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CrossWave Propagation Model

March 2011

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What is CrossWave?
CrossWave is the Atoll version of the Orange Labs propagation model
Developed by Orange Labs
Distributed and supported by Forsk as an option to Atoll

High performance universal propagation model


All wireless technologies
All propagation situations and environments
Automatic model tuning using CW measurements

Proven and field-tested


CrossWave is being used by the Orange Group
Statistically pre-calibrated using measurements from different countries and
environment types

CrossWave
CrossWave models the three propagation phenomena
Vertical diffraction
Horizontal guided propagation
Reflection on mountains

Orange Labs experience


Propagation modeling
Automatic tuning

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CrossWave Specifications
Multi-technology and frequency bands
All technologies (GSM, UMTS, CDMA, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX, LTE)
Supports frequency range from 200 MHz to 5GHz

Works for any type of cells


Micro cells, Mini cells, Macro cells

Works for any type of environment


Dense urban, Urban, Suburban, Rural.

Geo Data needed


DTM, Clutter classes, DHM
Supports all Atoll raster formats
And optionally:

3D building vectors (TAB)


Line vectors (TAB) for railway track
predictions
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CrossWave Model Settings


Morphologies
Strongly recommended, improve accuracy
Generated from DTM and Clutter classes
Accurate environment modelling to the
propagation context:

Describes environment (100m resolution file)


and allows model to apply different optimization
for each morphology

Pre-processing needed, only once


Increases speed

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CrossWave Configuration
Facets
Allow to model reflection phenomena for macro cells
Useful in mountainous area, not in hilly terrain (vegetation not taken into account)
Facets are used to find all paths from transmitters to the receiver,
Generated from DTM data
Pre processing needed, only once

Remains optional
Can take time (depends on area size and relief)

Requirements/Limitations
Not available in urban environment when
3D building vectors are used
Receiver and the transmitter must not be
in visibility (no line-of-sight)

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CrossWave Configuration
Graphs
Generated from the building shapes (3D building vectors), only once (preprocessing can take time..)
Used to find all paths from transmitter to receiver (propagation paths)
For better modeling of guided propagation in micro-cellular environment
(Crosswave automatically determine the micro cellular context according to the
average roof height and number of building around transmitter)
Produce files which classify main streets with their width (TAB file, picture below )

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CrossWave Calculation Settings


Radial mode
For each transmitter, CrossWave can use
Atoll path loss matrix resolution or a user
defined value

Dual resolution
Secondary resolution can be used
beyond threshold distance, for path
loss matrix calculated with CrossWave
Alternative will be to use in Atoll both
main and extended matrices with
different resolutions, and unique
resolution in CrossWave model

Automatic backward distance


No Calculation behind transmitter to
increase calculation speed

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CrossWave Radio Parameters


Can take into account reflection
behind receiver along Tx/Rx profile
Reflection on building

Graphs usage can be restricted to


a specific area around Tx
Diffraction in horizontal Plane
Mainly for macro-cells in dense
urban area
For any obstacle with height
greater than its width (i.e.
skyscraper), where calculation
should not only consider Vertical
plane for dominant path

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CrossWave Indoor Parameters


Indoor calculation
Calculate In/On buildings
Model defined penetration:

Attenuation values from Orange Labs


measurements in urban area mainly in
GSM/UMTS frequency bands (formulas with
incidence angles and frequency band)

Penetration attenuation can be user


defined :

by polygon type (buildings, vegetation)


globally

Receiver can be considered on building


roof top

Indoor to outdoor propagation


For an antenna inside a building, specific
treatment to take into account the
propagation inside this building.
Several virtual transmitters are identified,
and the one which generates the lowest
losses is considered
Attenuation can be user defined

CrossWave Advanced Settings


Antenna correction
Warning message if located inside
building polygon
Automatic update of transmitter position,
exported to a text file (Atoll database is
not updated)

Railway Predictions
Prediction only along railway tracks
Reception level inside train, according to
train type
Supports vectors files (TAB)

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CrossWave Calibration
Auto Tuning
Automatic filtering of inconsistent
points (i.e. inside buildings) no
need of manual filtering in Atoll except
general filters like min/max signal
level

Choice between two modes of


calibrations

Standard ( provides the best performance


results)
Advanced calibration (more robust thanks
to combination with default parameters of
model)

Single calibration for macro/micro


environment : all CW files can be
processed simultaneously

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CrossWave Calibration
Auto Tuning
User can perform several calibrations
and select the best one

Try different scenario for


calibration/verification sites
Standard or advanced mode

Results split per:

CW file
Morphology (Help to determine if more
than one model is needed for the area
thanks to the performance available per
morphology)

Generating optimization coefficients


embedded in propagation model
(User specific)
Or use Statistically pre-calibrated
coefficients using measurements
(Model default)
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CrossWave Calibration
Accuracy depends on Geo data available ( availability of morphologies,
facets, graphs)
Minimum
requirements

Standard
configuration

Advanced
configuration

Height (DTM)
Clutter class
Building raster
(DHM)
3D Building
vector

Optimum
configuration

CrossWave accuracy

When 3D building vectors are available, Clutter heights (DHM raster) remain
optional (CrossWave does not use DHM, see Optimum configuration*)
CrossWave can work without calibration with reasonable accuracy
Default parameters obtained from high number of points from CW measurements

Macro and micro cell


Outdoor/indoor.
LOS/NLOS.

Model uses default optimisation coefficients for each morphology


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CrossWave Performance with Calibration


Macro cellular context (900MHz) in a Dense
Urban/Urban area
DTM (resolution 2m) and Clutter classes (20m)
3D Building vectors
Pre processing :

3D building vectors for graphs


DTM/clutter classes for morphologies

7 CW files (35k samples)

15

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CrossWave Performance without Calibration


Performances obtained without calibration and in Macro cellular conditions
in a large city (average on all three frequency bands 900/1800/2100)
Morphologies bring the highest gain (building vectors and graphs not really useful
here due to the macro cellular context)
With morphology

Not used

Not used

used

used

With graphs

Not used

used

Not used

used

Performance

Mean = -5 STD =6.2

Mean = 1.7 STD =6.6

Mean = -1.2 STD =6.4

Mean = 1.2 STD =6.5

CrossWave accuracy

16

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Visual Comparison without Tuning (macro cell)

Standard Hata model tuned


(only DTM + Clutter classes)

Standard Hata model tuned


(DTM + Clutter classes + DHM)

CrossWave without tuning


(DTM + Clutter classes + DHM with Morphologies)

CrossWave without tuning


(DTM+ Clutter + DHM + 3D vectors with Morphologies + graphs)

Conclusion : CrossWave can be used without calibration to provide realistic predictions


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Visual Comparison with Tuning (macro cell)


All path loss resolution and coverage
plot = resolution 2m
DTM/DHM resolution = 2m

CrossWave with tuning


(DTM + Clutter class+ DHM with Morphologies)

Standard Hata model tuned


(DTM + Clutter classes + DHM)

CrossWave with tuning


(DTM+ Clutter class + DHM + 3D vectors with Morphologies + graphs )
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Visual Comparison with Tuning (micro cell)

CrossWave outdoor prediction of a micro cell (H=10m)


with tuning in macro cell context
(DTM+ clutter Class + DHM + 3D vectors with Morphologies / graphs)

Conclusion : CrossWave can work for


micro cells with a calibration performed
in macro cell conditions, thanks to its
default coefficients
Standard Hata prediction of a micro cell with tuning done in macro cell
context (DTM+ clutter Class + DHM )
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Indoor Propagation
Indoor penetration parameters can be defined globally or per polygon
Attenuation values defined as attributes in building shape files

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CrossWave Model : Key Points


Accurate - prediction results close to the reality
Outperforms the other models (especially in term of speed/accuracy)
Fast - both in tuning and prediction computations

Easy filtering process in Atoll compared to others Cost Hata models


Easy tuning (no parameter consistency checking, clutter offset extrapolation)

Statistically pre-calibrated using measurements from different environment


types (rural/urban, micro/macro, indoor/outdoor...)

If CW measurements points are missing in some environments (i.e. forest..) ,


model can use its default coefficients

Versatile - compatible with all technologies/frequencies


Robust - able to tackle very large areas
Models propagation on water better than a Hata type Model (i.e. Atoll SPM)
thanks to specific correction calibrated with experimental measurements
Models mountainous areas better thanks to facets data
Used in the Orange Group since several years (25 operators amongst 32)

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Benefits of using CrossWave Model


Reduction of maintenance and development costs
With a limited number of models, specific requests are processed more quickly
(i.e. in France, Orange now uses only one tri band model!)

Reduction of Network Rollout costs


The accuracy of the model allows reducing the number of transmitters

Reduction of network planning time


Thanks to the speed with which it calculates, the network planning is very fast

Improvement of network quality


The accuracy of the model makes it possible to have a very precise idea of the
quality of the network and thus to improve it when it is necessary

Increased speed of delivery of new services


Having a good knowledge of the network allows the user to better configure it in
accordance with the user needs

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Thank You!