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Terminologies

aromatics: Herbs, spices, and flavorings that create a savory aroma, such as bouquet garni
and sachet d'epices.
au jus (oh ZHEW): Meat served with its own juice.
bchamel (BAY-shah-MELL): A grand sauce made from milk and white roux.
beurre mani (byurr man-YAY): A thickener made of equal parts flour and soft, whole butter.
bisque (BISK): A cream soup made from pured shellfish shells, such as lobster, shrimp, or
crab.
bouillon (BOO-yon): The liquid that results from simmering meat or vegetables; also referred
to as broth.
bouquet garni (boo-KAY gahr-NEE): French for "bag of herbs"; a bundle of fresh herbs, such
as thyme, parsley stems, and a bay leaf tied together.
brown or espagnole sauce (ess-spah- NYOL): A grand sauce made from brown stock and
brown roux.

brown stock: An amber liquid produced by simmering poultry, beef, veal, or


game bones, after these bones have been browned.
China cap: A pierced metal cone-shaped strainer; use it to strain soups,
stocks, and other liquids to remove all solid ingredients.
chinois (chin-WAH): A very fine China cap made of metal mesh that strains
out very small solid ingredients.
clarified: The liquid that remains after the removal of the raft when making
consomm.
clear soups: Flavored stocks, broths, and consomms.
compound butter: A mixture of raw butter and various flavoring
ingredients, such as herbs, nuts, citrus zest, shallots, ginger, and vegetables.
concass (kawn-ka-SAY): A coarsely chopped mixture. Tomato concass is
created by adding tomatoes, garlic, and seasonings to vegetable stock to
flavor or darken the stock, but tomatoes must be strained with a cheesecloth
or filter so that no seeds or skins get into the stock.
coulis: A thick, pured sauce, such as tomato coulis.
court bouillon (court boo-YON): An aromatic vegetable broth, used for
poaching fish or vegetables.

degreasing: The process of removing fat that has cooled and hardened from
the surface of stock.
demi-glace (deh-mee glahs): A rich brown sauce traditionally made by
combining equal parts espagnole sauce and veal stock.
foodborne pathogens: Microorganisms on food that cause illness. These
need time and moisture to grow, but they won't grow when the temperature
of the food is colder than 41F or hotter than 135F.
fumet (foo-MAY): A highly flavored stock made with fish bones; fish stock is
very similar to fumet.
glace (glahs): A reduced stock with a jellylike consistency, made from brown
stock, chicken stock, or fish stock; it is sometimes referred to as "glaze."
grand sauces: Five classical sauces that are the basis for most other sauces.
These are sometimes called "mother sauces."
hollandaise (HALL-en-daze): A rich, emulsified grand sauce made from
butter, egg yolks, lemon juice, and cayenne pepper.
jus: A rich, lightly reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meat.
jus-li (ZHEW-lee-AY): A sauce made from the juices of cooked meat and
brown stock.
liaison (lee-AY-zohn): A mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream, often used to
finish some sauces, such as Allemande sauce.
matre d'htel butter (MAY-tra doe-TEL): A softened butter that is flavored
with lemon juice and chopped parsley. It is often used to garnish grilled meat
or fish.
mirepoix: A French word that refers to the mixture of coarsely chopped
onions, carrots, and celery. This mixture provides a flavor base for stock.
oignon brl: A "burnt onion." Cut an onion half across its hemisphere and
then char the flat part either on a flattop or in a dry (fat-free) pan.
raft: When making consomm, the raft is the floating layer of egg whites,
meat and vegetable solids, and fats.
remouillage (ray-moo-LAJ): A weak stock made from bones that have
already been used in another preparation, sometimes used to replace water
as the liquid used in a stock; remouillage is the French word for "rewetting."
roux (ROO): A thickener made of equal parts cooked flour and a fat, such as
clarified butter, oil, or shortening.

sachet d'pices (sah-SHAY day-PEESE): Similar to bouquet garni, except it


really is a bag of herbs and spices.
salsa: A cold mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits, and/or vegetables.
sauce: A liquid or semisolid product that is used in preparing other food
items.
saucier: A cook who specializes in making sauces.
slurry: Cornstarch mixed with a cold liquid, which can be used instead of
roux.
stock: A flavorful liquid made by gently simmering bones and/or vegetables.
temper: To slowly mix a little bit of hot sauce with eggs or cream to raise the
temperature slowly and prevent the mixture from cooking or curdling.
thick soups: Cream and pure soups.
tomato sauce: A grand sauce made from a stock and tomatoes (roux is
optional).
vegetable stock: Usually made from mirepoix, leeks, and turnips.
velout (veh-loo-TAY): A grand sauce made from veal, chicken, or fish stock
and a white or blond roux.
white stock: A clear, pale liquid made by simmering poultry, beef, or fish
bones.
wringing method: An easy way to strain sauce. In this method, place a
clean cheesecloth over a bowl and pour the sauce through the cheesecloth
into the bowl. The cloth is then twisted at either end to squeeze out the
strained sauce. The cheesecloth catches the unwanted lumps of roux, or
herbs, spices, and other seasonings.
yield: The given amount of a dish that a recipe makes.