielectric material between the
plates with a relative permittivity of 350. Calculate the:
a.

Capacitance of the capacitor.


o (Permitivity in a vacuum) = 8.85x10 -12
r (Dielectric constant or relative permitivity)= 350
Use the Capacitance equation not forgetting to standardise
units i.e. convert cm2 to meter2 for plate area
C

AErEo 1.5 x102 x350 x8.85 x1012

d
0.02 x10 3

23F

b.

Charge on the capacitor if it is fully charged on a 28 volt supply.


C= capacitance (farads), Q = Charge (Coloumbs), V = Volts
Transpose the equation for Charge and use values from above:
C

Q
VxC Q 28 x 2.3 x10 6 64.4 x10 6
V

65C
c.

Energy stored in the capacitor when it is fully charged.


Use the equation for storing Energy and use the values calculated
E= CV2
E = 0.5 x 2.3x10-6 x 784
902J

109. A multi-plate capacitor has 9 plates each with a cross sectional area of
4cm2. The distance between the plates is 015mm and the dielectric material
between the plates has a relative permittivity of 50. Calculate the:
a.

Capacitance of the capacitor.


944nF

b.

Charge on the capacitor if it is fully charged on a 28 volt supply.


264nC

c.

Energy stored in the capacitor when it is fully charged to 28 volts.


37J

110. A multi-plate capacitor has 3 plates each with a cross sectional area of
500cm2. The distance between the plates is 10mm and the dielectric material
between the plates has a relative permittivity of 4. Calculate the:
a.

Capacitance of the capacitor.


354nF

b.

Charge on the capacitor if it is fully charged on a 28 volt supply.


9912nC

c.

Energy stored in the capacitor when it is fully charged to 28 volts.


1.39J

13 Capacitors In DC Circuits
111. Q1. A simple parallel plate capacitor has plates with an area of 12cm 2, a
distance of 001mm between the plates and a dielectric material between the
plates with a relative permittivity of 40:
a.

Calculate the capacitance of the capacitor.


425nF

b.

Calculate the electrical energy stored in the capacitor if it is


connected across a 28 volt supply.
1665J

c.

Calculate the charge on the capacitor if the potential is across it is


increased to 100 volts.
4248C

112.

Complete the following table.

Capacitor 1

Capacitor 2

Capacitor 3

Connection

Total
Capacitance

100F

200F

none

Series

6666F

200F

100F

none

Parallel

300F

100F

300F

200F

Series

5454F

470F

470F

none

Series

235F

47F

100F

none

Series

32F

30F

470F

100F

Parallel

600F

200F

47F

150F

Series

304F

200F

100F

200F

Series

50F

30F

47F

100F

Parallel

177F

200F

400F

400F

Series

100F

113. A 400F capacitor is connected in series with a 200F capacitor across a


120 volts supply. Assuming the capacitors are fully charged, calculate the:
a.

Voltage across each capacitor.


40V, 80V

b.

Energy stored in each capacitor.


320mJ, 640mJ

114. A 47F capacitor is connected in series with a 100F capacitor across a


28 volts supply. Assuming the capacitors are fully charged, calculate the:
a.

Charge on each capacitor


896C

b.

Voltage across each capacitor.


19V, 9V

c.

Energy stored in each capacitor.


85mJ, 4mJ

d.

Total charge on both capacitors.


Series connected so same as A above.

115. C1=100F, C2=200F and VSUPPLY = 60 volts. Assuming the capacitors are
connected in series across the power supply, calculate the voltage drop across
each capacitor (C1 40 volts, C2 20 volts)
CTOT = 6666F, C1 40 volts, C2 20 volts
116. Q6. C1=100F, C2=200F, C3=400 and VSUPPLY = 120 volts.
Assuming the capacitors are connected in series across the power supply,
calculate the:
a.

Total capacitance.
5714F

b.

Voltage drop across each capacitor.


(V1 - 6857 volts, V2 3428 volts, V3 - 1714 volts)
V1 - 6857 volts, V2 3428 volts, V3 - 1714 volts

c.

Charge on each capacitor.


69mC series connected

d.

Energy stored in each capacitor.


235mJ, 118mJ, 59mJ

117. C1=120F, C2=170F, C3=90F and VSUPPLY = 100 volts. Assuming


the capacitors are connected in series across the power supply, calculate the:
a.

Total capacitance.
395F

b.

Voltage drop across each capacitor.


(V1 - 329 volts, V2 2323 volts, V3 - 4387 volts)
V1 - 329 volts, V2 2323 volts, V3 - 4387 volts

c.

Charge on each capacitor.


65mJ, 46mJ, 87mJ

d.

Energy stored in each capacitor.

118. C1=10F, C2=100F, C3=170F and VSUPPLY = 100 volts. Assuming


the capacitors are connected in series across the power supply, calculate the:
a.

Total capacitance.
863F

b.

Voltage drop across each capacitor.


(V1 - 8629 volts, V2 863 volts, V3 - 508 volts)
V1 - 329 volts, V2 2323 volts, V3 - 4387 volts

c.

Charge on each capacitor.


65mJ, 46mJ, 87mJ

d.

Energy stored in each capacitor.

Refer to Figure 4 to answer the following questions


119. A 100F capacitor is connected
in series with a 900 resistor across a
20 volt power supply. Calculate:
Figure 4
a.

the circuit time constant.


TC = CR = 100x10-6 x 900

= 90mS
b.

how long will it take for the circuit current to fall to zero when the
switch is moved to position A.
When the capacitor is fully charged, the voltage across it will be
equal and opposite the supply voltage and current will stop flowing.
This occurs after 5 x TC = 450mS.

c.

the voltage across the resistor after 1 time constant.


VS = 20V. After 1TC the voltage will have reached 632% of this
value. Therefore VR = 732V

d.

the maximum circuit current.


The current is a maximum the instant the switch is moved. At that
time VS is across the resistor, so I = V/R = 20/900 = 222mA.

e.

the energy stored in the electric field when the capacitor is fully
charged.
Energy = CV2 = x 100 x 10-6 x 202 = 20mJ.

120. For the previous question above, sketch a graph to show the circuit current
and the voltage across the capacitor with respect to time when the switch is
moved to position A.

This example is not in the work book. It is intended to demonstrate that


you MUST use the fact that QT = Q1 = Q2 = Qn, or inverse ratios to
determine the voltage drops across series capacitors. You CANNOT simply
use the ratio of the capacitor values.

Using QT = Q1 = Q2 = Qn (CORRECT and preferred method)


Take three capacitors: 100F, 200F and 10nF connected across a 400 Volts
power supply.
= + +
CTOT = 99985 x 10-9 F or 99985nF
and QTOT = 99985 x 10-9 x 400 = 39994 x 10-6 C
Now Q = CV

Q1 = C1V1

and V1 =

But QTOT = Q1 = Q2 = Q3 (series connected capacitors).


So V1 =
and V2 =

and V3 =

V1 = = 0039994 volts
V2 = = 0019997 volts
V3 = = 39994 volts
Finally you should confirm your calculations by adding these 3 voltages
together and ensuring the total equals the supply voltage.
Using straightforward ratios (INCORRECT)
100F : 200F : 10nF

is

10 000 : 20 000 : 1 The Total of which is 30 001.

1 part equals = 0013332888 or the voltage across the 10nF capacitor


10 000 parts equals 10 000 x 0013332888 = 133328889 (V across 100F)
and 20 000 parts equals 20 000 x 0013332888 = 266657778 (V across 200F)
If these voltages are added, you will see they also add up to 400 volts (the supply
voltage), but the answers are wrong. This should be spotted straight away,
because the largest voltage is across the largest capacitor, which is wrong.
If you intend to use ratios, you must use inverse ratios.
Inverse ratios (CORRECT)
That is : :

which is 10 000 : 5000 : 100000000

or 2 : 1 : 20 000.

1 part now equals = 0019997


V1 = 2 times this value = 0039994 volts
V3 = 20 000 times this value = 39994 volts
V2 = 1 times this value = 0019997 volts
If these are added together, the total is 400 volts (the supply voltage). If you
compare the answers with the previous two sets, you will see they are the same
as the first answers, which are also correct.

14 Magnetism
121.

Describe the domain theory of magnetism.


In domain theory it is assumed that magnetic materials are composed of
tiny individual magnets called domains, a single domain is very small about 1012 atoms.
Considering each atom - orbital electrons not only orbit the nucleus but
spin axially on their own axis.
In non magnetic materials the same number of electrons spin clockwise as
anti-clockwise. In magnetic materials more electrons spin one way than
the other way
The unbalanced spin creates twists called magnetic moments.
In unmagnetised state the moments of the electrons are in the same
direction in a single domain, but the domains produce random pockets of
magnetism.
As the magnetic material becomes magnetised the domains become
partially aligned. In fully magnetised material all domains become fully
aligned

122.

Explain how lines of flux can be demonstrated to a group of students.


Magnet, paper and iron filings.

123. Describe the Earths magnetic field and explain the terms dip and
variation.
124. Describe one use for a hard iron material and one use for a soft iron
material. Explain how the materials magnetic properties are exploited.
Hard magnetic materials are difficult to magnetise BUT retain most of their
magnetism once the magnetising force has been removed Used for
Permanent magnets eg Titanium & Copper, Aluminium
Soft magnetic materials are more easily magnetised BUT loose their
magnetism relatively quickly once the magnetising force has been
removed. Used for Electromagnets eg Stalloy & Mumetal
125.

Explain how components can be shielded from magnetic fields.

Surrrounding them with soft iron material, which has a lower reluctance
than air and has a low reluctance value, hence the lines of flux concentrate
in the soft iron rather than the equipment being screened
126. Explain why might it be necessary to shield components from magnetic
fields.
Two reasons. The component may induce emfs in other components, or
other components may induce emfs in it. The shielding will contain flux
within the shield, or prevent flux from outside the shield getting inside.

15 Electromagnetism
127. Describe the field around two adjacent current carrying conductors if the
currents are flowing in opposite direction.
128. Explain how the right hand gripping rule and end rule can be used to
determine the magnetic north end of a coil
129. A coil of 200 turns is wound uniformly in the form of a toroid with an air
core. The mean circumference is 60cm and the uniform cross-sectional are is
5cm2. If the current flowing in the coil is 4 amps, calculate the:
a.

Magnetising force
1333 At/m

b.

Flux density
1.68 mT

c.

Total flux
084 Wb

Worked solution to electromagnetism question above.


mmf = 200 x 4 = 800At
H = = = 133333 At/m
B=

S = =

So mmf(0 r A) = x length
=
0 = 4 x 10-7 H/m and r Air = 1
=
= 083776 x 10-6 Wb
B =

= 16755 x 10-3 Tesla

130. The air gap in a certain magnetic circuit is 01cm long and has a crosssectional area of 30 cm2. If 600 AT are available to produce flux, calculate the flux
density in the air gap.
0755T
131. An iron ring has a mean diameter of 50 cm and a cross-sectional area of
10cm2. 500 turns of wire are uniformly wound on the ring and a flux of 125mWb
is produced by a current of 2 amps. Calculate the relative permeability of the
iron.
1560
132. An air gap in a magnetic circuit is 012cm long and has a cross-sectional
area of 25cm2. Calculate the reluctance of the air gap, the number of ampereturns to send a flux of 800Wb across the gap and the magnetising force H in the
gap.
382000 At/Wb, 306 At, 255000 At/m
133. A coil of 300 turns is wound on an iron ring having a mean circumference
of 40cm and a cross-sectional area of 5cm 2. The coil has a resistance of 8 and
is connected to a 20V d.c. supply. Taking r = 900, calculate:
a.

mmf
750 At

b.

magnetising force
1875 At/m

c.

total flux
106 mWb

d.

Flux density
212 T

e.

Reluctance of the ring


707000 At/Wb

134. An iron ring of mean circumference 50cm has an air gap of 01cm and is
wound with a coil of 120 turns, If the relative permeability for the iron is 350 when
a current of 25 amps flows in the coil, calculate the flux density.
264mT
135. A steel ring has a mean diameter of 20cm and a cross-sectional area of
1.5cm2 broken by a parallel sided air gap of length 05cm. Taking r = 500,
calculate the current necessary in 3000 turns of wire wound on the ring to
produce a flux density of 05 Tesla in the air gap and the total flux in the steel ring.
830mA, 75Wb
136. A steel ring having a mean diameter of 35cm and a cross-sectional area of
24cm2 is broken by a parallel sided air gap of length 12cm. Short pole pieces of
negligible reluctance extend the effective cross-sectional area of the air gap to
12cm2. Taking r = 700 and neglecting leakage, determine the current necessary
in 300 turns of wire wound on the ring to produce a flux density in the air gap of
025 Tesla.
13.17 Amps
Worked solution to Electromagnetism question above
mmf = x S and

mmf = I x N

300 x I = (SSTEEL + SAIR)


= BAIR x AAIR

from B =

= 025 x 12 x 10-4
= 3 x 10-4 Wb
SSTEEL = =
SAIR = =

= 521 x 106 At/Wb


= 796 x 106 At/Wb

300 x I = 3 x 10-4 x (521 x 106 + 796 x 106)


I = = 1317 Amps

137. A steel ring having a mean diameter of 25cm and a cross-sectional area of
12cm2 is broken by a parallel sided air gap of length 16cm. Short pole pieces of
negligible reluctance extend the effective cross-sectional area of the air gap to
10cm2. Taking r = 600 and neglecting leakage, determine the current necessary
in 3000 turns of wire wound on the ring to produce a flux density in the air gap of
05 Tesla.
36 Amps

16 Induction & Inductors


138. The current flowing in a 200 mH inductor is changing at a rate of 10 amps
per second, calculate the back emf in the coil.

This is mutual inductance SO: E Lx

Remember:

dl
dt

dl
= the rate of change of current
dt

So: E 200 x10 3 x10 Amps =2


However as this Back EMF answer is -2 volts
139. Two inductors of 100mH each are connected in series aiding. What is the
total inductance if the coupling factor is:
a.

Zero

To calculate Inductors in series and aiding L1+L2+2M


M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

So: 100+100 = 200+ 2 x (0

100 x100

= 200mH
b.

0707

To calculate Inductors in series and aiding L1+L2+2M


M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

So: 100+100 = 200 + 2x (.707

100 x100

=341mH
c.

one

To calculate Inductors in series and aiding L1+L2+2M


M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

So: 100+100 = 200 + 2x (1

100 x100

400mH
140. A 100mH inductor is connected in series aiding with a 300mH inductor.
What is the total inductance if the coupling factor is:
a.

025
487mH

b.

05
573mH

c.

095
730mH

141. A 100mH inductor is connected in series opposing with a 200mH inductor.


What is the total inductance if the coupling factor is:
a.

025

To calculate Inductors in series and apposing L1+L2-2M


M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

So: 100+200 = 300 - 2 x (.25

100x 200

) =70.71mH

= 229.2mH
b.

0707

To calculate Inductors in series and apposing L1+L2-2M


M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

So: 100+200 = 300 - 2 x (.707


= 100.03mH

100x 200

) = 199.96mH

c.

095

To calculate Inductors in series and apposing L1+L2-2M


M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

So: 100+200 = 300 - 2 x (.95

100x 200

) = 268.70

= 31.29mH
142. If two similar inductors (coils) are lying at 90 degrees to each other, what
value of coupling factor would you expect?
Zero
143. A 100mH inductor is connected in parallel with a 60mH inductor and
positioned so that no mutual coupling exists between them. Calculate the total
inductance.
To calculate Inductors in parallel and aiding
M (Coupling factor) =
So:

1
1
1

+2M
LT
L1 L 2

L1xL 2

1
1
1

= 37.5mH+ 2 x (0 100x60 )
LT 100 60

375mH
144. A 100mH inductor is connected in parallel with a 60mH inductor and
positioned so that a mutual opposing coupling exists between them of 0.6.
Calculate the total inductance.

To calculate Inductors in parallel and opposing


M (Coupling factor) =

L1xL 2

1
1
1

-2M
LT
L1 L 2

So:

1
1
1

= 37.5mH - 2 x (0.3 100x60 ) = 23.23Mh


LT 100 60

=14.27mH
145. Two 200mH inductors are connected in parallel and positioned so that no
mutual coupling exists between them. Calculate the total inductance.
100mH

17 Inductors in DC Circuits
146. Q1. A 100mH inductor is connected in series with a 500 resistor
across a 20 volt power supply.
a.

Calculate the circuit time constant.


200S

b.

Calculate how long will it take for the circuit current to reach its
maximum value.

(1mS 5 times the time constant)


c.

Calculate the voltage across the resistor after 1 time constant.


1264 volts

d.

Calculate the maximum value to which the current will rise.


40mA

e.

Show that at the instant the switch is closed, the back-emf produced
by the inductor is equal to the supply voltage.
-L = -100 x 10-3 x = -20 volts and see notes.

f.

Calculate the energy stored in the magnetic field when the current
has reached its maximum value.
80J

147.

With reference to Figure 2. A


60mH inductor is connected in
series with a 900 resistor,
across a 12 volt power supply.
a.

Sketch a graph to show


the circuit current with
respect to time when the
switched is moved to
position A.

Figure 1

b.

Sketch a graph to show the voltage across the inductor with respect
to time when the switched is moved to position A.

c.

Sketch a graph to show the voltage across the inductor when the
switch is moved directly from position A to position B.

d.

Sketch a graph to show the circuit current when the switch is moved
directly from position A to position B.

(although only a sketches are required, graphs should be accurate at


points where calculations can be made)
148. A 10mH inductor is connected in series with a 36k resistor across a 14V
power supply, calculate the:
a.

circuit time constant.


27S

b.

maximum circuit current.


39mA

c.

circuit current after 1 time constant.


2.5mA

d.

voltage across the inductor after 1 time constant.


52 volts

e.

energy stored in the magnetic field when the current has reached its
maximum value.
195 x 10-6 J

149. A 15mH inductor is connected in series with a 470 resistor across a 12


volt power supply, calculate the:
a.

circuit time constant.


32S

b.

circuit current after 1 time constant.


16mA

c.

voltage across the resistor after 1 time constant.


7.6V

d.

energy stored in the magnetic field when the current has reached its
maximum value.
49J

150. When an inductor of unknown value was connected across a 12 volt power
supply, the current settled at 300mA after 200mS. Calculate the:
a.

resistance of the inductor.


40

b.

circuit time constant.


40mS

c.

voltage across the inductor after 1 time constant.


4416 volts

151. If an ideal capacitor was fully charged on a power supply and then
connected across an ideal inductor. Explain what would happen. (an ideal
capacitor has no inductance or resistance and an ideal inductor has no
capacitance or resistance)
The capacitor discharges through the inductor creating a magnetic field.
When the capacitor is discharged the magnetic field collapses producing a
back-emf that charges the capacitor again. With no resistance, there is no
loss. Therefore the cycling would continue indefinitely.
152. A real capacitor is fully charged on a power supply and then connected
across an actual inductor. Explain what happens.
153. Explain how a coil, connected into 24 volt d.c. circuit, could produce a back
emf of 2000 volts.
When switch opened.
TC = L/R
but R is infinite and therefore the time-constant is zero.
The current and field collapse instantly.
Back-emf is proportional to .
If is infinite then the back-emf must be infinite.