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ECE 320

Energy Conversion and Power Electronics


Dr. Tim Hogan

Chapter 6: Induction Machines


(Textbook Sections 6.1-6.5)
Chapter Objectives
The popularity of induction machines has helped to label them as the workhorse of industry.
They are relatively easy to fabricate, rugged and reliable, and find their way into most applications.
For variable speed applications, inexpensive power electronics can be used along with computer
hardware and this has allowed induction machines to become more versatile. In particular, vector or
field-oriented control allows induction motors to replace DC motors in many applications.

6.1

Description
The stator of an induction machine is a typical three-phase one, as described in the previous
chapter. The rotor can be one of two major types either (a) it is wound in a fashion similar to that
of the stator with the terminals connected to slip rings on the shaft, as shown in Figure 1, or (b) it is
made with shorted bars.

Shaft
Slip
Rings
Rotor
Figure 1. Wound rotor, slip rings, and connections.
Figure 2 shows the rotor of such a machine, while the images in Figure 3 show the shorted bars
and the laminations.
The bars in Figure 3 are formed by casting aluminum in the openings of the rotor laminations. In
this case the iron laminations were chemically removed.

1- 1

Figure 2. (a) Cutaway view of a three-phase induction motor with a wound rotor and slip rings
connected to the three-phase rotor winding shown in Figure 6.1 in your textbook [1]. (b)
Cutaway view of a three-phase squirrel-cage motor as shown in Figure 6.3 in your textbook [1].

(a)

(b)

Figure 3. (a) The rotor of a small squirrel-cage motor. (b) The squirrel-cage structure
after the rotor laminations have been chemically etched away as shown in Figure 6.3 in
your textbook [1].

6.2

Concept of Operation
As these rotor windings or bars rotate within the magnetic field created by the stator magnetizing
currents, voltages are induced in them. If the rotor were to stand still, then the induced voltages
would be very similar to those induced in the stator windings. In the case of a squirrel cage rotor, the
voltage induced in a bar will be slightly out of phase with the voltage in the next bar, since the flux
linkages will change in it after a short delay. This is depicted in Figure 4.
If the rotor is moving at synchronous speed, together with the field, no voltage will be induced in
the bars or the windings.

1- 2

13

Bg

0.5

bar 1

3
2
1

e(t)

7 6
5

bar 2 bar 3

-0.5

-1

19

bar 7

50

(a)

100

150

200

250

300

350

(b)

Figure 4. (a) Rotor bars in the stator field and (b) voltages in the rotor bars.

Generally when the synchronous speed is s = 2f s , and the rotor speed 0, the frequency of the
induced voltages will be fr, where 2f r = s o . Maxwells equation becomes here:

G G
E = v Bg

(6.1)

G
G
where E is the electric field and v is the relative velocity of the rotor with respect to the field:

v = (s o )r

(6.2)

Since a voltage is induced in the bars, and these are short-circuited, currents will flow in them. The
G
current density J ( ) will be:
G
1 G
J ( ) = E
(6.3)

where is the resistivity of the bars.


These currents are out of phase in different bars, just like the induced voltages. To simplify the
analysis we can consider the rotor as one winding carrying currents sinusoidally distributed in space.
This will be clearly the case for a wound rotor. It will also be the case for uniformly distributed rotor
bars, but now each bar, located at an angle will carry different current, as shown in Figure 5(a).

1- 3

Bg

Bg

(a)

(b)

Figure 5. (a) Currents in rotor bars and (b) equivalent current sheet in the rotor.

J=

J ( ) =

(s o ) B g ( )

(s o )B g sin( )

The bars can also be replaced with a conductive cylinder as shown in Figure 5(b) with a
distributed current.
Slip, s, is defined as the ratio:
o
s= s

(6.4)

(6.5)

(6.6)

Thus at starting, the speed is zero and s = 1, and at synchronous speed, s = o and s = 0. Above
synchronous speed s < 0, and when the rotor rotates in a direction opposite of the magnetic field, then
s > 1.

Example 6.2.1
The rotor of a two-pole 3-phase induction machine rotates at 3300 (rpm), while the stator is fed
by a three-phase system of voltages at 60 (Hz). What are the possible frequencies of the rotor
voltages?
At 3300 (rpm):

o = 3300

2
= 345.6 (rad/s) while s = 377 (rad/s)
60

These two speeds can be in the opposite or the same direction such that:

r = s o = 377 345.6 (rad/s) = 722.58 (rad/s) or 31.43 (rad/s)


or fr = 115 (Hz) or fr = 5 (Hz)
1- 4

To better understand the currents induced in the squirrel cage as caused by the magnetic flux
density from the stator coils consider the simplified view of the squirrel cage in Figure 6. Adjacent
bars of the squirrel cage form a coil since the ends of the cage are electrically shorted and the largest
coils are formed by pairs of opposite side bars of the cage. The bars of the squirrel cage work
collectively to respond to any changing magnetic field. If the squirrel cage is rotating at the same
angular velocity as the stator magnetic flux density, then the loops of the squirrel cage experience a
constant magnetic field, and no current flows through the bars of the cage. Under this condition, no
magnetomotive force is generated by the squirrel cage and no torque on the rotor exists. The rotor
then begins to slow down relative to the stator magnetic field. As is does so, the magnetic flux
density for a given loop of the squirrel cage changes (some loops experiencing an increase in
magnetic flux density, and some loops experiencing a decrease in magnetic flux density). The
response to this change in magnetic field is a current that flows in the bars of the squirrel cage so as
to oppose this change in magnetic field. Since the stator magnetic field is sinusoidally distributed in
space around the rotor, and the most rapid change in this field is determined by its spatial derivative,
then as the squirrel cage slips with respect to s, the field from the rotor caused by this slip is
spatially oriented 90 with respect to the stator magnetic field (derivative of the cosine field
distribution).
For example, if the stator magnetic flux density is oriented from left to right as was shown in
Figure 5 and is rotating clockwise, then as a motor with s near zero (near synchronous speed s > 0)
the rotor is also rotating clockwise, but not quite as fast as the stator magnetic flux density. As this
slip occurs, the largest change in the field occurs from the top to the bottom of the squirrel cage or at
the zero magnetic field points of the stator field where the spatial slope of the stator field is largest.
As the slip occurs, the field through the squirrel cage, Bg in Figure 5, begins to rotate in a clockwise
fashion relative to the rotor. The largest change in field occurs in a direction from top to bottom of
the rotor and the coils of the squirrel cage collectively generate a counter magnetomotive force so as
to oppose the change in magnetic field. Thus current flows in the bars of the squirrel cage to generate
a counter field directed from bottom to top, or into the page on the right side, and out of the page on
the left as indicated in Figure 5.
B

s o

o
Figure 6. Squirrel cage isometric view.
1- 5

6.3

Torque Development
To calculate the torque on the rotor we use the following two equations:

F = Bli

and

T = F r

(6.7)

since the flux density is perpendicular to the current producing it. For the length of the conductor, l,
we will use the depth of the rotor. The thickness, de, of the equivalent conducting sheet shown in
Figure 5 is set equal to the total area of the bars of the squirrel cage.

A = nrotor bars

d 2 = 2rd e

(6.8)

n
d2
d e = rotor bars
8r

where d is the diameter of a single bar of the squirrel cage.


For a small angle d centered at a given angle , we find the contribution to the total force and
torque as:
dF = ( JdA) Bg l
dF = ( Jde rd )Bg
dT = rdF

(6.9)

2r 2ld e 2
B g (s o )
T=
dT =


=0

= 2

1
where Bg = B g sin ( ) and J ( ) = (s o )B g sin ( ) from equation (6.5) with equal to the

resistivity of the bars of the squirrel cage.


Using the relationship between flux density (or flux linkages), s, and the rotor voltage, Es, the
torque can be expressed as:
8 de 2
s (s o ) where s = Es
T =
(6.10)
N 2 l

s
s

where the stator voltage is related to the flux density as es = s

N slrBg . Focusing on the variables


2
of this equation we see the torque is proportional to the frequency of the rotor currents, (s o ) and
to the square of the flux density. This is so since the torque comes from the interaction of the flux
density, Bg, and the rotor currents, but the rotor currents are induced due to the flux, Bg, and the
relative speed (s o ) . Equation (6.10) gives torque as a function of more accessible quantities of
stator induced voltage, Es, and frequency s. This comes as a result of the simple and direct
relationship between stator induced voltage, flux (or flux linkages), and frequency.
B

1- 6

6.4

Operation of the Induction Machine near Synchronous Speed


We already determined that the voltages induced in the rotor bars are of slip frequency,
fr = (s - o)/2. At rotor speeds near synchronous, fr is small. The rotor bars in a squirrel cage
machine possess resistance and leakage inductance, but at very low frequencies (near synchronous
speed) we can neglect this leakage inductance. The rotor currents are therefore limited near
synchronous speed by the rotor resistance only.
The induced rotor-bar voltages and currents form space vectors. These are perpendicular to the
stator magnetizing current and in phase with the space vectors of the voltages induced in the stator as
shown in Figure 7.

is,m

ir
Bg

Figure 7. Stator magnetizing current, airgap flux, and rotor currents.


These rotor currents, ir, produce additional airgap flux, which is 90 out of phase of the
magnetizing flux. The stator voltage, es, is applied externally and is proportional to and 90 out of
phase with the airgap flux. Thus additional currents, isr, will flow in the stator windings in order to
cancel the flux due to the rotor currents. These additional currents are shown in Figure 8(a), and the
resulting stator current and space vectors are depicted in Figure 8(b).

is,m

Bg

(a)

is

is,r
ir

Bg

ir

is

(b)

Figure 8. Rotor and stator currents in an induction motor (a) Rotor and stator current
components (b) total stator current and space vector.

1- 7

i s,r

is

es
Bg

i s,m

ir
Figure 9. Space vectors of the stator and rotor current and induced voltages.

A few items to note from the above analysis:

isr is 90 ahead of the stator magnetizing current, is,m. This means that it corresponds to
currents in the windings i1r, i2r, i3r, leading by 90 the magnetizing currents i1m, i2m, i3m.
The amplitude of the magnetizing component of the stator current is proportional to the stator
frequency, fs, and induced voltage. On the other hand, the amplitude of this component of the
stator currents, isr, is proportional to the current in the rotor, ir, which is proportional to the flux
and slip speed, r = s o, or proportional to the developed torque.
The stator current of one phase, is1, can be split into two components. One in phase with the
voltage, isr1, and one 90 behind it, ism1. The first reflects the rotor current, while the second
depends on the voltage and frequency. In an equivalent circuit, this means that isr1 will flow
through a resistor, and ism1 will flow through an inductor.
Since isr1 is equal to the rotor current (through a factor), it will be inversely proportional to
s r, or better stated as proportional to s/(s r). The equivalent circuit for the stator
shown in Figure 10 reflects these considerations.

is,1
+
es

is,r
is,m

Xm

RR

s
s o

Figure 10. Equivalent circuit of one stator phase.

If the inductor motor is supplied with a three-phase, balanced sinusoidal voltage, then it is
expected that the rotor will develop a torque according to equation (6.10). The relationship between
speed, o, and torque near synchronous speed is shown in Figure 11. This curve is accurate as long
as the speed does not vary more than 5% around the rated synchronous speed, s.
1- 8

Figure 11. Torque-speed characteristics near synchronous speed.


As the speed exceeds synchronous, the torque produced by the machine is in the opposite direction to
the speed (i.e. the machine operates as a generator), developing a torque opposite to the rotation (or
counter torque) and transferring power from the shaft to the electrical system.
We already know the relationship of the magnetizing current, Ism, to the induced voltage, Esm,
through our analysis of the three-phase windings. Now we relate the currents, ir and isr to the same
induced voltage.
G
The current density, J , on the rotor conducting sheet is related to the air gap flux density as:
G 1
G
J = (s o ) Bg

(6.11)

This current density corresponds to a space vector ir that is opposite to the isr in the stator. This
current space vector will correspond to the same current density:
J = isr N s

1
rd

(6.12)

while the stator voltage es is also related to the flux density Bg. The amplitude of es is:
B

es = s

N s lrBg

(6.13)

Substitution of the relating phasors instead of space vectors in equation (6.11) we obtain:
Es = RR

s
I
s o sr

(6.14)

The torque is then three times (three phases) the power EsIsr over the stator speed or
Pg
E 2 1 s o
2
T =3 s
= 3 s r = 3
RR
s RR s
s

(6.15)

1- 9

where = (Es/s). Here Pg is the power transferred to the resistance RR

s
, through the
s o

airgap. Of this power a portion is converted to mechanical power represented by losses on the
resistance RR

o
, and the remaining is losses in the rotor resistance, represented by the losses
s o

on resistance RR. In Figure 12 this split in the equivalent circuit is shown; note the resistance
RR

o
can be negative, indicating that mechanical power is absorbed in the induction machine.
s o

is,1
+
es

is,r
is,m

RR
Xm
RR

o
s o

RR

s
s o

Figure 12. Equivalent circuit of one stator phase separating the loss and torque rotor
components.

6.4.1 Example
A 2-pole three-phase induction motor is connected in a Y configuration and is fed from a 60 (Hz),
208 (V) (l-l) system. Its equivalent one-phase rotor resistance is RR = 0.1125 (). At what speed
and slip is the developed torque 28 (Nm)?
2

V 1
r with Vs = 120 (V)
T = 3 s
s RR
2

1
120
28 = 3
r

377 0.1125
r = 10.364 (rad/s)

10.364
= 0.0275
s= r =
377
s
o = s r = 366.6 (rad/s)

1- 10

6.5

Leakage Inductances and Their Effects


In the previous discussion we assumed that all the flux crosses the airgap and links both the stator
and the rotor windings. In addition to this flux there are flux components which link only the stator
or the rotor windings and are proportional to the currents there, producing voltages in these windings
90 ahead of the stator and rotor currents and proportional to the amplitude of these currents and their
frequency.
This is a simple model for the stator windings, since the equivalent circuit we are using is for the
stator, and we can model the effects of this flux with an inductor added to the circuit. The rotor
leakage flux can be modeled in the rotor circuit with an inductance L1s, as well, but corresponding to
o
, the frequency of the rotor currents. Its effects on the stator can be
frequency of f r = s
2
modeled with an inductance L1r at frequency fs, as shown in the complete 1-phase equivalent circuit
in Figure 13.

X ls

Rs
+
Vs

I s,1

Xlr
+
Es

I s,m

I s,r

RR

Xm
RR

o
s o

RR

s
s o

Figure 13. Complete equivalent circuit of one stator phase including leakage flux contributions.

Here E s is the phasor of the voltage induced into the rotor windings from the airgap flux, while
Vs is the phasor of the applied 1-phase stator voltage. The torque equation (6.15) still holds here, but
give us slightly different results. We can develop torque-speed curves, by selecting speeds, solving
the equivalent circuit, calculating power Pg, and using equation (6.15) for the torque. Figure 14
shows the stator current per phase, torque for the three phase induction machine, and the power factor
as a function of o for o given as a percentage of s and ranging from negative values to greater
than s.

1- 11

200

I (A)

0.8

100
T (Nm)

0.6

pf

pf
-100

0.4

-200

0.2

s1

I (A), and T (Nm)

s1

-300
-50

50

100

0
150

(percent of synchronous speed)


o

Figure 14. Stator current (single phase), torque and power factor of an induction machine
vs. speed.

6.6

Operating Characteristics
Figure 14 shows the developed torque, current, and power factor of an induction machine over a
speed range from below zero (slip > 1 or braking region) to above synchronous (slip < 0 or generator
region). There are three regions of interest:
1. For speeds in the range 0 o s the torque is of the same sign as the speed, and the
machine operates as a motor. There are a few interesting points on this curve and on the
corresponding current and power factor curves.
2. For speeds in the range o 0, torque and speed have opposite signs, and the machine is
in breaking mode. Notice the current is very high, resulting in high winding losses.
3. For speeds in the range o s the speed and torque are of opposite signs and the
machine is in the generating mode.
These regions are identified on an extended plot of torque in Figure 15. If we consider the motor
operation region 0 o s the operating point is often designed to be near, or at, the point where
the power factor is maximized. It is for this point that the motor characteristics are given on the
nameplate, rated speed, current, power factor, and torque. When designing an application it is this
point that we have to consider primarily. Will the torque suffice? Will the efficiency and power
factor be acceptable?
Starting the motor is also of interest (where slip s = 1) where the torque is not necessarily high,
but the current often is. When selecting a motor for an application, we have to make sure this starting
torque is adequate to overcome the load torque which may also include a static component. In
1- 12

0
Breaking
region

Motor
region

Generator region

Generator

Torque

Motor

addition, the starting current is often 3-5 times the rated current of the machine. If the developed
torque at starting is not adequately higher than the load starting torque, their difference, called the
accelerating torque, will be small and it may take too long to reach the operating point. This means
that the current will remain high for a long time, and fuses or circuit breakers could have their limits
exceeded.

-100

-50

50

100

150

200

250

(percent of synchronous speed)


o

Figure 15. Stator torque vs. speed identifying three regions of operation.
A third point of interest is the maximum torque, Tmax, corresponding to speed Tmax. We can find
it by analytically calculating torque as a function of slip, and equating the derivative to zero. This
point is interesting, since speeds higher than this generally correspond to stable operating conditions,
while lower speeds generally correspond to unstable operating conditions. To study this point of
operation we use the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the left side of the circuit as seen looking into
terminal A-B in Figure 17.

Xls

Rs
+
Vs

I s,1

A
+
Es

I s,m

Xlr
I s,r

RR

Xm
RR

o
s o

RR

s
s o

B
Thevenin
Figure 16. Equivalent circuit for induction machine indicating terminals for
Thevenin equivalent circuit.
1- 13

XTH

R TH

+
VTH

Xlr

I s,r

RR

Es
RR

o
s o

RR

s
s o

B
Figure 17. Equivalent circuit for induction machine with the stator circuit
replaced with a Thevenin equivalent circuit.

We find
RTH + jX TH = (Rs + jX ls ) ( jX m ) =

( X ls + X m ) + jRs X m
Rs + j ( X ls + X m )

(6.16)

and
VTH = Vs

jX m
Rs + j ( X ls + X m )

(6.17)

Then from the circuit in Figure 17, we can find Is , r as:


Is, r =

VTH
R

RTH + R + j ( X TH + X lr )
s

(6.18)

where s is in the per unit system, that is s = (s o ) / s . From equation (6.15)


2 RR
VTH

3
3 2 RR 3
s
T=
Pg =
I s, r
=

2
s
s
s s
RR
2
R
+
TH
+ ( X TH + X lr )
s

(6.19)

This torque reaches a maximum as a slip, smaxT , that can be found by taking the derivative of
equation (6.19) and setting it equal to zero. When this is done we find:
RR
smax T

(RTH )2 + ( X TH + X lr )2

or
smax T =

(6.20)
RR

(RTH )2 + ( X TH + X lr )2
1- 14

This gives the maximum torque of:


Tmax =

2
VTH

(6.21)

2s R + R 2 + ( X + X )2
TH
TH
TH
lr

If the stator resistance is negligible, then RTH 0 and


T Tmax

(6.22)

s
+ max T
smax T
s
s

If we neglect both the stator resistance and the magnetizing inductance, we can find simple equations
for Tmax and Tmax. To do so, we must assume operation near synchronous speed, where the value of
RR

s
is much larger than sLlr.
s o

T max s
2

RR
Llr + Lls


3V 1
(s T max ) = 3 Vs
Tmax s
2 s RR
2 s

(6.23)
2

Lls + Llr

The slip frequency at this torque, r = s T max , for a constant flux s =

(6.24)
Es

is independent

of frequency, and is proportional to the resistance RR. We already know that RR is proportional to the
rotor resistance, so if the rotor resistance is increased, the torque-speed characteristic is shifted to the
left, as shown in Figure 18. If we have convenient ways to increase the rotor resistance, we can
increase the starting torque, while decreasing the starting current. Increasing the rotor resistance can
be easily accomplished in a wound-rotor induction machine. For the squirrel cage motor, more
complex structures such as double or deep rotor bars can be used to increase the rotor resistance.
In the formula developed we notice the maximum torque is a function of the flux. This means
that we can change the frequency of the stator voltage, but as long as the voltage amplitude changes
so that the flux stays the same, the maximum torque will also stay the same as shown in Figure 19.
This is called Constant Volts per Hertz Operation and is a first approach to controlling the speed of
the motor through its supply.
Near synchronous speed the effect of the rotor leakage inductance can be neglected, and led to the
torque-speed equation (6.15) repeated below:
Pg
E 2 1 s o
2
T =3 s
= 3 s r = 3
s RR s
s
RR
Figure 20 shows both the exact and the approximate torque-speed characteristics. It is important to
notice that the torque calculated from the approximate equation is grossly incorrect away from
synchronous speed.

1- 15

R = 2r

R =r
R

Torque

20

40

60

80

100

(percent of synchronous speed)


o

R =r

R = 2r

20

40

60

80

(percent of synchronous speed)

100

Figure 18. Effect of changing the rotor resistance on the torque-speed and
current-speed characteristics of an induction motor.

20 (Hz)

Torque

60 (Hz)

45 (Hz)

-50

50

(rad/s)

100

150

60 (Hz)
45 (Hz)
20 (Hz)
-50

50

(rad/s)

100

150

Figure 19. Effect on the torque-speed characteristic of changing frequency


while keeping the flux constant.
1- 16

Torque

Linear
Approx.

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

(percent of synchronous speed)

110

Figure 20. Exact and approximate torque-speed characteristics.

6.7

Starting Characteristics of Induction Motors


From the above analysis we see that a particular challenge with induction motors is the high
current and low torque during starting.
A simple way to decrease the starting current is to decrease the stator terminal voltage during
startup. From equation (6.15), we see the torque is proportional to the stator voltage squared, while
the current is directly proportional to the stator voltage. If a transformer is used to decrease the stator
voltage, then both the developed torque and the line current will decease by the square of the turns
ratio of the transformer.
A commonly used method is to change the connection configuration during starting of a motor.
For example a motor designed to operate with the stator windings connected in are changed to a Y
connection during starting. The voltage ratio of these configurations is:
1
Vs,Y =
Vs,
(6.25)
3
then
1
I s,Y =
I s,
(6.26)
3
1
Ts,Y = Ts ,
3

(6.27)

I line

I line Y
+

Vl-l

Is,Y

Vs,Y

Is,
Vl-l

Vs,

Figure 21. Y Delta starting of an induction motor.


1- 17

In the connection, I line = 3I ph , leading to:


I line,Y =

1
I line,
3

(6.28)

Once the machine has approached the desired operating point, we can reconfigure the connection
to , and provide better efficiency.
This decrease in current is often adequate to allow a motor to start low load starting torque.
Using a variable frequency and voltage supply we can comfortably increase the starting torque, as
shown in Figure 19, while decreasing the starting current.

6.8

Multiple Poles
If we consider that an induction machine will operate close to synchronous speed {3000 (rpm) for
50 (Hz) and 3600 (rpm) for 60 (Hz)} we may find that the speed of the machine is too high for an
application. If we recall the pictures of the flux in AC machines we have shown before, we notice the
flux has a relatively long path to travel in the stator. This makes the stator heavy and lossy.
In machines with more than one pair of poles, the sinusoidal distribution for the windings covers
a smaller angle. For example, in a 4 pole machine each side of a sinusoidally distributed winding of
one phase covers only 90 instead of 180 (as was the case for a 2 pole machine).
Figure 22 shows at one instant the equivalent windings resulting from rotor windings of a 2-pole,
4-pole, and 6-pole machines.

Figure 22. Multipole induction machines 2-pole, 4-pole, 6-pole rotor windings
(stator windings not shown).
The effects of a large number of poles on the operation of the machine are not difficult to predict.
If the machine has p poles, or p/2 pole pairs, then in one period of the voltage, the flux will travel
2s/p (rad/s). This leads to the rotor speed corresponding to synchronous of sm:

sm =

2
s
p

(6.29)

We now introduce the actual mechanical speed of the rotor as m, while we keep the term o as
the rotor speed of a two pole motor. We generally measure m in (rad/s), while we measure o in
(electrical rad/s). We retain the same definition for slip based on the electrical speed o.

1- 18

m =

2
o
p

(6.30)
p

o s 2 m
s= s
=
s
s

(6.31)

This shows that for a 4-pole machine, supplied by a 60 (Hz) source, and operating close to rated
conditions, the speed will be near 1800 (rpm), while for a 6-pole machine, the speed will be near
1200 (rpm). While increasing the number of poles results in a decrease of the synchronous and
operating speeds of the machine, it also results in an increase of the developed torque of the machine
by the same ratio. Hence, the corrected torque formula will be:
T =3

p Pg
p Pm
=3
2 s
2 o

(6.32)

Similarly, the torque near the synchronous speed is:


T =3

p Es2 1 s o
p 2sr
p Pg
=3
=3
2 s RR s
2 RR
2 s

(6.33)

while the previously developed formulas for maximum torque will become:
Tmax = 3

2
p 1
VTH
2 2 s R + R 2 + ( X + X )2
TH
TH
TH
lr

(6.34)

and
2


3 p Vs 1
1

(s T max ) = 3 p Vs
Tmax
2 2 s RR
2 2 s Lls + Llr

(6.35)

Example 6.8.1
A 3-phase, 2-pole induction motor is rated at 190 (V), 60 (Hz), is connected in the Y
configuration, and has RR = 6.6 (), Rs = 3.1 (), XM = 190 (), Xlr = 10 (), Xls = 3 ().
Calculate the motor starting torque, starting current and starting power factor under rated voltage.
What will be the current and power factor if no load is connected to the shaft?
1. At starting, s = 1
190

Is =

3
= 7.06 /-54.5 (A)
{[3.1 + j3] + j190 (6.6 + j10)}

Ir = Is

j190
= 6.7 /-52.6 (A)
6.6 + j10 + j190

( )

Pg p
6.7 2 6.6 2
T =3
=3
= 2.36 (Nm)
377 2
s 2

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2. Under no load, the speed is synchronous and s = 0


190

Is =

3
= 0.57 /-89.1 (A)
{3.1 + j3 + j190}

I s = 0.57 (A)

pf = 0.016 lagging

Example 6.8.2
A 3-phase, 2-pole induction motor is rated at 190 (V), 60 (Hz), is connected in the Y
configuration, and has RR = 6.6 (), Rs = 3.1 (), XM = 190 (), Xlr = 10 (), Xls = 3 (). It is
operating from a variable speed variable frequency source at a speed of 1910 (rpm), under a
constant (V/f ) policy and the developed torque is 0.8 (Nm). What is the voltage and frequency
of the source? (Hint: First calculate the slip).
1
190
3
.
The ratio (Vs/s) stays at
377
2

p V 1
T = 3 s
r
2 s RR
2

110 1
0.8 = 1 3
r r = 20.65 (rad/s)

377 6.6
p
s = m + r = 220.01 + 20.65 = 220.66 (rad/s)
2
110
= 64.4 (V) or 110 (Vl -l )
f s = 35 (Hz) Vs = 220.66
377

Example 6.8.3
A 3-phase, 4-pole induction machine is rated 230 (V), 60 (Hz). It is connected in the Y
configuration, and has RR = 0.191 (), LM = 35 (mH), Lls = 1.2 (mH). It is operated as a generator
connected to a variable frequency/variable voltage source. Its speed is 2036 (rpm), with a
counter-torque of 59 (Nm). What is the efficiency of this generator? (Hint: Here power in is
mechanical, power out is electrical; also first calculate the slip).
Although we do not know the voltage or the frequency, we know their ratio is (132.8/377).
2

p V 1
T = 3 s
r
2 s RR
2

1
132.8
59 = 3 2
r

377 0.191
r = 15.14 (rad/s)
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Now the synchronous speed can be found by adding slip and rotor speeds as:
p
2 2036
+ r =
2 15.14 = 411.3 (rad/s)
2
60
132
f s = 65.5 (Hz) Vs = 65.5
= 144 (V)
60
We have to calculate the impedances of the equivalent circuit for the frequency of 65.5 (Hz):

s = m

X m = 35 10 3 411.3 = 14.4 ()
X ls = 0.49 ()
X lr = 0.617 ()
then
RR

r + m

Is =

p
2 = 5.38 ()

144
= 30 /-148 (A)
[0.2 + j 0.49 + j14.4][0.191 5.38 + j 0.617]

Ir = 27.2 /-166.9 (A)


Notice that with generation operation RR < 0. We can calculate now the losses, etc.:
Pm = 3 27.2 2 5.38 = 11.941 (kW)
Protor , loss = 3 27.2 2 0.191 = 423 (W)
Pstator , loss = 3 30 2 0.2 = 540 (W)
Pout = Pm Protor , loss Pstator , loss = 10.98 (kW)
P
= out = 0.919
Pm
1 A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, Jr., S. D. Umans, Electric Machinery, 6th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003.

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