Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25


remark [r'mk] , (-.)
rarely ['rel] - ,
confidence ['knfd()n(t)s]
speak out
confide to - ,
attractive ['trktv]
attraction -
hesitant ['hezt()nt] ; ,
engage in (-)
after a while
along with
thoughtful , ,
agree ['gri]
take ones side - ( )
at least ,
initially ['n()l]
an opportunity [p'tjunt] ,
to get to know -
accessible [k'sesbl] - ;
for the time being -
crutch - ,
restrain [r'stren]
spouse [spauz] - , ; ,
bring out ones best - , (-)
A student in an online college course remarked to me how he rarely had the confidence to speak out in regular, face
to face classes. He confided he was not very attractive, and always hesitant to answer questions or engage in
discussion. People usually ignored the comments he made in face to face classes, so he stopped making them after a
But online, he found a place where people would not dismiss him because of his looks.
The first time he joined in the text-based group discussion, he included some humor along with a thoughtful remark
about the topic. Several people responded within a day or two, agreeing with his views and taking his side in the
debate. This never happened to me in the classroom, he said not wistfully, but with wide-eyed pleasure.
Perhaps, the Internet will bring out his best and give him confidence to show his qualities even in real life.
In some interactions, the Internet pulls the rug out from under our tendency to rely on good looks in interpersonal
attraction, at least initially. This gives people an opportunity to get to know one another without the weight of all the
physical attractiveness stereotypes.
If interactive video and voice become more accessible and widely used, the things will change again. But for the
time being, perhaps just for this fleeting moment in history, beautys power is restrained.
Without the physical appearance crutch, how do you decide whether the person on the other side of the screen could
be a friend, a romantic partner, or your future spouse?
EX.1 Find English equivalents for the following words and expressions.
; ; ; ;
; , ,
, , , ,
- .
EX.2 Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions.
Interpersonal attraction; to rely on smth.; to become more accessible; a future spouse, without the weight of all the
physical attractiveness stereotypes, just for this fleeting moment in history, without the physical appearance crutch,
with wide-eyed pleasure, humor along with a thoughtful remark about the topic.
EX.3 Rearrange the statements as they occur in the text. (Give
1. But for the time being, perhaps just for this fleeting moment in history, beautys power is restrained.
2. The Internet gives people an opportunity to get to know one another without the weight of all the physical
attractiveness stereotypes.

3. But online, he found a place where people would not dismiss him because of his looks.
4. A student in an online college courses remarked to me how he rarely had the confidence to speak out in regular,
face to face classes.
5. This never happened to me in the classroom, he said with wide-eyed pleasure.
6. He confined he was not very attractive.
7. People usually ignored the comments he made, so he stopped making them after a while.
8. If interactive video and voice become more accessible and widely used, the things will change again.
EX. 4 Match the words and their definitions.


to publicly speak in protest about something, especially when protesting could be

to tell someone you trust about personal things that you do not want other people to
to say something, especially about something you have just noticed:


to stop someone from doing something, often by using physical force


to refuse to consider someone's idea, opinion etc, because you think it is not
serious, true, or important
to make someone behave in the best or worst way that they can

speak out

engage in
pull the rug (out) from under
somebody/sb's feet
bring out the best/worst in

to suddenly take away something that someone was depending on to achieve what
they wanted
to have or express the same opinion about something as someone else
to be doing or to become involved in an activity

EX. 5 Match the words and their definitions.

pleasant to look at

sure that you have the ability to do things well or deal with situations successfully


always thinking of the things you can do to make people happy or comfortable


with your eyes wide open, especially because you are surprised


happening at the beginning (synonym: first)


not seen or found very often, or not happening very often


thinking sadly about something you would like to have but cannot have, especially
something that you used to have in the past
easy to reach
uncertain about what to do or say because you are nervous or unwilling


EX. 6 Match the words and their definitions.

an opportunity
the way someone or something looks to other people

a chance to do something or an occasion when it is easy for you to do something


something that you say when you express an opinion or say what you have noticed


the feeling of happiness, enjoyment, or satisfaction that you get from an experience


a feature or quality that makes something seem interesting or enjoyable

EX. 7 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals.
attractive- unattractive
attractively - unattractively
able - unable
ability- inability, disability
agreement - disagreement agreeable - disagreeable agreeably- disagreeably
honesty - dishonesty honest - dishonest honestly - dishonestly
1 Despite her disability, Philippa is very______________________.
2 Thomas said that he is ____________________ to attend the meeting because
he's ill. I am a little ______________________as to whether this is true or not.
3 The student was very _______________and answered the question ________
but the teacher asked him to try again.
4 He has become rich in a _____________ way.
5 I shall take
great _________ in telling everyone the truth.
6 The teacher expressed her______________________with Tom because he's
so ______________________in class.
7 He just laughed and _______________ my proposal as unrealistic.
8 Unfortunately, many climbers have been __________in their attempts to climb
9 I detest people who____________________animals or use them
10 Her______________________to help got her into trouble.
11 Why do you always have to ______________________with what I say?


EX.8 Choose the correct word A, B or C to complete the following sentences.

1 The zoo's main ___________________________ are the pandas.
A attractively B attractive C attraction
2 The teacher was ___________________________with the student because he didnt do his homework.
A anger B angry C angrily
3 Before I set off on my journey, my father told me to drive___________________________ .
A safe B safety C safely
4 What's the ___________________________ between increase and decrease?
A difference B differently C different
5 I hired a ___________________________ to take pictures at my wedding.
A photographer B photography C photographic
6 Despite his age, he leads an ___________________________ life.
A activity B acting C active
7 She completed the project___________________________ and was promoted.
A success B successfully C successful
8. Gail gave me a ________________little smile.
A. hesitant B. hesitance C. hesitate
9. May I have the ______________ of seeing you again?
A. pleased B. pleasure C. pleasant
10. Cats should always have ______________to fresh, clean water.
A. accessible B. accessibility C. access
11. He was always criticising his wife's ______________.
A. appear B. appearance C. apparent
12. It was really ____________of you to remember my birthday.
A. though B. thoughtful C. thinking
13. The managament have ____________ in his ability.
A. confidence B. confide C. confident
14. This method is ___________ used in modern laboratories.
A.rare B. a rarity c. rarely

If you are fed up with people propositioning you, asking directions or even just bumping into you on the street, don't
call a policeman - brush your hair.
Two American psychologists have discovered that people on the street keep at least three inches farther away from
an attractive woman than from an ordinary-looking one and never mutter dirty things at her or ask for help.
For those unsure of their charm, the psychologists' research offers a further test: move slowly and carefully closer to
a man on a crowded rush hour bus. If you are attractive, he'll look uneasily up, down and out of the window. But if
he just stands there ... oh dear!
to proposition
to mutter:
to bump into
rush hour

to make an immoral proposal
to speak in a low voice
to meet by chance, to run into
extra, additional
nervously, restlessly
hurry hour (one of the periods of the day when crowds of people move to and from work)

EX. 9 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above.
1. Colorful narrow boats on the River Nene, beautiful parks and gardens, and peaceful riverside walks all add to the
... and character of a town that has welcomed visitors for centuries.
2. I got caught in the morning ..
3. On the pavements, pedestrians .... each other rather than step aside.
4. Elsie something I couldn't catch and walked off.
5. Bill shifted . in his chair.
EX.10 Choose the statement that best fits the text.
1. It is pointed out in the text that if someone is making an improper proposal to a woman ...
A. She must ask directions.
B. She needs to call a policeman.
C. the best way of getting out of this situation is running away,
D. ordinary clothes must be worn not to attract attention.
E. She is not attractive enough.
2. It has been discovered that men usually .......
A. want to talk with-an ordinary - looking woman.
B. prefer to knock into an attractive woman.
C. say disgusting things when they see a charming woman.
D. don't look at an ordinary - looking woman.
E. prefer to ask an attractive woman for help.
3. Psychologists claim that in a crowded rush hour bus if a man .......
A. looks around when you get closer to him that means you are an ordinary woman.
B. stares at you, that shows that you're an attractive woman.
C. gaze at you, that means he's in love with you.
D. doesn't move his eyes away or stands still, that means the woman is an ordinary woman.
E. stands there without moving, he does not want to make friends with you.

Development and importance of self-esteem.
Development of self-esteem in adolescents involves many factors, such as physical attractiveness, acceptance by
peers, parental support, media influences, and academic ability.
In girls, self-esteem is especially dependent on body image and perception of parental support.
In boys, self-esteem is especially dependent on looking cool in public, which means not letting stress or anxiety
make them look bad.
Self-esteem has been linked to important positive and negative outcomes. For example, having high self-esteem is
associated with positive outcomes, such as being cheerful and happy, having healthy social relationships, and
promoting personal adjustment, while having low self-esteem is associated with negative outcomes, such as
depression, anxiety, antisocial behavior, and poor personal adjustment.

the feeling of being satisfied with your own abilities, and that you deserve to be
liked or respected
allowing someone to become part of a group or a society and of treating them in the
same way as the other members
needing someone or something in order to exist, be successful, be healthy etc
the feeling of being very worried about something
the final result of a meeting, discussion, war etc - used especially when no one
knows what it will be until it actually happens
a change in the way that someone behaves or thinks

EX.10 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above.
1. ________________ by their peer group is important to most youngsters.
2. Jan's mother was ___________________on her for physical care.
3. Playing a sport can boost a girl's _____________
4. The patient's general health and fitness can also affect the ____________of the disease.
5. It can help if you discuss your _____________with someone.
6. Before anything else, lets do some image ___________.
EX.11 For questions 1-11, read the text below and think of the word that best fits each gaps. Use only one word in
each gap.

according to - ,
completely [km'plitl] ,
its all to do with -
properly ['prp()l] - ; ;
dependent [d'pendnt] ( -.)
cope [kup] ; ,
attach to smb - ; ; ; (-.) ;

calm down
talk things through ()
a fight or flight instinct
face - ( )
feminine ['femnn] , ;
masculine ['mskjuln] , , ,

EX.12 Choose the most appropriate word.

It is believed that our (1) ______________ genetic characteristics play the (2) __________ role in
our being beautiful, attractive and appealing to other individuals.
Although there is no (3)_____________ theory on what beauty really is and how it works, the
results of a recent scientific (4) ___________ seem to (5) __________ the hypothesis that our
facial features are (6) _________ by our brains.
Their possible role is to (7) ________ health and fertility as well as genetic superiority - the
quality that people, (8) _____________, share with animals which, like humans, have their own
sexual preferences.
Most species of birds, for example, rely on the brightest colours of plumage ['plum] when
(9) ___________their (10) _________ . To them, the vivid (11) ___________ of the feathers
indicate the potential partner's genetic fitness to produce healthy (12) ____________.
In humans, similarly, beauty (13) _______ our well-being and our sexual attractiveness, but
as far as our facial characteristics are taken into account, people (14) _________ to regard as
extremely (15) __________ the faces with the highest degree of symmetry.
1. a) doubtful b) thoughtful e) inherited d) considerate
2. a) energetic b) functional e) decisive d) proper
3. a) honest b) clear c) obedient d) rare
4. a) attempt b) research e) inquiry d) labour
5. a) confirm b) appeal c) obey d) satisfy
6. a) attached b) accepted e) recognized d) determined
7. a) reflect b) adjust c) research d) uncover
8. a) honestly b) normally c) supposedly d) willingly
9. a) selecting b) confirming c) referring d) attaching
10. a) counterparts b) mates c) fellows d) friends
11. a) attractiveness b) looks c) confidence d) shades
12. a) relationships b) attachment c) offsprings d) forebears
13. a) accepts b) completes e) displays d) depends
14. a) tend b) confide c) expect d) declare
15. a) dependent b) dishonest e) charming d) obedient
EX.13 Complete each sentence with give or make.
1 If you want to ___________ a successful lecture or presentation, the secret is preparation.
2 To _____________ an external phone call, dial 0 for an outside line.
3 Im not happy with your behaviour, and I expect you to _____________ a full apology, but Ill __________you
one last chance to explain yourself.
4 This is a good essay, but Id like to ____________ one small suggestion: remember to check your spelling.
5 Dale failed to ______________ a good impression when he wore shorts to the job interview.
6 Every time I see him, Albert really _____________ me the impression that he loves his job at the museum.
EX.14 Complete each sentence with get, make or do in the correct form.
1 Can I __________ a quick comment on your essay? I think you should have __________more use of your
research materials to support your ideas. You ___________some good points and, overall you ____________ a good
job, but you could _________still some improvements in the final version.
2 Some of our customers have been __________complaints about our service. We need to _________some changes
to our procedures. I know everyone _____________ their best, but remember that we cant _________business
without customers! Im not asking you to _____________friends with them, but please __________more of an
effort to serve the customers better than ever.
3 Ive ____________ a decision to __________ a course in computing. I hope ____________to a qualification in
Computer Science.
4 We need to ____________ some shopping for dinner this evening and by the way, I __________it last time, so
its your turn to cook. To be fair, though, Ill ___________the ironing.
5 I think we __________a mistake in buying this car. Well never ___________our money back when we sell it.

EX.15 You are going to read extracts from four magazine articles in which people describe how they feel about the
way they look. For questions 110, choose from the extract (AD). The extracts may be chosen more than once.

Which person has not accepted the effects of ageing?

Which person seems to have a paradoxical view of themselves?
Which person anticipates further changes in the way they look?
Which person is reluctantly prepared to do more to look good?
Which person sees themselves in others?
Which person suggests that everyone has a unique view of own face?
Which person is forced by circumstances to alter their appearance?
Which person says their appearance reflects their experiences?
Which person has an inconsistent view of themselves?
Which person claims to have unselfish motives in their actions?

Extract A

Extract C

Id like to look more like Indiana Jones. Who wouldnt?

Looking into the mirror, I see a work in progress. I had
plastic surgery a couple of years back and its made such
a difference. I had a brilliant surgeon and I think
hes done a pretty good job; nothing looks unnatural
like some of those horror stories you hear about. It just
gives you this feeling of success, like youre a winner.
I am in my seventies now, but I think I look twenty
years younger. I tried the gym once hated it and I
dont particularly watch what I eat. I prefer plain food:
bread and cheese is perfect. In terms of dress sense,
I alternate between informal or very dressed up. If I
could choose one look, it would be thirties Hollywood
movies, so classy, dont you think? A lot of this is for
other peoples benefit. Its only polite to look your best
on a dinner date.

I dislike mirrors intensely, which is rather strange for an

artist who is quite well-known for her self-portraits, I
suppose. All I can see are the changes Id make if I were
painting myself a new face. Like everyone, I put on a
certain face to suit the occasion, and so Im concerned
that what I see in front of me is a face Ive created for
the occasion of seeing myself its not really me . The
way I see myself changes a lot from day to day. When
I had a tooth problem recently, it felt as if my face had
blown up like a balloon, but the mirror showed
none of this. Also, if you think about it, your face is
back to front in a mirror, nobody else sees you the
way you do. Last year I produced a number of soft clay
sculptures of my head. I then asked people to improve
them. Ive never looked so good.

Extract B

Extract D

Unlike many people I know, Im not sad about the way

my face has changed over the years. I think, it tells the
story of my life in some way. I recognize my parents
in the mirror mainly my mother, though, the same
eyes and slightly chubby face. I think Ive done well: no
lines so far and Im over 40 now. I expect theyll arrive
eventually if my fathers face is anything to go by. Im
very tall, which I must say I adore. Its wonderful to be
able to see over everyone elses heads in a crowd. The
only drawback is that I find myself continually bending
down to talk to people. The trick is keeping your back
straight and your head upright. I dont think I dress in
a conventionally feminine way: I am a jeans-and-T-shirt
type. Although I enjoy a bit of shopping, Im not a
dedicated follower of fashion.

At my age, Im comfortable in my own skin. I see what

some people would call faults, but which Im not at all
bothered by. Yes, I could lose a few kilos and dye my
hair more carefully, but, if I make the effort I can be
quite presentable. For us actors, looks matter, but I
think these things are generally less important in the UK
than they would be in somewhere like Hollywood. For
me, it is self-confidence that makes a person attractive,
much more so than physical appearance. Sadly, this
seems to be a minority view so I have to do things like
dye my hair going grey could severely hamper the
number of roles I would be offered. I eat carefully, but
am continually annoyed about everything I have to deny
myself. My fitness schedule ['edjul] is hit and miss and,
going to the gym is impossible if Im filming, at least
thats what I tell myself.
hit and miss - If something is hit and miss or hit or miss, it is sometimes successful and sometimes not.
in progress - in the course of being done or carried out
in terms of - with regard to the particular aspect or subject specified

alternate - do or perform in turn repeatedly

benefit - an advantage or profit gained from something
occasion a particular event, or the time at which it takes place
chubby - plump and rounded
dedicated - devoted to a task or purpose
drawback - a feature that renders something less acceptable; a disadvantage or problem

throb - feel pain in a series of regular beats

wrist [rst]
tender (of a part of the body) sensitive to pain
(, )

gnaw [n] - cause persistent distress or anxiety

(, )
squeeze ; ;

scientist ['santst]
metre ['mit]
damage ['dm]
although [l'u] / ,
measure ['me]
able ['ebl] -
brain waves -
bleed [blid] ;
hypnotism ['hpntzm] 1) 2)
hypnotize ['hpntaz]
magician [m'()n] , ,
obey ['be] -, ,
appear ['p] 1) 2) , ( - )
frighten ['frat()n]
introduce [ntr'djus] ,
awake ['wek]
One day in 1935, in an ordinary English garden, an Indian called Kuda Bux was watched by a group of scientists
while he walked more than two meters across a bed of fire. He seemed to feel no pain, and his feet were not
damaged, although the temperature on top of the fire was measured as 430C.
People walk through fire without getting hurt in Greece, India, Japan, Africa, and the islands of the Pacific. How do
they do it? Some scientists think that it is important for their feet to be wet; some think that they must walk in a
special way; and some believe that they are able to slow down their brain waves, so that they do not feel pain.
We know that when we walk, or talk, or play music or football, our brain is controlling our body. But some people
seem able to do this better than others.
People who practice yoga ['jug] seem able to slow down their brain waves, and even their heart. After years of
practice, some of them can stop themselves from feeling the cold, or from bleeding when cut with a knife.
At one time, scientists thought that this also explained how people could lie on nails without feeling pain. But in
1981, an American university teacher was introduced to his new class while lying on a bed of nails. He explained
that it was not dangerous because there were so many nails that each one was only holding about 50 or 60 grams of
his body.
Doctors are also interested in using hypnotism to control illnesses of the body and the brain. When you are
hypnotized, you are no longer controlling your own body: another person is controlling you.
Perhaps you have seen a magician do it at the theatre or on television? The person who is hypnotized appears to be
both awake and asleep, and they obey the magician, instead of their own brain.
Hypnotism can be frightening to watch; the person seems almost to become somebody different. Sometimes people
even remember things that they did not know that they knew. In one test, a young man started speaking Japanese, a
language that he had only heard when he was a very small child. In another, a girl sang a song in a foreign language
that she had once seen in a library many years before. Although hypnotism appears at first to be magic, scientists can
study and use it.
The police sometimes hypnotize people to help them remember car numbers, or the faces of robbers. But this is not
something to try for yourself!
EX.1. Find English equivalent for the following words and expressions.

; ; ; ; ;
, , , ;
() ;
EX.2 Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions.
To lie on a bed of nails; to control illnesses of the body and the brain; to be both awake and asleep; instead of smth.;
to be frightening to watch; to hypnotize.
EX.3 Rearrange the statements as they occur in the text. (Give numbers.)
1. When you are hypnotized, you are no longer controlling your own body: another person is controlling you.
2. Some scientists think that they are able to slow down their brain waves, so that they do not feel pain.
3. Although hypnotism appears at first to be magic, scientists can study and use it.
4. Doctors are also interested in using hypnotism to control illnesses of the body and the brain.
5. The person who is hypnotized appears to be both awake and asleep.
6. The person hypnotized seems almost to become somebody different.
7. People walk through fire without getting hurt in Greece, India, Japan, Africa, and the islands of Pacific.
EX.4 Match the words and their definitions.
to produce a sleep-like state in someone so that you can influence their
thoughts and actions
slow down
to lose blood, especially because of an injury
to make someone feel afraid
to become slower or to make something slower:
to cause physical harm to something or to part of someone's body:
to find the size, length, or amount of something
to seem
to do what someone in authority tells you to do
EX. 5 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above.
1. We were completely _____________ by her performance of the Haydn.
2. Mrs Burke was found unconscious and ______________ profusely.
3. She was ______________ by the anger in his eyes.
4. It may be less useful than it _______________ at first.
5. It is important to _____________, rest, and eat sensibly.
6. Smoking can severely ____________ your health.
7. We can ______________ the energy that food provides in calories.
8. The little boy made no effort to ___________.
EX.6 Match the words and their definitions.

causing physical pain

from or relating to a country that is not your own
involving a lot of risk, or likely to cause problems
making you feel afraid or nervous
not sleeping

EX.7 Choose the correct word A, B or C to complete the following sentences.

1. Going into hospital can be very _____________ for a child.
A. frighten B. frightened C. frightening
2. He sobbed as he recalled the painful memory.
A. pain B. painful C. painfully
3. Doctors say it is too early ____________ the effectiveness of the drug.
A. measure B. measurable C. to measure
4. He tried hard ______________ calm.
A. to appear B. appear C. appearance
5. The therapy was designed for emotionally ___________ children.
A. damaging B. damaged C. damage
6. When you are ______________, you are no longer controlling your own body.
A. hypnotized B. hypnotize C. hypnotizing
7. The person who is hypnotized appears _________ both awake and asleep.
A. be B. to be C. is
8. What are you _____________ of?
A. frighten B. frightened C. frightening
9. She checked her ____________ in the mirror


A. to appear B. appear C. appearance

10. New cars are less ____________ to the environment
A. damaging B. damaged C. damage
11. The savagery of his thoughts frightened him.
A. frighten B. frightened C. frightening

A group of men were requested to put their hands into a bowl of icy water and then tell a researcher how much it
hurt. Half of them reported back to a man, the other half to an attractive woman. Those who talked to the woman
asserted that they suffered significantly less pain than the others.
When women were asked to do the same, they reported a similar level of pain whether they were talking to a man or
a woman. There was not a discrepancy between the statements they made to a man and a woman.
to request [r'kwest]:
bowl [bul]:
to assert:
to suffer:
discrepancy [ds'krepns]

to ask for, to demand

basin, sink
very cold
to claim
to undergo, to experience
considerably, a lot
to cause yourself or someone else physical harm

EX.8 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above.
1. People aren't going to ... a singer's record unless it has been promoted properly through the usual channels of
TV, radio, music press, national press and live shows.
2. One of the victims was in a critical condition, ... from severe burns, but the other three were allowed home
after treatment for shock.
3. Our traditions are ......... different to those in England.
4. I got upset by the .. between what he told me and the way he actually behaved.
5. They ....., rather than denied, the bias in their own papers.
6. He . his knee playing football.
1. From the passage we understand that when the men talked to the attractive woman
A) they said they didn't feel much pain.
B) the pain didn't affect them at all.
C) two of them lied about the pain.
D) the woman claimed to suffer significantly.
E) only half of them told the truth.
2. It's obvious in the passage that the women reported the same level of pain .......
A) only to the men.
B) they said they didn't feel the pain.
C) even if they weren't asked.
D) although they didn't put their hands into the bowl.
E) whomever they talked to.
3. The purpose of the research was to find out .......
A) that women were less strong.
B) if a bowl of icy water hurt hands,
C) how truthful men and women were.


D) whether men were attracted by a beautiful woman.

E) if ice-was painful.

For over 200 years, psychologists have puzzled over what hypnosis really is.
Some believe hypnosis is a special state during which individuals experience hallucinations (seeing an imaginary
fly), or report decreased pain after receiving a painful stimulus.
Here is a commonly used method for hypnotic induction:
1. the hypnotist creates a sense of trust, so that the individual feels comfortable.
2. the hypnotist suggests that the subject concentrate on something, such as the sound of the hypnotists voice, an
object, or an image.
3. the hypnotist suggests what the subject will experience during hypnosisfor example, becoming relaxed or
feeling sleepy. The hypnotist may say, I am going to count from one to ten, and with each count you will drift more
and more deeply into hypnosis.
During hypnosis, subjects are not asleep, keep their ability to control their behaviors, are aware of their
surroundings, and are capable of saying no or of stopping hypnosis.
For these reasons, hypnosis is not a dangerous procedure when used by an experienced researcher or clinician,
and hypnosis has useful medical and therapeutic benefits.
to confuse someone or make them feel slightly anxious because they do not understand
to think that something is true or possible, although you are not completely sure
to be given something
to tell someone your ideas about what they should do, where they should go etc
to feel a particular emotion, pain etc
be aware of
understand about what is happening around you
be capable of
Have the qualities or ability needed to do something
EX. 9 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above.
1. He was .. by the reactions to his remark.
2. Detectives that the victim knew his killer.
3. She . no support from her parents.
4. I . you phone before you go round there.
5. Many women feelings of nausea during pregnancy.
6. I'm perfectly of looking after myself, thank you!
7. The children are . of the danger of taking drugs.

the physical or mental condition that someone or something is in

something which you imagine you can see or hear, but which is not really there, or the
experience of this:
a feeling about something
the state of being able to do something
a person or animal that is used in a test or experiment:
a person who studies a subject in detail, especially in order to discover new facts or test new
the objects, buildings, natural things etc that are around a person or thing at a particular time

EX. 10 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above.
1. Afterwards felt a great ___________ of relief.
2. The health center serves all patients, regardless of their ___________ to pay.
3. The patients suffered _______________caused by the drug.



She was in an extremely confused ___________ of mind.

The ___________ of this experiment were all men aged 18-35.
_______________have found that people who have pets stay healthier.
I need to work in pleasant ______________.

EX.11 You are going to read four reviews of a book about social behaviour. For question 14,
choose from the
reviews, AD. The reviews may be chosen more than once.

Which reviewers stress the failure of the author to come up with effective solution to the problem of badmanners?
Which reviewer believes that a current state of affairs is not as threatening as the author assumes?
Which reviewer takes a less skeptical view of the authors true feelings than the others?
Which reviewer stresses the contradictory nature of the book?

People have been writing about supposed bad behavior
for over 500 years, but rarely with such passion.
The writer identifies six key battle zones where action is
required to save us all from doom.
They range from the basic failure to say thank you to
the ending of respect for authority. The writer stresses
the irony of rude people taking offence at the rudeness
of others.
The big question, though, is does this book have a use?
Unlikely. What does seem likely is that this work will
inspire a generation of fans to take, and so cause, more
offence not less.
But this is a well-written attempt to improve lives and
deserves a chance.
take offence
cause offence
inspire [n'spa] ,
attempt ['tempt]
doom [dum] , ,
authority ['rt]
rarely ['rel] ,
The author is right, of course: people are bad-mannered.
But whether manners are really collapsing at the speed
that the author claims is a matter of debate.
Anyway, this belief was not conclusively proved by the
This is not to dismiss the book entirely. It may be short
on solutions, but the journey is an enjoyable one.
Manners, we are rightly told, are rooted in the ability to
put oneself in anothers shoes, making the effort to
imagine what might upset or anger them.
However, the electronic devices impair our capacity to
achieve that.

Where did this collapse in manners start?
The author seeks the origins of this unhappy, even
threatening state of affairs.
Could it be TV? Apparently not: laying the blame at
televisions doorstep is just too obvious. However, one
might say that because a thing is obvious it is not
automatically untrue.
In fact, the author assigns the blame to modern
parenting. Nowadays youngsters are taught to claim
respect as their birthright, but they are not taught to
show it in return.
As I read on, finding points of agreement and
disagreement in equal measure, this book ignited a fire
inside me.
However much one may disagree with its conclusions,
readers will undoubtedly share the writers anger.
collapse [k'lps] , ;
origin ['rn] - ,
lay the blame at - -.
in equal measure -
ignite [g'nat] , ;
This book is interesting: part furious, part sad.
The author admits that people who concern themselves
with the behavior of others are often no better than those
they seek to improve.
She describes her book as angry yet it is full of
apologies, perhaps an indication that much of the anger
is manufactured;
An over-reaction to what is, in reality, something of
minor concern to the majority of readers.
Because of this, the writing suffers from an
awkwardness of tone.
Her conclusion apologizing, yet again, for its


The author correctly concludes that establishing rules of

behaviour for such touchy subjects would be near
claim [klem] ,
short on -
put oneself in anothers shoes

impair capacity
conclusively prove
entirely [n'tal ]
be rooted in - have as an origin or cause

predictability is that good manners make the world a

better place. Well, naturally.

apology ['pl]
apologize ['plaz] -
manufacture [mnj'fk] ;
an over-reaction
awkwardness ['kwdns] ,

predictability -


EX.12 Complete the blanks with the verbs go, come, reach or get.
to sleep

on sbs nerves

a decision

rid of


off sb's back

to terms with


an agreement

down to business

into trouble

the sack


over the top


in handy

the job

even with

EX.13 Complete the sentences with the collocations / expressions in the box below. Use each
one only once.
in his shoes // on top of // in search of //on the safe side //in charge of // in trouble with
1 Mr Johnson is ______________ the companys marketing department.
2 People who systematically cheat the tax system will one day be ____________ the Tax
3 The doctor insisted that I should be given a thorough check-up just to be _____________
4 The children wandered around the neighbourhood_______________________ their lost dog.
5 Nobody would want to be ___________________ , not with all those debts he has to pay off.
6 After weeks of hard work, Kevin was confident he was finally the situation.
1 While cleaning the basement, I came across
something I thought I had lost years ago.
2 Joe came into a lot of money, which changed his life
3 Why doesnt Julie come round to our place anymore?
4 The scientists took months to come up with a
solution to their problem.
5 Richard came down with a bad cold the day before
his exams.
6 It took the woman a few minutes to come round



stop by, visit

inherit [n'hert]
find by chance
regain consciousness
be taken ill with
think of sth and suggest

after she had fainted.

1 They decided to go ahead with their trip despite the
bad weather conditions.
2 Once you have finished cleaning, you can go on with
your job.
3 The doctor wanted to go over the test results with
his patient.
4 That tie goes with your suit nicely.
5 Luckily no one was injured when the bomb went off.
6 While visiting Rome, we went round all the major
archaeological sites.
7 The child went through a lot before recovering
8 The milk went off after only an hour in the scorching
9 Whats going on in there? Open the door!
1 What's on this weekend at the theatre?
2 We were promised that the hard times would be over
3 I was about to leave home when some unexpected
visitors arrived.
4 I'm for the mayor's plan to relocate the town hall.
5 What are the boys up to? Dont tell me theyre
ruining the garden again!
6 I must be off now. My parents are expecting me for

EX. 15 Complete the blanks w ith prepositions.

_______ an answer ______ sth
______ an expert ______ sth
happy ______sb
(take) pride _______
happy ______ sth
a reply ______ sth
proud ________ sth
a report ______ sth
respected _______ sth

an opportunity _____


move / travel around, visit

start sth
continue doing
turn sour, start to decay
examine / discuss in detail


support, in favour of
be ready to
be shown / performed
do (usually sth wrong)

associate sth ______

concentrate ____ sth

praise sb _______sth

cooperate _______ sb
deal _____ sth

provide sth _____sb

____ sth


provide sb _____ sth

succeed _____ sth

supply sb ________

EX.16 Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions.

Congratulations Rodney! I'm so happy___________ you and your wife.

I would be more than happy to provide you___________ our company's catalogue.
We supply all major companies___________ our products.
She takes great pride___________ her work. Thats why she's the best in her field.
The government will provide housing___________ the homeless.
You shouldn't be proud___________ yourself. What you did was wrong!
The government supplied food and medicine___________ the victims of the hurricane.
The journalist was praised___________ his report____________ the starving children of Africa.


9 I associated wealth __________ freedom.

10 She was excellent _________ keeping children under control.
11 She was experienced ________ marketing.
12 I'm happy _______ his performance.
13 He was gone before we could reply ________ his last remark.
14 It was an official report __________ the accident.
15 He is an expert ________ skin care.
16 This year saw increased opportunities _________ export.
17 She congratulated him _________the birth of his son.
EX. 17 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence,
using the word given
unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
1 We last went abroad a long time ago.
not We ______________________a long time.
2 When did they start living in the suburbs?
have How ______________ in the suburbs?
3 It's the first time she has ever had problems with the authorities,
trouble She________________________________________________ with the authorities before.
4 When Carl was young, he went to a holiday camp every summer,
used When Carl was young, he____________________________ a holiday camp every summer.
5 After the earthquake, the government supplied food and medicine to the homeless,
provided After the earthquake, the government_______________________ food and medicine.
6 Lucy hasn't visited me since February.
was The last__________________________________________________________ in February.
7 How long has he had this car?
bought How long__________________________________________________________ this car?
8 I haven't caught a cold for ages,
down I last_________ with a cold ages ago.




GP- general practitioner

affect ['fekt] - ,
enormous ['nms] -
rewarding = providing satisfaction;
put off ,
morale [m'rl]
as regards


dimension [da'menn] , , (, )
kinesics [knisks] ( ,
gesture ['es] - ; / posture ['ps] , (,
. .)
tense [tens] / tension ['tenn] -
persuader [p'swed] ,
perceptual [p'sepul] ;
upright ['prat] , / bodily ['bdl] ,
speaking rate
identify [a'dentfa] ,
perform [p'fm] ,
convey [kn've] , ()
nod [nd] -
shrug shoulders ['uldz]
provide [pr'vad] , ;
arouse ['rauz] 1) , 2) ,
akimbo ['kmbu] - ( )
to stand (with) arms akimbo , ;
anger ['g] - , , ;
agreement ['grimnt] ()
shush [u ] -
value ['vlju] , ,
evaluation [vlju'en]
obscene [b'sin] ,
submissively [sb'msvl] , ,
Bodily nonverbal communication has several dimensions, one of which is
kinesics, or physical movements of the body, such as gestures, the way one holds ones
body (tense or relaxed posture), and how one uses the body in given contexts.
Powerful persuaders want to be physically or perceptually above their audiences.
They also demonstrate relaxed but upright posture, dynamic gestures, good eye contact,
and variation in speaking rate and the modulation of intonation.
Powerless persuaders behave more submissively and show lots of body tension, little
direct eye contact, closed postures (for example, legs and arms crossed), and few
A communication scholar Mark Knapp identifies several head movements that
convey meaning:
- nodding of the head ( ),
- the thrusting out of the jaw ( ),
- the shaking of the head ( )
- clenching ones fist ( ),
- having ones arms akimbo on the waist,
- standing in an open stance with legs spread apart.
These movements can indicate anger, agreement, etc.
Gestures and bodily movements convey a particular meaning. For example, crossed
fingers indicate good luck, A-OK sign conveys the same meaning to Latin Americans as
the bird does to us.
Gestures can do many things such as perform a function (shush), communicate a
positive, negative or neutral opinion of something (thumbs up, thumbs down, or
shoulder shrugging), or provide an evaluation such as the A-OK sign does in the United
And there are many obscene gestures that quickly arouse anger or other emotions.


EX.1 Find English equivalents for the following words and expressions.
; ; , ;
; , , ,
, , ,
, , , .
EX.2 Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions.
thrusting out of the jaw; to stand in an open stance; obscene gestures, provide an
evaluation, shoulder shrugging, powerful persuaders, powerless persuaders, conveys the
same meaning, convey a particular meaning, perform a function.
EX.3 Rearrange the statements as they occur in the text. (Give numbers.)
1. There are many obscene gestures that can quickly arouse anger or other emotions.
2. Powerless persuaders behave more submissively.
3. These movements can indicate anger, intensity, and degree of commitment.
4. Bodily nonverbal communication has several dimensions, one of which is kinesics, or
physical movements of the body.
5. Powerful persuaders want to be physically and perceptually above their audience.
6. A communication scholar Mark Knapp identifies several head movements that convey
7. In some cases, gestures and bodily movements convey a particular meaning.
EX.4 Match the words and their definitions.

an aspect or feature of a situation

the position in which you stand or sit
the making of a judgement about the amount, number, or value of
the state of having the muscles stretched tight
a strong feeling of annoyance, displeasure, or hostility

EX.5 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above.
1. The elimination of neck tension can relieve headaches
2. He made an initial evaluation of the programms.
3. We must focus on the cultural dimensions of the problem.
4. He was sitting in a relaxed upright posture.
5. He cried with anger and frustration.
EX.6 Match the words and their definitions.

unable to relax because of nervousness or anxiety

offensive or disgusting by accepted standards of morality and decency
sitting or standing with the back straight
ready to conform to the authority or will of others; meekly obedient or
relating to the ability to interpret or become aware of something
through the senses

EX.7 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above.
1. He is one of the patients with ___________ problems who cannot judge distances.
2. If you describe something as ___________ , you mean it offends you because it relates
to sex or violence in a way that you think is unpleasant and shocking.
3. They seemed to be _____________ , almost sheep-like people.
4. The posts must be in an ___________ position.
5. They waited in ____________ silence.
EX.8 Match the words and their definitions.

you discover or notice that something exists



evoke or awaken (a feeling, emotion, or response)

make available for use; supply
have the same opinion about something
make (an idea, impression, or feeling) known or understandable

EX.9 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above.
We both ___________ on these issues.
Having ____________ the problem, the question arises of how to overcome it.
It's impossible to _________ how lost I felt.
We were ___________ with a map of the area.
Something about the man __________ the guard's suspicions.
Gesture is any action that sends a visual signal to an onlooker.
To become a gesture, an act has to be seen by someone else and communicate some piece
of information to them.
It can do this either because the gesturer deliberately sets out to send a signal-as when he
waves his hand - or it can do it only incidentally - as when he sneezes.
The hand wave is a Primary Gesture, because it has not other existence or function. It is a
piece of communication from start to finish.
gesture: movement
of the hand or head

visual: related to

onlooker: viewer/

to communicate: to
pass on

deliberately : on

to set out: aim or

intend to do

wave: movement

incidentally: by
chance, accidentally

EX.10 Complete the sentences with a suitable form of the words defined above.
1. A band played and .... waved and cheered.
2. The fire was started .
3. The government has ....... to take effective precautions to prevent the use of drug among
the young.
4. There was no looking back; I wanted to remember Fiona as she was the last time we met,
standing in the doorway of the house, her black hair blowing in the breeze as she .... me
5. The infection was discovered only
6. Alex made a .. of apology.
7. The prisoner was forbidden with his family.
8. means relating to sight, or to things that you can see.
1. We can infer from the passage that every act .......
A. has to mean something.
B. sends a message.
C. is a signal
D. should be seen.
E. is not a gesture.
2. Gestures are done either on purpose or .......
A. to signal something.
B. cautiously.
C. by chance.
D. by somebody else.
E. meaningfully.


3. Hand waving has no other purpose than

A. to give information to others
B. sneezing
C. to go on communication
D. to finish a communication
E. setting out.

EX.12 For questions 1-12 read the text below and decide which of answer (A,B,C or D) best
fit each gap.

WRITING SKILLS (Toefl-Activator)

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should never make an
important decision alone. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
EX. 13 Complete the introduction and Body using the statements below.
1. to make decisions improves as we get older
2. others' advice when deciding on things
3. making our own decisions is better than consulting with others



will blame others

to take the responsibility for my own decisions
a serious matter with friends
turn into chatting
others' advice
without others' interference

Some people seek out ________________ (1). They think that a person should never make an
important decision alone. I disagree with them, for I believe that ______________ (2). The
reasons are as follows.
If I follow ______________ (3) and get negative results, I ______________ (4) instead of myself.
However, I will accept my mistake and learn a lesson from my failure if the decision is solely
In addition, I personally make more effective decisions (5) ____________ . More often than not,
I find that discussions on ______________ (6) can easily _______________ (7) with friends.
In brief, I strongly believe that we should make key decisions by ourselves. I learn (8)
_____________ . More importantly, our ability ___________________ (9).
You are going to read four extracts from articles about smartphones. For questions 14
choose from the extracts AD. The extracts may be chosen more than once.
1. Which extract argues that phone choice reflects social standing?
2. Which extract expresses a more positive view than the others regarding increased
smart phone use?
3. Which extract takes a negative view regarding the social costs of smart phones?
4. Which extract takes a negative view on the effect of smart phones on personal
For young people especially, having a cell
phone to
hand is the necessary thing.
However, this means a reduction in
opportunities for face-to-face conversation
with people around them. Checking texts in
front of friends sends the message that
theres someone elsewhere more important
than you.
Undoubtedly, there are great benefits to
mobile technology, such as making
emergency calls, alerting others to your
whereabouts and participating in remote
meetings are concrete.
Other behaviour patterns, though, may be
considered more alarming. A Korean study
found that children who have smart phones
are reluctant to befriend children who dont.
In addition, it has been reported that 7% of
US students had lost relationships or jobs
due to inappropriate cell phone usage.
to hand = within easy reach
reluctant [r'lkt()nt] -

Smartphone users are less cautious about
personal conversations in public, are more
likely to
breach social etiquette ['etket] about having
disruptive phone conversations, and are
more detached from their physical
Smartphones have effectively given users
the impression that they move through
communal spaces as if separate from them,
thereby reducing the importance of such
areas. This has negative social connotations:
such spaces play a vital role in urban
communities; its where people learn to
interact with others through simple
transactions such as making conversation or
asking directions.
For smartphone users then, the social norms
of the physical world are often ignored.
The report concludes by encouraging people
to interact with each other more and become
less reliant on smartphones.
cautious ['ks]


due to - ; ;

A study of nearly 400 Japanese adolescents
discovered that very high users of
smartphones showed significantly more
problematic behaviours, including
attention deficits, aggression, and lack of
interactive skills, than low users.
In addition, the researchers noted that the
effects of smartphone overuse were similar
to those of
Internet overuse, in particular Internet
The number of adolescents becoming high
users of smartphones appears to be an
unstoppable social trend. Younger, pre-teen
users fall into the highest risk category of all,
the report states.
The report notes that smartphone use has
negatively affected the academic
performance of the
adolescents studied.
deficit ['defst]
adolescent [d()'les()nt]

overuse [uv'jus]
academic performance


disruptive [ds'rptv]
detached [d'tt]
communal spaces

encourage [n'kr ]
reliant [r'lant]
The impact of technology on society is
nothing new. First came the desktop PC that
changed our life fundamentally.
Then the development of cell phones
communication. Now, smartphones combine
all these
existing functions and more in one device.
The type of phone a person owns has,
moreover, become a status symbol as much
as a means of communication. Their use in
activities such as blogging and accessing
social networking sites means such sites
have received a
significant boost in membership (and
Along with their social applications, it is
remembering that many smartphones are
practical tools,
being used to schedule appointments and to
directions through GPS applications.
combine [km'ban]
status ['stets]

means [minz] ;
along with -
application [pl'ken]

boost [bust] ,
appointment ['pntmnt]

access ['kses] ,
( -.)



obvious ['bvs] -
concise [kn'sas] - ;
access ['kses] ,
( -.)
refer [r'f] ( -. / -.)
( , . .)
a ward [wd]