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# Q.

## Ans:- STATISTI CS-

Statistics, the scientific discipline that deals with the collection, classification,
analysis, and interpretation of numerical facts or data, was invented primarily in the
nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Western Europe and North America. In the eighteenth
century, when the term came into use, "statistics" referred to a descriptive analysis of the
situation of a political state-its people, resources, and social life. In the early nineteenth
century, the term came to carry the specific connotation of a quantitative description and
analysis of the various aspects of a state or other social or natural phenomenon. Statistical
concept and statistical thinking enable them to:-

Making
Collecting
Inference
Statistic
Descriptive
Inferential
Organizing
Hypothesis
StatisticsTesting
s
Statistics
Summarizingrelationship
Determining
Presenting
Marking Predictions

## ➢ Support their decisions,

➢ Reduce guesswork.

DIVISION S IN STATISTI CS

Statistics is used for various purposes. It’s used to simplify mass data and to make
comparisons easier. It’s also used to bring out trends and tendencies in the data as well as
the hidden relations between variables. All this helps to make decision making much easier.
Let us look at each function of statistics in detail.

## 1) Statistics simplifies mass data- the use of statistical concepts helps in

simplification of complex data. Using statistical concept, the manager can make
decisions more easily. The statistical methods help in reducing the complexity of
the data and consequently in the understanding of any huge mass of data.
2) Statistics makes comparison easier- Without using statistical methods and
concepts, collection of data and comparison can’t be done easily. Statistics helps
us to compare data collected from different sources. Grand totals, measures of
central tendency, measures of dispersion, graphs and diagrams, coefficient of
correlation all provide ample scopes for comparison.

3) Statistics brings out trends and tendencies in the data- After data is
collected, it’s easy to analyse the trend and tendencies in the data by using the
various concepts of Statistics.

## 4) Statistics bring out the hidden relations between variables- Statistical

analysis helps in drawing inferences on data. Statistical analysis brings out the
hidden relations between variables.

## 5) Decision making power becomes easier- With the proper application of

Statistics and statistical software packages on the collected data, managers can
take effective decisions, which can increase the profit in a business.

## A statistical survey is a scientific process of collection and analysis of numerical data.

Statistical survey are use to collect numerical information about units in population. Surveys
involve asking questions to individuals. Surveys of human populations are common in
government, health, social science and marketing sectors.

## Stages of Statistical Survey-

Statistical surveys are categorized into two stages- Planning and Execution.

Statistical Survey

Planning Execution

## 1) Planning a Statistical Survey- The relevance and accuracy of data obtained in a

survey depends upon the care exercised in planning. A properly planned investigation can
lead to best result with least cost and time.

## A. Nature of the problem to investigate should be clearly defined in an unambiguous

manner.
B. Objective of investigation should be stated at the outset objectives
could be to:
➢ Obtain certain estimates
➢ Establish a theory
➢ Verify an existing statement
➢ Find relationship between characteristics

## A. The scope of investigation has to be made clear. The scope of

investigation refers to the area to be covered, identification of units to be studied,
nature of characteristics to be observed, accuracy of measurements, analytical
methods, time, cost and other resources required.

## B. Whether to use data collected from primary or secondary source

should be determination in advance.

## C. The organization of investigation I the final step in the process. It

encompasses the determination of the number of investigators required, their
training, and supervision work needed funds required.

## 1) Execution of Statistical Survey- Control methods should be adopted at every

stage of carrying out the investigation to check the accuracy, coverage, methods of
measurements, analysis and interpretation.

## The collected data should be edited, classified, tabulated and presented in

diagrams and graphs. The data should be carefully and systematically analysed and
interpreted.

## Q3.Tabulate the following data:

Age: 20-40; 40-60;60-above
Departments: English, Hindi, Political science, History, sociology
Degree level: Graduates, Post graduates; PhD,
Total students in age group and in degree level.
Depart- Age Total
ment

## Graduat Post phD Graduat Post phD Graduat Post phD

es graduat es graduat es graduat
es es es

English 10 20 40 10 15 5 12 14 7 133

Hindi 10 30 10 12 14 7 10 14 5 112

Po- 15 10 19 8 12 6 0 15 7 92
science

History 10 25 10 5 21 10 0 12 5 98

Sociolog 15 15 10 8 30 20 15 7 6 126
y

## Total 60 100 89 43 92 48 37 62 30 561

Ans-

Q.4 The data given below is the distribution of employed of a business according
to their efficiency. Find the mean deviation and coefficient of mean deviation
from Mean and Median.

Interval (f) (x)

## 38-42 2 40 80 11.7 23.4

Σf = 82 Σfx= 2320 Σf dX = 235.4

frequency

## 22-26 25 25 24 3.82 95.5

26-30 35 Fc 60 28 0.18 63

Σ f(dm) =
286.46

## Median = L +n2- Cf(p)Fc×C.I.

Where,
L = Lower limit of median class = 26
Cf(p) = Cumulative frequency up to previous class = 25
Fc = Frequency of class = 35
C.I. =Width of class interval = 4

## 2) ∴ Median = 26 +41-2535×4 = 27.82

Mean Deviation (Median) = f ІdmІN

## Q. 5 What is conditional probability? Explain with an example. CONDITIONAL

PROBABILITY

Conditional probability is the probability of some event A, given the occurrence of some
other event B. Conditional probability is written P(A|B), and is read "the (conditional)
probability of A, given B" or "the probability of A under the condition B". When in a random
experiment the event B is known to have occurred, the possible outcomes of the experiment
are reduced to B, and hence the probability of the occurrence of A is changed from the
unconditional probability into the conditional probability given B.

Two events A and B are said to be dependent when B can occur only when A is
known to have occurred or vice versa. The probabilities associated with such event are
called conditional probabilities.

The probabilities of the occurrence of the event A when the event B has already occurred is
called the conditional probability of occurrence of A given that the event B has already
occurrence and is denoted by P(A/B).

Example:- A pair of dice is rolled. If the sum of 9 has appeared, find the probability that one
of the dice shows 3.

## Solution:- The equiprobable sample space consisting of 36 sample points.

The event A = The sum of the scores is 9 has four sample points (6,3), (5,4), (4,5), (3,6), and
its reduced sample space.

Under the assumption that A has happened, the event B = one of the dice shows 3 has only
two sample points, that is (B∩A) = [(3,6),(6,3)].

## ∴PA∩B= n(A∩B)n(S)=236, and PA= n(A)n(S)= 436

=2/364/36=24= 1/2