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STUDY GUIDE

FACULTY OF APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES

AMCA5103
Psychological Testing

Copyright Open University Malaysia (OUM)

STUDY GUIDE

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

FACULTY OF APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES

STUDY GUIDE
AMCA5103
Psychological Testing

First Edition (January 2011)


Prepared by

Noor Azzamsyah Mohamed

Developed by

Centre for Instructional Design and Technology,


Open University Malaysia

Copyright Open University Malaysia (OUM)


All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form or by any means
without the written permission of the President, Open University Malaysia.

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STUDY GUIDE

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

INTRODUCTION TO STUDY GUIDE


This Study Guide is intended for the Open University Malaysia AMCA 5103
Psychological Testing. It comes in FOUR parts, as described below:
The Course Guide offers an overview of the course. More specifically, it
provides you with the synopsis of the course, the course aims, the learning
outcomes to be achieved and the course load. It also explains how the
learning guide is organised.
The Course Resources section provides a brief description of the
recommended textbook(s) to be used in the course. The students must read
the recommended textbook(s) to fulfill the requirements of the course. It also
lists the essential references which the students should read.
The Assessment Guide gives you information about the assessment
format, course assignment questions and final examination questions. The
assessment criteria are also explained. Samples of assignment and final
examination questions are provided in appendices.
The Learning Guide tells you what you need to learn in order to achieve the
learning outcomes at the end of the course. To realise these outcomes, the
guide include a list of topics and focus areas to be covered during the course.
For each topic, there is also a list of assigned readings that form the basis of
reading for the course. To test your understanding and consolidate your
learning, the guide provides some study questions at the end of the guide.
The Study Guide also provides a section on Learning Support and a section
on Study Paths for Success in the Course.
Please ensure that you have all the materials in the Study Guide at the start
of the course and do read through the entire guide at the beginning of the
course.

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Psychological Testing

Contents
Course Introduction..................................................................................... 05
Course Synopsis ................................................................................ 05
Course Aims....................................................................................... 05
Learning Outcomes for the Course .................................................... 05
Course Load....................................................................................... 06
Learning Guide Overview................................................................... 06
Course Resources ....................................................................................... 07
Set Textbook(s) .................................................................................. 07
Essential References ......................................................................... 08
Extra Recommended Reading (Optional) .......................................... 08
Assessment Guide....................................................................................... 09
Assessment Format ........................................................................... 09
Final Examination Question(s) ........................................................... 09
Assignment Question(s) ..................................................................... 10
Additional Guidelines ......................................................................... 11
Plagiarism .......................................................................................... 11
Do No Plagiarise ................................................................................ 11
Avoiding Plagiarism............................................................................ 12
Documenting Sources ........................................................................ 12
Referencing ........................................................................................ 13
Learning Guide
Topic 1 ............................................................................................... 14
Topic 2 ............................................................................................... 16
Topic 3 ............................................................................................... 17
Topic 4 ............................................................................................... 18
Topic 5 ............................................................................................... 20
Topic 6 ............................................................................................... 21
Topic 7 ............................................................................................... 22
Topic 8 ............................................................................................... 24
Topic 9 ............................................................................................... 25
Topic 10 ............................................................................................. 27
Topic 11 ............................................................................................. 29
Topic 12 ............................................................................................. 30
Topic 13 ............................................................................................. 31
Appendix A: Sample Assignment Question(s) ............................................. 32
Appendix B: Sample Final Examination Format ........................................... 33
Appendix C: Learning Support ..................................................................... 34
Appendix D: Study Path for Success in the Course ..................................... 36

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STUDY GUIDE

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

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STUDY GUIDE

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

COURSE INTRODUCTION
Course Synopsis
This course covers the fundamentals of testing and measurement, the
types of tests, issues and problems in testing. Topics covered include test
construction, item analysis, reliability, validity and norm. The evaluation and
interpretation of test data in practical situations and the role of testing in
clinical, educational and remedial settings will also be discussed. The first
part will introduce to students a general introduction of the course material
with an emphasis on understanding statistical concepts related to test
construction and the psychometric properties of test scores. The remainder of
the course will provide students with knowledge about the various types of
psychological assessment instruments and measures.

Course Aims
The broad aims of this course are to:
1.

Expose learners to the theory and technique of administering, scoring,


and interpreting psychological tests;

2.

Provide learners with knowledge about the basic psychometric


principles underlying all types of psychological tests;

3.

Expose learners to some issues in administering, scoring, and


interpreting tests that are typically used in standard psychological
assessments; and

4.

Provide the learners with hands-on experiences in developing standard


psychological tests.

Learning Outcomes for the Course


At the completion of this course, it is expected that you will be able to:
1.

Discuss the basic concept of psychological testing;

2.

Describe the statistical concepts underlying measurement, reliability and


validity;

3.

Identify critical analyses of selected intelligence, ability and personality


tests;

4.

Apply the knowledge of various techniques for psychological testing;

5.

Identify several professionally developed tests; and

6.

Develop, administer, and interpret psychological tests.


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STUDY GUIDE

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Psychological Testing

Course Load
You are required to accumulate 40 hours of study for every credit hour.
Therefore, for a three-credit hour course as this one, you are expected to
spend at least 120 hours on self learning. Table 1 shows you an estimation of
how the accumulation of 120 hours could be achieved.
Table 1: Allocation of Study Hours.

Activities

No of Hours

Reading the module and completing the exercises

60

Attending 5 seminar sessions ( 3 hours for each session)

15

Engage in online discussion

15

Completing assignment

20

Revision

10

Total

120

Learning Guide Overview


It is important to know that this STUDY GUIDE is organised around a number
of TOPICS, LEARNING OUTCOMES, FOCUS AREAS and ASSIGNED
READINGS. This is in illustrated in Figure 1.
LEARNING GUIDE

TOPICS

Learning
Outcomes

Focus
Area

Assigned
Readings

Figure 1: Organisation of the Learning Guide


First, to enable you to achieve the three learning outcomes for the course,
(13) different TOPICS are included in the Study Guide. Each of topic is to be
covered in depth, based on readings from the assigned textbook and
supplementary materials for the course. You are expected to spend about
15 hours of learning time on each topic. Ideally, one to two topic should be
covered during each seminar.

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Psychological Testing

Second, each topic comprises a number of LEARNING OUTCOMES,


FOCUS AREAS and ASSIGNED READINGS. Each topic is guided by topicrelated learning outcomes which essentially tell you what ought to be
achieved at the end of a topic. The focus areas demonstrate sub-topics that
are to be learnt, understood, applied and evaluated through deliberation.
Additionally, these focus areas will be covered in the assignment and the
examination for the course.
Finally, assigned readings cover the core content for each topic: you will have
to read all of what is assigned not only to learn more about various models
and strategies recommended by researchers, but also to make important
decisions about which model applies to your own teaching-learning context.
An important point to be raised here is that while the selected topics for the
course AMCA5103 cover a substantial amount of information, your readings
and deliberations should not be limited to these topics or to the assigned
readings. The assigned readings and the focus areas merely tell you about
core content, representing the minimum amount of information to cover.
As in all graduate courses, a wide selection of readings is recommended for a
full understanding of the area. It would be worth your while to read the
recommended texts and to search OUMs digital library for other books and
articles related to the course.
The pages that follow outline a list of topics and related learning outcomes,
focus areas as well as assigned readings for the course. Throughout the
duration of the course, your course facilitator will use these topics as a
guide for all face-to-face interaction, class participation and group or online
discussion. At the end of the course, your knowledge and comprehension of
the areas under these topics will be assessed.

COURSE RESOURCES
Set Textbook(s)
Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2001). Psychological testing: Principles,
applications, and issues (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

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Essential References
Aiken, L. R., & Marnat, G. G. (2006). Psychological testing and assessment
(12th ed.). Pearson Publication.
Cohen, R. J., Swerdlik, M. E. (2005). Psychological testing and assessment:
An introduction to tests and measurement (6th ed.). Boston: McGrawHill.

Extra Recommended Reading (Optional)


Groth, M. G. (2003). Handbook of psychological assessment (4th ed.).
New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Condon, M. E., Hollis-Sawyer, L. A., & Thornton, G. C. (2002). Exercises in
psychological testing.
Murphy, K. R., & Davidshofer, C. O. (2000). Psychological Testing: Principles
and applications (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Psychological Testing

ASSESSMENT GUIDE
Assessment Format
FORMAT A (50% Final Examination and 50% Coursework)
Components
Final Examination

Marks Weightage/Description

50%

Duration of Examination: 3 hours

Questions are based on application, analysis and


synthesis

ALL are Essay questions

NO objective/Multiple Choice Questions or TrueFalse questions

Question-Type

Coursework

Part A:

Two (2) essay questions. Answer ALL.

(20 marks 2 = 40 marks)

Part B:

Five (5) essay questions. Answer three (3).

(20 marks 3 = 60 marks)

50%

Assignment based

One (1) assignment only

Final Examination Question(s)

The exam questions should take the form of essay which requires learner
to construct their responses using their own words, rather than select
their responses among alternatives.

Only essay questions are preferred because they are considered more
capable of measuring complex cognitive skills befitting the requirements
of postgraduate studies.

The questions should therefore be pitched at application, analysis,


synthesis, or evaluation levels of the Blooms Taxonomy.

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The essay question-types to be used are as follows:

Part A: Long essay question (LEQ)

Part B: Short essay question (SEQ)

Refer to Appendix B for the sample of final examination papert.

Assignment Question(s)

There is only ONE assignment for this course. The assignment will focus
on the application of theories of psychological testing. The assignment
questions will be accessed from OUMs Virtual Learning Environment
(myINSPIRE). It is your responsibility to make sure that your assignment
reaches the facilitator within the specified time frame.

The objective of the assignments is mainly to give you an opportunity to


explore and analyse the human development in depth. You are
encouraged to think critically in your assignments, especially in the
application of theories in human development. The material for the
assignment can be found in the contents of the recommended textbook
and recent journals.

Refer to Appendix A for sample assignment question.

As a graduate student, you must demonstrate that you have read widely and
researched your topic well. It will NOT suffice to rely on information in the
assigned textbook or in the Course Guide to complete your assignment.
Using a variety of references will give you a broader perspective of the
various topics and will provide a deeper understanding of the subject.
The assignment will be assessed based on its content, structure and
thoughts or ideas presented in support of your argument. Nevertheless, you
are expected to write using correct spelling and grammar of English language
Make sure that the paper you submit shows evidence of the following:
(a)

Reflection: Critically reflect on issues raised in the course.

(b)

Deliberation: Consider and appreciate a range of viewpoints, including


those found in the course material.

(c)

Application: Develop your own view with regard to the application of


the concepts and focus areas covered in the course.

(d)

Argument: State your argument clearly and supporting it with


evidence(s) from review of related literature and research.

(e)

Integration: Draw on your own experiences and integrate them with the
information contained in the course topics.

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Psychological Testing

Additional Guidelines

Type your assignment on A4 paper using font 12 of Times New Roman.

Use 1.5 spacing between sentences

Submit a softcopy of your assignment on-line through myINSPIRE and a


hardcopy to your facilitator.

Avoid plagiarising other peoples work or else your assignment will be


rejected.

Plagiarism
Do Not Plagiarise
As a graduate learner, remember that your own thinking and the knowledge
you construct as a participant in a course is integral to learning. To succeed
in the course, you should never resort to plagiarism or copying at any level
whatsoever. Plagiarism refers to any form of deception in a written paper
(such as assignments or essays) by a learner. It is intended to deceive the
instructor about the learners abilities or knowledge or the amount of work
that is actually contributed by the learner. Here are some examples sourced
from a local site (www.ppl.upm.edu.my).
1.

Copying large sections of a paper from the internet or print sources and
not acknowledging these sections as quotations.

2.

Paraphrasing or restating someones argument without acknowledging


the author. Remember that detailed arguments from clearly identifiable
sources must always be acknowledged.

3.

Purchasing or buying essays or papers written by other learners.

4.

Taking credit for work produced by someone else. This includes


photographs, charts, graphs, drawings, statistics, video-clips, audioclips, verbal exchanges such as interviews or lectures, performances on
television and texts printed on the web.

5.

Taking double credit by submitting the same essay for two or more
courses.

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Avoiding Plagiarism
Here are some ideas from www.ppl.upm.edu.my for avoiding plagiarism in
your assignments and essays.
1.

Insert quotation marks around copy and paste clauses, phrases,


sentences or paragraphs and cite the original source.

2.

Paraphrase clauses, phrases, sentences or paragraphs in your own


words and cite your source.

3.

Adhere to the APA (American Psychological Association) stylistic


format, when citing a source and when writing out the bibliography or
reference page.

4.

Write independently without being overly dependent on information


from anothers original work. Read a text, put it away and then write
about what your have read in your own words.

5.

Educate yourself on what may be considered common knowledge (no


copyright necessary), public domain (copyright has expired or not
protected under copyright law), or copyright (legally protected).

Documenting Sources
Remember that when you quote, paraphrase, summarise or refer to
someones work you are required to cite the source. Here are some of the
most commonly cited forms of material (See www.jfklibrary.org,
library.duke.edu/research/citing and www.ppl. upm.edu.my).
Direct citation
using quotation
marks

Simply having a list of thinking skills is no assurance


that children will use it. In order for such skills to
become part of day-to-day behaviour, they must be
cultivated in an environment that value and sustains
them. Just as childrens musical skills will likely lay
fallow in an environment that doesnt encourage music,
learners thinking skills tend to languish in a culture that
doesnt encourage thinking (Tishman, Perkins and
Jay, 1995, p. 5).

Indirect Citation
using referential

According to Wurman (1988), the new disease of


the 21st century will be information anxiety, which has
been defined as the ever-widening gap between what
one understands and what one thinks one should
understand.

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Psychological Testing

Referencing
All sources that you cite in your paper should be listed in the REFERENCE
section at the end of your paper. Below are some suggestions, as listed in
library.fayschool.org/ Pages/Citation_Guide.htm
From a Journal

Brown, E. (1996). The lake of seduction: Silence,


hysteria, and the space of feminist theatre. JTD:
Journal of Theatre and Drama, 2, 175200.

From an Online
Journal

Evnine, S. J. (2001). The universality of logic: On the


connection between rationality and logical ability
[Electronic version]. Mind, 110, 335367. Retrieved
January 12, 2008, from PsyCARTICLES database.

From a
Webpage

National Park Service. (2003, February 11). Abraham


Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site. Retrieved
February 13, 2003, from http://www.nps.gov/abli/

From a Book

Fleming, T. (1997). Liberty! The American Revolution.


New York: Viking.

From an Article
in a Book

Cassel, J., & Zambella, B. (1996). Without a net:


Supporting ourselves in a tremulous atmosphere. In
T. W. Leonhardt (Ed.), LOEX of the West:
Teaching and learning in a climate of constant
change (pp. 7592). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.

From a Printed
Newspaper

Holden, S. (1998, May 16). Frank Sinatra dies at 82:


Matchless stylist of pop. The New York Times,
pp. A1, A22A23.

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Learning Guide
Topic 1:

Introduction

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Define the basic terms pertaining to psychological tests;

2.

Identify the basic principles of psychological testing;

3.

Identify the major developments in the history of psychological testing;


and

4.

Explain the relevance of psychological tests in contemporary society.


Focus Area

Assigned Readings
(Chapter 1 page 3 until page 23)

1.1

Basic concepts of psychological Tests

Page 39

1.2

Principles of psychological testing

Page 11

1.3

Application of psychological testing

Page 12

1.4

Issues of psychological testing

Page 12

1.5

Historical perspective

Page 1319

1.6

The emergence of new approaches to


psychological testing

Page 2123

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AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

Study Questions
1.

What are psychological tests?

2.

What is the main difference between an individual test and a group


test?

3.

How do structured personality tests differ from projective personality


tests?

4.

What is normative, or standardisation, and sample and why is such a


sample important?

5.

What kind of impact do the major developments in the history of


psychological testing have on our contemporary society?

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Topic 2:

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

Norms and Basic Statistics for Testing

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Discuss the four types of scales of measurement;

2.

Describe mean and standard deviation;

3.

Define Z score and explain how it is used; and


Focus Area

Assigned Readings
(Chapter 2 page 27 until page 61)

2.1

Scales of measurement

Page 2732

2.2

Frequency distributions

Page 33

2.3

Percentile ranks

Page 36

2.4

Percentiles

Page 39

2.5

Describing distributions

Page 4053

2.6

Norms

Page 5461

Study Questions
1.

Identify four types of scales of measurement and provide each with a


relevant example.

2.

Why are properties of scales important in the field of measurement?

3.

What methods are available for displaying distributions of scores?

4.

Define mean, mode, median, standard deviation, and Z score and relate
all these to the concept of standard normal distribution.

5.

How are norms created?

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Topic 3:

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

Correlation and Regression

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Demonstrate the extent to which two measures are associated;

2.

Define a positive correlation and a negative correlation;

3.

Discuss some of the differences between correlation and regression;


and

4.

Explain factor analysis.


Focus Area

Assigned Readings
(Chapter 3 page 64 until page 89)

3.1

The Scatter diagram

Page 64

3.2

Correlation

Page 65

3.3

Regression

Page 67

3.4

Correlation coefficient

Page 80

3.5

Terms and issues in the use of


correlation

Page 82

3.6

Multivariate analysis

Page 85

Study Questions
1.

Explain what a scatter diagram is and how it is used.

2.

What are the main differences between correlation and regression?

3.

How does the regression line describe the relationship between two
variables?

4.

Under which circumstances would you use the biserial correlation, the
phi coefficient, and the tetrachoric correlation? Discuss.

5.

Identify what is factor analysis and how it is used.

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Topic 4:

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

Reliability and Validity

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. Define the term and concept of reliabilty and validity;
2. Identify the difference types of reliabilty and validity;
3. Define cofficient alpha, reliability coefficient, and validity coefficient;
4. Demonstrate how reliability of behavioural observations is assessed; and
5. Demonstrate how to evaluate evidence for construct validity.
Area focus

Assigned Readings
(Chapter 4 page 98 until page 126)

4.1

Defining reliability

Page 99103

4.2

Models of reliability

Page 105113

4.3

Reliability in behavioural observation


study

Page 115126

(Chapter 5 page 132 until page 151)


4.4

Defining validity

Page 132

4.5

Aspects of validity

Page 133144

4.6

Relationship between reliability and


validity

Page 150151

Study Questions
1.

What is a measurement error and how does it interfere with scientific


studies in psychology?

2.

Explain the difference between test-retest reliability estimates and split


half reliability estimates.

3.

Discuss how high the reliability coefficient must be before a test is said
to be reliable.

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Psychological Testing

4.

Explain what can be done to increase the reliability of a test.

5.

List the different types of validity.

6.

Discuss the differences between predictive evidence and concurrent


criterion validity evidence.

7.

How do we evaluate evidence for construct validity?

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STUDY GUIDE

Topic 5:

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

Writing and Evaluating Test Items

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Describe the two types of item formats;

2.

Explain the types of measurement problems in which the Likert Scale


can beused;

3.

Describe the process of assessing item discriminability;

4.

Define an item characteristic curve; and

5.

Discuss some of the limitations of item analysis.


Focus Area

Assigned Readings
(Chapter 6 page 154 until page 175)

5.1

Item writing

Page 154162

5.2

Item analysis

Page 163

5.3

Item difficulty

Page 163

5.4

Discriminability

Page 165

5.5

Items for criterion-referenced tests

Page 173

5.6

Limitations of item analysis


Page 175

Study Questions
1.

How does dichotomous format differ from polytomous format?

2.

What are the main differences in characteristics between the likert and
category format?

3.

What are the processes of assessing item discriminability taken place?

4.

How can the item characteristic curve be used to find items that are
unfair to students who over studied?

5.

What are some of the limitations of item analysis for tests designed to
find specific learning problems?

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STUDY GUIDE

Topic 6:

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

Selection and Decision Analysis

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Discuss the proper methods for selecting a meaningful test;

2.

Explain the meaning of base rates in personnel selection;

3.

Identify the methods for estimating the amount of information a test


gives beyond what is known by chance; and

4.

Define incremental validity.


Focus Area

Assigned Readings
(Chapter 7 page 197 until page 196)

6.1

Test manual

Page 179

6.2

Base rates and hit rates

Page 181

6.3

Taylor-Russell tables

Page 185

6.4

Utility theory and decision analysis

Page 191

6.5

Incremental validity

Page 192

Study Questions
1.

What are the proper methods for selecting a meaningful test?

2.

What is the meaning of base rates in personnel selection?

3.

What are the three methods for estimating the amount of information a
test gives beyond what is known by chance?

4.

How do you define incremental validity?

5.

Discuss some of the problems with utility equation.

6.

List several sources


psychological tests.

that

contain

valuable

information

about

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Topic 7:

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

Test Administration

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Discuss the relationship between the examiner and the test taker;

2.

Explain the expectancy effect that might affect a test score;

3.

Differentiate between test performance and reinforcing response; and

4.

Identify characteristics of subjects that should be considered when a


test score is evaluated.
Focus Area

Assigned Readings
(Chapter 8 page 199 until page 214)

7.1

7.2

The examiner and the subject

Page 199

7.1.1

The examiner/test-taker
relationship

Page 199

7.1.2

The race and language of


test-taker

Page 200202

7.1.3

Training of test
administration

Page 203

7.1.4

Expectancy effects

Page 203

7.1.5

Effects of reinforcing
responses

Page 205

Behavioural assessment
methodology

Page 210

7.2.1

Reactivity and drift

Page 211212

7.2.2

Problems in rating Accuracy

Page 212

7.2.3

Statistical control of rating


errors

Page 213214

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STUDY GUIDE

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

Study Questions
1.

In what way does the relationship between the examiner and the test
taker affect a test score?

2.

How might an expectancy effect affect a test score?

3.

What are the differences between test performance and the reinforcing
of a particular response?

4.

What are some of the advantages of computer-assisted test


administration?

5.

List the characteristics of subjects that should be considered when a


test score is evaluated.

6.

What problems would you need to consider in training observers for a


behavioural study?

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Topic 8:

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

Interviewing Techniques

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Explain the difference between a structured and an unstructured


interview;

2.

Describe the role of the interviewers attitude in the interviewing


process;

3.

Identify some of the characteristics of effective interviewing;

4.

Identify the various sources of error in an interview; and

5.

Explain how interview skills are acquired and developed.


Focus Area

Assigned Readings
(Chapter 9 page 227 until page 250)

8.1

The interview as a test

Page 227

8.2

Reciprocal nature of interviewing

Page 228

8.3

Principles of effective interviewing

Page 229236

8.4

Types of interview

Page 238245

8.5

Developing interview skills

Page 247

8.6

Sources of error in the interview

Page 247250

Study Questions
1.

What is the difference between structured and unstructured interview?

2.

Why does the setting of the proper tone for an interview important?

3.

What are the roles of the interviewers attitude in the interviewing


process?

4.

What are some of the characteristics of effective interviewing?

5.

How does the empathy statement affect the interviewees response?

6.

What are the sources of error in the interview?

7.

How are interview skills acquired and developed?

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STUDY GUIDE

Topic 9:

AMCA5103

Psychological Testing

Applications of Psychological Tests

Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Define what is intelligence test;

2.

Differentiate between the concept of mental age (MA) and that of


intelligence quotient (IQ);

3.

Identify some of the major advantages and disadvantages of the


Wechsler Scales;

4.

Identify the differences between individual and group ability test;

5.

Discuss several ways work environment can affect behaviour; and

6.

Describe several methods of job analysis.


Focus Area

9.1

9.2

Assigned Readings

Intelligence tests and measurement


of intelligence
9.1.1

Binets IQ test

(Chapter 10 page 253 until page 275)

9.1.2

Wechsler s IQ test

(Chapter 11 page 278 until page 304)

9.1.3

Individual ability test

(Chapter 12 page 307 until page 334)

9.1.4

Group ability test

(Chapter 13 page 338 until page 369)

Tests for choosing careers

(Chapter 14 page 374 until page 402)

Study Questions
1.

How have Binet and other psychologists defined intelligence?

2.

State two of Binets guiding principles of test construction?

3.

How does age differentiation differ from intelligence quotient?

4.

What is the major motivation for the development of the Wechsler


Scales?

5.

How are IQ scores determined on the Wechsler Scales?

6.

What are some of the major advantages and disadvantages of the


Wechsler Scales?

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7.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the individual ability


tests?

8.

Identify six differences among the alternative individual ability tests.

9.

What are the main theories behind tests of learning disability?

10.

What is the main idea underlying the test for brain damage?

11.

How do we distinguish between group and individual ability tests?

12.

What are the major characteristics of group tests?

13.

Which factors contribute in determining the adequacy of the group


ability tests used for college and graduate school entrance?

14.

Why should one study the characteristics of work environment?

15.

What are the methods of job analysis?

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Topic 10: Structured and Projective Personality Tests


Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Identify the major characteristics of a structured personality test;

2.

Discuss the strategy used in the construction of the MMPI;

3.

Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the MMPI and MMPI-2;

4.

Define projective tests;

5.

Describe the Rorschach stimuli and Holtzman Inkblot test; and

6.

Identify the factors that should be considered in evaluating the TAT.


Focus Area

Assigned Readings
(Chapter 15 page 406 until page 439)

10.1

Strategies of structured personality


test construction

Page 406409

10.2

The logical-content strategy

Page 410411

10.3

The criterion group strategy

Page 411422

10.4

The factor-analytic strategy

Page 424427

10.5

The theoretical strategy

Page 428434

10.6

Combination strategy

Page 435436
(Chapter 16 page 444 until page 467)

10.7

Projective personality tests

Page 444

10.8

The Rorschach Inkblot test

Page 445453

10.9

The Holtzman Inkblot test

Page 458

10.10

The Thematic Apperception test


(TAT)

Page 458464

10.11

Nonpictorial projective procedure

Page 464467

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Study Questions
1.

What are the major characteristics of a structured personality test?

2.

What strategies are used in the construction of the MMPI?

3.

How would one use factor analysis to build structured personality tests?

4.

How do you define projective hypothesis?

5.

State the names of individuals who have played an important role in the
development of Rorschach Inkblot test?

6.

What are the pros and cons of using the Rorschach Inkblot test?

7.

How do we distinguish between Rorschach and Holtzman Inkblot test?

8.

What are the factors that should be considered in evaluating the TAT?

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Topic 11: Cognitive-Behavioural Assessment


Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Identify the differences between cognitive-behavioural assessment and


traditional assessment procedures;

2.

Describe cognitive-behavioural
conditioning;

3.

Identify the differences between cognitive-behavioural self-report and


traditional self-report techniques; and

4.

Explain psychophysical assessment.

assessment

Focus Area

based

on

operant

Assigned Readings
(Chapter 17 page 472 until page 490)

11.1

Cognitive behavioural assessment

Page 472482

11.2

Psycho-physiological procedures

Page 484485

11.3

Computer and psychological testing

Page 486489

Study Questions
1.

How does cognitive-behavioural assessment differ from traditional


assessment procedures?

2.

How do you define cognitive-behavioural assessment based on operant


conditioning?

3.

What are the main features of cognitive-behavioural self-report?

4.

What is psychophysical assessment?

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Topic 12: Testing in Health Psychology and Health Care


Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Define clinical neuropsychology tests;

2.

Identify several types of neuropsychological tests;

3.

Discuss the relationship among measures of coping, life stress, and


social support; and

4.

Explain the concept of a quality of life assessment.


Focus Area

Assigned Readings
(Chapter 18 page 493 until page 523)

12.1

Neuropsychological assessment

Page 494507

12.2

Anxiety and stress management

Page 510518

12.3

Quality of life assessment

Page 519523

Study Questions
1.

What are the important health care situations in which psychological


tests are used?

2.

How have neuropsychological instruments been used in both childhood


and adulthood?

3.

What are the main different features between Halstead-Reitan and Luria
Nebraska test battery?

4.

What is the relationship among measures of coping, life stress, and


social support?

5.

What is the concept of quality of life assessment?

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Topic 13: Issues in Psychological Testing


Learning Outcomes
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1.

Discuss some of the current controversies surrounding the use of


intelligence tests;

2.

Describe how different social, political and ethical viewpoints are


represented by different definitions of test fairness;

3.

Describe some of the problems with the criteria commonly used to


evaluate standardised tests;

4.

Describe how the courts are involved in the use of personnel tests;

5.

Identify human rights pertaining to testing;

6.

Identify some important responsibilities of test users and constructors;


and

7.

Identify the important current trends in the field of testing.


Focus Area

Assigned Readings

13.1

Test bias

(Chapter 19 page 530 until page 560)

13.2

Testing and the law

(Chapter 20 page 565 until page 597)

13.3

The future of psychological testing

(Chapter 21 page 600 until page 619)

Study Questions
1.

What are some of the current controversies surrounding the use of


intelligence tests?

2.

Why are social, political and ethical viewpoints represented by different


definitions of test fairness?

3.

What are some of the problems with the criteria commonly used to
evaluate standardised tests?

4.

How are the courts involved in the use of personnel tests?

5.

What are the human rights pertaining to testing?

6.

What are some important responsibilities of test users and


constructors?
What are the four important current trends in the field of testing?

7.

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Appendix A
Sample Assignment
AMCA5103 Psychological Testing
Assignment (50%)
Objective:
The purpose of this assignment is to develop learners ability to
demonstrate the use of psychological testing in career development.
In this assignment, you are required to identify any THREE types of career
assessments and discuss how does counsellor used these assessments
to help students to find their satisfying job in future?
Outcome:

Present the outcome of your work in the form of a single ESSAY


about (40005000 words). It is important to present a paper that
demonstrates consistent effort and thinking on your part.

provide your own title for your paper, write the aims of the paper
and use clear indicators or transition terms that demonstrate to the
reader that your paper is well organised.

Remember that an essay contains a beginning, middle and an


end; to ease reading you would have to clearly label the various
sections in your essay, e.g. Introduction in which you would like to
explain the reason why the theory was chosen.

DO NOT present your work in a series of bullet points or in the


paragraphs lifted directly from original articles. Paraphrase, write in
your own words and use words that make sense to you.

Copying only makes your writing choppy and does not show
coherence a point should not be overemphasised.

Note:
Please refer to MyINSPIRE for the current semester assignment question.

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Appendix B
Sample Final Examination Format
(Essay Question)
PART A
(i)

An Example of Long Essay Question (LEQ)


Psychological testing is an effective tool in measuring the attitude
and mental ability of individuals. It assesses the efficiency in
acquiring knowledge relevant to the job and putting what they learn
to practice.
Discuss the importance of psychological testing in vocations within
the public safety field.
[20 marks]

PART B
(ii)

An Example of Short Essay Question (SEQ)


External validity and internal validity are two important concerns in
experimental research.
(a)

Explain each type of validity clearly using an appropriate


example.
(10 marks)

(b)

Experimental research is usually strong in internal validity but


weak in external validity. Discuss.
(10 marks)
[20 marks]

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Appendix C
Learning Support
AMCA5103 Psychological Testing
Seminars
You will be provided with 15 hours of face-to-face seminars to assist you
in the course. There will be FIVE seminars of 3 hours each. You will be
notified of their dates, times and venues, together with the name and
e-mail address of your facilitator, as soon as you are allocated a group.

Discussion and Participation


Besides the face-to-face seminars, you have the support of online
discussions in myINSPIRE with your facilitator and your coursemates.
Your participation in the online discussion will greatly enhance your
understanding of the course content, and help you do the assignment and
prepare for the examination.

Feedback and Input from Facilitator


As you work on the activities and the assigned text, your course facilitator
will help you throughout the course. He or she will also mark your
assignment and give you feedback on your performance. Do not hesitate
to discuss your problems with your facilitator should the need arises.
The seminars and the online forum can also be used in any of the
following situations:

When you have difficulty with the contents of the textbook or if you do
not understand the assigned readings.

When you have a question or problem with the assignment.

Bear in mind that communication is important in enabling you to get the


most out of this course. Therefore you should, at all times, be in touch
with your facilitator and course-mates, and be aware of all the
requirements for successful completion of a course.

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The Digital Library


For the purpose of referencing materials and doing library-based research,
OUM has a comprehensive digital library. For this course you may use
the following databases: infotrac, proquest and ebsco. From time to time,
materials from these databases will be assigned for additional reading and
activities.

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Appendix D
Study Paths for Success in the Course
Time Commitments for Study
You should plan to spend about 15 hours of study time on each topic,
which includes the time spent doing all assigned readings and activities.
You must schedule your time to discuss the work online and spend
enough time on each topic for this course. It is often more effective to
distribute the study hours over a number of days rather than spending the
whole day studying one topic. You have some flexibility as there are
13 topics spread over a period of 15 weeks.

Study Strategy
The following is a proposed strategy for working through the course. If you
have difficulty following the strategy, discuss your problems with your
facilitator either through the online forum or during the seminars.
(i)

The most important step is to read the contents of this Course Guide
thoroughly.

(ii)

Organise a study schedule. Take note of the amount of time you


spend on each topic, as well as the dates for submission of the
assignment, seminars and examination.

(iii)

Once you have created a study schedule, make every effort to stick
to it. One reason students are unable to cope with post-graduate
courses is that they delay their course work.

(iv)

To understand the various dimensions of the course, do the


following:

Study the Course Overview and the entire list of topics. Then
examine the relationship of a topic to other topics.

Complete all assigned readings and go through the supplementary


texts to get a broad understanding of course content.

Do all activities and read the Scenarios in the assigned textbook to


understand the various concepts and facts presented in a topic.

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Draw ideas from a large number of readings as you prepare for


the assignments. Work on the assignments as the semester
progresses so that you are able to systematically produce a
commendable paper.

When you have completed a topic, review the Learning Outcomes for
the topic to confirm that you have achieved them and are able to do
what is required.

(vi) After completing all topics, review the course content to prepare for
the final assignment. Review the Learning Outcomes of the course
to see if you have covered all the relevant parts of the course.

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