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HYPNAGOGIA

The

Nature

and

Function

of

the

Hypnagogic

State

by
Andreas

Thesis
Brunel

to

submitted

University,

for

Mavromatis

the
the

Department
degree

January

of

of
Doctor

Psychology,
of

Philosophy

1983

1
V01-

PIS D

4: r.:: ;

Eiz.
-D

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around a pomegranate one second
before waking up 1944
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41
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Rupp-

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All
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All

CONTENTS
Abstract

Acknowledgements

Preface

6
-

PART ONE -

PHENOMENOLOGY
1.

Introduction

2.

Historical

3.

Methods

4.

Sensori-motor

phenomena

5.

Physiological

correlates

6"

Problems

8
background

and incidence

and procedures

of

of

12

investigation

19
of

and systems

classification

64

definition

and the

stages

of

the

hypnagogic
73

state
7.

25

Cognitive-affective

83

characteristics

Summary and Conclusions

of

Part

One

131

PART
TWO HYPNAGOGIA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER
STATES, PROCESSES, AND EXPERIENCES
Introduction

137

Be

Hypnosis

139

9.

Dreams

150

10.

Meditation

183

11.

Psi

212

12.

Schizophrenia

265

13.

Creativity

310

14.

Other

areas

of

374

experience

Summary and Conclusions

of

Part

Two

388

THREE
PART
GRAIN MECHANISMS AND FUNCTION OF HYPNAGOGIA

Introduction
15.

Cerebral

16.

Cerebral

17.

The old

18.

The loosening

19.

The function

20.

The significance

394

correlates
correlates
the

versus

of

hypnagogic

visions

395

of

hypnagogic

mentation

420

new brain

of ego boundaries
of

hypnagogia
of

hypnagogia

434

460
474
492

Appendix

510

Bibliography

519

ANDREAS MAVROMATIS
Ph. D.
Brunel

Psychology,

1983.

University,

HYPNAGOGIA Function
of the Hypnagogic
-

The

Nature

and

State

ABSTRACT
An analysis
leads
of

of

to the conclusion
this

sleep,

by

which

emerge

loosening
activities

of

facilitates
processes

dreams,

helps

as

As

component.
the

thus,

out

nocturnal

is

It

and

is

that,

individual

to

logical
ter
points

of

of

riding

between

to

evolutional

the

a basic

and

the

need

experiences,
throughand

sleep

wakeful-

ego

and

sleep

of

LEB,

function,

with

continually
due to
Moreover,
wakefulness

become

opportunities
renewed

psycho-

its

sleep,

unique

charac-

hypnagogia

namely,

possibilities,

of a new psychological
functions
of wakefulness,

the

enables

more
for

and

and

it

and

strictness
him

phen-

wakefulness,

anxiety-reducing

character

providing

experiences

new

than
and

his

orientations.

establishment
tively

its

them.

of

neurophysiological,
this
that
grounds,

older

as

dreamlike

of

on

psychological

slacken

as well
holistic

more

dint

types

i. e.

quasi-hallucinations,

proposed,

a hypometabolic

by

of

rest-

dream

one

only

of

is

basic

of

Oneirosis,

and

and

cycle's

a variety

independently

cycle

evolutionally

has

tolerant

and

and

the

termed

dreams

the

to

being

medi-

hypnagogia

exemplification

herein

further

developmental

it

or

REM kind

have

to

24 hour

the

that

encompasses

hallucinations

as

omenon

it

states/

creativity,

related

represents

the

phenomenon

readiness

ness.

their

it

both

analysis
other

Further,

nature.

with

as hypnosis,

such

phenomenon.

such

to

and

constitutes

pervading

hypnagogia

organism,

wherein

cycle

dream,

on

This

schizophrenia,

a circadian

activity

such

psi,

light

shed

viewed

human

the

of

tation,

and

relating

subject's
correlated

are

structures.
of

features

psychological

and

phase

phenomenon

hypnagogic

the
(LEB)

boundaries

a simple

a central

of
of

subcortical

the

is

a constellation

ego

being

from

process

a function

as

of

or

(hypnagogia)

state

far

that,

state

characterized

It,

hypnagogic

the

state

serving

sleep,

and

to

the
collec-

dreaming.

To my mother
for

her

love

and

ET1v &va
Y

r 7,
)v

ay(Xit

tirc

xaC

patience

ov
Tiv

noovT, ) T119

Acknowledgements

Thanks
ments

without

never

have

to

whose

instrumental
also
Library

and

and

country
for

Department
Special

this

place
S. S. R. C.

grant.

Thanks
the

of

staff
due

are

supervision,

research,

to

for

and

partitracing
in

to

a number

Psychology
support.

personal

his

for

Richardson

throughout

encouragement
deciphering

so patiently

in

sources

due

also

would

Inter-

in

University's

and

advice

being
I

and

remote

and

John

Dr.

Univer-

for

efforts

are

and

enabled

University

tireless

obscure

consultations

thanks

constant

from

abroad.

and

colleagues

her

Council

Brunel

to

helpfulness,

their

for

Barnes
material

obtaining

this

for

like

would

that

and

Brunel

of

would

Research

and

all,

the

staff

section

Lorna

Ms.

research

the

First,

Science

at

my receiving

work

79/20805/PSY)

(No.

grant

thank

Loans

cular

of

in
to

form.

Social

the

establish-

this

me a post-graduate

offering

like

to

and

people

assistance

present

this

out

carry
for

sity

its

me the

of

a number

generous

reached

awarding

me to

to

my thanks

extend

for

due

are

my scribbly

handwriting.
am deeply

generously
for

grateful

so

much

me hundreds

of

available

Janice

Riniker,

Gabriele

for

deal

dedicating
gratitude
and

in

constant

of

this
for

very

important

Jane
I

in

material

work
her

supply

in

to

of

support,

unstinting
coffee.

-5-

helping

hope

Ursula
Fox

Harry

to

me collect
in

Finally,

thesis.

this

my mother

thank

to

Cox,

Richard
Cooper,

Nigel

also

not

Heather

Neville,

Liz

translating

material

Fishman,

Conway,
wish

spending
in

energy

Adie

contribution

the

of

and

Theodore,

Simons.

for

following

time

English:

Selkirk,

incalculable

his

great

pages

Annabelle

Pelling,

the

their

of

publicly

Vasseur,

Anne

to

express

enormous

my

patience,

Preface
This

has

research

rather

than

hypothesis

in

area

the

First,

no

this

had

which

was

France

and

Germany,

carried

out

the

whole

a number

of

phenomenological
systematic

and

studies

Fourth,

there

function

of

possibly

no

in

state

Third,
to

related

on

experiences,
no

grounds,

had

been
to

attempt

systematic

hypnagogic

be

to
and

lines

to

framework.

aetiological

these

along

was
the

processes,

and

attempt

serious

any

although

states,

ignored

fragmented

rather

without

research

mainly

recently

very
was

cognitive-

Second,

a comprehensive
conceptual
the hypnagogic
state
appeared
other

observations:

subject's

in

it

place

the

literature

the

read

undertaken.

until

outside

on

of

exploration

important

four

been

As

analysis

state
area,

by

struck

theoretical

of

one

testing.

systematic

experiential
in

was

been

reported.
the

understand
evolutionary

a wider,

setting.
In

to

my efforts

exhaustive

research

was

accessible

easily

from
to
tual

disparate
be

sources

a comprehensive
framework.

remedy
the

of
-

the

literature

bringing
and

and,

-6-

above,
together

organizing
I hope,

it

carried
not

all

varied
in

what

comprehensible

out
of

an

which

material
I

believe
concep-

ONE
PART
PHENOMENOLOGY

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION:

Hypnagogic

experiences

hallucinatory

or

falling

on

= sleep,

duced

into

and

include

Trdmner's

(1911)

(1921)
"visions

of

images,

1925,

p. 289).

end

of

sleep

is,

that

Similar

period

coming
a state

as

"the

tunately,

or process
state",

"falling

is

no

single

describes

both

the

general,

there

is

other
1903),

The

pre-sleep
designated

variously

"sleep

asleep",

onset",
Unfor-

"addormentamento".
in

word

"dormiveglia"

Italian

inctly

been

the

(Myers,

sleep.

"endormissement",
there

the

of

out

Leaning,

at

occurring

has

hypnagogic

"Einschlafen",

to

leading

or

experiences,

(in:

dark"

"hypnopompic"

called

(1933)

state

the

phenomena

been

have

in

1948),

"oneiragogic"

(1935)

"sleepening"

"faces

and

Wey-

Leroy's

Archer's
(1955)

"phantasmata"

and

Greek

Arnold-Forster's

experiences,

half-sleep",

the

(Vihvelin

phantasms",

state"

Critchley's

(from

sensations"

anthypnic

"hypnagogic

"borderland

place

"praedormitium",

(1890)

Mitchell's
or

as

leader)
introwas
conductor,
=
(1848).
Other
terms
by Maury

agogos

"presomnal

gandt's

taking

"hypnagogic"

term

literature

the

proposed

as

The

to

referred

events

quasi-hallucinatory

asleep.

hypnos

generally

are

English

equivalent

(sleep-waking)
"hypnagogic"

so

which

"hypnopompic"

the

and

succ-

states.
In
in

this

experiences
ning
posed
for
tion

of

side

and

state

Since

distinction
consider
I

all

I
them

to
the

as belonging

stand

for

phenomena

and

-8-

not
in

to

the

introduce
the

to

refer
and

the

at

awake-

been

as yet

pro-

criteria

physiological

continue

furthermore,

shall,

onset

have

and

shall

among

sleep

there

phenomenological

"hypnagogia"
and

at

investigators

"hypnagogic"to

term

both

sleep.

strong
their

the

employ

occurring

phenomena.
term

to

area

a tendency

the

same

same
the

tradi-

group

of

collective

hypnagogic-hypnopompic

experiences

encountered

in

9
it.

the

However,

use

maintained

for

the

occurrence

of

such

The
the

with
states

and

auditory,

the

the

some
of

perceptual

and

and

quasi-perceptual

divide

phenomena
).

etc.
the

examine

state

as well

hypnagogia
the

classifying

systems

and
I

phenomena

offer

make
the

suggest

and

into

(visual,

psychological

studying

classificatory

which

of

part
I

state

attitude,

other

evolutionary

first

the

correlates

for

used
In

existing
of

mental

to

the

) and

etc.

criticism.

ment

in

of

respectively

relationship

specifically,

physiological

methods

its

function

thought,

of

briefly
as

or

be

will

temporal

the

dealing

parts

its

and

olfactory,

(quality

three

phenomenology

somato-sensory

indicating

hypnagogia,

More
the

examine

into

phenomena,

significance.

terms

separate

experiences.

of

nature

two

of

purpose

falls

paper

the

of

use

employ-

ones.

new

hypnagogic

the

Defining

a difficult

has been

state

due to the transitional


character
was partly
in it of cognitive
modes
of the state
and the occurrence
be
to
thought
severally
and phenomena which are generally
task.

This

descriptive

of
states
other
characterize
the
introduction
of
Moreover,
the
consciousness.
very
at
it,
term 'hypnagogic',
the man who coined
Maury (1848),
the occurrence
of these phenomena clearly
noted that
in

indeed,

of

to

kind
were not
onset
visual
- at sleep
hypnagogic,
i. e. they
necessarily
were not necessarily
inducing!
Thus,
paper,
sleep
of this
at the beginning
the

particular,

definition

a working

however,

which,
presented

is

and

part

of

the

some

of

them
of

process

the

these

of

all

In

the

are

extensively
It

in

the

about

offered
state

the

state,

examined

in

the

first

detail

in

first

and

part,

continued

part,

to

appropriate
the
to

hypnagogia

the

second

of

more

greater

In

features

seemed

comparing
begun

also,

as

data

psychological

paper.

experiences.
is,

augmented

is

state

are

analysed.

Concerning
not

hypnagogic

the

of

second
other

an analysis
the

throughout

an examination

of

the

in

part
states
of

discuss
the

and
hypnagogia

paper.

10

phenomenological
of

other

states

and

number
all
ined

the

to

hypnosis,

dreams,

fact

that
from

guishable
the

and

some

that

all

is,

Thus,

they

of
into

try

to

and

related

them

contain

that

many

part,

that

is

springs

of

gamut

of

the

propose

of

life's

that
to
the

multi-sociate

that
triptych

reduce

of

its

activities
great

instrospective
with

the

it

argue

experiences

is

the

subject.

This

by,

strengthened

- dreaming,
functions,
as
and
of

taking
vistas

of

but
place

of

integrated

boundaries

blur

etc.,
support-

arguments

Third,
component

wakefulness

might
not

and
is

phenomenon,
constitute

also

conscious

always

life.

throughout

psychological
the
may furnish
an

developmentally

a circadian
It

which

structures.
the dream

sleep,

anxiety.

continuous

of

out

entities,

concepts,
is

study
benefits

of

to
I

the

of sub-cortical
hypnagogia
constitutes

tension

substratum

opens

boundaries

ego

and
involvement

one

mental
it

the

is

this

of

Second,

phenomenon
hypnagogic

sub-

applied

employed.

psychological

of

'regressivity'

justifiably

is

hypnagogia

of

implication

important

and
old
which isontogenetically
". in that
is to
its
tendency

ing

develop

them

activities

with

phenomenon
'regressive',

strengthens,

production

First,

phenomenology

correlated
label

whole

or

beliefs

phenomena.

the

tasks.

three

of

fuse

is

distinof

some of

loosening

and

part

such
to

versa,

attempt

One

workers
the

into

conducive

'strange'

the

states

core

this

state.

(qualified)

the

be

and

place.
hypnagogia,

of

a measure

vice

and,

take

develop

psi,

set

subject's

to

paid

only

are

experiences

or
to

seen

structures.
the

that

begin

is

third

show

cortical
by

of

a hypnagogic
the

the

the

experiences

In

by

which

either

in

Not
exam-

being

findings

experiences

in

hypnagogia

these

these

of

are

meditation,

striking

hypnagogia

setting

Practically

the

a
out.

carried

attention

particular

schizophrenia,

One of

with

hypnagogia

to

related

depth,

is

phenomena

and

processes

same

creativity.
the

states

hypnagogia

of

relationships

As

Its

exploration.
individual

personality

such,

not
but

only
also

it

11
the

with
of

means

which

experience

psychological

in

becomes

also

of

scope
the

writing

or

undoubtedly

questions
of

this

reader
of

carrying

inevitably

epistemological
the

will

new

little

known

enrich

him

modes

as

entity.

Significantly,
one

discovering

of

this

paper

will
paper.

have

out
faced

whose
but

with

ontological

and

falls

outside

discussion

whose

gone

introspections

such

mere

a long

raising

way

to

in
justifying

the

mind
the

1)

runomLln

HISTORICAL

BACKGROUND

Reference

can

himself

tries

and

to

sinking
hypnopompic

him

"the

take

and

waking"
to

heard

are

of

tions

their

by

of
"images
give

numerous

7387)

his

17th

hypnagogic

a "kind

visions

as

angles"

of

fancy"

he

Simon
Emanuel

his

in

Forman

Swedenborg

with

a method
(e. g.

of

autobiography.
his
reported

1928,1977;

see

also

On one occasion
Swedenborg
"...
is still
there
another

comes

in

a state

midway

between

1600
In

hypnagogic

them,

inducing

to

in

van
(1928,
kind

sleep

of
and

is
he
fully
that
man then
awake,
supposes
inasmuch
his
are active".
senses
as all
19th
to them was made by,
century
reference
The

were,
the

among

others,

(cited

by

Baillarger

gave
the

In

cites
descrip-

particular

wrote:

wakefulness.

by

and

publications

para.

In

p. 291)
who

tran-

and

Both Leaning
name" to.
(1911,
and Ellis
p. 30) made reference
in
hypnagogic
imagery
of
recorded

1972,1975).

it

conditions

"no

along

which

we are

and

lines

Dusen

vision

century

to

sleeping

a bright

experiences.

referred

which

of

century

experiences,

as

(1651)

astrologer

18th

16th

the

under

(1925,

Leaning

in

"god-sent"

and

"sometimes

and

hypnagogic

p. 291: )
descriptions

the

us"

Iamblichus

us,

time

the

of

between

leaving

which

to

themselves

conditions
condition

is

attends

moment

on

writing
"a

forth".

writers

Hobbes

the

by

shines

A. D.,

to
sleep

the

century
the

during

awake"

a number

the

"when

"in

present

and

anyone

respect

which

pp. 115-117)

he

back

we experience
in

can,

3rd

the

referred

and

light

could
(1925,

In

"if

that,

images

the

place,

beginning

of

a person

that

remarked

affections
and

experiences

they

who

far

as

goes

occurrence

slumber",

(1895,

(eebnentoO

century

the

sleep".

divine"

quil

remember

surprise

in

"voices

their

variety,

awakening,

5-10)
of

into

when

to

experiences

(1931,462a,

convince

to

hypnagogic

to

Aristotle

as

INCIDENCE:

AND

Gruithuisen

Galton

1883,

1846),

(1812),
p. 115),

Poe

(1949),

-12-

(1813),

Ferriar
HcNish

(1830),

Herschel

Marc

(1868),

Goethe
(cited
Herve

de

13
St.

(1867),

Denis

1925),

Leaning

(1890),

Mitchell
Weed

(1895).

Hallam

and

(1891:

Stead

Poe

by

cited

spoke

them

of

as

delicacy,
fancies,
which
are
exquisite
of
of
a class
than
they
psychal
thoughts:
seem to me rather
in the soul...
They arise
only
intellectual.
at
tranquility
its
- and at those
of most intense
epochs
the
the
in
of
time
waking
confines
where
mere points
I
blend
those
of dreams.
of the world
with
world

'fancies'
only when I am on the very
of these
I am so.
that
sleep,
with the consciousness

am aware
brink
of

On the

hand,

other

land

and

at

Serious

research

1883),

de

Myers,
Ladd

20th

(1909),
(1911)

Trmner
behaviourism
years

James

(1903),

Lhermitte

and

Kubie

Margolin

and

more

imagery

recent
in

(1942),

years,

"the

and

(1921),

(1963),
Foulkes
Liberson
Singer
Fischgold

1979b),
Bertini,
and

(1955),

Oswald

Lewis

Witkin

(1964),

(1965),

Vogel

(1966),
(1966),
and

and

Foulkes,
Vogel,
Safar

Craik

(1966),

Spear

and

Foulkes
(1968),

and
Stoyva

Kubie

the

(1948).

ostracised"

re-emerged,
McKellar

(1962),

Owens

Dement
Liberson

Trosman

(1965),
and

(1966),

Symonds

and

(1943),

Vihvelin

of

Critchley

(1940)

Jequier

(1954),
Ardis
and
and Simpson
e. g. McKellar
(1956),
(1957,1959,1963,1968,1975,1977,
McKellar
1979a,

(1920),

Delage

(1946),

interest

1964),

following

the

(1941),

return

of

advent

(1935),

Rouques

with
(Holt,

general

(1909),

e. g.
publications,
(1921),
Arnold-Forster

Tournay

Ellis

(1904),

Wundt

waned

Archer

(1890),

(1897),

Titchener

area

(1941),

Sigwald

Gurney,

Mitchell

the

late
(1857,

Taine

(1903),

With

(1933),

Leroy

(1890),

(1848,

other

of

(1881,1883),

Myers

(1914).
Woolle.
y
,
in this
interest

with

Maury

and

notably

(1965),

few

began

de Manaceine

(1894),

Silberer

(1925),

Leaning

In

(1886),

saw relatively
(1920),
Warcollier

Walsh

prae-dormitium

a number

workers
Galton

Gelle

Alexander

followed

(1859),

Greenwood

(1897,1911),

the

(1846),

century

Podmore

(1892),

border-

voices...

phenomena

Baillarger

Boismont

and

"the

that

during

these

There

early

and

noted

seen

into

1853,1857,1878).
19th

(1890)

p. 543)

period".

(1826,1848),

Mller

(1949,

hallucinations...

by

visions

real

other

no

haunted

is

of sleep
distressingly

Mitchell

Poe

(1966),

Kamiya

(1968),

14
Budzynski

and

Stoyva

(1969),

Budzynski

(1972,1977),

Ey

and

(1974),

Harper

Williams

An early
rence
results

were

survey

Leaning

about

one

greater
more

findings.

"false

from

what

once

quently

1933,

Leroy

have
deny

have

they

Certain

older
1898)

Partridge

of

been

recently

of

studies

dreams

Manaceine

de

6-year-old
Partridge

62.2%

in

on

58.5%
in

to

in

hypna-

had

them

them

(see

also

fre-

(1957),

McKellar

to

attention

from

individuals
For

instance,

experiences
into
admitting
trapped
p. 97).

1962,

1897,

De Manaceine
argue

the

favour

in

results

carried
an incidence

by

8-15-year

olds.

yielded

children

65.0%

a
have

the

(1971).

Foulkes
80% in

of

59.4%
in

of

among children,
of longitudinal
out

13-16-year-olds,

11-year-olds,

Accor-

have

drew

imagery

children

826

as

they

(Oswald,

showed
and 40% in

children

of

p. 43).
they

prevent

being

study

survey

incidences:

by

challenged

mind

as well

(1883),

(e. g.

hypnagogic

incidence

higher

in

hypnagogic

oddity"

appear

The

a process

experiences.

of

that

by

an

reported

we bear

to

also

having

reports

(1981)

that

that

a fear

and

notice,

alerted

such

(1967),

Geers

thought

realize

(1964)

Holt

Leaning's

with

1972,

Galton

psychopathological

some

olds,

been

they

to

never

factors

might

people

"because

have

social

that

admitting

to

and

and

cultural

come

to

a much
(1954)
Simpson's

and

occur

(McKellar,

pp. xiii-xiv).

(1962),

Oswald

many

they

to

who

in

occurs

and

if

alerted

people

experiences

gogic

even

not

comprehensive

imagery

al

similar

75% respectively.

higher

blockage"

McKellar

to

is

one

et

and

"seem

her

In

Buck

76%,

that

emotional

ding

The

may be

negatives",

ignoring

(1963),

occur-

adults:

agreement

Richardson

72%,

2% in

the

in

an

reported

McKellar
are

and

percentage

Mavromatis.,

population

adult

Owens

77%,

of

(1976),

Galton.

that

children.

(1972),

incidence
real

of
in

found

the

Lately,

McKellar

Oliver

only

by

calculations

recent

(1975),

(1848)
of

obtained

(1925)

extent

Honorton

Richardson,

Mller

imagery

also

third

(1973),

Braud

(1978),

by

survey

hypnagogic

of

Stoyva

(1981).

Owens

and

(1973),

and

Abernethy

and

Mindel,

Braud

(1968,1969),

Gastaut

The
following
in

10-year-olds,

12-year62.6%

15
9-year-olds,

in

60.0%

6-year-olds.
61% of

Foulkes,

7-8-year-olds,

phenomena

hand,

other

hypnagogic

of

found

in

that
hypna-

yielded

interruptions

the

with

presence

64.2%

and

9-10-year-olds

of

whereas

the

year-olds

the

on

interruptions

the

gogic

in

3-4-

of

imagery

was

only

18%.
both

However,
investigation

stand

reliability

tinguish

between

accurate

reports.

from
her

collected
theless,

the

case

data

hypnopompic

of
the

the

age

six.

of

Oswald

1962)

iences

tend

also

age

there
ten

of

disappear
some

from

experiences

have

their

to

point

appearance

periods,

peak

Leaning

below
1925,

hypnagogic

experfor

en masse

days

Leaning

again.

hypnagogic

childhood

out

imagery:

two

later

None-

only.

(e. g.

re-appear

woke

Manaceine

stretching

appearing

people

Foulkes

other

runs,

early

make

the

that

and

other:

hypnagogic

observed
in

occur

by

de

found

were

researches

also

employed

while

first

of

and

give

awakenings

occurrence

Other

to

sporadically
later

the

and

each

and,

dis-

to

states

methods

the

under-

capability

state,

is

study

children

that

noted

from

have

to

weeks

experiences

whereas

with

others

for

first

time

the

the
in

life.
Although

earlier

ficant

difference

regard

to

sex,

these

et
the

incidence
lower

more

ages

among
incidence

The
between

recent

evidence
hypnagogic

survey
20

and

80,

lower

class

among

subjects

with

regard

experiences

has

on

and

subjects
in
to

600

also
their

possible
and

physical

has

with

shown

females.

in

signi-

(1963),

Owens
(1981)

common
out

carried

statistically
imagery
hypnagogic

al

et

more

no

by

research

are

of

of

Richardson

and

al

showed

incidence

experiences

Richardson
between

studies
in

(1975),

McKellar
that

hypnagogic

to

children

from

method,

a clearly

in

around

the
widely

survey

Partridge

one

or

the

and flows

the

young

addition,

differed

used

children

ebbs

very

Foulkes'

difficulty,

have the
and/or
hypnagogic
and adjacent
In

the

and

a methodological

of

investigators

Partridge

in

from

studies

instructions

the

these

earlier

suffer
the

namely,

the

The

normal

shown

subjects
a higher

significantly
60s

and

70s.

correlations
and/or

mental

16
health

is,

Burdach

(1839)

health
Baillarger

(1920),

(1962)

experiences

general
or

numerous

cases

appeared

for

fatigue,

fever,

liable

to

(Walsh

1920),

in

occur

reflective
1955).

"more

less

or

p. 289).
that

that

these

of

de

"that

is
The

persons".

they

are

disconfirmed

Richardson

et

hypnagogic

imagery

al

study

by

(1897,

p. 239)

from

the

which

showed

either

she

inferred

intelligent
has

the

of

no

verbal

noted

however,

results

1925,

a certain

in

remark,

under

Leaning

which

found

this
by

with

(cited

of

association
or

be

to

people

attention

chiefly

of

(Critchley

healthy

attract

more

experiences

and

required"

soundness

been

recently

to

is

why

sane

"of

subjects

Manaceine

phenomena

observation

are
impressionable

1962),

conditions"

By contrast,

"for

power

to

severe

phenomena

hypnagogic

considered

abnormal

these

only)

disturbance,

temperament"

anxious

occurring

health,

thoughtful

and

(1908),

nervous

(Oswald

good

sometimes,

poor

that

argue

perhaps

hallucinations

(and,

first

in

and Oswald
hypnagogic

whose

indigestion,

nervous

McDougall

(1960),

people

is

hand,

Hyslop

during

sensitive

and

of

pointed
one

other

Walter

the

Some writers

shock.

On the

(1925),

intensified,

when

(1848,1878),

Maury

became

emphatically

occur

calm.

Leaning

cite

or

is

mind

(1846),

Walsh

(1866)

experiences

instance,

For

conflicting.

Herschel

and

his

and

time

sight

hypnagogic

that

out

first

at

intel-

nonverbal

ligence.
Nevertheless,

both

(1957,1959,1975)

investigations

experiences
mental

are
ill-health.
1965;

Vogel

and

Budzynski
of

balanced

et

al

on

personality

increase

the
(or

even

health

ill
in

others

fact

the

studies

1966;

Vogel

in

it

(see

also

that

hypnagogic

appear

for

to

other

contrary,

chapts.
the

some people,
(Leaning
1925,

hypnagogic

that

related

Moreover,
Foulkes

that,

Indeed,

decrease

statistically

van Dusen 1972) argue


imagery
is not
not only

but

during

not

McKellar's

and

show

1972,1977;

hypnagogic

health

(1925)

Leaning's

physical
or
(e. g. Foulkes

et

that

al

the

suggestive

occurrence
ill-

of

indicative

is

of

13,19,20).
experiences

first

1966;

tend

to

only

time)

although

they

might

p. 301),

might

and

be

due

to

17
one

both

or

be

might

of

health,

ill

more

than

probable,

in

"the

health

it

of

what

by

weakened

factors

(relaxation,

a case

fatigue

of

gogic

one

(e. g.

Taine

noted

that

However,

poor

tically

than

On the

confirmed.

p. 376)

found

gogist

correspondents
their

regarding
were

that

in

favour

to,

gogic

visions,

lysed

her

way

of

or

why

there

define

may

because
and
'good'

(d)

these

no
and

be

only

under

they

since

especially
survey,

information

telling

(a)

(b)

were

not

confounding

of

the

'psychic'

standardized
'bad'

visualizers.

statis(1925,
hypna-

visual

information

with

twice
to

as
those

provided

ability
of

her

conhypnaana-

subjects

(c)

there

is

this

kind

of
to

asked

specifically

no

do

reasons

motivational
connotations
criteria

them-

investigator

40% of

who

argument

occurrence

the

many

by

a strong

discussion,

subjects

been

However,

the

because:

hypna-

visual

visualizing

with,

ad hoc,

results
the

that

correlates

for

compared

constitute

proposition

that,

not

visualizers.

do not

effect.

nearly
as

life.

same

mainly

ability

than

other

Leaning

her

visualizers

mainly

information
so, i. e.

the

her

provided

bad

results

of

tributes

provided

good

themselves
these

selves

who

visualizing

considered

considered

other
40% of

the

of

hand,

hypna-

their

more

has

visualizers

good

hypnagogia.

waking

argue

have

both

1909;

of

the

would

should

visualizers

imagery

gogic

which

we

common

normal

fully

to

so

without

when

modality

their

cases

reported

hypothesis

this

instance,

during

it

Titchener

a sense

is

) attending

imagery

the

in

predominated
also

1883;

faces

be

etc.

a case

and

might

slowly

of

also

reference

analyse

might

inwards,

appeared

(1925)

Leaning

is

the

more

there

states

with

making

place

to

owing

these

to

(b)

fever

or

1911)

that

took

their

it

although
of

increase

internal

own

difficult

is

turning

experiences

the

that

illness"

Some observers
Hollingworth

their

process

that

recollection

were

faces,

of

be present,

rapid

forced,

were

do when in good health;


(1883,
p. 123) suggests

Galton

appearance

to

attend

would

as

always

the

to

they

they

the

noticed

only

people

when

(a)

factors:

two

these

experiences

their

the

i. e.

illusory,

hypnagogic

to

following

the

were

of

the

employed

to

18
In

the

to

respect

hypnagogic

imagery

positive

but

insignificant

As Holt

(1972)

and

(1976)

have

distinction

the

and

requirement
of

hypnagogia,
in

and

to

be
by

paper

one

feature
it

in

view

of

1933;

Simpson

1954;

McKellar

and

controlled,
St.

1954;
that
or

Denis

1867;

of

which

is

open
de

to

can,

even

of

that

1903;

wakefulness
(see

Collard

chapter

Green
degrees

7).

and

it

does

1830;

Delage

McKellar

Walters

and

1894;

as

Maury

1953;

(e. g.

of
aspect
a feature
and

McKellar

of

Warren

1909;

Alexander

formed

1914;

Woolley

referred

that

1946;

Binet

as

1867;

McNish

Green,

imagery

Mller:

(e. g.

varying

1878;

Maury

passive-receptive
importance
both

it

character

hypnagogic

1957),

Myers

deliberately

the

controlling

succeeding

experiences

1952;

Rawcliffe

to

1933),

full

This

the

the

Denis

1957;

Myers
it

St.

Rouques

Delage

from

type.

(e. g.

eyes

sleep

in

state

waking

in

and

that

evidence

Janet:

paramount

passivity-receptivity,

states

1972;

1909;

Alexander

1970),

defining

1933;

lead

necessarily
Simpson

in

Herve

Leroy

and

both

with

1925;

1848;

importance

other

experiments

volitional

specific

two.

dimension.

Leaning

not

between
day-dreaming

to

experienced
Leroy

drawn

future

in

the

Schacter

and

passive

particular

Indeed,
can

this

relating
this

share

more

between

(1974),

however,

be

acquires

chapters

Holt

general,

Starker

to

imagery
waking
(1972)
found
a

correlation

out,

needy

imagery

in

himself,

pointed

between

relationship

de

Herve
1903;

1921;

hypnagogia

Leroy
acquires

distinguishing

a means

of

be

success,

inducing

this
and

CHAPTER

METHODS

PROCEDURES

AND

Historically
data
(1)

in

the

(e. g.

Hollingworth

1921;

Warren

1972;
(2)

1921;

1954;

(3)

1967;

1965;

Silberer

1967a,

Rapaport

Vihvelin

1967b;

Experimental

1921;

Alexander

Varendonck

1925;
1968;

Hebb

1935;

Archer
McKellar

1981).

al

1946,1949;

Froeschels

1897;

Ellis

Leaning

(e. g.

Maury

1848;

Mller

Hicks

1924;

Leroy

1933;

1948;

Collard

self-observation
1892;

questionnaire-

1949;

Geers

and

et

and

1924;

collecting

follows:

as

Arnold-Forster

Slight

Buck

Systematic
Ladd

are
Poe

1911;

Richardson

1848;

area
1848;

Mller

for

employed

self-observation

1909;

Hanawalt

INVESTIGATION:

methods

hypnagogic

the

Spontaneous

survey

OF

1976;

Singer

(e. g.

studies

1953;
1978).

Sartre

1897;

de Manaceine

Bertini

et al 1964; Green and Green 1978; Green et al 1970,1971a,


1971b, 1973; Foulkes
and Vogel 1965; Dement 1965; Foulkes
et al
Vogel

1966;

et
Schacter
The

Vogel
1972;

al

and Kelly
first

by

is

category

in

The

second

up

categories
of

Poe

Buck

et

1981).

al

Geers
The

spontaneity

and

least

major

three

hypnagogic
after

they

orations.

of data.
disadvantages
are
place

reported

striking

thus

most

finer

analysis

of

often

modality

thus

Leaning
Richardson

lies

However,

not

incidence.

in

there

this

its

are

at
First,

approach.

recorded

permitting

permitting,

-19-

answered

1883;

method

with

1924).

Slight

experiences

Taine

experiences
not

the

1957,1972;

this

oneself

their

that

people

1883;

purity

first

noted

hypnagogic

of

The

publishing

McKellar

strength

on

1911;

those

Galton

Second,

those

about

their

1967;

experiences
have taken

having

Hollingworth

includes

made

people:

who,

set

1949;

category

and

of

authors

questionnaires
regarding
(see e. g. Mller
1848;
1925;

observations

themselves,

(e. g.

1976).

Oliver

comprises

two

made

experiences
findings

1975;

group

spontaneously

1966;
and Liberson
Stoyva 1973;

et al 1966; Liberson
1972,1977;
Budzynski

immediately
possible

are
for
Third,

likely

elabto

be

instance,
in

the

case

20
of

questionnaire-surveys

to

having

these

indicate

some

Oswald

1962,

The
ding
(i)

to

to

make

the

berate
these

subject

watch

for

taneity

it

to

(i)

in

recording

of

these

of

method

specification

of

verbal

reports

with

(Stoyva

1973).

Drawbacks

in

the

interruptions
delicate

this

between

states

during

e. g.

of

REMs,

alpha

after
REM period

ruption

(see

1969,

Fiss,

Giora

1973),

converging

Klein,

and

(c)

in

the

in

the

et

al

possible

the

1966,

Liberson

qualitative

at

etc.,

waves,

inter-

subsequent
e. g.

Lavie

since

and

sub-

and

after

Broughton

1974,
and

Lavie

of
gener-

personality
such
Liberson

differences

and

utility
for

against

an

inter-

a specific

and

of

interruptions

strength
justification

may argue

lie

may

distinctions

first

at

1966,

indi-

destruction

the

Strooper

de

which

hypnagogic

of

physiological

correlations

variables

method

parameters,

ultimate
i. e.

this

after

Bokert

and

observed

(Foulkes

prise

1976,

operations,

constitutional

above

occurred

Schacter

from

alizing

the

of

that

(b)

similar

parameters,

any

alpha

theta

hypnagogia

physiological

refined
at

SEMs,

with

electroencephalographic
ruptions

require

consciousness

interrputions

sequent

to

instance,

operations

otherwise

lead

may

(ii)

state,

of

to

opportunity

of

converging

or

(i)

which

of
and

for

objective,

appropriateness

may

advantage

the

definition

combine
(a)

the

affording

the

spon-

latter

the

EEG correlations,

rigorous

the

psychological,

In

a more

Of

retains

has

clearly

deli-

set

deliberation.

to

physiological,

and

experiences

whereas

due

contamination

and

experiences.

clearly

events

time,

of

above)

such

former

the

(ii)

and

through

cators

spontaneously
have been instr-

hypnagogic

variables.

lead

recor-

of

physiological

may

the

observation

numerous

observe

(a)

a period

experimental

constitutional

systematic

McKellar

over

the

some

controlling

so might
1957,

to

recordings

(as

purity

from
The

involves:

approaches,

and

suffer

such

the

two

1883,

admit

do

that

experiences
occurring
to subjects
and (ii)
who

systematic

wherein

to

unwilling

1964).

method

oneself,

ucted
(b)

Holt

fear

(Galton

pathology

hypnagogic

of

for

experiences

second

may be

people

and
an

enter-

1966),
between

21

been

has
Kubie

(1975).
fed

his

phones,

to
own

state

Kubie

(1943)

Bertini

et

nique

wherein

halved

al

they

balls

from

feelings

haps

suggestive

'receptivity'

was

hypnagogic

experiences

day,

the

Gastaut
had

them

that

the

but

pronounced

(1969)

deprived

keep

should

his

in

arm

this

elbow;

but

state

fall

to
To

in

the

and

thus

the

above

must

in

which

the

studies
logical

1969,1972,1977;

Green
tive
as

Green
and
feature

Stoyva

by

and

Green
for
(1973,

Walters
1978;
the

1970;
and

subjects

p. 398)

points

arm

of

on

the

the
the

cause

would

Kamiya

Coxhead

their
1968;

is

physio-

Budzynski

1979).

that

and
own

1969; Brown

hypnagogic

out,

attain

1973; Oliver

Stoyva

in

biofeedback
to

trained

Stoyva

and

Cade

sleep,

because

sleep

monitoring

and

Budzynski

to

a hypnagogic

into

a number
are

Syoyva

going

suggests

him.

added

state

Tart

resting

the

of

subjects

(e. g.

arousal

in

as

the

of
then

and

sleep

asleep.

to

going

awaken
be

of

although

bedtime.

normal

at

move

muscles

a hypnagogic

maintain

Green,

from

parts

bed,

to

of

cycles

other

position

him

Per-

at

fell

in

1943).

that

subjects

lie

images

observation

were

they

white

were

diurnal

obtained

a vertical

him

tonus

al's

ones

allow

prevent

decreased
latter

would

et

had

and
of

Kubie

of

tech-

with

a ganzfeld

also

1979).

Coxhead

and

a background

existence

until

subject

psychotherapeutic

experiences

his

a book

read

Monotony.

eyes

were

most

and

rhythm

subjects'

(see

Bertini

a hypna-

their

childhood
the

inducing

deprivation

against

head-

and

sensory

subjects'

of

apparatus

a mild

creating

Braud

and

an

Cade

and

(1964),

al

Braud

for

mainly

thus

their

Some of

Kubie

amplifier

of

1924,

covered

continuously

speak

noise.

method

et

thus

employment

Slight
also
(1964)
used

ping-pong

then

and

this

Bertini

an

rhythm

the

others,

devised

via

respiratory

used

(see

(1944a)

subject,

through

gogic

purposes

the

among

(1974),

Harper

Margolin

and

by,

(1944a),

and

experimental

controlled

out

carried

Honorton

back

under

Margolin

and

Kubie

that

hypnagogia

of

(1969),

Tart

phenomena and those


'freely'
laboratory
either
or
(e. g. biofeedback).

induced

Induction
conditions
(1943),

hypnagogic

occurring
in a sleep

spontaneously
taking
place
deliberately

1970;
l976;

One

attrac-

biofeedback,
it

offers

22

means

of

putting

imagery

they

experience
Stoyva
and his

of

the

(see

Budzynski

EMG from

),

theta

for

relaxation
work
and

by

the

observed

phenomena

in

reported
instance,

the

Stoyva

feedback
by

the

The

training.
to

those
For

hypnagogia.

occurring

spontaneously

on

identical

are

studies

such

other

relaxation,

autogenic

of

and

six

inspired

was

on progressive

usefulness
in

emphasis

research

(1938,1970)

clinical

and

Budzynski
Budzynski

alpha

muscles,
Stoyva's

hypnagogic

Jacobson

of

EEG (mainly

frontalis

parameters.

physiological

by
1972,

Budzynski

on

apparatus

an

developed

1969,

records

the

concentrating
by

monitored

Stoyva

and

been

polygraph"

instrument

The

have

relaxation

"biofeedback

called
1977).

of

collaborators

induction

the

in
which
condition
a
intensity.
hallucinatory
into

themselves

reports:

The condition
muscle relaxation
of feedback-induced
in the quality
is associated
of
with
an alteration
from the thought
thinking,
and involves
a departure
wakefulness
of alert,
reality-oriented
processes

the
of
to the imagery
characteristic
and sensations
deep
bordering
In
relaxtwilight
states
on sleep.
are common
sensations
and warmth
ation,
of heaviness
toward
to a shift
related
parasympathetic
probably
Distortin the autonomic
dominance
system.
nervous
ions
in body image are likewise
common or changes
limb
floating,
feelings
moving,
turning
a
of
of
of
,
images,
of a
often
or disappearing,
vivid
visual
These
hallucinatory
intensity,
frequently
appear.
to
images
related
occur
spontaneously,
and seem
the
'nonstriving
in
which
mode of experiencing'
finds
himself.
subject

p. 394)
"would
subject

1973,

(Stoyva
In

feedback-induced

Oliver's

go to
then

a state
rouse

(Oliver

in

area

consciousness
hypnagogia
applications,

consciousness
into

slightly

images"
this

of

1976,
of
in

by

the

encouragement

1970),

and

sleep

suggestion

(e. g.

Woolley

Clearly,

the

been
low

clinical
of

learning

Two other"'methods

seeing

that

of

of

has

a number
(e. g.

(e. g.

Budzynski
hypnagogia
and

difficulty

maintaining

treatment

inducing
1914)

main

found

creativity
(e. g.

hallucinated

Nonetheless,

arousal.

biofeedback

including

1977),

of

of

state

has

a state

induced

the

and

asleep,

near

very

p. 117).

research

the

hypnagogia

deliberate

Green

of

Budzynski
et

al

1972)
are

auto-

increase

of

23

dioxide
in the blood
carbon
(e. g. Kelly
1962;
Swedenborg
methods

although

the

induction

it.

neither

Woolley's

the

purpose

down.

helping

of

Swedenborg's

a normalized
There

two

are

of

hypnagogic

have

taken

place

first
passes
this

the

is

some

(I

break-

connected
to

the

with

production

a therapeutic

most

investigators

jects'

oscillating

procedure

been
not

are

that

of

antecedent

in

hypnagogic

in

of

Appendix).

the
the

all
speak

second
cases

proas

their

of

hypnagogia.
are

1976)

Oliver

of

my own

sub-

Nonetheless,
made

clearly

although

state

the

while

perhaps

stage.
the

problem
possible

adjacent

procedures

rhythm

tape-recorded

7 and

means

of

their

procedure

hypnagogic

the

that

and

may

states
hypnosis)

the

of

distinguish

(e. g.

share

above

may be

other

than

hypnotic

of
hypnagogic

most

to

are

criteria

deprivation,

sleep

which

procedures

the

the

states

monotony

induction

Specifically,

referred

inducing

from

arising
confounding

features.

for

out

reports

in

isolation,

ceptual

and

conditions

from

by

by

mainly

report

(e. g.

encom-

outlined

them

chapter

clear
biofeedback

using

important

An

had

this

used

recorded

and

employed
to

material

verbal

'lighter'

been

subjects

see

The

experiences.
employed

and

occur-

experiences

investigation

has

also

entirely

still

the

the

after

of

occurred

the

recording

commonly

trained

details

biofeedback

subjects

(a)

second

biofeedback

is

this

methods

into

for

a nervous

of

during

most

have

more
have

to

cedure

e. g.

they

as

Although

tion

led

experienced

related

methods

who

process

appears

the

The

for

state

closely

procedures
(b)

chapter.
(1979b)

studies:

is

was

as

for

self-hypnosis

of

phenomena:

major

experiences

to

out

state

main

three

all

McKellar

in

that

expressly

instance,

instructions

and,

procedure

many

incidentally,

resorted

hypnagogia

these

of

nonetheless,

for

pre-sleep

rence

in

Both

employed

they,

breathing

shallow

insomnia.

against

in

were

himself

Kelly's

meditation.
of

them

of

correspondent,
imagery
when he

hypnagogic

of

phenomena

hypnagogia

of

means

1928,1977).

hypnagogic

yielded

is,

by

per-

or
hypnagogic

all

to

be

the

seen

of
induc-

hypnagogic,

procedural

features,

the

24
ganzfeld

and

isolation

ceptual
biofeedback

by

states

in

of

the

found

the

points

out
these

iences.

strong
other

in

Moreover,

is

not

always

clear
are

and

psychological

withdrawal.

shall

argue

Part

Two and
of

consequent,

and
former

features

consciousness

presence

same
states

in

the

other

and

as

particular

Three,

it
of

relaxation

However,

induction

are

techniques.

methods,

resultant
ced

noise

white

mental
with

the

throughout
the

same

in

processes

does

of

the

relationships
states,

processes,

latter
existing

to

whether

the

simply

indu-

paper

chapters

antecedent,

and

both

per-

respect

this

later

conditions

any

not

of

and

in

Part

sometimes

hypnagogia

not
as

so much

con-

much

it

between

phenomena

and

or

as

hypnagogia
exper-

CHAPTER 4

SENSORI-MOTOR

PHENOMENA AND SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATION:

Hypnagogic
of

investigators

of

these

with,
on

sensory

the

in

Since

in

the

terms

their

of

field

whole
are

modality

con-

propose
hypnagogic

examining
in

occurrence

overlap

them

of

visual
of

process

or

the

most

the

of

Some

to,

traverse

others

a number

dimensions.

of

complementary

phenomena

them

by

classified

the

various

modalities.

Visual

phenomena:
far

By
the

clearly

dimensions.

with

discuss

a variety

whereas

independent

phenomena

in

are

other

each

cerned
to

along

latter

been

have

phenomena

visual
terms

These

of

best

kind

of

language"'

1853,1878;

Ladd

In

Formless:

the

various

found

This

phenomena

and
this

although

the

against

and

themselves

waves

of

Maury

also

see

dream

the

visions

occurrence
of

possibility
(1892)
quickly

p. 25)

stuff

out

arise

(see

of

evidence
in

that

contended,
for

the

-25-

variously

as
or

from

arising
from

the

has

been

argued

of

which

hypnagogic

by

hypna15).

chapt.

awareness

of

Holt

entoptic

imagery,

does

not

most

instances,

necessarily

argue

as

Galton

images

form

consciousness

to

hypnagogic
relaxing

and

light,

light

of

between

correlation

the

known

neurons

optic
1978,

colours

pure

entoptic

benefit

be

to

piece

too

p. 22:

'in

as

reported

1975,

dust,

Horowitz

Ladd

scenes

scenes,

phenomenon

of

without

no

formless,

types:

sometimes

luminous

retina

sleep

classification
(1925).
Leaning

nature

belong

type

researchers
and

are

1892).

world":

external

of

writing

("excitations

within

that

(McKellar

light,

Eigenlicht

thorough

objects,

clouds.

ideo-retinal

phenomena

most
following

the

or

this

light-charged

(1883)

still

figures,

a foreign

gogic
(1972)

is

"print

people,

the

which

include

faces,

hypnagogic

researched

content

phenomena

designs,
with

the

26

be able

to

observe

Leaning

(1925,

"is

which

the
disclose

Designs:

the

(1933)

(see

objects
beautiful

or

room",

(Leaning

1925,

"almost

special

'face-seeing'

of

p. 311).
"they

the

Faces

appear

and

vividness,
'through'
faces
wall

like

at

suddenly

night"

a whirling
rapidity
towards
of

faces

flashed
of

gradual

out

are

often

of

"patterns
"most
spirals,
hung

pattern

through

corded

silk"

of

faces

such

as

The

seeing

and

on

and

ways

darkness,

the

delineation,

On some

brighten.

light

which,
figures"

suddenly",
The

the

with

and
process

fragmentariness

(ib.,

faces"
but

most

as

a mist,

often
and

the
a dark

on
light

would

There

would

be

astonishing

that

Although

fragementary

as many

occasions

phosphorus
made with
"a dim disc
of
others

the

adults

roundness,
assuming
forming
"one face

sometimes

suddenly

p. 310).

the

twice
and

(ib.,

in

people
of

is

mind"

nearly

moving
(ib.,
p. 313).

sometimes

growth.

of

into

subject

the

is

as

there

only'observed

p. 312).

as

in

that,

that
in

reality"

"drawings

again

of

(ib.,

developed

is

and

appearance

imagers

a variety

sharp

living

motion
the

in

into

appear

as

up out

another"
are

eigen-

curves,

gauzy

census

colours

come

develop

rapidly

is

children's
and

to

the

the

finials,

propensity

stars

seem

themselves".

regularity",

suggests

however,

propensity,

speak

They

off
the

patterns

-having

hypnagogic

it

it,

"in

define

being

objects:

the

put

whereas

latter

it

roll

faces,

the

between

material

among

Leaning

This

plain

clouds

they

which

to

relation

of

geometrical

animals,

so widespread

...
case

The

some more

p. 320).

figures,

Faces,

of

patterns,
"like
a thin
"a

of

preceding

sort

1651):

and

blossoms",

as

distinguished

Hobbes

also

decorative

leaves,

of

sometimes

symmetry

perfect

the

the

designs

geometrical

the

out

"phospenes",

and

flower

in

or

of

the

the

stuff

Leroy

licht

to

a view,

form

clouds

of

does

calyx

bear

"cloud-effect"

this

considered
spoken

to

picture...

that
and

p. 310)

constantly

so

definite

formation.

their

often
the

"flashed
is

appearance
on

usually

(sometimes

came

and
one
only

27
the
notes,
of

are

eyes

in

cases

which

altogether

cellars

before

quality

of

top

they

and

terrifying"

McKellar

and

Simpson

often
personal

trees

be

to

way

and

and objects,
(Tournay
1941),

from

petals

the

great
horses,

flowers.:

The

or

aesthetic
beauty"

in

(Leaning

a very
do

so

temples,

cars,
for

instance,
forth

put
1925,

him.

about
and

Goethe,

latter

the

They

variety,
dogs,

to

1959,

remarks

continually

centre"

arches

individual

make

in

"which

saw a rose

quently

some-

1957,1979a),

the

they

e. g.

imagers

night-terrors.

at

appear

be

Lukianowicz

also

children's

looking

may not

"transcendent

McKellar

sometimes

figures

Likewise,
animals

1954,

accompanying

appear

from

(see

or

house.

whole

ranges

"hideous

sometimes

the

and

hypnagogic

a building

of

hear

fragments

observation

since

part

see

faces

the

This

Leaning

we don't

as

in

appears

up.

teeth),

faces

to

however,

the

only

the

or

confined

itself

correct,

see

nose,

an object

builds

gradually
times

be

to

appears

the

or

seen,

fre-

welling

pp. 320-2).

Nature

The seeing
scenes:
of landscapes,
and
seascapes,
is usually
by feelings
gardens
accompanied
of admiration
found that
Leaning
landscapes
"form a large
and joy.
class
of the visions
the children's
"the power to
which

see

more

and

scenes.

them

(ib.,
census"
landscape
enjoy

valleys

"things",

Nore

urbane
"outstanding

from

which
in

scenery

landscapes
buildings

break

are
of

in

unusual

of
distant

of

(ib.,

reported

also

with

shape

a view

give

brightness"

great

the

in

"agree

and
in

and

'faces'

first"

the

to

landscapes

the

with

tend

Children
than

animals

a cloud-accompaniment"

formations
or

p. 325).

"contrast

entire

figure

not
p. 324).

and

Landscapes
and

in
at all
that
She hypothesised
is not
beauty
and natural
"do

(ib.,

early"

people,

complete
in having

"cloud

but

adults"

develops

one

being

of

p. 325).
the

form

of

(ib.,

construction"

p. 325).
Scenes

with

the

characterizes
variety

are

Leaning

people:

the

landscapes,

chief

features

(1925)
life
which

noted
and

that

movement

distinguish

"if

beauty

in
the

every

28
'scenes'

from

istic

the

of

They

are

be

can

scenes.

lighter

and
forming

Print

and

by

or

other

of

classification:

distinct

from

Leaning's

As

other

content,
hypnagogic
such

experiences

of

criterion
of

substance
case

(0.11.

to

visual

classify

dimensions,
by

Vihvelin
(Schultz

by

cited

1948,

Vihvelin

seen
of

Vihvelin

1948,

of

is

concepts

as
of

general
internal

visions

objects,

and

been

p. 365)

single

Leroy
which
the

are

stereo-

on

hallucinatory
visions

by

criticized

insufficient

difficulty.
is

the

i. e.

children.
has

some visual
of hypnagogic

criticism

meaningless

- meaningful
(Richardson
1969).

between

recently

space

1957),

Myers

forms

scenes

considerable
the

by

classification

cited

classification
(in

Schneider

of

(1925)

(Jaspers;

visions

Jaspers'

the

and

language.

bipolar

distinguished

also
terrifying

with

Ladd

a foreign,

tongue,

various

geometric

reproductions

the

reported

forms

of

a variety

(Leonhard;

integrated

(1933)

in

in

been

1853,1878;

Maury

along

objective

formless,

objects,

the

some-

of somatic
of psychic
connections-visions
(Vihvelin
1948),
perseverative-impersonal
1957),
(Postcoc, nitive,
Precognitive,
subjective

Unidentified)

typal

p. 326)

visions

connections
(McKellar

i. e.

the

has

which

attempted

distinct-shadowy

p. 366),

ordinary

hallucinatory-guasihallucinatory

p. 365),

1930),

or

have

: external-internal

as

1948,

writers

film.

a cinema

(ib.,

imagined

dimensions

nor

wholes.

mother

entirely

beginning

portray

life"

e. g.

an

character-

settings

of

(see

one's

even

of

invariably

may occur

including

trailers

phenomenon

subjects
1975)

neither

little

This

of

have

exotic

"almost

intelligible

McKellar

ancient,

in

aspects

writing:

languages

like

dramas
They

A peculiar

they

that

pleasanter

a number

1892;

p. 325).

something

little

street
times

is

scenes

they

ending,

(ib.,

them"

the

grounds

for

determining

phenomena
this

is

often

Personally,
and

vague

and

external,

I
as

is

find
the

objective

that
the
that

and

connected
that
employment
and

29
There

subjective.
the

use

hypnagogic
these

to

the
lead

may

visions

'subjective'
by

in

same way

the

the

be

also

that

the

of

employment

more

detail

ism,

and

later
Tellegen
does

not

catory

value

unless

it

logical

or

psychological
it

mental

fatigue

relate

with

can
or
the

In

to

attentional
hypnagogic

and

state,
phenomena

is

vivid
to

(e. g.
tense

vs

as
terms

hypna-

classifi-

real

physio-

particular

that

organism,
physical

relaxation

or
).

or
cor-

imagery

(see

On the

other

indicator

a useful

of

visualizers

and
be

functions

placed
of

the

classification
of

organ-

vs

personalities).

fact,

Richardson's

the

shadowy

that

Schultz's,
in

in

"Absorption").

on

the

good

involve-

of

of

hypnagogic

be

the

hypnagogic

and
any

on

discussed

study

instance,

to

out

may,

in

the

it

that

states

hypnagogia

of

identified

confusing

suggests

be

of

the

Jaspers',

which

classifications

is,

absorption

of

relaxed

contrast

dimension

of

variables

visualizers,

more

partly

that

related

for

shown,

turn

personality

visions

since

it

have

to

be

can

degree

may

or

then

are

that

1974

appear

stages

'internal'

based

other

between

vividness

the
on
chapter
hand,
vividness
certain

to

conditions

be

not

sense

will

Atkinson's

visions

these

exper-

a continuum

approach

distinction

Leonhard's

unless

along

relation

and

that

only

very

the

dimension,

(This
in

their

'objective'

in

useful

distinguished

absorption.

and

and

although

a cognitive

may be

As

hypnagogic

be

in

of

desires,

will
the

of

subject.

may be

cases,

clearly

eyes

it

classification,

pathological

ment

open

with
'subjective'

by

are

since

'external'

only

visions

with

still

Schultz's

poor

case

assimilation

intentions,

'externally',

is

experienced

are

like-

confusion.

they

Moreover,

are.

the

experience

they

thoughts,

experienced

identify

is,

of

that

sense
but

subject,

located

clearly

gogic

the

or

deal

can

and,

in

exchangeability

the

reminiscences

can

but

a great

one

subjective

objective,

to

in

ienced

even

mean

where

hypnagogic
tend
to place
see,
subjects
'in
front'
is no doubt
There
of them.

we shall

are

cases

to

mean

visions

terms

certainly,

'internal'

concept
'external'

wise,

to

are,

meaningfulness-

Leonhard's
on

a common

subject's
of

visual

30
meaninglessness

is

not
that,

only

It

is

confusing

in

is

in

reference

to

content,

based

is

it

on which

is

and/or

state

mental

which

a circle,

first

Leroy's

if

of

of

F. W. H.

sensations",

(1916)

Titchener's

seen

to

of

that

(1892)

Myers'

Downey's

(1929)

imaginal

experiences,

"visions

of

His

fying

visions

lines

of

second

and

research

as

pleasant

in

childhood.

opposed

to

(1948)

data

Vihvelin's
from

collected
a period

remainder

war)

Vihvelin

have

had

From

a greater

the

of

connected

with

the

did
the

not

have

a somatic

or

past

experiences.

they

relationships,
hypnagogic

visions

depend

on

the

traceable

pp. 366-7)
far

as

they

as

excluhe

established

could

not

connection
out

"connections"
not

subjects

characteristic
i. e.

He points

are

during

lost

whose

psychological

the

over

"especially

i. e.

subject",

phenomenologically

data

over

subjects
these

of

which,

any

were

subjects,

subject,
(ib.,
observer"

phenomena

visions

visions

data

the

of

a number

three

of

suggest

incidence

hypnagogic

mass

the

may

hypnagogic

"those...

subject's

although

one

together
terri-

statistical

only

with

connection

the

Oswald's

and

discussed

along

selected

ascertain,

causal

(in

of
personality
"phantastic'
those

could

on

and
(1948)

arbitrary

terrifying

years).
of

are

of

images",

stereotypal

self-observationsof

years

twelve

of

(the

since

the

two

of

although

that

"recurrent

be

classification

including

of

the

children,

after-images",

(1957)

the

of

simi-

"recurrent

Vihvelin's

will

and
that

group,

of

dimensions,

to

kind,

which

Goodman

McKellar's

memory-images",

"perseverative"

later.

ding

object

very

(1883)

(1954)

Hanawalt's

and

is

"cerebral

after-sensations",

the

an

visions

Ward's

"delayed

to

or

terms,

whereas

objects,

(1921)

features

subject's

a triangle

viz.

phenomena,

Warren's

period

concept

the

Richardson's

meaning

recently

identical,

not

(1962)

the

on

e. g.

experiences,

subjective

dimension

of

dependent

in

confusing.

proposed

employment

primarily

group

reproductions

lar,

also

may not.

scene

are

the

meaningless

important

may convey
or

are

his

although

past

but

arbitrary

be

"a

coincidence

taken

found

with
that,
may

to

be

as

suggest
such
of

31

general

psychic

unknown

to

and

the

Vihvelin
following

(A)

visions

two
of

first

the

images

seen

in

which
intensive

that

way,

as

in

and

then

of

the

car

sense

modalities,
of

case

hypnagogic
the

motorcar

the

revolving
The

ible
of

under
visions
subjects

of

head

as

belonging

he

is

to

this

mentary

figures,
body

are

as

in

of

other

original

the

one's

kind

hypnagogic

on

reproduced

as

in

the
with

peculiar
in

in

one
in

the

figures

of

a
then

and

being

bed.

poss-

features

hand

hand

which

is

having

left

the

sensation

the

of

left

of

reported

it

the

phenomena:

not

other

vision

visual

case

in
(but

by

non-visual

where

as
are,
different

silhouette-like,

the

and

cupped

resting

having

the

reflected

are

"entirely

emphasized,

tactile,

in

that

a slightly
aware

physically

from

the

p. 371),

vision

teristics

of

stimulus

hypna-

perception.
frequently

vision,

evidence

day

the

(iv)

trace

sensation
an

reflex

synchronously

less

with

forth

with

provoking
(ib.,
vision"

his

a definite

and

vision

a motorcar,

to

an

hypnagogic

thermal,

back
deals

the

to

to

hypnagogic

associatively

able

to

not

associative
during
crash

revolving

a hypnagogic

of

but

forth

being

linked

visions

earlier;

of

of

species

be

years

and

calls

determine

becoming

roar

a certain

sense

an

auditory,

a wheel

group

"where

hypnagogic

called

the
of

the

the

are

hearing

shape
to

having

wheel

of

the

evening

noise,

phenomena
in

a car

e. g.

second

modality

seeing

seen

being

(iii)

memory-

visions

hypnagogic

stimulus;
in

vivid

can

memory-images

of

intensely

which
(ii)

actually

visions.
visions

both

onset,

of

vision

synesthetic

hypnagogic

and

forth

which

visions:

between

called
the

connections"

hypnagogic

sensations"

sensory

in

gogic

remain

somatic

concentrated

sleep

earlier

case

later

a crashed

the

during

to

are

visions

had

wakefulness

previous

visions

(i)

concentration;

linked

are

(B)

and

includes

"recurrent

intense

earlier

usually

hypnagogic

of

he distinguishes

full
seen

genus

of

subject

here

memory-images
the

"visions

groups

he
the

day;

the

of

under

main

group

during

which

memory-images,

on which

objects

factors

observer".
subsumed

the

In

somatic

pressed

Hypnagogic
of

Vihvelin's

their
they

characare

certain
shape

fragregions

of

32

memory-images);
opaque,

is

teristic

feature

that

one

always

notices

only

later

the

stimulus

the

Vihvelin

that

suggests
jections

of

hypnagogic
their

hensible

the

direct

indirect

the
less

prolonged

experience.
a memory

image

which
(e. g.

subject

are

abstract)
lier

in
as

which

"then

and

contents
as

in

given

which

an
"the

image

time

mental

the

part

of

thought

in

representation
and

"altered
tending

Mayer1972);

the

may begin
by

concrete

form...

Thus

shape

of

the

the
or

the

eara hypna-

"faithful

of

visualobject

visualizations"
to

as

springs

vision

either

are

or

psychic

original

vision

the

There

contents

with

a more

at

experienced

a visualised

it",

corres-

Dusen

van

occur

case

p. 376).

of

that

the

reappear

"the

1965;

after

the

of

contents

mental
into

in-

or

can perceive
subject
(ib.,
see also
p. 375;

previously

a train

(ib.,

vision"

ations"
given

latter

the

immediately

those

this

concrete

direct

be

which

the

of

or

and

subject

contents

may

definite
compre-

abstract

in

Silberer

are

contents

mental

gogic

1933;

of

the

in

the

period
In

The

that

such

between

vision
that

which

visions

a certain

may be

themselves

Leroy

back

established

distinctness"

1929;

Gross

are

to

the

contents,

connections

p. 374).

is

one

and

hallucinatory

corres-

connections

somatic

of

a psychologically

hypnagogic

images,

ponding

bb

experience

transform

to

pro-

from

psychological

traced

and...

vision"

the

be

can
(ib.,

resulting

direct:

of

psychic

content,

psychic

earlier

in

of

connection

hypnagogic

He

may be

resulting

visions

devoid

"can

mental

actual

p. 273).

visions

schema

hypnagogic

visions

appearance

"seem

our

considered

are

complemented

by

changes.

to

contrast

which

up

of

parts

body

hypnagogic
visions

hypnagogic

synesthetic

These

hypnagogic

(ib.,

memory-images

physiological

In

and

caused

kindred

associatively

but

and
and

synesthetic

from

them

synesthetically

are

ponding

"primary

calls

it,

provoke
p. 372).

(ib.,

so

first,

vision

to

necessary

distinguishes

and

visions"

hypnagogic

the

charac-

appearance,

unexpected

prompt

with

Another

contours...

connection"

genetic

experiences

that

the

immovable,

always

blurred

greyish-white,

thereby

is

image

the

a visualization,

is

33
are

mental

images

as

given

(ib.,

contents"

with

struggled

eyes

the

primary

an example

of

"altered

As

cites

Kollarits'
one

shut
this

with

to

related

p. 376).

Vihvelin

visualization"
he

associatively

experience

struggle

combined

a possible
phrenia

between
and
cyclophrenia
connection
(see also
1965 on "autosymbolic"
Silberer

mena).

As

grew

sleepier

and

schizopheno-

Kollarits

sleepier,

find

to

an effort

was

asleep;

he

falling

against

evening

as

reports,

leaps
that
there
I could
and bounds
observe
were
in the association
the
suddenly
of my ideas...;
thinking
process
and instead
a
ceased
entirely
before
I
I felt
as if
appeared
my eyes,
plain
looking
from above
upon which
were
on a blackboard,
become visible
intersecting
two lines
vertically
the system
of co-ordinates,
geometrical
and this
had a horizontal
the sinus-line,
system
wavy line:
distinctive
the tangent-line,
one:
and a vertical
from each other
both
if
they
lines
were
along
as
freight
tracks
were
waggons
railway
- two small
left
from
to right
One of them was going
running.
from the top to the
the other
on the sinus-line,
bottom
the tangent-line.
They had no label
along
but I know that
the first
whatever
one corresto manic-depressive
the second
ponded
psychosis,
(along
the tangent-line)
to schizophrenia,
and
their
that
the course
movement
of both
ahead meant
diseases.
these

(Vihvelin
As
Vihvelin

interpreted

find

often

H. V.

of

contents

acquires

one

three

had

sleep,

he

human

face

cious

mimicry",

the

railway

vision)

the

...

that

was

elbows

the
guard

Connection:

subject
(by the
an

p. 378).
that
resting

we can
i. e.

apply,

that

"I

he

on

his
but

during

sat

knees
unable

and
to

"seeing

this

at

recognised

once

accompanying

awareness
ago

as

a fragmented

of

reports,

instance,

For

drowsy

very
ironically:

hour

to

corres-

- by means of a super(often
mental
affective)
connection'
and 'psychic

vision

smiling

the

and

H. V.

reported

feeling

contents

secondary,

seems

(ib.,

hypnagogic

the

as

vision,

mental

components,

contents

his

hypnagogic

actual

reverse

manner"

hands

the

actual
its

with

of

vision]

subjects

his

in

face

his

primary

subject's

journey

a train

as

caused

a secondary
his

of

which

where

imposition

in

"in

somatically

a primary

kind

above

[hypnagogic

H. V.

ponding

only

the

continues,
be

must

to

opposed

pp. 376-7)

1948,

had

an

the

altercation

mali-

34

the

with
that

and had felt


(ib.,
p. 379).

guard,

official"
Vihvelin

sence
the

accompanying

of

of

view

from

psychic
be

the

the

of

reshaping

visions

viewpoint

visions

somatic

of

been

not

in

hypnagogic

state,

unexpectedly
the

these

that

tions,
with

He also

a hypnagogic

during

"thus,

psychologically,

contents

appear

as

case

such

of

infinitely

the

mental

actual
in

ing

forth

"internal

space"

it

are

strangeto
connec-

connected
later

mental
factor.
if

as

seems

when

out

the

of
only

previous
Vihvelin

contents".
visions

taking

H. V.,

the

creating

hypnagogic

In
the

memory-images
to

on

hypnagogic

to

effect':

those

and

of

respect

earlier

definite

between

the

reactivated

related

some

in

these

'causative'

chosen

have

psychic

birth

our

of

are

a distinction

drew
in

contents)
bring

to

order

also

great
number
(associatively

images

certain

in

to
He

regards

'constructive

but

contents

or

similar

visions

earlier

processes

had

are

a feeling

the

primary

visualising

component

psychic

the

they

with

give

hand

other

pp. 379-380).

may be

and

point

(elementariness

observer

have

which

state

the

on

the

inner

the

hypnagogic

mental

visions:

contends,

which

processes

cerebral

from

to

and

way,

consciousness,
the

earlier

signficance

(ib.,

phenomena

and criticism".
hypnagogic
visions

ness

pre-

"these

that

appearing

frequent

figures)

dream

and

the

peculiarities

the

that

perceived

to

but

connections"

however,

emphasizes,

of

'symbolic'

can

formal

of

injustice

dreams,

to

of

the

of

in

connections

compared

at

awareness

contents

fragmentariness

and

"owing

that

concludes
the

of

vexed

appear"external

in

place

space".
Vihvelin's

classification

incomplete

theless
the

investigator

ded

all

cou]d

those

Hotte

to

To opt

to

to

to

relate
for

the

the

here

a past
or

first

limits

the
In

that

reports

related

experience

to

himself.

question

puzzling

one

due

If
does

mean
do
is

never-

it

by
discar-

i. e.

that
The

experiences.

we cannot
it

is

he

place,

past

we simply

alternative

on

"phantastic",

subject's

one

imposed
first

the

were

is:

that

detailed

although

relate

that
not

arbitrary.

a present

there

was

remember

not

one?

Also,

by

35

frequency

the
of

"phantastic"

the

discarding

their

of

some

useful

ence

that

these

nature.

the

a very
Secondly,

Vihvelin

dreams

chapter

the

on

he

place

of

space"

he does

space",

to

he means by these

O. H.
(B)

and

(1957)

Myers
subjective

be

(c)

(b)

be

not

images,

kind

clearly

visions

of

"somatic

extended

to

include

hypnagogic
be

tions".
own very

difficult

since

at

together
of

the

the

time

with

the

of

excluded
may, however,
dimension,

different
significance
"accompanying

imagery

justify

the

be
namely,

accompanying

and
"psychic

in

a class

latter

the

of

(see

of significance").
vision,
a hypnagogic

be

classed

being

The

in
of

Uniden-

argues

one
Its

on

section

Myers

its

of

awareness

awareness
of

connec-

classification).
is placed
if
it

justified

a vision

could

system

only

can

(this

Vihvelin's

that

kinds.

a classificatory
it

that

Vihvelin's

of

of

belongs
in

and

previous

H. V.

of

core

two

connections"
his

the

images

all

of

that

of

the

hypnagogic

its

from

images

observer",

the

up

made

was

"being

occurrence
kind
Unidentified

kinds

presence

tified

to

them

called

group

includes

kind

Precognitive

The

objective,

experiences

is,
of

either

(A)

hypnagogic

is,

of

that

in

placed

first

images

experiences

Postcognitive

easily

as

much one can

not

(he

perceptive

Precognitive

Unidentified

The

"external

in

between

that

"past

to

perceptive

could

taking

visions

is

there

The

images,

related

observer",
future

to

clarifications

images

Images").

Postcognitive

could

the

respect

occurring

distinguished

hypnagogic

"Extra-Temporal
(a)

in

them.

about

say

terms

situ-

beforehand

In

any

provide

not

since

what

and

the

discussed

is

those

that

of

hypnagogic

between

of

stipulation

excluding

point

human

definition

hypnagogia).

draws

"internal

in

thus

evid-

ocurrence

of

consciousness

latter

stages

distinction

the

(this

their

and

the

is

there

his

introducing
his

researchers

component

restricted

experience,

hypnagogic

other

see,

psychic

lose

not

the

during

ation

by

state
must

denied

common

very

are

important

subject

relation

As we shall

visions

hypnagogic

the

he

information.

may reveal

in

occurrence

"connections",

discoverable

mention
of
to those

without

reports

36
(ib.,

p. 67),

cognitive

the

of

the

belong
body

to

another

else's

mind

mind

for

flyers
images,

the

which

he

noted:

and

children

Myers

in

the

be discussed

"are

those

may
some-

h; pnahe

a thought
it

refers

becomes
in

thoughts

other

the

the

of

that

This

McKellar's

imagination

their
to

seen

be

and

no

tables.

distinguish

to

which

group

points

fright-

these

chairs

Subjective

often

persons

and

are
as

such

of

Myers

as

of

they

dark,

is

they

sometimes

on

it

about

multitudes

nightmares

turned

(1931,

vision

if

However,

world.
of

kind

sees

one

Aristotle

so

elaborations

previous

external

hypnagogic
wherein

them,

be

phenomena

be

can

group

there
to

related
in

may,

be

fact,

kind

"impersonal"

to

spent

his

day

of
in

plants

For
and

a garden:

be

easily
instance,

flowers

of
one

if

The

he

former
in

explained

those

particularly

p. 42).

1957,

gogic

can

"persev-

between
images.

hypnagogic

content

whose

images

distinguishes

"impersonal"

experiences,

(McKellar

it
in

the

then

see

to

(1957,1979b)

and

past

that

next.

McKellar
erative"

if

eyes,

terror".

furniture

a member

as

classed

by

persons,

tremens,

is

these
in

events

before
in

household

those

is

hypothesis,

this

open

delirium

light

calls

from

wide

may only

the

offers

Subjective

young

susceptible

from

than

more

very

heads

their

when

for

experiences
or faces.

mention

moving

figures

ening

to

with

figures

suffering

Myers

subjects,

of

objects

"tome

looking

in

that

nightmarish

first

was

out,

to

up

of

the

at

as belonging

picked

that

learn

A to

group,
to

462a)

cover

two

that

a thought

this

future

or

may be

proposes
by

frightening

up

being
to

time

Pre-

B.

second

and

phantom

who

subject

refers

though

is

past

imagery

it

viz.

shared

subject

of

ugly

is

seen

explanation

regards

(1945)

"K-object"

be

its
in

Unidentified

which
In

Carington

cannot

mind,

subject.

possible

the

of

to

gogic

removed

the

either

but

far

so

possible

occurrence

to

kind

experience

Another

either.

of

is

occurrence

time

belong

Post-cognitive

or

actual

fact,

in

may,

terms

day

before"

may have

hypna-

the

happened

to

have

37
I did a mixed
That
I had
Recently
weeding.
night
hypnagogic
botany
lesson
a veritable
on the weeds
They were all
there,
Garden.
of a New Zealand
dandelions,
docks,
and several
roots,
convolvulus
I had been
I could
not name although
more which
dealing
I had
them all
sternly
with
afternoon.
decided
review
consciously
of
on this
not myself
but - like
the typical
the afternoon's
events,
hypnagogic
imager
the performance
watched
-I
interest.
with

(McKellar
Leroy

1979b,

p. 95)

writes:

also

frequently
I very
When I was studying
anatomy,
a hypnagogic
not rare
among
experienced
vision
in my bed with
Lying
students.
closed
medical
see most vividly
complete
and with
eyes I would
the preparation
I had worked
objectivity
on which
during
the day:
the resemblance
seemed perfect,
the impression
if
I may say so,
of reality
and,

life
of intense
which emanated
even deeper than I experienced
real
object.

from it was perhaps


the
when facing

(Leroy
(1925,

Leaning
scene,

or

during

the

some

object

day,

and

the

as

these

this

experiences

vol.

1651,
and

of

examples

of

takes

1,

lists

p. 453),
ii),

ch.

(1813,

Ferriar's

Hobbes'
Mller's

p. 17)

Titchener

phenonenon.

some

place

darkness",
viii,

pt.

which
attention

reproduction
SPR,

(Leviathan',

in

concentrated

background

preparations,

microscopic

to

absolute

"cases

of

engaged

(Proc.,

figures

geometric

red

an

"visions"

Flournoy's

writing

has

against

spontaneously

iences

p. 298),

p. 28)

1933,

exper-

refer-

as

images,
those
troublesome
recurrent
and haunting
images
to which
most of us are subject
at times:
that
the tunes
run in our head and that
we cannot
the rows of figures
that
of,
get rid
us after
obsess
disk
the bright
a long morning
of calculation,
keeps
that
cropping
up after
we have spent
several
hours
at the microscope.
(Titchener
(1924)

Dallenbach
when
was
in

he

lay

retained
perception

reported,

down
in
to

in

noted
the

kinesthetic
the

bed

that

evening

having
"the

imagery
upon

1916,

which

travelled

movement
and
I

p. 75)

was

lay";

all
of

the

transferred
he

also

day,
car

38

were prowhich
after-images
of movement
visual
jected
of my closed
eyes or,
upon the field
with
the darkness
within
of the bed-room.
open eyes,
duplication
The movement
toward
me,
a
was
positive
from watching
the roadof the perceptions
aroused
I kept
During
the entire
time
of driving
way.
my
fixedly
upon the road directly
ahead of the
eyes
duration;
Stimulation
and of long
car...
was constant
during
the last
it
intense,
was also
particularly
half
the illuminof the trip
was made under
which
headlight.
of strong
ation

1924:
(Dallenbach
1954, p. 173)
(Goodman and Downey 1929)

Goodman
final

wrote

like
the perceptual
experience
ordinarily
into
thinking
has at times been deceived

him

gives

by

of

hypnagogic
his

closed

and

The

off.
a tactual

a feeling

his

on

reporting
fruit,

were

experience

visual

retired

they

when

glasses

hand

imag-

he
the spectacles
connection
with
day: "An image of spectacle
rims ...
wore all
are off
and the illumappears when the spectacles
is reduced
to a minimum...
This image is so extra-

always
ination

his

his

of

in

experiences

usually

his

by Hanawalt

quoted

eyes

that
to

when

bewilderment".
images

his

raises

Hanawalt

a day

after

he

confirm

as he

blackberries

of

observer

he was wearing

failure

one

the

out

the

picking

writes:
impressed
The images
they
were
greatly
me for
in the usual
after-images
neither
sense nor were
they
The images
and
memory images.
were positive
than
to be located
in the eyes
appeared
rather
be
They were very
they
could
projected.
vivid;
just
imagined
not
seen
as in the case of memory
like
the usual
In this
images.
they
respect
were
be
to
Introspectively
they
appeared
after-images.
My wife
saw idealized
phenomena...
retinal
and I both
brier
images;...
In place
of the almost
prohibitive
in
hung upon open shoots;...
the berries
patch,
berry
our images
appeared.
not an imperfect
(Hanawalt
"recurrent

Comparing
images,
to

the

stimulation.
after

(1954,

Hanawalt

Jaensch,

long

as we have
located
in

and

with

pp. 173-4)

eidetic

images

Recurrent

images,

intense

stimulation.

seems
the

images"

to

retina;

pp. 170-171)
(1930)
Jaensch's

1954,

indicate
eidetic

that

notes

can

be

seen

contrariwise,
Again,

that

recurrent

images

are

eidetic
"according
a brief

after

occur
such
images
projected

only

evidence
are
into

39

the

environment.

eyes

closed

seen

with

very
open in

or
eyes

polarisation
is

justified.

23)

quite

subsuming

after

in

these

which
to

antecedent

conditions

stimulation

But,

as

hypnagogic

the

had

he

grams"

one

can

images
pp. 22-

heading

of

the

images

circum-

appear

images

hypnagogic

the

intense

retinal

phenomenon

and

and

be

this

(1969,

the

recurrent

prolonged

in

this

after-image".

p. 87)

subjects,

for

"a

of

glance
(1948)

Vihvelin

and

instance,

heap

only

occur

attentive

an

stimulation:
(1878,
Maury

vision

do not

images

recurrent

Vihvelin's

One of

about

both

images

"though

that

a distinctive

with,

intense

and

suffice,

noted.

the

begin

to

long

may

like

more

under

called

of
them

makes

respect

after

being

them

images

visual

with

recurrent

and

Richardson's

argues

occur

However,

is

Nor

Richardson

lead

might

images

eidetic

images.

stances

eidetic
daylight".

broad

recurrent

of

to

tend

light;

dim

in

between

not

images

Recurrent

reporting

electrocardio-

of

he writes:

evening,

before
leaving
the laboratory
and
In that
evening,
I threw
lamp,
before
laboratory
turning
out the
the
table,
where
glance
on my working
an attentive
This
heap of the electrocardiograms
was
was seen.
I
intense
the last
perception
relatively
optical
had that
The image of the vision
corresevening.
to the earlier
exactly
perception.
ponded
(Vihvelin
Secondly,
retina
the
is

"in

or

the

location

the

eye"
is

environment
by

meant

hypnagogic
be

could
images.

seen
In

not

this

But

if

be

in

front

but

necessary
case
of

the

of

the

image

on which
paper

leaving

one.

usual

is

depending
projected).
the

'seen'

is

argument

the

In

fact,

open

to

law

the
of

Hanawalt
the

aftermust

logically

projected

distance

the

memory

even

Emmert's

to
on

is

of

something

discoverable:
this

"they

usual

only

not

own

that

case

the

this

is

This

What
his

says

like

were

after-image
according

in

as

they

experientially

varies
it

of

p. 171)

imagined

into

projected

Describing

(ib.,

the

misleading.

and

retina"?

Hanawalt

something

(although,

one

the

respect

images".
placed

confusing

in

just

being

to

opposed

rather

"located
images,

as

in

images

recurrent

of

p. 368)

1948,

possibility

in

the

in

front

size
the

of

surface
his

closes
"of

40
breaking

the

up

images

(1969)

Richardson
not

"idealized

but

ceptions
He points

are

or

sensations

(see

images"

images

recurrent

original

of

counterparts

perfect

recurrent

p. 174).

that

argues

types:

two

(ib.,

visualizations"

and

into

image

eidetic

per-

Hanawalt

also

above).

that

out

found
it
that
imagery
was
In one study
of eidetic
leaf
image'
when a
'idealized
resulted
a
of
an
had
been
leaves
different
shaped
of seven
series
Such
tine.
reports
a
one at
presented
previously
on comto the results
of experiments
are similar
for
1883)
(Galton
example,
where,
photography
posite
be
five
four
photographed
may
the heads
women
or
of
producing
in the same position
on the one negative
woman.
an idealized

his

He continues
scopic

in

experiments

graphs

are

fusion

of

Presented
the

two

than

attractive
Be that

either
it

original
In
which

to
contrast
is characterized

gery

contents,

that

fact

that

he

what

his

sensory
"impersonal"

located

by

virtue

1957,

p. 43).

grotesque

faces

(often

istic
this

cities,
latter

numerous

researchers.

talks

fantastic

of

is

In

of

objects

day,

the

of

type

this
cause

of

belong
night

visions,

the

engaged
of

content

the
be

easily
Moreover,
often

originality,

personality

demoniacal

that

"cannot

ima-

the
of

cognizant

experience.

their

the

of

vision

their

seem
author"

beautiful

or

terrors

in

strange

futur-

The

etc.
type

other

the

or

angelic

hypnagogic

hand,

personal

to

(McKellar

children),

the

of

foreign

1948).

subject
the

of
1925;

Leaning

recognizability

during
on

(e. g.

images

are

imager's

the

and

the

sees

type,

images,

strange

is,

the

as

reproductions"

"perseverative"
the

all

not
that,

and

ones,

Vihvelin

by

as more

that

remains

perceptions

the

often

alone.

"absolute

are

is

result

seen

fact

the

1941;

attention

in

when

photo-

experienced

"idealized"

or

Sigwald

and

face

some

sensations

Lhermitte

typically

are

indicates,

evidence

is

may,

the

eye

each

which

what
images"

"recurrent

the

to

stereo-

full-face

different

which

in

that

out

pointing

argument

p. 23)

1969,

(Richardson

of

originality-unrecognizability
imagery
has
hypnagogic
(1326,

Mller
figures

of

men,

p. 20),
animals,

of
been

noted

for

instance,

and

so on

by

that

41
in

him

come

to

"for

a half-hour,

dream

images

Allan

Poe

Greenwood
that

(1949)

talks

(1894,

pp. 14-20)
p. 233)

by their

and delight

in

data

tical
ted

being

as

to

able

All

matter

or

Partially

in

of

view

of

McKellar's

two

"perseverative"
general.
at

least

tion

or

20%

14%

and

which,
may be

category

or

even

so

far

evidence
of

words,

are

day

(or

are

not

exact

and

in

present

similar
ted
other

to

they

to

parts

that
(a)

in

the

added

the

of
seen

some

nature
form
Of

of

of

course,

sensorium

Leaning's

objects
(b) images

the

to

association,
images

perceptual
may give

same

not

latter

this

the
angle,

actually
case

may

experiences
are

not

to

of

restric-

experiences
rise

they

although

were

object,

during

which

in

which,

since

images

seen

from

exactly
the

in

originals

moreover,

modality,
the

their

characteristics

perception;

visual
of

not

and

same

The
of

which,
of

past),

the

of

perseveration

images

atten-

detailed

more

classes.

separate
the

includes

more

warrant

sub-classes

reproductions"

are
the

two

entirely

reproductions

objects.
the

form

too

type

and

research

kinds:

sometime

by

rise,

give

two

two

may exhibit

may belong

to

seen

"absolute

the

that

wider

are

that

phenomena

the

clearly

"perseverative"

the

above,

reports

phenomena,

"impersonal",

suggests

least

at

sense

with

the

hypnagogic

of

of

in

presented

evidence

groups

in

5%

and

categories

repor-

who

p. 377):
61%

recognized

and the
To begin
with,

two

analysis,

is

the

statis-

people

and

unrecognized
In

none

surprise

subjects

1925,

two

one,

recognized

like

following

the

unrecognized

often

novelty".

pictures".

they

objects

(Leaning

Unrecognized,
with
three
exceptions

"are

"often

number

recognize

quite

Usually,

the

inages

hypnagogic

their

of

or

yielded

to

respect

recognizable.

they

life

the

and originality".

investigations

Leaning's

in

that

beauty

hardly

that

seen

notes

into

"absoluteness

says

as

asleep

over

pass
are

their

of

remembered

(1953,

Collard

which

and

sleep"

falling

finally

they

until

before

state

of

be

can

drowdy

the

images

in
in

42
their
or

modalities.

respective

Beethoven's

performing

lead

to

auditory

swerving,
the

travelling.

may

also

as

the

for

which,

make

hypnagogic
instead,

or

also,

day

all

car

one

during

the

course

of

first

the

one

sub-class,
details
perceptual

alone,
in

individual
the

surprise

may

hypnagogic

the

which

the

of

capacity

memory

appearance

may not

Beethovenescjue

of

place

reason

their

may
by

contains

normal

that

accurate

to

of accelerating,
experiences
to
literally
correspond

to

it

that

within

they

took

Returning

notice

not

do not

that

experiences

actual

and

hypnagogic

which

etc.,

an

travelling

kinesthetic

may have

long

images

similarly,

hours

for

but

performance

hypnagogic

compositions;

are

the

of

reproduction

in

result

necessarily,

or

only,

music

listening

instance,

For

subject

repro-

duction.

"perseverative"
in
the
that
then,
to
It seems
me,
the
dealing
two
of
phenomena,
type we are
groups
with
imagery,
deal
in
eidetic
first
having
with
common
a great
in

while
nation'
in

the
are

this

to

this

type
majority

Besides
recent

of

the

has,

instance,

in

"saw

subjects

is

imagery

in

people

be

although

that

first

at

so

sight.

investigations,

a not

inconsiderable
For

recognizable.

quite

study
p. 116)
images...
his

(1976,

of

contents

unrecognizable

Leaning's

shown

also,

Oliver's

to

in

afforded

hypnagogic

of

and

appear

might

evidence

research

amount
two

them

the

that

stage

fantastic

all

not

are

at

out

point

this

but

subdivisions

more

even

type,

'impersonal'

the

Concerning

we may have

category

suffice
the

implicated.

memory

of

amount

a certain

second

'imagi-

and

knew

of

one

when

who

the

they

were".
Indeed,

in

classification
familiar,

"absolute

prise
iences
(i)
the
of

(a)
namely:
(d) unfamiliar.

one,

that

and

place

of

Vihvelin's

(ii)

second
images

took

will
that

be

made

persist

reproductive,
The first

the

during

"visions
up of
in

by a
replaced
(b) perseverative,

accurately

reproductions"

two-fold

McKellar's

evidence,

be more

might

four-fold
(c)

of

view

the

class

will

of perceptual
(this
day
will
of

experinclude

memory-images"):

perseverations,
'reverberative'

com-

that
and

is,

'echoic'

43

implying

manner
exact

degree

a certain

original

of

play

Hanawalt's

visions

of

class

contain

images

objects

nizable

images");

and
fourth

the
images

tastic
is,

that

of

of

construction,

memory

in

tered

waking

sub-class

a reproductive
the

might,

event

reproductive
it

a childhood

as

(perhaps

tly
event
some
case

as

seeing

or
other

vital

would,

minal
be

in

seen

immediate

terms
to

The character
In
visual

The

perceptions.

this

of

the

visual

section

and

phenomena.
hallucinations

latter
least
or

system

some
subli-

may also
from

stretching

memory,

list

distant

four-fold

the

forgotten.

the

to

at

the

through

This
that

to

subsequenof

or

hypnosis).

hypnacogic

shall

location

traceable

so

as

location

the

suggest

and

not

does

but

the

proposed

or

of a hypnagogic
be classified
as

visiting

distant,

very

of

hypnagogic

perceptions

at

through

hypna-

recognize

time

time

some

does

the

of

com-

exclude

not

experience.
be classed

subject

fruitfully
might

images.

Moreover,

the

be

so on).

and

combination

will

if

or

think,

images

hvpnagogic

one

retrospectively,

clue

does

contrary,

event

a photograph

encoun-

so on,
etc. ) is

and

devils,

experience

of

been

behaviour

hypnagogic

a result

subject's

Myers'"Unidentified"

- on
fall
into

event

objects,

the

faces,

things,

the

unfamiliar

phan(shape,

have

may never

system

the

entirely

outside

angels,

a childhood
familiar

same

they

memory-

appearance

but

four-fold

will

of

etc.,

may

implausible

whose

include

instance,

reproduction

(ii)

and

the

of

of

of

consist

plausible

categories

for

"visions

will

of

this

experiences

another

is

we may

Naturally,

gogic

of

recog-

(this

day

that

Vihvelin's

monsters,

(i)

of

experiences

of

not

, and
(shape,
construction,

appearance
(flying
implausible

binations

part

indeed,

life

whose

In

form

faces

etc.

conscious

did

plausible

things,

third

however,

class

(i)

the

objects);

easily

(iv)

include

will

or

of

the
of

immediately

which,

(iii)

include

(this

"idealized"

perceptual

subject's

introduction

the

imagination

restricted

will

for

allowing

and

from

departure

of

phenomena-.
the

Since
involve

salient
all

features

perceptions,
a form

of

of
quasi-

cognition,

44

some
to

features

these

of

hypnagogia

'more

the

with

overlap

be

to

("Cognitive-affective

below

list

has,

she
been

nonetheless,

investigators.
and

ination,

colour.

speed,
to

regard

little

cloud

and

more

sheep
(1883,

back

that

ions

leer

the

one

defined,

p. 86).

The

is

variety
charming,

interiors,

countryside,
snow

impression

of

be

association

imagery.

gogic

before

the

eyes
it

preserve

(1909)

irrelevance,

as
a hypnagogic

that

notes

inspite

and

lying

wide

closed,

(II

find

human

faces

changes

of

intention

any

effort

of

all,

but

entirely

of

imagination",
outside

they
(the

of

there
He

it".

show
I

Archer
but

with
of

out

may make to
(1935,
p. 42)
my eyes
the

dark,

independent

are

subject's)

"if

transformation

efforts

are

hypna-

that

images

quite
They

mine".

the

and

notes

growing

expression

are

seascapes,

change

also

awake,

are

p. 233).

the

any

1979,

There

scenery,

p. 624).

(ib.,

unchanged"
while

or

"There

"undergoes
of

"...

desire

endless:

these

image

writes:

undergoing

in

they

(Dudley

incoherence

that

prevail

Alexander

a thing

such

is

of

strong,

are

comical.

or

vis-

sorts

faces"

and mountain
(Collard
1953,

scenes"

Leaning's
absence

practically

gold

hypnagogic

they

biblical

fantastic

vignettes,

glorious

sometimes

of

roses

pink

of

- all
Sometimes

and

bearded,

or

faces

another.

larger

Galton's

the

into

"a

of
a flock

sparks

Often,

illum-

view,

into

image

an

ever-changing

horribly,

clearly

of

process.

merging

to

change,

become

One of

refers

later

reports

themselves

front

of

of

that

again.

sparks
in

in

(1894)

sparks"

it

by
and

point

scale,

golden

correspondents

grin

and

and

again
Although

enriched

variety

turning

series

faces

exhaustive

not

and

Greenwood

bright

appear

"a

are

weird

shape

into

them

effacing

here

includes:

change

of

p. 119)

specks

content,
is

confirmed

scintillating

and

chapter

contribution.

compiled

list

Her

duration

In

in

of

characteristics").

features

of

found

features

separately

her classification
by
As with
(1925)
Leaning
made a considerable
the

be

will

psychological'

he discussed

to

listed

"not

and
any

of

"independent

of

imagination
mental

action"

at

45
(J.

1899,

SPR,

p. 304),

1925,

the

in

fancy

them,

much

being

image

p. 253),

the

others
McKellar

imagery

mind,

at

the

time

"able

the

one

when

of

hypnagogic
blend

not
Most

subjects

sharpness,

ness,

sharp

are

so

to

faces,

1925,

being

and

p. 305);

they
one

coarser

fying

glass"

(ib.,

their

"clearness

be before
like

images"

as

detail

in

'being

(Oliver

1976,

is

solidity"
I

SPR,

really

Another

1953,

there'
pp. 116-7).

as

They
in

it

respect

(Leaning

skin"

of

clearness

through

a magni-

compared

that

remarked

subject
"I
such,

p. 233)

its

without

material

Even

vivid-

put

have

with
my eyes
am seeing
1898,
July
pp. 269-70).

(Collard

images

ordinary

visions.

the

appear

would

p. 305).

3-D

the

that

externality,

microscopic

into

it

as

what
(J.

me"

"a

possess

his

into

p. 101).

subject
of

grain

p. 25).

reported

hypnagogic
one

act

recor-

inject

the

the

out

as

"see

he

1979b,

of

the

see

and

that

a movie

vivid

point

can

made

impression

keenly

detailed,

could

and

(McKellar

and

"I

detail"

it"

with

hypna-

he was

to

and

continued

instance

1959,

asked

images',

sequence

the

a complex

such

(McKellar

'ordinary

imagers

hypnagogic

on which

was

Similarly,

visual

of

recorder

subjects

the

while

having

reports"
his

while

a personal

performance

sound

imagery

hypnagogic

did

during

even

image,

a conversation

continue

inde-

consciously

some

by

thought-

of

He offers

to

introspective

his

Also,

on

find

(p. 235).

that

reports

"I

quite

and

objective"

and

"observing

is

a chosen

as,

thought

p. 305).

that

and

am aware

the

continues.

as manipulating

"the

carrying

he was

images

gogic

same

memory
"
detailed...

she

hold

to

process

which

ding

creating

them"

of

(ibid.,

that

seen

visuali-

images

eye"

says

visions.

in

minute,

the

be

to

appear

ordinary

possible

of

capable

"in

too,

automatic
appear
(1959,1979b)

(Leaning

case

vivid,

more

controlling

and

creating

from

is

the

of

pendently

the

it

that

in

and
is

as

seen

consciously

not

experiment

in

being

(1953,

Collard

are

"differ

"strikingly

are

visualization"

brain

the

They

involuntary

also

in

again,

p. 121).

are

not

They

and,

any

deliberate

they

eye"

zation.
and

9,

from

different

"in

vol.

shut

must

They

and
with

when

the

often
looking

subjects

are
"as
at
use

40
the

"in

expression
they

experiences
some

distance

p. 26),

for

the

instance,
did

ing

my eyes,

nor

You

see

things

sense
The

is

which

through

a glass

the

world".

that

the

five

or

writes:

"I

all

my eyes

have

these,

inside

hypnagogic
feet

six

images

tend

As

subjects

remarked,

one

film...

a coloured

be

seemed

to

It

quite

was

he

to

look

else

in

states
them

places

(1909,

impinge

upon

(1956,

McKellar's

and

he

Alexander
to

eyes...

able

head,

it.

another
your

although
his

constantly

"it

been

open-

do with

somewhere

Similarly,

Ardis

of

in

in

than

had

too,

are

without

with

occurring

(1894),

that

were,

(1891,

Stead

to

head
if

as

assign

anything
it

as

was

away.

"they

saw

your

came

what

at

space".
like

W. T.

Greenwood

that

noted

seen.

simply

pictures...

explicitly

objects

as

more

or

hypnagogic

to

referring

when

implicitly

either

to

such

head"

the

p. 623)

'real'

p. 23)
before

projected

me

a mental

unlike

image".
The
p. 314;

"sense

of

reality,
1946)

Rouques

also
to

their

"feelings

of

heightened

It

Freud

(1953),

as

is

"hallucinations"
The

the
gogic

following

autonomy,

pointed

hypnagogic

reference
p. 26).

of

among

imagery

to

note
referred

and

merely

example
changeability,

from

in

Stead
and

this

1925,
in

subjects
into

expands

and

to
as

many

often

(Ardis

others,
not

by

out

reality"

interesting

(Leaning

life-likeness"

1956,

McKellar
that

respect
hypnagogic

visions

images.
(1891)

life-likeness

illustrates
of

hypna-

visions:
in the room,
There
was no light
and it was perfectly
dark;
I had my eyes shut
But notwithstanding
also.
I was suddenly
the darkness,
of looking
conscious
I
beauty.
It was as if
of singular
at a scene
the size
of a magic
miniature
saw a living
about
The moon
lantern
It was a seaside
slide...
piece.
slowly
on
upon the water,
rippled
was shining
which
I remembered
that
to the beach...
It was so beautiful
be so interif
that
it
I should
thinking
continued
in looking
I should
that
never
go to
ested
at it
I was wide
that
sleep.
and at the same time
awake,
heard
the dripping
I saw the scene
I distinctly
of
Then suddenly,
the rain
the window.
outside
without
the scene
changed.
any apparent
object
or reason,
I was
The moonlit
sea vanished,
place
and in its
looking
into
the interior
right
of a readinghold
I remember
room...
up a
one reader...
seeing
hand and laugh.
It was
magazine
or book in his

47
it was there.
The scene was just
not a picture...
through
glass;
you were looking
an opera
as if
the gleaming
you saw the play
of the muscles,
of
in
the eve,
movement
of the unknown
persons
every
into
the unnamed place
which
you were gazing.
(Stead:
quoted
pp. 295-6)
In

the

above

vision

as

a "living

these

visions

(e. g.

McNish

although

1830;

in

than

two

fact,

from

are

both

that

the

hypnagogic

micropsias

state,

(1911)

who

a real

concert

was

in

in

occur

the

seeing

and bigger
by

reported
a huge

saw hypnagogically

until

point"'.

a single
been

also

cases,

eye it(1954,
p. 271)

bigger

away to

the

reported

grow

at

further

Simpson

subject

bus

a performance

on which

stage

seen

some

'within'

and

But
-

located
and

be

has

of

in

progress.
(1941,
Tournay

p. 26) have
hypnagogic

also

reported:
tank

(1956,

occurrence

of

polyopia

in

instance,
with

down

hills...

up

and

behind
of

and

i. e.,

phenomena

forth

sensory

the

elephant

an

like

hypnagogia

in

which

is

p. 101),

for

drowsy

while

blasts

of

the

musical

some

huge

bug

which

attending

one

belonging

to

another,

alighting
bringing

the

on

the

down

the

"the
behind

first

on

middle

pair,

call

Hollingworth
he

became

finishing

from

sailing
stage,

as

three

into

turned

piece

modality

that,

reported

a concert,

came

synaesthesia,

of

in

example,

sausages".

among others,
(1948),
Vihvelin
and

sensations

impressions

(1911,

that

and

by,

reported
(1911)

(1956)

of

a string

a toy

bears

of

string

the

authors
in

sitting

a whole

other

two

latter

the

Hollingworth

McKellar

Ardis

then

McKellar

Bear

(1965),

suddenly

and

"Rupert

feature

Silberer

the

noted

Ardis

and

For

one

Another

p. 210)

state.

going

elephants

feet,

be

to

megalopsias

fade

or

megalopsia

Hollingworth
on

them,

felt

eyes,

'always

of

occurrence

alighting

"one

him who

known to
people
I cannot
picture
The

and

e. g.,

1925).

never

to
are thought
as we saw earlier
(1878)
Maury
self.
and McKellar
noted

Leaning

not

are

majority

as miniatures

1909;

they

feet

three

or

the

experienced

images

hypnagogic

the

to

Indeed,

Alexander

the

distance;

great

be

to

1925,

Leaning

referred

miniature".

appear

small,

Stead

excerpt

by

movements
the

wings,

the

two

and

finally

hind

of

48
the

On the

in

objects

one

about
(1883)
passing

The

by

angle

from

very
from

Dumpty

that

the

include

feature

Another
they

which
diffused.
daylight

this

across

comes

them

renders

to

expressions

"gorgeously
Mller
mined
"by

far

the
I

colours
tions

is

have
such

of

a dark

purest,

them

they

they
O. H.

as

a rule

are
Myers

hypnagogic

colours
beyond

wonderful

appear
in

seen,

and

appeared
(1953,
p. 233)

images

anything
in black

as
p. 66)
of

his

can
and

bright,

writes

that

childhood

rather

abound
fire",

of

p. 299)

reports:
beautiful

most

combina-

closed

colour

though
I

seem
light:

through

occas-

to

see

sometimes

a rainbow".

"subjective"
vividly

in

eyes
"The

describe,

"were

illu-

highly

artistic

the

the

in

colours".

writes:

seen

which

reports

of

crystal

though

light

"liquid

white.

one

scenes

quality

with

in

are

appears

most

most

have

manner

night

and

and

in

appears

of

(1892,

the

air.

reported

in

talks

Ladd

most

a clear,

irridescent,
(1957,

instance,

or
the

images

presented
Other

light

variety

brilliant,

Collard

room".

sionally

ever

is

liminosity",

images.

coloured

and

for

p. 20),

images

Again,

"endless

are

sea,

penetrative

p. 336).

coloured",

(1826,

"a

turf"

the

earth,

an

flat

very

p. 233).

distinctness

"strange

like

they

diffusion

seer,

1925,

(Leaning

seeing"

the

then

even

characteristic
and

lie
to

of

sunshine,

vividness

internal

be

of

plenty

with

majority

Humpty-

from

tuft

of

The

is

seen

seeing

1953,

illuminated.

the

are

close

and

hypnagogic

be

Although

"now

'through'

of

to

seem

face

(Collard

sections

Taine

lasting,

and

"to

one

one's
and

of

hand,

instance,

require

down"

upside

or

angles

in

p. 335),

1925,

(1972)

rate

other

a stretch

seeing

with

walk,

gravel

sideways

or

the

visions

for

like,

normally

would

(Leaning

to

back

the

"at

steady

hypnagogic

peculiar,

referred

remaining.

sometimes

which

differ-

thousand

McKellar's

On the

becoming

duration

James

(1848)

changed

seconds".

and

"a

One of

images

in

another.

Mller

and

images

the

slowly

sometimes

angle

three

of

spoke

into

forms".

his

brief

are

seeing

minutes",

that

every

form

one

changing

noted

visions

reported

ten

"rapidly

the

subjects

on

from

instance,

for

(1890),

to

hypnagogic

whole,

blast".

final

the

with

speedily

changing

ent

feet

front

two

and

49

brightly,

though

be described

being

as

Although,
by

terised

Galton

1925;

Leroy

1883;
1933;

1883;

Galton

they

appeared

change

Goethe,

(Galton

to

trans1867;

varies
instance,

For

next.
to

able

exert

control
falling

before

by

1976;

1896;

of

the

up visions

disappear

Oliver

Mitchell

to

not

Leaning

Denis

degree

Maury

1909;

able

de St.

1895;
The

he was

and

told

we are

Herve'

changes

subsequent

and

individual
call

1953;
is

charac-

1846;

Alexander

subject

Herrick

one

could

(Baillarger

generation
1839;

are

undergo

and

Collard

the

1976).

(1896)

would

1935;

1892;

from

once

they

1894;

Oliver

considerably
Mitdmll

Greenwood

Burdach

Ladd

1957;

McKellar

will

their

perhaps

visions

appear

subject's

occasion

over
(e. g.

formation

but

on

might

hypnagogic

they

Archer

1979),

control

some

the

of

They

fire".

of

whole,
i. e.,

autonmy,

1848;

McKellar

made

the

on

independently

lit.

unnaturally,

asleep
them:

control

Similarly,

themselves.

1883),

he bent
his
head and closed
his
eyes and
whenever
thought
made its
appearof rosette
of a rose,
a sort
for
a
which
would
steady
not keep its
ance,
shape
but unfold
from within,
throwing
out a succesmoment,
and
green,
of petals,
mostly
red but sometimes
sion
in
brightit
to do so without
that
continued
change
him any fatigue
as
so long
causing
ness and without
it.
he cared
to watch
(Galton
1883,
p. 115)
1898,
to the Journal
A correspondent
p.
of the SPR (July
269)
her
of

that

stated

"when

concentration
the

a result

as

hypnagogic

1897,

Manaceine

p. 239)
forms

architectural
that,

although
I
as if

feel

to
bow

"when
were

kind,

eccentric
up of

(1883,

Galton's

One of

the

bring
that

that

and

performance",
back
had

to

its

undergone

to

was

thread

able

make

concentrating

letters

on

a black

his

terrifying

his

attention

hypnaon

figures.

correspondents
is

process
spectator

full

in
at

no way

concerned

by

an effort

of

"starting-point"
a dozen

noted

of
the

with
he

will

the

activity,

a diorama

in

nearly

the

kaleidoscopic

pp. 115-117)

a mere

see

spontaneous
experience
by de
(cited
Burdach

produced

the

cultivating

to

letters.

by

by

to

gold

-a
began

was

disappear

faces

gogic

of

dark,

the

one

she

visions

herself

trained
in

by

one

alphabet,

ground":

had

she

image

changes

was
of

(ib.,

a very
getting
able
a cross115pp.

50

116),

and

of

the

it

to

image
its

open
On this

would

serve

fixate

it
it

have

idea

in

and

that

noted
they

untarily

is

stories.

visual
of

his

looking

a hallucinated

at

(1867)

Denis

de St.

investigators
control

In

(1894),

Delage

(1903),

Janet

(in

(1914),

Warren

(1921),

Leroy

(1933).

A number
1925;

Leaning

that

noted
that,

Ardis

and

attending

to

lead

to

Simpson

1954;

although

in

they

are

Rouques

the

main

seen
Mller:

are
the

et

cited

by Leroy

Leaning

1925;

Leroy

1933;

Rawcliffe

Simpson

1954;

Myers

1957;

McKellar

In

general,

hypnagogic

al

visions

open

while

from
Herve

both

able
it.

to

(1878),

Binet

Woolley
1909;

Alexander
1976)

have

increases

also

been

images

do

1970).

In

with
(e. g.,

noted
not

1848,1878;
McKellar

1952;

and/

create

1953;

1933;

gen-

Other

to

Maury

experienced

eyes

it

at

has

1830;

Collard

one

point

visions

these

Green

that

Oliver

definition,

they

with

1956;

It

1957;

hypnagogic

their

1903),

frequency.

1946;

sub-

1878;

Maury

McNish

sometimes

Maury

hypnagogic

the

a sudden
McKellar

ability

Delage

McKellar

(e. g.

Myers

also

1867;

Denis

their

sleep

1909;

Alexander

and

to

contrary

always

workers

duration

their

both

of

(e. g.,

when

recently,

in

include

visions

while

last-century,

been

the

com-

invol-

rise

looked

participate

and

less

vantage

the

have

reported

hypnagogic

his

to

Herrick

reports

and

to

claimed
have

who

in

shifted

space".

imagery

hypnagogic

erate

or

in

or

rare,

p. 116)

object

directions

different

more

whereas

participate

times

steadily

More

although
(1976,

will

a short

them

on

as

object,

images

for

fre-

such

field".

retinal

disappear.

even

"many

subjects

will

last

to

schema

and

it

the

that,

Oliver

"forced"

"very

writes:

hypnagogic

them

and

control

can

eyes

concentrated

make
would
movement
(1957,
p. 41) reports
jects

in

be made

can

he

a corresponding

time

although

attention

close

due

itself

construct

(1895)

for

closed

in

appeared

simple

some

choose

with

appearance

p. 303)

(1892,

a frame-work

as

appear,

pletely

to

only

the

pp. 117-118).

Ladd

subject

it

when

and

(ib.,

petals

have

quently

a rosebud

of

he willed

occasion

on another

and

addition,

closed
Herve

eyes,

de

St.

1909;

Alexander
McKellar

and

1972).
are

p]a sant

and

even

51
Indeed,

humorous.
in

a hypnagogic

state

pation

of

1979b,

pp. 97-98).
In

ening.
to

Auditory

waking

like
is

which

the

not

only

of

of

in

but

the

hear

sorts

bluebottles

of

night

saw

heard

and

through

window

One
hear

them

aircraft".

1955).
hearing

the

"Lacertina

of

interlection"
allow

irrelevant

like

names

"Bill

nonsense

pompous
e. g.

"Buy

in

stocks

(Alexander

stable"

Hambra

(Archer

in

1935).

"A

1923),

my profession,
(Oswald

is

"He

as

stars.
good

leading

well

1962,

by

as

as

mean-

exposed

squawns

1962),

know

(sic)

characterized
the fixed

1909).

(Schjelderup-Ebbe
thing

are

him"

(Hull

unintellecIt

is

as

cake
is

clerk
a Sabine

mentions

"anzeema"
unrecog-

containing

Ju

the

are

"or

(Oswald

sentences

often

"they

1946),

ungather"

is

neologisms,

are

1906),

(e. g.,

called

sounds

they

(Froeschels
me to

hypnagogic

another

the

Sometimes

(Kraepelin

within

being

1962),
Often

noises,

crashing

auditory

name

Oswald

seem.

Wein"

1975),

one's

ringing.

they

so

A usual

1957,

McKellar

Dusen

subject

could

and

view

things.

of

(Critchley

or

of

a round

wall

all

out
As one

music.

sea-

accompany

sounds
people

movie,

cars,

animals,

"localized

medication

tootro"

said

move-

a silent

(1890)

of

wit,

is

in

as

Mitchell

verbally

great

return

mouth

making

explosions

a doorbell

double"

to

experiences

hear

hearing

kably

fright-

subject

asleep

experience
Maury 1848,

ingless,

just

voices

see

when

is

tual

the

falling

skull"

nizable
1962),

be

p. 87).

1979,

and

(van

see

Some people

of

McKellar

people

of

frequently

bed

Another

(Dudley

to

p. 319;

appropriate

often

hundreds

saw

buzzing...

e. g.,

partici-

hypnagogic

but,

same

less

and
in

morning

the

direct

1925,

cause

images

speech

more

"When
I

bangs

they

Occasionally,

heard,

wrote:

of

heard;

movements;

are

the

may some times

they

visual

to

refer

etc..

waves,

their

those

sound

the

enacted

state.

describing

subjects

ments
no

often

without

Leaning

case

are

phenomena:

In
many

(e. g.,

latter

scenes

or

However,

the

full

the

with

imager

the

comic

whole

remar-

footer-

a collection

52

"dream

'witty'

of

1960,

Statesman"
(1935)

himself

he

found

of

a poem

or

posing
(1978,

p. 96)
which

Sometimes

1976)

quotes,

of

some

(1921)

by

hypnagogic

to

be

to

fledged

visual

1972)

of
or

(e. g.

experience

(1946)

noted

imagery

are

that

1926,

e. g.,
grey"

all

occasions,

i. e.

1977,

are

prior

1962).
in

made

they

responses

thoughts

one's

Froeschels
auditory

one's

directed

not

mom-

almost

contents,

Oswald

statements

egocentric,

its

the

at

Swedenborg

to

related

Hoche

mostly

a certain

may be meaningful
(e. g.

scene

visual

On other

moment

somehow

Oliver

which

a tree

equivalent.
the

and

followed

on

experiences

thoughts

Dusen

birds

the

thoughts

of

or

Arnold-Forster

clearly,

translation

a visual

auditory

one's

her

sounds

knowledge".

of
in

experiences
to her
unrelated
to

comMaury

(e. g.,

it.

to

line

conversation,

part

unrelated

last

even

of

reported

are

apparently

through

its

to

rise

the

are

"newly

sentence

van

spoken

oneself

or

its

hypnagogic

come

immediately

to

to

apparently

would

gave

references

seem

reports

sentence,
ent,

without

which

others

while

mind

to

reading

the

reproductions

the

struck

directed

remarks

"sudden

Archer

meaningfully.

quite

new couplet

had

while

line,

an extra

with

of

off

New

p. 42).

hypnagogically

substituting

spoke

"The

60,

Vol.

and

he dozed

as

continuing

in

appeared

p. 930

often

entirely

an

the

that

that

59,

Vol.

reports

notes

tags"

to

any-

body.
(1925,

Leaning
is

conveyed
images]
tory

data

we might

p. 8)

impression

images

visual

images,

find
from

In

students,
the

his
visual

be

determined,

imagery

was

results

is

if

can

were:

symbolic
be

by

New Zealand

found

to

often

their

out
be

(1976,

that"auditory
they

that

carried
of

The

Oliver's

a meaning

a group

audi-

sufficient

with

but

400

e.

perspective,

colour,

probably

own experience
in
imagery

investigation

auditory

the

paralleled".

point

be meaningless,

with

visual.

and

to

a recent

(1975,1979b)

than

the

can

connections

every

to

[i.

them

about

something

corresponds

resemble
at first

appear

is

there

impression

"the

that

remarked

which

the

of

etc.,

that

p. 345)

less

deduced".

McKellar
University
common

53

Auditory

Visual
48%

Male

61%

Female

Foulkes
iences

(1965)

primarily

are

The

results

and

Simpson's

Olfactory

(1954)

Hypnagogic

smells

real

rose

not

1890).

1883,

Some hypnagogic

may get

out

gas

left

not
leakage

the

"a

shock

"a

bolt

that

driven

sensations
descriptions
(1890)

to
the
it

the

from

rapidly
head

bursts

whereupon
of

with

Tactile
over

also

an

the

the

head"

an

extremities

the

shock

head

'
include

(Leaning

1925,

and

phenomena:
by

Mitchell
of

"upward

surge

feeling",

(1931).

sense

of
"skin

the

Mitchell
swelling

epigastrium
be

a balloon
1962,
of

p. 350),

indes-

Similar

or

One may
like

causes",

Both

"numbness,
or

rending",

1962).

(Oswald

(Oswald
"a

motion

occurs.

swelling

isn't

of

of

the

the

they

feeling

arrest

of

speak

explosion

sensations

"a

Roger

by

that

(1878)

called

shock"

given

people

images.

sort

electric

Dudley
that

really

thermal

head",

image

sure

Maury

e. g.,

electric

(1931)

Roger

description

poured

an

were

and

mounting

of

as

there

a sudden

Maury
but

realistic

experiences
stuff"

also

1957,

make

house.

visual

gustatory

the

"an

nature",

that

or
the

which

through

to

tactile,

sensory

like

cribable

in

belong

group

"primary

(1890)

on

so

ever

often,

are

McKellar

are

to

stench"

appropriate
1894,

reported

also

this

In

hypna-

auditory

horrible

smells

instance,

kinesthetic,

Somesthetic,

an

smells

oven

somewhere

(1925)

Leaning

by

for

bed,

of

The

Greenwood

1979).

have

that

than
much nicer
1925,
pp. 348-9;

(Leaning

accompanied

Galton

(e. g.

"a

"smelt

that

Mitchell

always,

from

vary

smell"

could

p. 98;

1878,

McKellar

phenomena:

a rose

of

disconfirm

predominate.

gustatory

smell

experp. 234).

(ib.,

character"

conclusion

earlier

and

the

in

"hypnagogic

that

investigations

these

of

found

also

visual

experiences

gogic

38%

Female

Vogel

and

31%

Male

given
till

p. 89).
cold
the

water
feeling

54

that

one

from

being

to

arm

one

1957).

McKellar

in

buzzing

the

head,

down

1975,

legs"

89:

p.

also

finger-tips,

to

neck

spasm

a sudden

both

1962,

from

shooting

James

or

one

(Oswald

other

a pain

the

flow

'hot'

of

1959;

(Lukianowicz

touched

feeling

"a

p. 74),
or

is

(Oswald

1962,

Critchley

"body

image

disturb-

1955).
Feelings

of

parts

but

bed

the

with

is

The

fused.

to

violent
appear

en masse
to

a period

This

be

to

seems

to

contact

spatial

position
is

jerking

con-

weeks

1962)

1931,

de

common,

the

1932;

Lisi

1959b).

Oswald

80% of

tend

disappear

very

statistically

also

1942)
which

then

and

(Roger

than

(e. g.,

(McGlade

Oswald

more

see

the

body

uncertain".

1955,

again

weight-

"One's

that

twitches

or

it

1938),

myoclonic

mere

nights

sporadically
1962;
(Oswald

ulation

pop-

normal
Pintus

and

1934).

Falqui

interesting

Another
experience
a bodily
with

down

missing
the

stairs

subsequent

alarmed
imiginal

attempt

Quite

'dream'

in

to

may

be

the

the

or

forms
for

to

steps

of
the

escape

(Harriman

1962).

result

fall,

fall

subject,

ladder

(Oswald

home

bodily

of

cliff

climbing

while

their

arrest

the

off

a toppling

a foothold

waking

the

the

associated

the

often

is

group

varieties

which

falling
off

this

uniformly

other

p. 90).

or

at

"more

the

are

himself

beast,

a ferocious
1939),

than

1962,

finds

instance,

is

which

jerk

in

phenomenon

falling

a hypnagogic

of

part

of

(Oswald

shock"

In
the

tumbling

or

such

cases

subject's

outcome

of

the

impact.
Thirty-three

that

for

reappear

phenomenon

occurring

the

from

of

(Critchley

spasms

for

that

the

of

Orientation

is

time

of

may vary

The

shrinkage
of

parts

vaguely,

localized.

phenomenon,

1830)

or

notes

more

even

poorly

perception

Another
McNish

but

parts

(Isakower

mattress.

and

of

outlines

pp. 45-46)

and

sheets

body

the

disappearance

(1978,

or

enlargement

distortions"

felt,

vaguely

the

bodily

of

Sartre

or

include
the

"mouth

1978),

lessness.

to

body,

blurring

the

(Sartre

of

1979b)

the

of

body,

is

of

(McKellar

ances"

distortion

bodily

"falling

among
was

the

134

persons

commonest

of

Oswald
their

questioned
types

of

said
sensory

55
experience
falling

the

is

182

his

so

ation,

is

and
in
of

(1965)
subjects'

other

bodily

argue

that

gators

is

distortion

frequent

more

other,
because
Foulkes

tend

and

startling

are

due

probably

they

are

and

Vogel

to

arouse

(1965)

methodological

inadequacies.

sex

representation

(8 males,

In

fact,

two

the

of

some
al

the

most
is

it

1966);

one

susceptible

more
this

prevented

was

falling

not

at

all

conducive

any

of

the

other

Grouping

male

and

the

35% of

above

his

males,

demonstrated
it

female

is

known

not

how

yet

hypnagogic

of

experare

falling

or

to

McKellar

together

experiences
400

the

above.

mentioned
they

and
of

interruptions

that

et
are

because

subsequent

appearance

that

reported

Vogel

also

to

occurred

New Zealand

21% of

his

university

subjects.

student
In
(1962)

phenomena

all

p. 104)

(1979b,

the

contributed

sample

than

possible

to

sampling.

experiences

affect
is

the

(see

unequal

was

females

Second,

it

is,

that

iences,

there

the

least

at

that

being

representation.
unequal
interruptions
hypnagogic

from

the

instance,

for

from

However,

in

material

possible,

"whereas
go unnoticed

suffer

in

female

incidence
writers
investi-

subject

First,

exceptional
to

low

other
these
experiences

that

may

relax-

experiences

by

1 female)

only

and

falling

(p. 242).

study

phenoFoulkes

experiences

unusual"

It

hand,

These

the

hypnagogic

less

1% of

fact

the

out

and

other

reported

to

44

tension

experiences.

incidence

high

the

144

this

that

an extremely

and

reports

his

of

that

muscular

only

encountered

reported

experiences.

On the

one.

a universal

their

to

related

obviously

Vogel

falling

had

out

reported

(1979b)suggests,

McKellar

possible,

menon,

(79%)

subjects

27

in

(1957)

McKellar

(61%).

(1939)

Harriman

occurring

as

phenomenon

subjects
of

a jerk".

accompanying

respect
proposed

He argues

to
what

the

aetiology
I

consider

of
an

these

phenomena,

unsupported

Oswald

hypothesis.

that

be thought
could
phenomena
the sudden
sensory
and motor
faciliincrease
of cortical
to be due to an abrupt
Many people
may experitation
accompanying
arousal.
'fall'
arousal
rather
as causing
or the jerk
ence the
but
I do not think
one can rely
on
than
vice
versa,

56

impression
the
this
of the sleeper...
subjective
that
belief
was responsible
a bang or a jerk
a fall,
is a simple
for
rationalization.
awakening
1962,

(Oswald
This
on

argument
logical

both

fact

the
first

that

itself,

the

and

very

arousal
or falling.

is

but

intuitive

husbands

where
the

catch

of

being

awakened

actually

case

itation

jerks

"sudden

On

arousal
and

the

take

place

diminishing
always

at

fulness.

Both

oceptive

stimuli

in

the

case

himself
latter
jerks

the

state)

the

of

sudden

deny

to

the

of

by

take
and

subject,

and
facil-

cortical

these
then

sleep

onset,

these

of

that

causing

being

is,

cases
present

of

subject

to

shaken

out

of

their

of

experiences
such

reports.

the

to

appear
a process

of

phenomena

are

to

to

return

proprioceptive
at

sleep

due

during
the

of

light

experiences

and
the

reports

were

immediate
a wealth

activity,

the

subjects

their
with

of
from

phenomena

most

in

asleep,

(1962)

support

if

us

cortical

reported

in

jerks,

of

awakened

hand,

as

falling

absence

obvious

about

furnished

other

counter

partners

hypnagogic

the

light

of

or,

subjects

response"

questioned

have

should

by

etc.,

in

occasions

sometimes

result

an

laboratories:

sleep

sleep

is

there

jerks,

in

the

arousal.

accompanying

bangs,

those

Oswald

that

the

are

something

only

not

a series

go unnoticed

occasions

is

twitching,

fact,

(and

that

flashes

while

posit

in

facilitation"

jerks,

In

wake

suddenly

wakes

by their

of

as

ignores

that

shaken

or

feels

or

then

and

to

argue

answer

not

end

sleep

wakes

bangs,

arguments

to

light

Moreover,

in

and

is

necessarily

however,

are

the

appearing

may on some
the
sometimes

jerks,

them.

evidence
during

place

"cortical

kicking

having

thus

of

does

at

it

subject

myoclonic

to

provides

the

wives

and

themselves

of

it

their

of

midst

is,

argument,

also

First,

subject

to

wants

as

experienced
This

the

caused

suddenness

unsound

light

of

argument

an

that

is

a person

a flash

sees

Oswald

Now,

arousal

that

such

response"

grounds.

say

something

place.

is

to

because

falling,

arousal

evidential

a bang,

a jerk,

feels
if

and

assertion

peculiar

"sudden

of

p. 95).

moment

and
of

nearly
wake-

exter-

waking,

57

the

is

subject
the

of

middle

'brought

clearly
or

event

back'

incorporation

a psychological
dream
into
a
event
falling

or

shot
it

is

at

least

have

clearly
feels

been

that
person
doubt

the

on

wakeful

the

to

attaches

to
be

taken

records,

and

is

is

It

events.

to

cast

in

the

the

whole

causation,
of

arousal
necessary

for

awakening

we shall
itself
and

the

see

1908

face
as

converging

evidence

the

or

occurrence

a requirement
of

such

the

dismissed
evidence
whose

no role

a certain

a hypnagogic

of

the

cases
for
event.

plays

hypnagogic

that

of

in

developed

possibly

deny

registering
in some
later,

registering

data,

wakefulness

of

the

may be

are

reports.

be

and
to

there

this

accumulated

will

serial

of
but

hypothesis

of the majority
not

effect

value

be

if

existing

is

the

cannot

arousal

this).

judgment

its

experiencing,

he

on

to

argument

point

this,

that

significance

reports

of

two

of
and

especially

this

course,
during

as

(b)

even

relations

on

other

cortical
the

that

unreliable

such

product

and
in

role

of
is

end

that

the

taken

already

an

possible,

This,

occurrence

reported

of

is

person's

grounds,

the

chapters,

a secondary
in
at all

of

with

support

formulation

Indeed,

impression

argument

any

(a)

together

theoretical

to

appears

event

up.

Titchener

also

be

that

out

point

on

degree

To say

subjective

support

to

always

laboratory

later

woken

time

half-sleeping

or

a sleeping
is
happenings

the

(see

to

not

that

merely

was

reports

the

may be

by

events

is

My criticism

must

there

up:

experience

the

of

events

simultaneous

rather

or

experience

collecting
to

judgment

determined
be
may

too,

of

attention

person's

nearly

the

instance,

falling,

wakes

subjective

having

method

very
draws

Oswald

as

fact

in

the

on

had

person

for

sleep.

of

area

is

who

the

rely

falling

the

a pistol

of

then

the

of

of

latter,

the

and

the

where

middle

the

'dreams'

one

falling,

after

cannot

one

if

as

place

In

that

case

no cases

taking

as

the

in

hearing

as

such

a cliff.

while

transformation

and

experience

off

or

afterwards,

in

either

experience.
the

process

both

the

58
The

hypnopompic

variety:

When Myers

(1903,

it

he defined
persistence
of

the

continues,

to

object

is
the
The

an

in the

real

world

interrupted

somewhat

his

but

its

from

attention

is

removed

following

is

a hypnopompic

full

immediate

the

from
the

attention
dream

imagery

strength

as

the

room

resumes

moments

his

shifted

of

the

On emerging
to find
that

eyes

having

that

and

his

first

the

1931).

opens

often

in

generally

into

Aristotle

also

subject

dream

consisting

'hypnopompic'

term

the

coined

dream-image

some

(see

waking"

sleep

"pictures

as
of

p. 125)

surroundings.
by

reported

experience

the

Spinoza:
philosopher
heavy
dream
(it
One morning,
as I woke out of a very
images
had come before
day)
the
being
which
already
before
my eyes as lively
as
me in my dream remained
things,
that
had been the very
if
they
and especially
had
I
black
Brazilian,
never
whom
seen
of a scurvy
for
image vanished
This
the most part
before.
when,
I cast
to divert
in order
with
somewhat
else,
myself
but so soon
thing;
my eyes on a book or any other
from
looking
their
I
without
my
eyes
object
removed
as
image
the
anywhere
of this
same negro
attention
with
lively
before
and again,
as
and that
again
as
appeared
head.
it
to
the
vanished
even
until
1912:

(Pollock

those

to

tary

images

hypnopompic

Sometimes

in

seen

the

278-281)

cites

numerous

Burdach

(1839),

Meyer

this

ted
in

complementary

of

in

phenomena

the

of

case

"put

muring

the

When not

hypnopompic

mena

of

pink

pointed

speech.

this

woman

drowsy
an

state.

anticipatory

are

in

the

character

to

likeness

and

second
such

an
to

he

offers
mur-

utterance
schizophrenic

McKellar

expressed

as

hypno-

herself

speech,

group

groups

group

find

salad",

overt

retained
In

up

images.

and

speech

repor-

always

two

former

the

the

its

for

expressed

thoughts

in

not

out

points

of

who

dream

their

of

who woke

pyjamas
out

but

pp.

(1812),

(1874)

hypnopompic

example

(1897,

Gruithuisen

themselves

p. 105)

pp. 353-54)

complemen-

colours

Strmpel

those

state:

As an

a young

interestingly

in

this

imagery.

pompic

to

(1975,1979b,

McKellar

from

and
in

colours

in

De Manaceine

examples
(1840)

1925,

Leaning

appear

dream.

mainly

phenomenon

by

quoted

notes,

sub-vocally

belongpheno'watching'

oneself

59

that

is

one

the

protecting
in

the

iences

just

the

up

having

jects

who,

quite

quickly

to

whether

the

oven

reported

of

continue

"for

example,

to

carpet

she

In

to

continue

to

waking
sub-

he
got

"awoke
to

up

dream

images

she

awoke

and

it
really

of

whose

a mass

not

exper-

(1957,

O.

after

switch

were

as

the

he

has

1975,

in

on

the

reassure

On such
images

the

see

p. 70)

on

to

order

check

would
for
had,

crabs

of

there.

occasions

in

the

to

awoken.

McNish

(1830,

of

visions
thus

(1957)

during

such

these

the

to

found

loud

music,

room
and

the

often,

room

one
he
for

help.
transpire

hand,

other

many

As one
in

waking

a band

for

takes

frightening.

apparently

after
may awake

nightmares

when

con-

occur

calling

On the
from

not

commence

that

which

1975,
argue

are

others

children's

far

have

which

up while

his

p. 356;

which

experiences

states.
are

"I

data

noted

McNish

McCreery

and

these

shouting

semi-waking

experiences

Green

p. 82)

in

that

proposed

night,

wake

people

resort

reported:

subject

Some of

1925,

Leaning

experiences

begins

Kanner

heard

hypnompic

(e. g.,

workers

presented

subject

and

real

1957;

76-7)

dreams.

various

p. 633;

Kanner
pp.

of
of

see

and

1909,

p. 204;

p. 70; James
for
a variety
tinuations

above,

Alexander

1952,

Prince

the

to

contrast

p. 82;

1830,

of

knew

this

whether

Myers

through

way

light
they

and

period

her

pick

burning"
on.

getting

McKellar's

of

bread,

left

he once

one

of

of

effect

toasting

of

been

function

anticipatory

such

of

case

character

light".

full

of

had

also

this

opposite

toast

smell

sometimes

would

the

a short

that

herself

the

dreamed

a woman

the

to

in

as

sleeper,

see

however,

since

have

often

as

p. 23;

realities

doubtful,

protective

'knowing'

"the

harsh

the

is

It

it

to

from

but

explains

ascribing

sleeper

day

the

of
1975,

McKellar

by

indeed

is

events

(McKellar

bed

morning".

feature

the

p. 106).

hypnopompic

the

up

in

still

1968,

McKellar
of

beginning

up and

getting

blazing

the

middle
light,

with

and

seen

a number

in
dancing
or
women,
and
generally
of men
interesting
1925,
Another
(Leaning
p. 356).

rapid

motion"

one

reported

woman woke

up

generally

by

McKellar

in

the

middle

of

(1957,
of

p. 153)
the

night

example

in
to

which

an

find

her

is
elderly

60
darkened

room

"strange,

meaning"

in

ness

is

waking
of frequently
he

(1974)

of

effect

from

his

al

(1966),

Lavie

found

more
ges.

Although
the

particular
continuations

hypnopompic

any
(hearing

1959);

Lukianowicz

are

hallucinations
The

occurrence
by

been

related
1848,
Maury

the

disease,

which

of
and

that

activity

investigations

hynopompic

state

is

"it

(e. g.

is

highly

revealed
(from

to

1897)
makes
the

speak,

the

developed"

(ib.,

15 sec

to

physical
"this

mental
(ib.,

precursor"
whose

conscious

p. 196).

a prolongation
6 minutes;

to

that
of

persons

that

1846,

reference

effect

haptic

has

state

to

being

p. 327).

Baillarger

in

found

and
1959,

development

the

not

p. 23)

hypnopompic

to

sounds

one's
name
(e. g.,
state

Manaceine

so

that

out

experiences

(Lukianowicz

literature
preceded
it
was,

always

are

point

1975,

a prolonged
de

in

support

not

sta-

other.

or

this

De Manaceine

medical
state

cerebral

1897,

Ellis

half-waking

p. 196),

some

in

investigators

pathology.

mental

cases

of

from

yielded

hynopompic

door

reported

also

waking

experiences

(McKellar

smells

over"

REM stage

hypnopompic

the

unusual

all

various

the

the

modalities:
on

Lavie

and

'dreaminess'.

kind

sense

after

room"

a "carry

however,

of

knocks

at

not

are

in

the

of

voices

called)

a climate

so

the

into

does

does,

hypnagogic

the

involve

it

dreams

pp. 97-

reported

from

awakenings

that

do

(1973)

was

from

view

the

sleep.

stage

finding

in

As with

there

than

in

asleep,

also

subjects

latter

transpire

they

of

this

of

of

awakenings
responses

wakeful-

to

Giona

and

sleep

particular

with

about

out

that

Iamblichus

while

Descartes

coming

on

also

mentioned
ever
1968,
(de Becker

scattered

awakenings

and

dreaming

continued

eyes.

"sparks

out

"dreamlike"

own

and

Interestingly,

state.

and

dream

explanations

see

dreaming

his

eyes

the

hardly

of

sleep

stages

but

aware

his

carried

linking

become

seeing

et

p. 356;

Descartes'

of

occasions,

"with

appear

of

case

opening

and

opened
Fiss

and

1925,

interpret

to
up

may

(Leaning

that

having

who,

began

as

may

hypnopompic,

the

literature,
99)

figures"

pp. 115-117).
An interesting

1895,

On other

angels".

of

symbolic

their

of

"full

the

of
where

Her

it

61
longer

for

occurred

to

abnormal")

tends

olves

exercise

much

stout,

phlegmatic,

occurs

in

of

"awakened

times
The

pompic

state

gaining

full

they

a state

consciousness,

or

showed

a significant

to

(men

sex

dings

be

to

however,

notes,
24 "present

that

mostly

advanced
found

was
in

3-7

of

tary

others,

men and

between

on

the

increase

especially

De Manaceine
factors

tural

as
by

state

pompic

She

Finlanders.
went

on

nearly

ament"
predisposition

to

"the

incidence
is

state

(ib.,

point
fact

that

impossible
p. 204).
to

as
to
De

a cataleptic

find

80%
incimili-

longest

hypnoin

and

general
was

of
her

peculiarity"
for

natives

also

condition

of

this
Finland

sanguine

noted
of

hypno-

27 were

reason

of

the

cul-

subjects

national

a person

to

attention

degree

the

Manacigine

age

an

25-40

of

84 of

a possible

amongst

of

of

50.

in

out

women

Children

draw

a pronounced
"a
this
considered

the

year-olds,

incidence
of

15-

of

incidence

ages

to

out

ages

the

after
the

that

She

merchants,

The

the

first

was the
influencing
noting

this

exhibiting

it

displayed

decrease

fin-

these

showed

class

to

respect

than

7-14

subjects

minutes.

results

to

or

2% in

5-6

with

the

artists,
intellectuals.

found

again

and

working

between

state:

pompic
was

the

to

belonging

and

Her

predominance

8% in

to

opposed

from

where

incidence

40% in

class

hypno-

controlled.

age

The

apart.

them

predisposition
same

adults,

Working

olds.

25% as

the

the

that

of

ten

days

p. 195).

between

p. 208).

10% in

be

to

year

dence

(ib.,

age"

in

was

marked

men of

people

terms

women

a more

than

half-awakening
more

young

some

incidence

factor

this

as

spaced

remarked

in

explained

intellectuality,

of

She

tested

was

(ib.,
in

20%).

women

three

or

rarely

who
hours

understanding

do"

to

subjects

"prevents

from

difference

33%,

not

are

have

they

(ib.,

that

who are

very
p. 196).

subject

observing

and
it

on

was

as

what

or

are

to

defined

each

subject

confined

(70%)

a half

and

",vholly
invwork

whose

feet

persons

p. 205);
per

people

individuals:

two

it

considered

observations

after

test

was

study

and

her

(ib.,

each

and

arms

sanguine

made

sleep"

in

plethoric

and

only

she

mostly

the

and

nervous

quiet

occur
of

De Manaceine
were

6 minutes

than

"a

different

tempermarked

62
muscular
found

hypnompic

since

the

teens

(ib.,

her

7 and

and
(sisters)

subjects
to

predisposed"

of

a long

who presented

Two of

state.

ages

8 developed

pro-

hypnopompic

the

in

chlorosis

state

their

p. 212).
de

Some of
a recent

findings

Manaceine's
(Richardson

study
in

a decrease

et
in

incidence

not

were
1981)

al

in incidence

difference

no significant
and

people

"remarkably

who were

by

in

groups"

confirmed

which

between
in

subjects

showed

the

sexes
60s

their

and

70s.
Hypnopompic
than

hypnagogic

jects

reported

Richardson

ones:
it,

et

dence

gogic

reported

experiences

al

51% and

21% of

only

and
(1981)

less

are

(1963)

Owens

sub-

and
inci-

higher

a much

showed

studies

(1957)

McKellar's

the

although

reported

commonly

64% - this
is still
lower
than
in these
77% and
viz.,
studies,

hypna-

the
75%

respectively.
(1897,

Ellis
introduction

the

hypnagogic

be made

they

morning

and

being

already

be

drawn

this

these

the

to

in

Chapter

use

purpose

of

of

the

two

indicating

as

one

they

do

formed.

already

upon"

no distinction

will
'hypno-

and

terms
the

that

experiences,

'hypnagogic'

between

the

1,

to

grounds

as

perceptual

"come

tends

be

will
temporal

mainoccurrence

experiences.

phenomena:
Hypnagogic-hypnopompic

apparently
ponses

of

is

themselves"
appearing

clear

out

the

on

view

states.

a distinction

"form

to

to

separate

be made

variety,

paper

although
for

one

pointed
in

pompic',

Speech

sort

if

that

literature

the

unnecessary"

two

as

must

tend

while

As

of

this

latter

are

tained

them

experiences

the

and

out

the

watches,
the

pointed

between

former

"pedantic

hypnopompic

and

into

hypnopompic

(1903)

Myers'

against

protested

term
is

(1979b)

McKellar

in

it

that

argued

the

the

of

and

p. 284)

nonsensical
the

An example

subject
of

the

speech
or

makes

irrelevant
as

hypnopompic

he

falls
kind

phenomena

are

statements
asleep
has

already

generally
or

or

res-

wakes

up.

been

given

63
"put

above,

viz.,

1979b,

p. 105).
to

refer

as

having

occurred

of

waking

up

to

"set

one

saying

"There

is

(1911,

p. 103)

offers

Let's

That's

the

time

no

easy.
was

behind

the

sky".

Other

subject

hurry
I

could

to
in

9.501.

clouds!
examples

(H's
(H)

Yes,
are

In

wife)
just
reported

Mintz

her

husband

the

towel":

the

of

drowsing

by

the

lecturer

Hollingworth
of

by

ten

his

e. g.:

own,

o'clock.
to

a nickel

How curious
by

are

state.

while

examples
by

the

phenomena

place".

like

(1948)

asked

a question

there

occasion

process

there

get

(McKellar

the

that

this
of

get

by

end

reported

and

have

Similar

hypnagogic

a number

shall

"light

(or

tobacco

salad"

reported

meanings).

the

the

woman.

he responded

a lecture

wife)

that

the

(1957)

Maury

during

(H)

a Russian

on

instance,

"(H's

to

both

of

admits

is

fire"

which

later,

on

in

pyjamas

one,

morning

towel

encountered

also
For

again

the

pink

Another

to

Russian

the

the

ten...

moon

a thin

place

Oswald

(1962).

in

looks
the

CHAPTER

CORRELATES:

PHYSIOLOGICAL

The

by

related
in

both

terms

et

of

(e. g.

activity

1970

for

logic

the

have

that

areas
include

that

1968;

Nowlis

1970).

method

has

and
back
3.

second
has

immediately

preceding
part

constituting

of

of

its

physiological

duction

of

the

physiology

as

the

(1964),
Green
(1973),
biofeedin

discussed
former
to

Chapter
that

approach,

hypnagogia.

monitor
ascribed
begin

shall

a posi-

or

sleep,

even

the

exam-

a brief

with

correlates

introof

electroencephalography

(1930)

Berger's
electrodes

polarizable
has

area

a whole.

Following

it

and

(1970),

generally

itself,

and

Kamiya

constitutes

following

and

sleep

ination

sleep

a state

Mulholland

al

et

it

in

remain

Rechtschaffen

correlates
is

hypnagogia

subjects

Walters

the

on

train

1969;

been

already

correlates

and

approach

concentrate

psi.

to

and

other

extensively

hypnagogic

(1972),

physiological

Since

more

Bertini

Green

to

Stoyva

1962,1968;

the

e. g.,

Budzynski

shall

combining

tion

Green,

which

Here

by

This

research

in

applied

(1976).

Oliver

of

Specifically

(1978),

Green

method);

Stoyva

and

of

reports

physiological

(Kamiya

Vogel

method

this

state

time

of

the

(see

feedback

Bertini

and

states

and

involving

al

verbal

of

psychological

(1970),

Brown

B. B.

Foulkes

meditation,

Budzynski

been

1966,

attention

information

lengths

Hart

1967;

this

approach

a certain

varying

advantages

dreaming,

utilising

reach

for

and

1938,

et

with

EEG

and

Davis

of

been

drowsiness

of

physiological

physiological

received

sleep,
A second

to

of

have

state

application
measures

correlates

monitor

is

a specific

physiological

combining

Liberson

and

the

and

1911,

Hollingworth

is

This

1965).

to

content

mental

Liberson

1964,

al

investigators

various

hypnagogia

of

experiences

subjective

become

recordings

as

pioneering

work

to

indicators
Loomis

of
et

al
-64-

sleep
the

employment

brain

measure
in

a tradition

classic

(1937)

electric
to

research

phases
and

of

of

potentials,
EEG

use

In

sleep.

Davis

non-

et

al

their
(1937,

65
1938)

designated

they
alpha

14

voltage

of

spindles

longer;

length

Dement

by

in

4,

Stage

linked
the

other

and

more

from

70

but,

whereas

110

stage

1 (up

of

to
by

mainly

Loomis

night

et

(a

is

B and

C (stages

to

auditory

stimuli

both
and

spindles
3 of

or
and

is

ted

3),

often

internal

or

al

predomi-

spent

in

1939a,

coined

by

one)
activity

a response

1939b;

and

linked

the

a positive

Roth,
such

events

(Johnson
are

represen-

change

as

appear

ascending

are

electrical

autonomic

K-complexes

4 (and,
or

often,
D (deep,
by

thought

variously

NREM (non-rapid

solely

2 and

generally

known

first,

(active)

background

night,

as

Karpan

with

Shaw

1968).
2

stages

sleep.

Sleep
The

and

by

ranges

diphasic

sharp

the

et

is

in

4 are

a term

on
(Davis

(it
the

stages

a short
wave followed

contractions

gastrointestinal

other

been

dramatic

cycle

time

K-complexes,

negative

1956)

Green

and

the

less

3 and

more

The

also

throughout

denote

to

superimposed

of

spindling;

be

stages

and

2.

stage
group

al

potential

which

hour)

an

2,

spindles,

appears

to

repeated

progresses

Stage

corresponding

90 minute

beginning

to

90 minutes.
1 (ascending)
has

thought

is

minutes)
the

with

(dreaming

This

1 (descending),

cps)

stage
is

cate-

14 cps

spindling,
for
runs
about

it

above

with

(4

activity

but

at

the

as

cps)

a modified

the

study;

without

pattern

wave-

corresponding

(1937)

al

delta

thought-like).
to

et

latter
and

Stage

cps),

D-

voltage

simplified
(7

loss;

alpha

the

in

A-

delta;

with

stages:

theta

3,

delta

stages

nant,
ted

four

(3-6

dreaming

with

with

delta

which

E thus:

random

delta,

(1957)

Loomis

of

re-emergence

and

sleep

D,

voltage

inconspicuous.

the

This

E.

D and

C,

becoming

to

slower

B,

of

moving

Stage

C above;

of

increase

activity

voltage

low

and

suggesting

B in

A and

A,

spindles

Kleitman

alpha

modified

to

E-

and

gorization

as

letters

cps

spindles

with

stages

B-

of

becoming

lower

the

with

appearance

higher

late

successive

interruptions;

with

C-

five

out

pointed

eye

to

S (slow-wave),

as
movement)

descending

Stage

or

ascending

1).

two

types.

Q (quiet),

comprises

desynchronized,

re-emerging

of

consist

2,3

stages
The

dreaming)
Stage

second,
is
1.

represenThe

latter

66
is

by

characterised

features,

integrated

middle
the

REMs

e. g.,

(phasic

other,

the

pons,

tex,

and

commencing

activity"),
as muscle
theta

The

(Schwartz

just

before

and

Snyder

et

in

rate

and

a REM (Berger

et

Broughton
1969)

REM sleep
and

The

successive
W:

Stage

1:

Stage

2:

and

stages
by

al

1964;

Fisher

et

al

1965;

have

sleep.

These

a number

rate

from

acti-

pressure,

heart

NREM sleep

hippo-

movements
variable,
blood
deep and regular,
heart

the

theta

rhythmic

slow

wakefulness
(1974)
Freemon
as

and

be

to

come

include

is

is

1955;
et

what

in

occur

Jacobson

between

blood

appear-

1962).

out

By contrast,

summarized

a sawtooth

pointed

in

period.

Kleitman

1965;

al

have

variability

level,

al

and

hippocampal

activity

waking

Stage

of

of

respiration

been

et

the

frequently

1961;

Berger

NREM types

below

have

Aserinsky

1957;

electrical

gross,

and

(e. g.,

respiration.

and

campal
is

1960)

differences

twitches

vity,

of

Fischgold

Cartwright

REM and

feature

a main

this

throughout

presence

and

physiological

presence

intermittent

moistening.
by a burst

heralded

1 have

1964;

and

is

REM sleep

REMs,

of

vaginal

stage

Kleitman
al

or

ascending

writers

Dement

D or

cor-

primary
phasic
features
such

lasting)

erection

(in

occipital

appearance

be "the

the

recorded

and

of
during

or

Several

Williams

the

PIP

body

the

of

body,

before

constitutes

waves

ance

of

whose

indeed,

called

just

phasic

potential

geniculate

penile

onset

waves

theta

of

lateral

relaxation,
the

stage,

movements

electrical

an

(a)

twitches,
movements),
brief
contractions
of

by many researchers
to
(longer
and (b) tonic

thought

Usually

eye

major,

PGO spike,

the

from

of

(rapid

features:

of

groups

potential),

and

ear,

cat

is

two

are

few

pressure

regular.

to

REM sleep
follows:

The EEG contains


alpha
associated
activity
with
quiet
or low voltage
wakefulness
The
activity
active
with
wakefulness.
level
EMG has a high
and there
of activity
are frequent
voluntary
eye movements.
half
The EEG shows less
than
the epoch
by alpha
No spindles
occupied
waves.
in the EEG record.
or K-complexes
occur
Occasional
rolling
slow,
eye movements
occur.

The EEG record

shows

K-complexes

and

67
bursts
of 12 to 15 cycles
per second
less
20 per
than
rhythm
and contains
delta
There
cent
activity.
are no eye
movements.
Stage

3:

between 20 and 50 per


The EEG contains
by delta
cent
of the epoch occupied
There
activity.
are no eye movements.

Stage

4:

The EEG contains


50 per cent
over
of
the epoch
by delta
activity.
occupied
There
may be spindle
superactivity
imposed
There
on the delta
activity.
are no eye movements.

Stage

REM: The EEG is relatively


low voltage,
frequency
bursts
mixed
with
activity
of theta
waves.
rhythm
and saw-tooth
Conjugate
occur.
eye movements
rapid
lowest
The chin
its
EMG reaches
amplitude.
(Freemon

Davis

et

between

ations

They

pointed
fifth

the
in

on

the

et

(1938)

remarked

rhythm

during

phantasies,
as

one

that

subject

am aware
were

made

state

into

alpha),

to

enough
by

reveries

as

they

"In

all

sleep

that,

although

sleep

was

often

erent

from

an

were
them"

(p. 32).

who

(alpha

subjects,

cases",

of

they

dream.

C stage

Davis

et

was

hypnagogic
(fragmented
and

dreamlike
stage
felt

subjects
the

distinctly

invariably

but

remarks

descending

during

al

visions,

dreams,

Dement

"the

noted,

They

or

these

of

reported
in

mental
content
'dream
it
like',

with

visions,

"1a2"

theta).

also,

B stages.

EEG alpha

the

rhythm)

the

actual

A and

study

Similar

divided

interrupted

were

(1937)

dreamlike

some
"practically

(appearance

(1957)

Kleitman's

the

reported

(1969)

EEG

onset

sleep"

Indeed,

catch

"lal"

"lb"

and

onset

Gastaut

stage

losing

subjects

reported,

sleep

classification.

feelings.

and

correl-

subdivisions,

"real

to

p. 10)

note

al

electrophysiologiral
(1937)

sleep

et

between

subdivisions

al

and

Loomis

belonging

possibly
Loomis

the

five

out

to

phenomena

extended

concentrating

first

the

were

hypnagogic

They

rhythms.
by

(1938)

al

1974,

onset
diffstated

of

one

68
that

they

not

A variety
be

The
age

from

that

the

'real'

as

that

occurring

and

sensations

hypnagogic,

called

etc.

such

changes
to

wakefulness

were

imagery

mental

in

dreams.

described

that

'floating',

as

was

'drifting',

".

physiological
(1967)

Kleitman

and

images

of

lights'

'flashing

asleep

or

organised

as

might

not

were

sleep

during

occurring
have

been

the

passby

summarized

follows:

as

is a fall
in muscle
tonus,
There
the
as seen from
diminution
action
potentials
of muscle
progressive
in the knee jerk
(Lombard
(Max 1935)
and a decrease
is a slowing
There
(Boas
1887).
of the heart
rate
1940),
1932;
Pinotti
a
and Tanfani
and Goldschmidt
1954),
(Suvorov
plethysmographic
curve
occasionwavy
in
increase
cardiac
reflexes
a
paradoxical
ally
1960).
The insensible
(Sokolov
perspiration,
as
loss,
increases
by the rate
during
of weight
measured
in rectal
the fall
the onset
of sleep,
paralleling
(Day 1939,1941).
temperature

(Kleitman
The
to

sleep

of

a state

as

onset

(or

state

"low

arousal".

states)
By this

is

1967,

p. 74).

often

referred
Stoyva

term,

(1973)

explains,
in which
indicators
to a condition
the major
we refer
levels
to when
are at reduced
compared
of arousal
is alert
Typically,
the individual
muscle
and active.
is reduced;
tension
such as heart
autonomic
activity
and respiration
and cortical
rate
are diminished;
has shifted
from
low amplitude-fast
activity
activity
brain
to the slower
characteristic
wave frequencies
onset.
of sleep
(Stoyva
(1978,

Sartre
the
in

neuromuscular
these

p. 46:
state

with
of

the

reference
organism

1973,
to

p. 388,

Gelle)

during

note

describes
sleep

onset

words:

Tonicity
is in the main relaxed.
Muscle
tone
of attiThe
tonicity
is almost
tude
suppressed.
completely
instance,
increased.
For
is,
however,
some
of
muscles
due to the relaxation
the eyelids
shut,
are not only
but the orbicular
muscle
of the retractor
muscles,
if
the large
Likewise,
oblique
must also
contract.
the small
muscles
contract,
oblique
muscles
relax,
in the divergence
the
of the ocular
axes;
resulting
below
the bony
takes
position
a
pupillary
orifice
finally,
And,
the pupillary
the
ceiling
of
eye socket.
due to the contraction
is likewise
contraction
of
the

iris.

(Sartre

1978,

p. 46).

2).

69
Sartre
the

with
in

to

on

goes

this

relate

neuromuscular

introspective

subject's

state

and

activites

changes

consciousness.
large
the
the
and
The relaxing
muscles
of
retractor
follow
immediately
the
does
closing
muscles
not
oblique
the
For
the
events
of
review
we
while
pupils.
a
of
the pupils
The eyes remain
are
the day.
convergent,
by the voluntary
of the orbickept
contraction
closed
become
thoughts
Then
more vague.
muscles.
our
ular
become distenthe retractor
muscles
At the same time
large
The
the
to
Now it
takes
eyes.
ded.
open
effort
in
their
the
roll
eyes
muscles
and
relax
oblique
the
At the least
of reflection
resumption
orbits.
large
and the eyes resume
contract
oblique
muscles
feel
I
hearing
Similarly,
a
noise
their
on
position.
is,
there
'become
fixed',
that
occurs
probably
eyes
my
and accommodation.
reflex
of convergence
a double
immediately
disappear
The hypnagogic
and so,
visions
do the phosphenes.
it
seems,

In

respect

in

that

to

hypnagogic

the

EEG disappeared

the

decreased";

theta

and

the

increased

with
1961).

Green

and

state

similarly,

correlated

"when

the

(see

ventilation

Timmons

et

(1972)

al

ventilation
alpha

of

reappearance

sporadic

in

activity

alpha

developed,

waves

found

p. 31)

(1963,

B1low

respiration,

p. 46).

1978,

(Sartre

Goldie

also

that

reported

of
Respiratory
and chest
abdomen
of the
movements
found
Ss were
changes
human
to undergo
progressive
breathing
loss
Abdominal-dominant
of
wakefulness.
with
abdominalwakefulness,
with
relaxed
was associated
drowsiness,
thoracic
and thoracic-dominant
equality
with
drowsiness,
variDuring
breathing
with
sleep
onset.
in
closely
were
movements
amplitude
of
abdominal
ations
theta
activity
between
to
and
alpha
vacillation
related
in
EEG.
the

(Timmons
being

Drowsiness
by

cterized

preceding

a process

during
very
302).
onset

its

after

first

the
this

of

The
of

onset";
20

regularity
state

occipital

of

(SEMs)

movements
point

"seem

out,

of

be

to

(Liberson
drowsiness
alpha-blocking".

and
is

here

is

as

Liberson

is

chara-

with

associated
and

of

drowsiness

p. 173).

sleep

level,

a certain
irregularity

also
sec

which,

drowsiness

initiating
reaches

1972,

preceding

a condition

or

drowsiness

as

soon

sec

eye

(1966)

Liberson

and

as

slow

al

et

subsiding

20 or

more

respiration

followed

Liberson
defined

by
1966,
as

"the

recopp. 300-

70
Libersons

The

noted

seconds

for

initial

drowsiness".

reaction"

(ib.,

Kleitman

(1939)

"muscle
is

noted,

ing

and

in

10 sec,

out

increases

the

as

thus

suggesting

ness

even

start
This

a four

Libersons

on

"here

now"

the

was

floating,

Reports

on

the

"here

during

and

alpha-blocking

after

the

subjects'
(ib.,
p. 298).

by

reports

dreaming"

now"

a high

alpha-activity

by

anterior

a more

increases

that
voltage
and

vertex

vertex
waves

in

show

sec

the

waves.

As

predominate.

from

to

deepens,

The

appearance

from

accompanied
theta-activity
high

relatively

drowsiness

drowsiness

is

progression

10

first

the

of

onset

alpha-blocking
(4-7
low-amplitude
cps)

amplitude

p. 296).
(53%)

(ib.,

to

leading

about

disappearing

the

of

thinking"

of

incidence

practically
after

the

concern

during

rapidly

by
reports

types

vague

p. 301).

(ib.,

subject's

drifting,

Electroencephalographically
occipital

the

from

ranging

"more

of

and
15

patterns

graded

was

the

declining

alpha-activity

alert

an

drowsy

alert"

alertness

drowsi-

of

state

"when

scale

reports

"I

as

of

category

to

drowsiness

of

shows

subjectively

characterized

experiment,

such

be

to

increases"

electroencephalogram...

component

subjective

and

resting

continue

may

subject

Conversely,

also

occur-

periods

a residual

p. 299).

has

movements

drowsy

electroencephalogram

than

more

It

EEG pattern
of

no

EEG drowsiness

of

repeated

slipp-

increasingly

eye

onset

more

Libersons

for

it

for

slow

pattern

subject

of

presence

the

in
it

the

invade

to

the

'deeper'.

the
of

alpha

the

&

that

lowered

is

becomes

interrupted

"the

though

pattern"

before

of

(ib.,

in

number

periods

covering

remaining
incidence

time

a certain

ring

sec

"the

that

staying

Gerard,

possibility

Drowsiness,

state,

about

and

Blake,

the

after

affair,

drowsiness

as

periods
noted

p. 57).

this

of

the

consciousness

a progressive

gradually

and

longer

of

1967,

is

soon

very

after

by

study
to

40% have

alpha-blocking

of

onset

pointed

already

several
of

about

10 sec

An earlier

level

the

(Kleitman

(1966)

been

had

"only

the

after

diminishes

but

slowly"

sec

p. 297).

tonus

lost,

20

it

50% recognise

of

recognition

subjective

drowsiness

of

a delay

is

instance,

For

recognition

subjective

in

subjects

most

"there

that

theta-rhythm
of

'spindles'

71
(12-14

The

sleep.
the

the

signals

cps)

subjective

them

a progression

reports

(alpha-activity)

lating

with

lengths

such

(This

progression,
"who
people

onset

of

Rechtschaffen

1964;

Globus

1966;

Liddon

Libersons'

The

a confirmation
(1965)
Vogel
who

of

EEG/EOG

in

changes

nine

SEMs).

The

jects'
ment

a steady

rise

the

latter

increase

in

concomittant
Most

dramatic

episodes",

Moreover,
1948;

Oswald

and

contrary

1962),

it

of

in

decline

frequency

of

in

by

'real'

also

earlier

was

found

"a

with

their

sub-

loss

environ-

of

than

rather

was

the

(ib.,

p. 236).

shown

to

affect.
defined

reported

to

1 EEG

hallucinatory

world"

experience
of

Alpha

immediate

mental

purely

the

REM),
stage

the

is

namely,

2 EEG (usually

defined

cate-

sequential

awareness

dreams,
were

bursts

succ-

four

p. 233),

(ib.,

and
Vogel

and
from

and

a decline

interestingly,

et

with

Foulkes

Descending

hallucinatory
with

drowsiness

subjects

stage

being

out

Foulkes

of

of

experience

transpiring

actually
be

one's

Maron

progression

in

a steady

in

REM

characteristic

SEMs),

control

"occipital

as
1963;

al

results

a few

showed

or

alpha-activity"

narcoleptic

study

Descending

results

that

sense

p. 299),

such

et

there

as

theta-activity

of

replacing

adult

with

SEMs),

experiences,

This

young

with

volitional
and

observed

(ib.,

EOG variables"

EEG (discontinuous,
with

always
amount

their

"reflecting

EEG and

(mostly

drowsiness.

occur

1967).

In

EEG (continuous,

Alpha

of

earlier
increase

an

stages.

awakening

of

gories

found

from

reports

the

for

stages

electroencephalographic

was

essive

lasting

early
not

1960;

corre-

not

onset
sleep
p. 300) and

(ib.,

reports
do

suddenly

unusual

now"

a rule,

alpha-blocking"

sleep

and
thinking"

general

latter

exaggerated

of
of

is

(Vogel

dreaming

took

an

"micro-sleep"

onset",

al

show

types

other

and

the

at

be

as

which,

however,

"delta-waves

have

time

of

the

preceding

10 sec

than

"here

drowsiness

of

patterns

therefore,

from

the

waves),

continuous

for

are

vertex

through

occurring

and

2 of

stage

may,

"vague

to

and

longer

changes

showing

to

rhythm

mental

EEG patterns

related
(theta

descending

of

these

of

appearance

periods

onset

as
during

in

Alpha
(e. g.,

studies
that

"hallucinated

the

majority

EEG.
Vihvelin

72
subjects
had

also

did

not

the

experience
during

(especially
same

way

1957,

McKellar

the

demonstrate

of

imagery

stages,

an

indication

(ib.,

p. 235).
to

regard

gation

(de

Manaceine

pulse

during

this

lower"

and

irregular.

"very

irregular,

faces

of

the

rate

a somewhat

(Fleisch

1929).

that,

with

as

characterized
Omwake

(1932)

hypnopompic
(1967)

noted

showed

the

(de

tonic

the

hypnagogic

state,

tumified

look"

and

hypnagogic
the

presence
that

during

the

muscle

Dovey

(1944,
the
6-7

The
noted,

around
and
of

heart

is

There

also
(Max

potentials
activities

theta

is

phase.

also

waves.

worse

performed

found

also

hypnopompic

hypnagogic

be

to

further

p. 64)

cps

become

to

pauses".

morning.
the

the

found

was

respiratory

subjects

that

tendency

and

of

investi-

acceleration

the

end,

period

especially
1930;
Boas

a definite

of

successive

early

Manaceine

(Grollman

in

change
differ-

showed

and

de

1932),

Lisi

found

an

too,

persons,

magnitude

the

than

during

acceleration

awake

Walter

by

individual

studies

subjects
in

large

imagery

of

with

of

Respiration,

1932)

increase

an
1937),

state

Later

the

as

also

the

was

consistent

modality

any

pp. 214-215)
had "an evident

showing

eyelids.

Goldschmidt

(see

study

any

1897,

half-awakened

always

them

the

much

association

or

hypnopompic

the

this

consistent
in

experience

mental

In

2)

REM dream

in

EEG/EOG

presence
in

"had

any

particular

ences

1 and

stages

finding

with

EEG/EOG

in

participating

actively

a nocturnal

interesting

to

modality
in

in

would

but

episodes

p. 41).

Another
failure

of

descending

they

as

dramatic

hallucinate

only

in

the

Kleitman

that

Partial
several
occur
or even complete
awakenings
during
the night
times
remembered;
and are not usually
become more frequent
toward
the end of the custhey
finally,
because
tomary
of increasing
period
of sleep;
they
in lapsing
difficulty
back into
culminate
sleep,
in the
in overt
termination
or 'awakening'
of sleep,
word.
meaning
of this
everyday

(Kleitman

1967,

p. 127).

CHAPTER

AND THE STAGES OF THE HYPNAGOGIC

PROBLEMS OF DEFINITION
STATE:

Although

some

hypnagogic

lishing

(e. g.

sion
Foulkes

generally

no

from

Alexander

1909;

occurrence

in

it

indeed,

to

(e. g.

of

characterize

daydreams,

sleep

and

end-

processes)
arise

clearly
(see

of

consciousness
etc.:

psychoses,

the
that

phenomena

of

also

and

descriptive

states

al

and

1967b)

severally

- other
dreams,

et

(beginning

modes

be

to

Foulkes

Rapaport

cognitive

thought

generally

are

1959;

McKellar

1966;

hypnagogia

of

character

estab-

Liberson

difficulties

These

offered.

in

succes-

thought

of

done

temporal

1966;

al

temporal

(quality

transitional

the

and

et

accepted

been

have

limits

Vogel

psychological

and

Liberson

1965;

Vogel

their

and

1948;

been

has

research

patterns

Vihvelin

and

1966),
ing)

definite

Part

see

Two).
to

Approaches
of

a state

it

dreaming)

this

(a)

into

aches
Burdach

and

represented
view

that

argues
show

sleep

dream,

state

of

which

exact

they

it

is

latter

been

three

main

in

and

Jaspers.

as

by

view

of

former

The

phenomenon

a hypnagogic
uses

appro-

represented
point

the

of
5.

psychological
view

of

one

and

chapter

external

of

view

(and

correlates

two

Schultz,

analysis

whether

(1933)
imagery

reminiscences,
imagination;

the

the

sleep

itself
or

experience
the

criterion

subject's

consciousness.

Leroy
in

(b)

and

at

psychological

point

Weygandt,

the

purely

separated

an

have

as

to,

it

relating

physiological
was discussed

internal

the

Leroy,
by

should

latter

(1948)

Vihvelin

the

mostly

concentrated

There
two

with

The

onset.

sleep

or

respect,

mainly

concerned

from,

wakefulness.

and
in

have

hypnagogia

defining

of

problem

consciousness

differentiating

groups

the

described

the

is

of

and
and
carry

devoid
of

the

although
with

them

hypnagogic
the

of

character

quality

of

images

may

a quality

-73-

state

as

reality,

a creation
appear
of

the

a state

of
sharp
fantastic

of

the
and
than

74
the

is

object
both

hallucinations

the

the

contrary,
in

and
that

to

contrast

at
in

cipates
In

from

that

there

fully

nearly

everybody

falling

control

of

the

(a)

panying

noise

[hypnagogic

in

themselves
instance,
one
does
ensure

us

be

of

and

Schultz's

and

consciousness

subject
continually

of
two

must

to

the
the

dream

the

able

is

in

consciousness

the

(b)

obtrude
for

as

.
sufficient
dreams

when

by

latter:

for

the

situation

hypna-

Weygandt's
hypna-

the

moment

when

adding

the

"firstly
state

Vihvelin
to

between
the

percep-

While

apply

hypnagogic
of

H. V.

when one
is
it

case

acoustic

disappears",
to

the

border

marked

situation

the

a railway-journey,

as

"the

of

to

able

of mistaking
it
to
safer

which

accom-

and

permanent
"(p. 361)
carriage),

thinks

an

duration,

short

criterion

stipulations
be

of
during

error

he

according
state

the

the

the

be

the

on
of

especially

serve

wakefulness".

criterion

may have

yet

must

observation

will

absence

of

against

of

appear

perfect

ear)

audition",

experienced

experiences,

following

the

as

less

or

perception

is

which

shaking

criterion
gogic

with

accept

not

gogic

interferes

dreaming
(the

tions

continual

definition.

hallucinations

the

this

to

Leroy's

state

to

"the

fits

can

is

(e. g.

perceive
a hypnagogic
"dream-phenomena
that

possible

traceable

a more

continuing

objected

visions

phenomena,

where

organ

still

vision],

to

wants

and

(1948)

that

optical

the

(1930)

hypnagogic

of

escape
"hypnagogic

part

sense

the

of

grounds

parti-

Schultz

would

that

asleep,

Vihvelin

out

distinguishing

state,

types

which

most

another

a proof

respect,

indifferent

dream-mechanism"

the

and

for

dream

are

proposed

before

this

actively

for

criteria

the

imitate

such,

in

act

points

an

dreamer

the

whereas

state

"which

are

Leroy

on

to

In

to

they

actions:

desire

any

likened

Leroy's

out

therefore,

of

that

dreams.

pointed

He,

lack

may be

criticizing

hypnagogic

in
into

subject

characteristic.
dreams,
nocturnal

a play

his

they

most

hypnagogist

the

spectator

as

is

them

to

relation

a real
differ
from

representations

their

subject's

to

resemblance

importantly,

and

involve

or

prompt

their

as
More

concerned.

real

do not

far

as

reproductive

to

the
retain
and,

the

75
the

secondly,

intact

kept

be

must

notes

falling

asleep:
is

the

by

is

state
by

terized

not

tinuity

the

of

but

state

the

of

consciousness

itional

Vihvelin

Thus

the

waking

utterly

'hypnagogic

state'

the

ignore

are

common

literal

intruof
trans-

this

of

dream-consciousness.

the

objective

marks

of

observation

those

events

beginning
be

open

eyes

gates

the

esses

to

absences

more

hypnagogic

stage,
on

the

processes

with

of

vacillation

and

in

the

which

state

before

period

eyes

with

closed

Vihvelin

to

other

hypnagogic

waking
side

the

until
p. 360)

consciousness

full

falling

1948,

argue:

the

case

embracing

psychological
he calls
and what

of

from

transitional

of

cushioning

on

in

sleep).

stage,

side

taken

closed

would

reduction

one

concept

byVihvelin
(I

thus

to

the

the

line

in

not

appears

whole

as

term

the

of

he

sleep;

in

(quoted

a pre-hypnagogic
the

into

beginning

the

the

the

appear

quantitative

and

for

appropriate

until

that

wakefulness

dreams"

of

would

"which

use
and

side,

hypnagogia

of

full

from

asleep,

fact

leading

and

the

restrictive

theoretical

stands

definition

Jaspers'

for

rather

sense

meaning

preceding

period

logical

end

critical

criteria

On the

evidence.

'proper'

in

con-

disappearance

the
the

of

the

constantly

The

marks

"its

sleep

to

Vihvelin's

However,

all

by

charac-

make voluntary
movements)
emphatiit is "a state
out that
pointing
of consciousness
different
from the dream-consciousness"
(ib.,
p. 362).

cally

its

state

of

(orientation,

ability

phenomena,

with

hypna-

the

of

interruption

hypnagogia

state

end

conscious

and

p. 362).

beginning

anchors

the

is

which

wakefulness

the

situation

the

and

state

in

wakefulness

(ib.,

of

of

hypna-

proper

a transitional

being

of

the

The

between

of

reduction

beginning

sleep

dream-absences"

ding

(2)

p. 361).

process
fatigue,

quantitative

(ib.,

mark

the

increasing

changes

a vacillation

in

stages

of

the

qualitative

distinctive

chief

two

processes;
hypnagogium,
the

or

movements
Vihvelin
p. 361).

(ib.,

stage

by

processes"

gogic

voluntary

psychic

state

psychic

are

the

characterized

characterized

of

there

"(1)

conscious

gogic

out

carry

continuously"

that

further

which

to

ability

state
from

or

releprocdreama poststate
psycho-

76
dream

consciousness.
for

(except

the

to

cult
dreams

are

different
does

species

appearance
the

is

way,

even

not

cases,

but

dreams),
betweEn

is

this
is

and

the

the

there

but

this

all

the

is

is

convey

of

by
And

notion
deep

some

occurrence

of

vacillation
by

intru-

the

fully

asleep,

onset

or

the

the

hypnagogic

of

to

make

opposed

in

it

tiredness

state

is

Vihvelin's

It

and

Sartre

of

would

Vihvelin's

to

stage
it

that
to

to

argue

Vihvelin's

of
'come

for

paralysis

constantly

a subject's

true

employed

(1973),

self-induced

is

that

properly

and

the

characterize

reports

unwillingness

observation
'fatigue'
and

voluntary

to

to

this

at

opposed

as

the

quantitative

respect

taken

those

of

most

state

term

to

be

surely

hypnagogic

addition,
in

to

against

the

'fatigue'

means,

(1933)

Leroy

This

use

any

levelled
by

of

reports

down

lies

generalization.

relaxation

a deepening

the

As

mark,

in

nor
be

would

whether

of

autosuggestion.

ability

(which

one

characterized

doubtful

Both
of

many

cases.
the

it'.

dis-

the

if

sleep

or

argument

cannot,

occurs

talk

of

awake

a misleading

are

it

feeling

Vihvelin

and

state

arbitrary:
fully

stage

stage

that

ending

the

In
psychic
processes.
"increasing
fatigue"
term

reduction
first

and
being

with

situation

of

of

diffi-

very

their

characterized

pre-sleep

A similar

pre-hypnagogic

of

simply

neither
in

then

state.

use

those

dream-absences.

But

is

is

to

for

one,

sleep

and

to

condition,

intermediate

wakefulness

of

sleep

of

a sufficient

an

processes,

Moreover,

as

state

a necessary

in

intro-

experiences

opposed

consciousness

not

the

it

genus.

same

hypnagogic

the

of

the

and
identical

not

as

geni

of

the

see

not

sion

distinct

two

reduction

hypnagogic

that

view

the

psychological

dreaming,

during

the

sustain

if

similar

operating

as

reported

in

the

of

of

view

processes

changes

very

in

and

us

disappearance

entire

situation")

being

latter

the

"the

of

qualitative

of

he does not tell


since
by "dream
consciousness"

psychological

quantitative

duction

he

mark

of

consciousness

by

he means

what

explicitly

of

But,

out

instance,
and

both

against
in
positing
retaining

movements.
pure

hypnagogium

numerous

the

77
have

reaearchers
hypnagogia.

Indeed,

hypnagogic

if

it

is

range

of

phenomena

applied
wide

it

or

hypnagogia

for

argued

state
to

understood
it

alpha,

only

be

covering

from

in

from

to

consciousness
The first

and

an early

suggested
chapter

5 we saw

cators,

divided
fifth

(the

who,

on

hallucinations
in

included,

by

Trosman

(1966),

ego

functions,

the

intact

turalized
middle,
remarked

ego

late

and

may be

rhythms,

(this
in

theta

Trosman

are

three

which

stage
he

is

totally

and
terms

his

the

be

the

early,
too,
state

deepest

stage

consciousness

over

unable

restruc-

pp. l-2),
the

of

stages:

preferred,

of

inci-

and

and

and

experience
fact,
in
may,

were

progressive

in

surroundings

p. 388)

in

state

experience
stages:

(p. 41).

Foulkes,

(1976,

Oliver
personal

hypnagogic

which

Vogel,

three

classidivision

of

destructuralized,
as

proper).

rhythms,

hypnagogic

own
his

sleep

states

sleep.

or,

stages

some
(1973,
Stoyva

alpha

the

EEG indi-

dreaming

a dreamlike

with

no -Control
stage

there

into

In

five

instead

stage

the

(1921)

a four-stage

third

it

hypnagogic

a three-stage

offered

stages.

his

that

double-

and

using

to

attempted

EEG patterns,

stage,

as

stage.

into

state

of

stage,

just

grounds,

(1938),

al

states",

divided

there
showed that
he is unaware
of
filled

the

viewing

ego

pat-

Arnold-Forster

belonging

2 "spindling"

Stage

pient

in

terms

indexed

mainly

fact,

sometimes
"twilight

term

the

Under

et

(1969)

that

out

pointing

wave

is

the

hypnagogic

(1966)

Gastaut

fication.

slow

to

point

hypnagogic

Liberson

and

(14-21cps)

and Vogel

phenomenological

Davis

in

beta

even

Foulkes

were

a late

and

stage,

Liberson

to
stages

the

theta,

patterns,

to

patterns,

dreams.

of

that

alpha

state
dissociations

investigators

consisting
(1925)
Leaning

Electro-

hypnagogic

slight

complete

as

state

a reasonably

characteristic

the

ranging

segmented

the

more

Experientially,

terns.

is

the

justifiably

intact

alpha-theta

and delta
activity,
spindling
(Dement and Kleitman
1957,
activity
sprinkled

concept

features.

l4cps

1965)

segmented

the
be

can

ranges

mixed

that

cognitive

and

more

and

appear

would

encephalographically,
interrupted

a wider

which

subdivided
to

'pull'

he

has
into

himself

78
back,

in

that

and

contact

re-establish
is

he

stage
make

reports

the

retains

still
his

with
unaware

still

verbal

he

which

in

surroundings),
his

of

surroundings

he

although

his

middle
cannot

imaginal

experience,

in

he

Other
and can report.
of his
surroundings
have pointed
to hypnagogia
as consisting
of

is

aware
who

workers

(1929),

transpire

would

evidence

empirical

and

hypnagogic
or

state
to

early
if

research
lated

efforts

these

modify
In

lead

stages.

Indeed,

induce

into

sleep

take

iences

of

be pegged

Hypnagogic

ents.
terms

of
The

place.

opposite
both
In

between

of

the

hypnagogic

"action

in
and

on
lie

how

and

far,

also

employed
of

expera whole

as
stages

mental

to
in

be

classified

respect,
mode"

("making

it"

the

on

takes

understood
to

resoect

components.
(1971)

the

compon-

experience

'activity'

Deikman

might

that

mind

deep,

or

the

when
is

be

thus

would

to

also

factor

the

its

bearing

suffi-

terms

state

physiological

'relaxation'

a similar

be

hypnagogic

all

continuum

tension

be

to

and

1923;

Kleitman

relaxation,

components

these

1912;

might
in
hypnagogia

increasing

depending

term
of

but

experiences

stage

these

continuum

state

the

comprises

relaxation

hypnagogic

a background,

this

against

is

appears

Since

place.

alone

define

to

test

evidence.

new

dimension

this

physio-

then

and

of

corre-

group

relaxation

(Coriat

relaxation
as

a continuum

the

facilitate

and

stages

light

the

that

1942)

trying

which,

against

or

to

Morgan

and

in

the

fact

only

fruitfully

in

the

of

straight

Lovell

in

it

better

and
tentatively

three

still

clearly

subdivisions,

consciousness,

into

groupings

view
not

cient

term

of

observations,

to

a segmented

hypnagogium

is

it

evidence
made

states

phenomena,

logical

is

were

of

pure

precise

with

considerations

viewing

Although

(1959).

Laird,

and

Vihvelin's

very

line

in

the

state.

Critchley

theoretical

that

against
for

argue

be more

would

as

Laird

support

hypnagogic

proper

too

then

Mayer-

(1937),

Niyagi

(1956),

Linschoten

wakefulness

(1927,1930),

Angyal

(1931),

to

nearest

stage

include

Bizette

(1954,1955),
It

the

stages

successive
Gross

lightest

the

and

review

can

to

ability

distinguished
happen)

and

as
any

79
"receptive
"the

for

employed
for

is

kind

the

of

single
altered

states

EEG feedback

theta
ment

hypnagogia

of
different

is

goal"

discussed

shall

address

myself

remark,

namely,

the

hypnagogia.
of

sensory
is

ponent
of

This

the

more

hallucinatory

the

world
in

the

activity

by

here

of
the

effects

physical

com-

or

forms

most,

instructively,

the

hypnagogia
the

of
West

Deikman's

to

any,

of

pursuit

aspect

of

context

employ-

paper;
of

More
view

proposed

this

passing

in

environment.

general

in

external

engaging

with

characteristic

part
in

attaining

The

withdrawal

related

'non-striving'

or
in

from
the

with

or

where

prevented

activity

seen

be

can

integral

first

the

retreat

deprivation

'receptive'
be

to

an

it'

associated

imagery".

later

goal"
"'letting

in

consciousness

of

mode" as
"engaging

for

factor

be

strategy

that

noted

hypnagogic

and

"receptive

the

of

p. 12)

of

can

a different

of

important

most

it

a different

pursuit

(1976,

ignoring

although

is

but

in

world

Oliver

the

it

from

that

remarking

'regressive'

purpose

the

p. 483).

happen

that

engaging

(ib.,

not

a retreat

or

world,

happen)

it"

is

mode

receptive

the

("letting

mode"

can
for

conditions

(1962,1968)

and

(1973).

Stoyva

West's

(1962)

"perceptual

a hallucination

that
postulates
cinations"
following
two conditions
the

sufficient

to

may be

impaired

depatterning
load

or

and

(iii)

input,

sensory

effective

permit
in
(e. g.

"jamming

and

ways:

sensory

the

decreased

psychological

(e. g.

input

sensory
decrease
(ii)

high

of

arousal

absolute

deprivation),

circuits"

when

appears
impairment

Effective
(i)

hallu-

of

(a)
prevail:
(b) a level
of

awareness.
three

theory

release

or

input

over-

excitement),

the

with
contact
of dissociative

the unusual
ment through
exercise
isms.
West's
theory
rests
on the assumptions
leave permanent
iences
traces
and that
neural

environmechan-

that

exper-

the

personfield
as "a dynamic
exercises
an inteality
of force"
influence
The
on these patterns.
and organizing
grating
for instance,
influence
becomes impaired,
organizing
when

input
is
sensory
"when
p. 268) argued,
the

reduced.
considerably
information
the usual

As West
input

level

(1968,

80
longer

no
the

perceptual

in

familiar

new

or

hallucination

was

as

such
consciousness
dreaming.
hypnagogia,
Lipps'

ence
be

disinhibited,

by

affective

stressing
(1973,

twilight

the

important

reduce

internal

must

be

(3)

there

a shift

it

are

to

a condition

first

although

hypnagogic

state.

contact

for

even

to
to

when

is

that,

It

of

those

input

of

but

to

(2)

there

as well",

and

volition',
to

para-

whole

the

doubt,

in

the

state

are

may be

only

degree

early
that

be

obtained

stage

of

full

obtainable

predominance,

were
from

not

although

is

the

"passive

psycholost.

postu-

Vihvelin
of

is

it

the

argued

waking

collected
in

a stage
the

is

case

hypnagogic

hallucinations
during

only

stages,

all

above

data

the

of

a transitional

of

his

not

totally

of

a certain
and

is

when

stage
being

part

any

postulate

consisting

would

appear

production

As we saw

present,

no

the

application

which

to

instance,

first

above

hypnagogic

the

for

hypnagogia

state.
in

of

applicable

to

the

of

all

hypnagogic

the

would

parasympathetic

the

a state

for

was

obvious

not

environment

hallucinations

more

that

not

late

with

argue
of

all

full

hypnagogic

or

experiences

sympathetic

West's

the
the

a hypnagogium

state.

to

'passive

postulate,

being

is,

that

consciousness
from hypnagogia
which

input

can

induction

external

of

are

Also,

here

problem

difficult
lates

only

conducive,

in

effective

state,

hallucinatory

to

them

of

necessary,

The

of

it

suggestion

the

on

postulates

observed

applicable

Stoyva's

logical

or

more

from

a shift
be

some

and

fully

stress

proprioceptive

will

postulates

of

with

not

has

predominance.

Now,

it.

tendency).

or
be

must

sympathetic

state,

reduce

states

inhibited;

is

expectancy

production
to

but

the

three

adds

"In

is

it

of

p. 404),

states,
(1)

by

altered

representation

every

a sensation

however,

Stoyva

West:

become

to

a tendency

that

to

hypnosis,
meditation,
p. 374) makes refer-

(1948,

Vihvelin

proposing

of

Yoga

and

the

condition

a number

Zen

as

of

to

by

that

noted

a predisposing

shared

emergence,
re-experienced

and

(West

combinations".

input

sensory

reduced

their

'released'

may be

traces

inhibit

to

completely

suffices

in
its

late

volition"

the
stage

81
("receptive

the

environment

with

contact
the

mode"),

and
the

of

experiences

decreased

a greatly
are

fully

and

middle

early

psychological

present,

that

and

stages

"quasi-

are

hallucinatory'.
indicates

This
are

that
to

applicable

the

hypnagogic

deepening

continuum

that

as

of

place,

predominance
("passive
lets
go
the

with
in
its

stages

the

hypnagogic

Bearing

in

make

fact

the

and

"active

the

between

end

tact

with

dreams

the

of

is

awareness
and floating
(1937)
noted

an

were

in

alpha

(159

out

of

prior

to

the

1973,

them
to

early

and

they

or

external
drifting

165)

are

the

alpha

p. 394,

body

or
and

in

chapter

the

physical

Davis

is

(there

schema

is

7).

still

distortions
et

subjects
was

rhythm

floating
Oliver

their

but

present,

there

reported.

by

and

relaxed

appearance

mentally

in

interrupted

drifting

is

when

reality,

experience

EEG:

totally

discussed

but

relax-

involvement

ego

is

hypnagogia,

middle

this

the

their

are

total

of

hallucinations

'activity'
make

exper-

of

component

mental

mental

conpsychological
hypnagogic
mid-late

withdrawal

considerable
of

by

relaxation

and

end

full

In

of

hypnagogic

extreme

which

interesting.

and

physical

identify

the

in

mode"

varied

up of

although

interchanges

of

nature

characterized

phenomena
of

so

we have

physical

degree

relaxation

Stoyva

at

contact

"receptive

the

to

environment).

"autosymbolic"

the

made

dynamic,

hallucination,

a range

progressive

is

his

relaxation,

full

to

and

testing:

the

a certain

In

the

Thus,

reality

a variety

affords

hypnagogic),

when

stage,

it

it

stage.

(hypnagogic
of

lead

he

mentally
of

Thus,

experiences

that

(late

loss

may

we may attempt

components,
by
iences
ation

it

mode"

mind

relaxes

psychological

decreases.

environment

earlier

his

i. e.

ever

parasympathetic

functioning)

volition"

deepest

its

he

as

an

saying

'relaxation':

to

a shift

and

attitude,

effort

by

mental

and

physical

in

applied
from

characterized

physically

takes

mental

is

state

be

must

different

not

that

postulates

above

state

is

which

relaxes

a person

the

of

hypnagogic

the

manner

a progressive

those

al
they

while

practically

always

a depression

(1.5

to

experience

(see

also

1976,

pp. l-2).

Lights,

40secs)

82
flashes

and
(see

spots,
gogia

to

A hypnagogic
much

very

hypnagogic

to
this)

on

hypna-

early
appear

and

as

the

relax.
report

the

to

belong

1925

Leaning

also

begins

subject

to

seem

point

by

recorded
here

as

it

(1978)

Horowitz

shows

is

the

clearly

progression:

find
I
drift
to
I
Customarily
sleep
a
off
as
When
I
close
of
visual
experiences.
succession
lightens
it
darkness
but
to
then
I
see
my eyes
lights
Next
I see colored
and sometimes
gray.
dance,
forms
that
rotate,
geometric
complex
very
Soon a succession
of images
about.
or sparkle
find
before
I
me.
and
scenes
parade
of people
interesting
these
go to sleep
and often
quite
however,
I
them.
At
times,
get vivid
watching
For
hallucinations
me awake.
which
may frighten
I saw a spider
instance,
on
once all
of a sudden
They were ugly
time
a crab.
another
my pillow;

and scary
they were

and caused
real.

me to

(Horowitz
Another
can

be

and

luminosity

more
(e. g.

to

progressive

of

the

visions:

and

colourful

the

Dusen

1972,

related

vivid
van

1978,
aspect

phenomenological

p. 100).

up in

start

pp. 13-14)
of hypnagogia

that

is

vividness

relaxation
these
more

bed thinking

the

appear
subject

the
to

become
relaxes

CHAPTER

CHARACTERISTICS:

COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE

this

In

features

logical
the

attentional

the

induction

delineate

the

hypnagogia

and

attempt

the

subject

chapter
of

shall

state

of

and/or

salient
an

in

hypnagogic

of

of

analysis

involved

when

prolongation

psycho-

imagery.

Suggestibility-receptivity:
(cited

Jastrow
of

hypnagogia
the

which

(1911,
to

most

prevalent,

but

an experimenter,

e. g.

incorporate

accept,

and

exteroceptive
ideas,

1925;

Leaning

Sartre

or

of

in
three

to
Her

them

character
or

(b)

that

successful

were

more

most prevalent,
hypnagogia.
This
susceptagency,
readiness

subject's

(both

perceptual

data

imaginal

elaborate

concepts

auto-suggestibility
1911;
Varendonck

than

susceptible

cases

in

still

(a)

that
can

emotions

intellectual

intellectual

the

while
showed

ideas

less

25% of

of

Indeed,

as
and

1921;

1978).

results

than

year-olds

subject's

"the

(1897)

a depressive

easily
p. 200),

suggestion".

out experiments
with
carried
by waking
the hypnopompic
them up
state
hours
of night
sleep
various
and making

suggestions
state.

the

and

and

in

sleep

possesses
impressions".

the

as

spoke

it

elaborate

Hollingworth

De Manaceine
subjects

and

the

as

1909;

(Alexander

also

associate

is,

that

of

as the subject's
by an external

proprioceptive)

'freely'

as

well

two

sensory
be one of
features

to

to

that

noted

p. 157)

verge

open

be understood
not only
to accept
suggestions

to

ibility
to

simply

appears

suggestibility
if not the
is

peculiarly

p. 110)

magnify

the

upon

state

seems

Hollingworth

1921,

Arnold-Forster

"that

as

mind

tendency

by

to

half-awakened

this

ideas

"all

be

suggested

of

an

ones,

suggestions

and emotional
-83-

than

ones

in

emotions

more
(ib.,

type"
were

and

were

suggestions

and

much

exciting

suggestions

emotional

after

considerably
(c)

that
adults.

successful

45%.

In

children
(In

15in

subjects

84
the

under

15 the

of

age

Emotional

respectively).
anger,

anxiety,

sisted

of

"does

f rm

the

three

not

'intellectual

suggestions'
last

the

repeated

two

phenomenon)

but

affirmative

(e. g.
the

Sometimes
hypnopompic

but

these

they

dreamt

the

state,

the

as

during

of

sense

study

conditions.
Later

causally

baseline

no

the

noted

given

readiness

the

involved
(1939)

and

possibility
in

the

Barber

the

suggestions

an
on
at

points

measures

were
the

regarding

(1957)

both

and
the

of

suggp. 210),

intellectual
the

side",

emotive

seeing
of

snow

an

emotion

down,

out,
taken

and

someafter-

however,
nor

was

experimental
1911;

external
mentation

external
of

was

immediately

rightly

genesis

there

hypnopompic

accelerating

of

suggested

happening,

slowed

hypnagogic

was

cases

suggestion

which

a dream

the

felt

pulse

with
in

However,

element"

(e. g. Hollingworth

incorporated
to

the

subject's

researchers

become

attention

the

At

either

(ib.,

always
they

not

it.

remained

during

it

did

into

remembered

wonder

day.

information

detailed

1921)

they

momentarily,
stopped
(1976)
As Schacter

this

emotive

an

De

morning

to

some

their

sleep.

the

day

the

five").

make

which

in

that

remembered

fright

as

wards.

Rosett

when

to

suggested

suggested

a summer's

times

to

even
they

suggestion

such

always

emotion

"and

the

recollection

contained

namely,

such

the

cases

all

In

event.
on

back

summer

in

after

incorporated

or

based

("echo"

remembered

a hot

an

such

elaboration

estion

in

of

fully

reaction

subjects

during

snowing

e. g.

their

transformed

were

when

"in

the

up

up

woke

mechanically

two

10 of

the
not

clearly

times

cases

they

or

(68%)

was

went

35 such
when

answer

wake

instead

suggestion

cases

dream

but

merely

suggestion

not

In

were

the

three

did

subjects

anything

the

17

when

reported

remember

the

of

".

five?

make

con-

opinions

and

subject

of

words

ones

experiments

the

"Certainly

state

Manaceind

in

only

two

group
when

successful

as

counted

about

judgements

times

fear,

intellectual

The

false

suggesting

97%

included

suggestions

sorrow.

and

85% and

were

responses

stimuli

hypnagogic
suggested

Varendonck
tend

stimuli
and

drew

being
experiences.
that

85
is

hypnagogia

to

susceptible
first

to

to

sound

siness.

More

Weitzman

and

and
Davis

30db)

noise

onset,

sleep

"there

that

conclude

ence

p. 340),

(ib.,

sleep"

by

provided

ence
respect

to

and gradually
sleep
no habituation).
Ornitz

et

receptiveness
in the borderland
who

workers

made

tend

operate

with

work

in

a free

field,

encies"

(quoted

the

sensitivity

(1955).

has

also

Trmner

by

the

p. lfl

mind

impressions

into

the

sleep

hour"

leading

among

to

of

to

McDowell
at

other

who

ideas

and

p. 159).

wrote

a time

such

because

effect

the

abnormally

communication

referred

they
tend-

Reference

hypnagogic

others,

(1933,

of

"special

the

and

rival

of

AER

that

become

of

1921,

Leroy

hour

senses

great

receptivity
by,

first

introduced

by

in

) observations

e. g.

are

inhib-

in

change

sleep

a confirmation

remarks,

Arnold-Forster

(1911),

the

and

unchecked

made

the

in
at

decrease

suggestion

abnormally

been

jerks

(p. 157),

that

and

bodily

wrote

also
to

(1959c)

seq.

to
evid-

Oswald

are

et

influ-

wakefulness

second

findings

similar

to

p. 42),

by

state"

"the

state

wanes

author

that

to

over

inhibitory

supporting

that

is,

that

a special

either

or

noted

around
immediately

investigators

other

and

that

(ambient

spindle,

in

sudden

carry

to

the

of

be

facilitation
also

nearest
latter

This

acute".

of

(1921,
are

we

to

found

period

from

(1932)

(1967)

al's

Arnold-Forster's
"when

point

al

et

"seems

amplitude

and

of

(Ornitz

ition.

transition

occurrence

indicators

as

onset

the

to

the

confirmed

clicks

These
to

Fruhstorfer

amplitudes

a decrease

Lisi

de

60db

sleep

seem

or

with

associated

(1967)

state.

would

influence

facilitatory

al

first

the

hypnagogic

later

the

during

et

10 minute

the

following

and

preceding

1971)

largest

their

during

viz.

al

to

1962;

al

et

drow-

to

wakefulness

al

the

were

responsiveness

1967;

(AERs)

in

of

et

Ornitz

clustered

(1939)

al

et

Fruhstorfer

responses

especially

(Williams

Ornitz

findings.

evoked

averaged

1965;

1969;

al's

et

research

Kremen

et

from

moved

are

increase

EEG an

subject
recent

Bergstrm

Davis

through

the

subjects

which

suggestions.

observe
as

in

a state

p. l),

Taine

(1857,

Critchley

86
(1977,

Budzynski

"are

subjects

state
learning

day,

the

He reports

in

control".
are
(EMG)
myograph

subjects

forehead

muscles

cortical

and
put

terized

by

theta

in

because

that

helped

new material,

cular

the

which

uses

weeks.

Budzynski

sleep.

to

listening

information

by

that

Lozanov
holistic

and

Budzynski
kind

same

state,

arousal
the

ment

of

or

other
fright

the

under

alert

makes

the

mentation
e. g.
end

of

(see

in

"hypnopedia"
days

while

in
which

an

instructor

tempo

of

the

is

It

is

more

West

verbal

during
is
scale,

1962,

her

is

on

claimed

intuitive
than

p. 42).
that

observation

encountered

also

relaxing

longer

retained
(ib.,

interesting

arousal

respect

entails

music.

conditions

the

this

of

who modulates

learning

hypnagogia,

stages

ignoring

while

that

suggests

lighter

the

or

him

to

out

put

quarter

music

in

parti-

told

information

that

colleagues'

is

reference

suggestopedic

and

received

when

at

to

according

voice

by

conveyed

his

subject

method

classical

and

He

subject's

in

makes

quicker.

the

this

"suggestopedic"

Lozanov's

and

also

and

as

material

facilitated

better

is

learning

from

learn

and

several
hypnopedia
is
the

the

absorb

Evidence

sleep.

in

be

biases,

Europe,

known

of

can

over

vie.

expectancy,

he will

that

during

factor

argues

anxieties,

eastern

material

a device

influence

subjects

method

of

important
or

set

awake

to

repetition

"trained

with

own work

from

tutorial

Russian

One

mental

instances

other

cites

further

easier

his

of

have

charac-

prejudices,

languages,

some

evidence

as

they

constricting

blocks,

in

Once

Budzynski

headaches,

as

such

tension

state

are

absent,

or

mental

habits,

bad

resistances,

offers

down

break

to

laxed

electro-

decrease

relaxed

p. 41).

the

state

is

thinking

logical

and

this

an

thus

indefinitely

pattern
(ib.,
Learner"

faculties

reduce

well.

they

painlessly

of

means

and

this

theta

Twilight

called

in

of

analytical

to

as

EEG activity,

the

maintain

trained

arousal

themselves

to

by

biofeedback

through

capable
and

and

that

are

autonomic

learned

to

logical

hypnagogic

the

and

efficiently

more
when

in

that

claims

supersuggestible

things

certain

during

than

p. 39)

low

a very
also

to

e. g.

during

"jamming

the

be

met

with

excitethe

87
Budzynski's

circuits").
hemispheric

lateralization.
is

organism
"the

the

debatable
brought
bral

than

is

linked

with

is

there

to

difficult,

in

systems

two

extremely

Koestler

(1981)

linked

the

ness:
as

fear

anger

is

parasympathetic
as

iences
17

for

which

carry

more

detailed

findings

(e. g.

writers

Accompanying

A rather

symbolism.

Emmons

and
is

the

awareness

of

important

feature

Its

accompaniment

congruent
be

area

two

generbrain

the

of

As

systems
range

are

of

aware-

emotions

such
the

whereas

subtle

emotions
esthetic

awareness

However,

hypothesis

two

very

conditions.

and
of

range

is

such

exper(see chapter

Budzynski's

forward
by
put
1955,1956;
Rubin

earlier
1968)

period

for

most

effective

have

clearly

is

significance:

of

hypnagogia,

and one which

the

awareness
accompanying
with
which seems to equip the subject
i. e. an understanding
of his ihagery,

understanding

1898),

state

these

associ-

arousal

it

by

religious

be

to

a low

and

more

arguments).
the

Moreover,

awareness,

with

a wider

overlooked,

often

significance
its

restrict

emotions

learning.

'sleep'

is

the

characterized

Simon

drowsy

the

that

same

is

linked

supported

the

emotions

wonder,

contemplation,

in

cere-

system

known

how

different

that

two

limbic

and

see

remarked,

that

Strong

physiological

rightly

sympathetic
and

serve

different

quite

with

can

to

highly

as

the

of

predominance:

least,

the

such

are

whereas

parasympathetic
say

opposite

ally

fear

and

arousal

is

hemispheres.

cerebral

anger

sympathetic

with

state

the

like

emotions

strong

brain

level

arousal
it

properly.

lower

the

when

effectively"

either

functioning

of

either

low

very

excitement

fright

the

that

However,

over.

or

is

to

reference

functioning

great

anger

hemispheres

with

ated

by

about

more

are

during

whether

or

stops

takes

non-dominant

in

claim

high

very

hemisphere

dominant

and

His

in

either

is

observation

mystical
psychotic

occurrence

in

hypnagogia

of

creativity
(e. g.
overtones
(e. g.

Hollingworth

of
an

may be

(e. g. Kekule:
van

Dusen
1911).

of
a
Japp

1972),
Although

or

88
the

is

phenomenon

of

type

a particular
feature

frequent
of

feature

occurring

very

reported
is

to

by

reported
and

(1911),

first

subsequently

by

Alexander

in
Dusen

its

appearance

the

mental

set

hypnagogia

the

and

the

of

German

(1934,

Kollaritz

form
both

subject

first

Hollingworth

it

depend

takes
to

prior

(1965)

during

and

two
when the following
drowsiness,
and (b) an effort
phenomenon made its
appearance,

an autosymbolic
"an hallucinatory

is,

'autosymbolically',

experience

as it
felt)

which

forth

puts

were,

an adequate
instant"
a given

latter

the

an active

is the
and "it
that
elicits...
(1965),

Vogel
this

is,

that

the

considers
types

hypnagogic
The

first

menon",

"an

from

Speaking

of

not

consists

the

obtain
felt

phenomenon
the

which
of

may
he

second

be

calls
"autosymbolic

condito
subject
will,

elements
Foulkes
the

absence

the

of
for

its

contwo
occurrence"

think".
Silberer

perspective

"regressive".

phenomenon

two

subjects,

necessary
to

effort

to

out

their

of

a psychoanalytic

experience
type,

pointed

reports

Silberer

which

conditions
(p. 242),

"did

they

that

the

antagonistic

phenomenon".

specifically

in

phenomenon

ceded

three

who

two

p. 196).

by the

one manipulatable

struggle
of these
the 'autosymbolic

for

symbol
(ib.,

(or
what is thought
at
hypnagogic
All
autosymbolic
phenomena,
according
Silberer,
are the result
of the above-mentioned
being a passive
the former
tions,
condition
not

of

on

that

observed
(a)
present:

were

conditions
to think,

and

that

suggest

itself.

Silberer

will,

(1967a),

Rapaport

observations

particular

it

when

in

(1948),

My own

not

a defining

(1909),

Vihvelin

(1972,1975).

van

that

1948),

Vihvelin

i. e,

published

(1933),

Leroy

commonly

is

phenomenon

(1965;

(1924),

It

however,

"autosymbolic"

the

a more

general.

is,

It

a more

examination

be

to

cases,

Silberer

Slight

cited

in

spontaneous

appear.

of

characteristic
1909)

in

often

expected

not

hypnagogia

of

as

careful

it

shows

a feature

as

(and

vision

dreams),

nocturnal

literature

the

(1948)

Vihvelin

hypnagogic

of

of

in

reports

by

reported

He distinguishes

pointing

out

a mixture

of

"Material

that
two

or
(content)

representations

often

all

three.
pheno-

of

89
thought

dealt
with
of content
groups of ideas,
such as ideas,
instance,
is,

that

contents,

thought

process",
For
judgements.

of drowsiness
as the nature

In a state
topic
such

in

and

I contemplate
an abstract
of transsubjectively

judgements...
The content
(for
people)
valid
all
immddiately
itself
to
thought
me
presents
of my
(for
in the form of a perceptual
apparan instant
(or
big
I
circle
a
see
picture:
real)
ently
in the air
around
with
people
transparent
sphere)
In the
into
the circle...
it whose heads reach
dream-picture;
is
it
instant
I
that
a
realise
next
had
it,
I
to
that
which
the thought
gave rise
for
forgotten
now comes back and I
a moment,
'autosymbolic'
the
as
an
experience
recognize
phenomenon.

(Silberer
Another

Symbol:

second

type

essay.
(ib.,
p. 202).
The
Silberer
the

sents
it

the

or

menon
has

of

condition

and

consciousness

of

functioning

the

mode

of

not

with

the

the

of
of

his

pheno-

that

consciousness,

content

wood"

repre-

experiencing

his

an

which

phenomenon",

subject

effectiveness

do with

to

the

of

phenomenon,

(effort)

in

passage

a piece

planing

autosymbolic

"Functional

calls

a halting

improve

see myself
of

is

by Silberer

offered
I am to

example
is:
"My thought

p. 198)
the following:

1965,

the

is,

subject's

thought.

Example:
Pursuing
I am thinking
a subsiabout
something.
from my original
I depart
diary
consideration,
to it,
to return
When I attempt
an autotheme.
I
Symbol:
am out
occurs.
phenomenon
symbolic
The mountains
me conceal
near
climbing.
mountain
I came and to which
the farther
ones from which
I want to return.
(Silberer
The

third

type

he

reflects

"somatic

internal

sensations,
external

ature,
chemical,
Thus

the

logical
rheumatic

optical,
somatic
sources,
pains,

"Somatic

calls

of

conditions

1965,

any

kind:

external
tension,

sensations,...
and position
pain
(ib.,
stimulations
and other
phenomenon
such

as

palpitations,

may arise

pressure

it

and

phenomenon"

as pressure,

such

p. 204)

from

various

of

a blanket,

smells,

apnoea,

or
temper",
p. 200-201).
physioitching,
a breeze

90
instance:

For
and so on.
one's cheek,
my chest
expands.
a deep breath,
high".
a table
of someone, I lift

touching
take
help

My blanket

so heavily

rests

"I

Symbol:

With

Another

the

example:

my toes

on one of

it
Symbol:
The top of a
that
makes me nervous.
decorated
the
canopied
scrapes
against
carriage
hits
her hat against
branches
A lady
of trees.
Symbol-source:
I
the top of her compartment.
day.
had attended
that
The high
a flower
parade
decorations
to the
often
reached
of the carriage
branches
of the trees.

(Silberer
"somatic

The

kinds

two

other

in

vant

'will'

at
in

parade

should

be noted,

the

symbol

is,

Silberer

but

is

he

is

the

in

still

tion

its

connection
as he grew

of

a system

waggons
line

in

between

and

were
the

and
and

of

running",
other

one
from

top

symbols
the

of

It

experiences.
in

three

all

interpretation

of

itself,

that
him

to

conveys

either

fades

imagery

the

1948,

which

is

in

respect

away

this

identical
to

to
the

and

which
left

to

bottom

a
and

thinking

appeared

from

find

schizophrenia

"the

imagery

the

Kollaritz

to

tried

condi-

and

symbolism.

he

state

pp. 376-77)

symbolism,

rising

along

co-ordinates

example
that

sleepier,

visual

the

state.

cyclophrenia

sleepier

for

Vihvelin

of

drowsy

the

the

as

phenomenon"
the

full

material

recent

experience

interpretation

entirely"

ceased

by

cited

appearance,

accompanying
how
recounts

wake-

hypnagogic

the

(1934,

into

phenomenon

or

when

oneself

imagery

the

asleep

but

the

the

latter

asleep"),

from

experience

Silberer's
of

during

drow-

falling

in

phenomena

rele-

not
feelings":

these

falling

reference,

what

a hypnagogic
"material

reports

later

the

against
or

of

the
(as

mostly

given

Kollaritz

that

taken

for

knows

having

force

is

think"

sensations

with

autosymbolic

of

while

resist

not

from

struggle

should

is

above)

the

production

noted

phenomena

flower

kinds

"in

different
to

the

must

Silberer

these

"effort

by

one

time

same

fulness.

the

("interference

drowsy
the

somewhat

replaced
for

that

are

and

is

needed

is

phenomena

that

genesis,

is

that

very

in

their
the

siness
all

phenomena"

p. 206)

1965,

to

process
in

the

"two

small

right

on

along

how,

the

form
freight

the

sinus-

tangent-line.

91
The

had

waggons

"but

know

to

psychosis,
and

schizophrenia,

the

both

of

course

his

in

subjects

vision.
appears,

seen

go out.

the

is

experiences

of

waves

which

of

the

vision

of

to

a door

of

this

stops

over

someone

he,

of

absence
to
to

may point

fall
the

function'

logical,
Two

out

points

desire

nitive

the

experiences,

symbolic
the

if

itself,

eyes
the

which
a struggle
asleep.

hypnagogic
which

is

offers

include

personal

during

to

by

the

aware
mind

hallucination

Importantly,
having

of
"somatic

not

between

be

to
argued

having
from

Maury's
auto-

phenomena",

trying

will

its

that

think
later,
own

of

and

the

'cogwaking,

thinking.
of

my own

hypnagogic

experiences

get

Maury

probably

was

possibility

state's

and

trying

A remark

close".

image

the

together

too,

hypna-

the

bring

soon as
hypnagogic

distinct

(1967a),

frantically

This,

crossed

pp. 44-47)

"As

are

has

of

to

to

seems

emergence

closing.

that

suggests

he

fact

the

awake

who was

slowly

effort,

Rapaport

sudden
trying

its

the

that

remain

the

presents
he

he

if,

that

subjects.

to

soon"
that

some

by

on

mental

reports

that

relieved
(1933,
Leroy

them

go out

which

is

he was

to

the

shoes

put

problem

feeling

by

in

the

after

He writes:
phenomenon.
a corresponding
on an idea,

observation

the

some

of

accompanying

must

have

phenomena

was

which

p. 451)

produces

in

he

attempt

two

(1878,

back

reports

the

pp. 276-7)

a bridge

describes

state,

meant

empty

before

recovered

reports

his

on

reporting
gogic

is

completed.

and

one's

one

will

one

state,

autosymbolic

of

number

ahead

of

to

that

(1924,

but

difficulty

tangent-line)

symbolism

of

shortly

looks

and

the

According

hypnagogic

crossed

manic-

an accompanying

clearly

vision

signify

of

the

a number

of

that

image

to

movements

is

Connection:

a memory

may have

crossing

to

reports,

diseases".

there

Slight

the

solution

after

their

above.

present

or

have

that

"A

is

p. 377).
in

(along

significance

from

was

while

second

presents

which

this

awareness,

(ib.,

the

instance:

For

content

corresponded

these

the

of

awareness

and

one

(1948)

Vihvelin

Kollaritz

whatever,

first

the

that

depressive

label

no

may be

included

92
here.

first

The

type

belongs

the

whereas

to

half-asleep.

shut
being

fully

of

bigger

than

myself

to

place

it

on

its

manage

to

do

it

view

all
to

stone

the

top

surroundings

before

another

of

hands
I

to

manage

just

below

stop

it

the

in

during

fill

in

how

and

hypnagogic

coming

vision

up with

earth.

reflect

to

its

of

myself

(about
As

6"
I

off

it

until
fact,

get

to

of
tip

trying

this

over

to

imagery
that

realize

picture-form

of

maintaining

second

waking
began

experience
in

weakness
it.

6")

my

In

end

my beha-

Suddenly,
on

the

had

ground

which

was

that

realised

doing

was

rolls

cone.

squatting

to

all

on

of

the

of

start

the

in

The

if

over

sort

round

a particular
best
conceal

could

a hole

but

difficulties

about

of

the

that

round

with

then

tip

going

roll

along

of

trying

a clear

big

exactly

side

hill

a glimpse
to

and

hypnagogia.

get

the

have

the

a stone

is

the

a representation

the

about

my thinking

front

is

to

go

As

away.
is

vision

awareness

the

rolling

to
keep

then

experience

my thoughts

viour

it

roll

away

another

get

and

from

whole

with

rolling

to

it

the

while

it

to

it

to

able

never

have

from

manage

never

It

have

shaped

begins

stone

of

around

behind

time

cone.

but

stop

be

manage

the

the

time

this

again
I

only

completely,

then

eyes

conically
idea

with

difficulties

rolling

The

every

with

state.

myself)

will

but

bed

the

hypnagogic

tip.

But

in
of

up a small

round.

side

Lying

feel,

phenomenon"

"functional"

mainly

it:

the

(I

a man

"material

the

am thinking

in

awake

picture

is

second

'intuition'

an added

to

trying

to
that

fill

up the hole I was, in fact,


making another
hole next to it as I dug to get the earth
I needed to fill
hole.
Then I sort
up the first
of had a flash
of underin which I realized
that
there
standing
was no way of really covering
how I
up any weakness and that
no matter
order

glossed
it.

to

over

it

the

An interesting
and
in

emphasized
hypnagogia

concerned,

by

is,

Slight

by

made

(1924)

specific
they

that

remained

observation

carry
that

fact

is

not

knew about

Silberer

(1965)

that

meanings
are

I myself

static

symbols
for

the
universal

appearing
individual
symbols

93
instance,
For
and
specific
ones.
on one
particular
is considering
how one of the characSilberer
occasion
in a scene of a play he is writing
ters
He
should
act.
becomes drowsy as he thinks
problem
about this
and experbut

following:

the

iences

The arrival
I am peeling
of this
an apple.
symbol
interests
I am thinking
me and wakes me up.
of the
its
So I
explain
significance.
apple and cannot
trend
try to pick up my original
of thought
I continue
the scene.
Lo and behold,
concerning
The meaning of this
where I left
off.
peeling
becomes clear.
To understand
suddenly
peeling

it one must know the symbol-basis.


In peeling
in
I sometimes
try
to get the peel
off
apples
but rather
not
serpentine,
spiral
one continuous,
lose
I succeed
if
the conI don't
only
strip.
instance
In this
there
at the curvature.
nection
between
the first
curvature
a
and the second
was
(as the changed
of peeling
position
of the
step
hand
in
The symbol
thus
my
clearly
showed).
apple
link
to secure
my effort
a connecting
represents
to break.
threatens
which

(Silberer
This

by

out

for

dependent
the

present
dream whereas
be

would

the

of

vision

symbol
ding
to

a candle
and
to illustrate
example
known

case

biting
to

interpretation,

to

the

argument

hypnagogic
which

was

system
its

of

not

of
but

symbol,

a sexual

solution

in

else

this

predetermined

in

symbol

nothing

any

of

processes

tail,

of

are

a phallic

own

awareness

Kekule

thought

their

as

they

Kekule's

of

e. g.

accompanying

spelled

which

may be

is

according
the

the

pointed

"so-called

that

argued

on

p. 205)

explicitly

more

structures

a candle

it

well

snakes

interpreted

fast

and

thus

A good

another".

who

formation

their
and

one

p. 281)

hard

not

are

was

symbolism

(1924,

Slight

symbols

accor-

significance
the benzene

mole-

puzzle.

cule

Slight
gone
most
of

of

subjectivity

1965,

made

where
awake
symbol,

which
observation
hypnagogia
that
namely,

practically

unnoticed,

appropriate

state

in

which

opposed

to

the

as

symbols,
the

interpretation

and

"an

and

image

associations

takes
is

has

important

another

detached
are

to

out

carry

psychoanalytic
place
from
secured

to

the

interpretation
approach

when
the

is

one
dream,

interpret

is

fully
a

called
it

on

94
the

much
the

same principle

is

that
(ib.,

if

as

the

p. 280).

made

symbol

imagery

hypnagogic

is

person

Silberer's

the

out

that

example

the

real

the

with

language
were

equal"

interpretations

when

are
the

experiencing

case,

any

find

to

English

object

still

either

in

or,

in

and

a dictionary

up

word

He points

the

while

(see

a foreign

of

equivalent

we look

as

in

still

peeling

hypnagogia
the

of

apple),

faculties
in abeyance,
the critical
are largely
the thought
processes
of the nature
are still
itself,
thinking,
of undirected
as in the dream
and without
and the dream thoughts
are detailed
In dddition,
or other
elaboration
alteration.
the dream thoughts
are still
as it
were echoing
in the mind and the affective
is unaltered,
state
is the
the whole
so that
subjective
state
same
the same as that
which
or practically
exists
during
the dream - which
state
can never
again
be fully
The interpretation
achieved.
obtained
las
that
note
of reality
and surety
which
a true
self-knowledge
alone
can give.
and real

(Slight
Moreover,

what

always,

or

individual
but

often

time

of

significance

(as

in

the

one

pointed

of

the

to

pay

with

questions

lies

in

subject

to

'talking

to

p. 132)

pointed

to

ledges

the

Furthermore,
balancing

learning
relax

to
enough

it

of
into

existence
van

oneself
maintain

the
the

while

by

that

continue

means

of

gently

prodding

the

on

(1972,

difficulty

The

(1953-79,

only
to

balance
observe

of

the

requires
the

9,

the

part

ego
discussion".
the

sleeping
the

i,

unconscious

the

notes,

and

it

or

one's
when

p. 99)

waking

part

vol.

allowing

a form
here

'associating'

of

a partner

to

until

into

in

between

a puzzle

and

enters

form

Dusen

present,

and

As Jung

of

the

of

it

meaning.

this

always

remains

to
respect
"becomes
possible

out

to

not

willingness

oneself'.

as

only,
the

at

awareness

is

to

its

about

this

emerge,

for

acquire

after

earlier,

attention
with

enter

or

soon

imagery

cases

degree

the

out

symbolism

of

majority

very

not

apple-peeling)

have

they
or

have

normally

Silberer's

of

is

are

hypnagogia.

as

'conversation'

of

of

in

still

begins

case

appearance

significance
in

the

p. 280)
they

what

they

significance

their

person
However,

symbols

the

the

is

the

makes

1924,

acknow-

process
and

"to
ability
hypnogogic
without

95
it

blocking

by

When

happens

this

becomes

gogia

feature

symbolic
licht

geometric
tical

Dusen

languid

the

of

mena
sounds
the

the

moment

further

it

came
(ib.,

qualities"

saw

uries
it

For

or

ferns

a feeling
for

Van

the

of

(ib.,

centuries"
Dusen

hierarchy

of

levels

the

phenoof
"At

of

its

sound

end

of

more

elicit

the

asked

and

Dusen

hypna-

meaninghypnagogic

circumstances...
for

a gorge
I
of

came

cent-

out

knowing

of

one

p. 103).

that

suggests

in

background

other

pleasure

great

to

van

the

jobs

analy-

growing

autosymbolic.

the

of

seeing

combinations

once

change

eigen-

peaceful

applies

may

"I

instance:

should

by

had
that
worn down through
river
a
'Wear down like
a river'.
and heard

with

place

not

a very

arrangement

method

the
The

awareness",

Towards

rather

designs",

represent

the

p. 102).

responses.

whether

to

seems
from by

images

fern-leaf

be

in

explodes

'conversation'

the

gogia,

"it

notes,

feelings

ful

name

of

the

same

also

be

auto-

from

peculiar

may

to

may represent

suggested
The

the

appears
This

way

own

modality:
names

it

go with

p. 97).

auditory
strange

or

to

feeling

(ib.,

areas"

"My

hypna-

seems
bits

brain,

the

appear".

into

hypnagogia.

of

instance,

"seem

the

state,

shaded

layers

subject.

remarks,

"it

the

all

is

can

runs

pp. 100-101).

stretch
for

the

of

mind

van

may

first

the

it

of

examination

(ib.,

patterns,

it

notes,
of

closer

deepest

the

to

absent,
nature

further

autosymbolic"

clearly

clearly

one

firings

Upon

phrases...

is

ego
"When

random

of

Very

ego.

autosymbolic

Dusen

van

a lot

and

the

obvious.

hypnogogic",
just

of

Where

ego.

of

antithesis

an excess

roughly

hypnagogia
as

may consist

of

follows:

(b) experbits
(a) random
of images
and phrases:
that
iences
or
autosymbolic
are pretty
clearly
at the moment;
of one's
state
representative
(c) hypnogogic
that
experiences
are instructive,
the
the possibility
including
of questioning
(d)
hypnogogic
learning
it;
from
and
process
break
into
that
trance-like
periods
experiences
of enlightenment.

(van
In

the

tioner

depths
and

the

of

hypnagogia,

answerer

Dusen

van

become

1972,

Dusen

one

in

notes,
a kind

p. 105)
the
of

quessatori

or

96
enlightenment.
The 'asking'
by

(1943,

Kubie

recovery

of

the

matter

images

the

in

His

to

reports,

as

a child".

in

was
"What

ask

point

Kubie

"the

in

patient

state,

starting

used

his

of
the

emergence

'van Dusen reports,


state,
which
by anyone before
been noticed
is

this

have

to

been

also

hypnagogia

of

data".

the

himself

of

not appear
following:

use

hypnagogic

the

resulted,

One phenomenon
does

his

me? " as

with

This

"vivid

in

have

to

seems

amnesic

in

while

thoughts.
of

p. 176)

repressed

encouraged,
is

technique

locked
into
I find
when nearly
asleep
myself
some
kind
There
of logical
relationship.
may be a fixed
image and I go over
its
form
the logic
within
it
is like
I have the impression
repeatedly.
a
balanced,
logical
perfectly
complex,
very
presentation.
When I awaken
is difficult
it
to remember
though.
I may come out with
some very
paradoxical
it,
its
When, within
logical
statement.
all
relationships
seem perfectly
clear
although
complex
and often
paradoxical.

(van
Van

Dusen

having
the

do with

to

fit

world

However,

the

same

which

night
rational,

similar

p. 103)

who

time

"an

progress

with

seems

what

this

dream

states

sible

mechanical

from

or

time

cosmic

devices
involved,

and

late

much
riddles

projects

do

highly

development
(p. 109),

familiar

the

solved

When

in

make

logic"

are

are

to

its

of

unerring
as

at

that

noted
able

stage

be

evolved...
all

a chain

fertile

and

impos-

of
and

all

(p. 110).

(1911,

describe

to

frequently

significant".

(1911)

to

he

"seemed

is...

by

noted

wonderfully

desire

stage

"behaves

which

Hollingworth
autosymbolic,

the

at

expansive"

to

plan

whole.

was

that

conception
and

in

things

conclusions

Hollingworth

state
in

it

reasoning
outcomes

original

idea,

unimpeded
that

of

specifically,

hypnagogia

their

perhaps

comprehensive

phenomenon

and

as

see

reported

experiments
the

at

to

a perfect

very

strikingly

More

ution"

or

fantastic

recorded

in

p. 98)

phenomenon

desire

personal

other

(1911,

this

explain

his

each

Hollingworth

and

to

attempts

1972,

Dusen

pp. 106-7)

uses

the

term

"substit-

phenomena encompassing
synaesthetic,
'transformational'
He appears
events.

97
to

synaesthetic

consider

in

taking

term

"sensory

the

would

such

those

as

the

sound

boat

in

thoughts

that

waves

he was

which

foreign

salesman,

example

in

sensory

washing

first

that

his

tossings

into

the

combination

example

in

which

sides

of

the

role

of

the

assumed

those

what
phenomena,

the

against

travelling

and

modality.

incorporative

his

in

in

occurred

his

in

turnings

and

numbers

imag-

and

he describes

and

which

transformed

another

as

re-statements

perceptual

substitution"

occurred

the

of

or

or

in

place

transformational

call

phenomena

reverberations

of

experiences

Under
I

as

modality

a sensory

ined

is,

that

paraphrastic,

autosymbolic

and

third

bed

his

of

became

gym

locker.
in

Relevant
in

remarks

the

present

connection

with

visions,

gogic

"transcendent

from

these

that

thought-tone

the

in

instinctive

and

the

under

surface

experiences

are

in

the

for

On the

this

shows
state

but

also

all

not
that

their

period"

and

are

which
it

affect
(ib.,

intense"

Leaning

a variety

However,
only

primary

of

of

careful
strong

occurrence

consideror

content
(1965)

the

(1911),
for

argued

hypnagogia.
that

at

Foulkes

or

Vogel

reports

presence

be

their

is

Galton

hypnagogic

of

flatness

Hollingworth

(1969a)
in

occurring

to

affect

the

1948;

lack,

and

hypnagogic

of
of

hand,

other

McKellar

reports

minority

(e. g.

by

Foulkes

hypnagogic

the

of

indications

rare

this

"emotional

controlled".

visual

irrespective

affect

characteristic

that

lies

which

Vihvelin

accompanied

Indeed,

that

out

contain

and

of

morality

investigators

noted

to
may be

and

the

and

of

relation

life

to

1933;

1978)

quality

unconscious

several
Leroy

the

them,

conscious

generally

quality.

aesthetic

"even

the

terrifying".

seeing
the

range

and
"some

hypna-

of

which

have

reaction

Sartre

decrease,

tive

of

1909;

1965;

Vogel

pointed

symbol

however,

Alexander

able

persons

of

of

might

emotional

Interestingly,
1883;

explanation

the

of

a transcription

"hideous

to

they

quality

faces

of

(1925)

Leaning's

are

aesthetic

particular

p. 316)

is

visions

the

beauty"

(1925,

Leaning's

and

in

and

discussion

affecthat
do
is

quite

p. 235).
(1925)

emotions

examination

emotions
is

rare
not

of
in

conducive

98
to

either

induction

the

hypnagogic

instance,

For
bring

the

would

prevent

These

and

with

psychophysical

from

wakefulness

distinct

normal

subjects

strong

emotions

in

an

strong

as

with

connection
leading

a continuum
hypnagogia.

reports

most

"curiosity",

numbness",
"disinterestedness"

accord

6 in

chapter

deepening

ever

emotions,

"relaxed

in

are

being

relaxation

in

naturally

observations

suggestions
into

from

in

nightmares

hypnagogia.

of

Similarly,
an end.
hypnagogia
from occurring

place.

my arguments

prolongation

to

state

first

the

the

or

"interest"

speak

of

or even
hypnagogic

of

accompaniments

As

sheer
visions.

Regressivity:

Nearly

all

'regressive'
for

in

workers
character

instance,

area
hypnagogia.

of

analysing

have

this

his

one of

out the
(1965),

pointed
Silberer

hypnagogic

experiences,

wrote:
My abstract
I was
chain
of thought
was hampered;
too tired
to go on thinking
in that
form;
the
form
picture
perceptual
emerged
as an 'easier'
It
of thought.
afforded
an appreciable
relief,
to the one experienced
comparable
when sitting
down after
It
to
a strenuous
walk.
appears
follow
'picture
that
a corollary
--as
such
thinking'
less
than
the usual
requires
effort
kind.
(Silberer
In

respects

many
the

dreaming

functioning
owing

to

"an

the

in

effort"

between

tinguishing

thinking".

phantasy
thinking

"does

is
not

is

of

been
higher

(1923)

according

"directed

come

to
and

it

It

to
mental

action

Jung,

is

also

of "mental
(1944)
dis-

Jung's
and

"dream

or

the

former

type

exhausting"

quickly

into

theory

and

of

with

influences

thinking"

"troublesome

modes

life".

(1901,1902)

perception,

us;

compatible

early

later

in

is

As McKellar

restraining
of

"this

that

highly

to

allowed

According

tire

thinking".

expression

of

to

of
Rivers

Bergson's

respect

argued

view

experience

with

he

by

have

removal

from

compatible

latter

developed
is

the

this

out

which

derived

of

points

later

theory

which

form

a primitive

p. 45)

(1957,

(1900)

Freud

with

agreement

p. 198)

1965,

leads

whereas
us

away

the
from

99
into

reality
"merely

as

James

phantasies".

thinking

associative"

to

referred
and

latter

the

wrote:

for
Our thought
the great
consists
part
of a series
the other;
one of which
of images,
produces
a sort
dream state
the higher
of passive
of which
animals
leads,
This
capable.
are also
sort
of thinking
to reasonable
conclusions
nevertheless,
of a practical
As a rule,
as well
nature.
as a theoretical
the links
thinking,
of this
of irresponsible
sort
bound together,
which
are accidentally
are empirically
things,
concrete
not abstractions.

(cited
(1957)

McKellar

(Bleuler

"autistic"
by

fantasy

inner

"dereistic",

term

in

kind

this

in

of

dreams,

hood,

to

he

that

as

lose

reflective

lity

to

time

his

exert

was

that

"reminiscing

also

relevant

to

1948;

in

connection

"in

that

this

of

examples
The
been

to

Vihvelin
Dusen

of

1948;
1972;

the

various

Archer

1967).

other
1935;

et'al

thought

in

the

children

remark

condition

typified

in

of
by

hypnagogia
(e. g.

1946,1949;

Froeschels
Foulkes

1972;

domi-

significant

(1911)

investigators

1955;

Critchley
Vogel

of

is

(p. 102).

thinking
quality

vivid-

which

of
is

the

same

It

appear

It

(p. 106),

the

effortful
hypnagogia
and

development

reproduced"

abi-

task".

to

hypnagogia]

the

that

Hollingworth's

e.

to

at

images,

in

thought

Kaplan

magic-childlike
by

1933;

is

found

easiest

thinking

note
[i.

is

the

cognitive
and

state

change

noted

Leroy

van

Werner

childhood

early

the

of

(Werner
this

that

be

began

and

in

out

noted

with
while

p. 41)

carry

to

he

frequency

in

(1966,

mentation,

stages

earliest

child-

early

also

state

logically

increased

to

note

in

together

think

and
Singer

hypnagogic

nates

hypnagogic

the

proved

employed

(1967a)

into

difficult

terms

states.
Rapaport

imagery

apparent

Bleulerian

encountered

workers,

effort

visual

thinking

mentation

to

reality

"egocentric"

self-consciousness

Similarly,

ness.

(1951)

Piaget's

half-sleep

slipped

two

the

uses

(1924)

from,

These

as

(1962)

Bleuler

divorce

or

p. 11)

dominated

Oswald
by

1944.

mentation

thinking

introduced

of

above

is,

Similarly,

mentation.

and

the

Like

that

of,

description

the

1950),

also

similar

very

are

to

disregard

the

convey

hypnagogic

refers

life.

by Jung,

Stoyva

and

Vogel

1973).

has

Maury

1878;

Mintz

1948;

1965;
Mayer-

100
(quoted

Gross
mental

in

waking

is

a "form

of

logic

p. 160)

pp. 102-3)

the

a familiar

visualize
crack'

and

which

if

novel,

(1911,

thing

ition"

bizarre

of
by

stressed

larity

sameness

from

shaken
the

into

turned
base
the

as

p. 24)

who

of

items

chapters

cited
the

and
were

clearly

like

tooth

represented
the

shaking
we shall
of

see
by

mentation
experiencing

in

that

out

to

the

from

both

His
of

and

turn

the

simi-

subject
being

a carpet
it

the

carpet
from

protruding
part

the

of

him

to

seemed

whereupon

played

the

legs

Such

window!
is

made

be

related

painters.

a whole

that

was

which

this

roots

surrealist

naive

these

("Creativity"),

later

as

details,

pointed

image

two

carpet

hypna-

into
may turn
on 'Schizophrenia'

a tooth,
with

and

juxtapositions,

present.

the

con-

in

tendency

he watched

looked

inhib-

(p. 108).

of

a case

As

use

Hypnagogic
a mode

(1949,

a window.

which

constructive
to

last

saw

a molar

person

imagery,

The

more

"the

a sensory

absurd
irrelevant

to

or
(see

here

occurrences

he

carpet

to

rise

predominant"

first

at

give

conceptual
of

become

pp. 42-43)

into
that

and

intellectual

concepts.

identity

suggestibility

reported

to

and

combinations,

two

of

element

items

Often,

that

all

typical

as

related

(1933,

Leroy

of

kind...

Froeschels

or
sameness
'Creativity').

of

attention

between

similarity

'wise-

different

resemblances

verbal

analogies,

confusion

simultaneously

a recent

fuse

practical

following

unusual

gogia:

may

remarked

release

removed,

the

He noted

its

the

unnoticed

ordinarily

p. 109)

"formal,

being

straints

that

is

that

and

(1949,

combinations.

Hollingworth
essential

laws

Forbes

to

may

there

the

recall

belong

by

hypnagogia

impression".

reference,

strange,

in

"one

and

clearly

of

(quoted

present".

state

third

some

frames

unrelated

this

landmark

perhaps

experience,

the

are...

thinking

contradicting

of

in

directed

the

that

totally

that

passivity

Proust

noted

evidence

observed

from

"the

that

remarked

complete

Similarly,

reasoning

and

of

nature

state".

of

p. 375)

state

in

1955,

Critchley

1948,

this

different

the

of

Vihvelin

processes

radically
of

by

appears

functions

at

to

a lower

level

101
of

energy

mentation.
seems
than

Moreover,

the

connected

with

be

to

In

expending.
to

asked

their

turn

in

sit

inwards
might

reported

feeling

"refreshed"

since

expected
part

of

that

reports

both

more

reported

also

who

amount

of

imagery

little

or

none.

deeper

the

state

(1933)

the

hypnagogic

of

features
components

"passive

volition"

In

which

case

the

employed

here

if

Although,
may
its

to

a channel

of

development

justifiably
tation

and

form

primitive

the

of

term
it

of

is

viewed
indeed

be

of

in

in

with

agreement
hypnagogia
The
be

"refreshing"

functions

"regressive"

is

rather

below.

misleadingly

merely

understood

of
or

discussed

be

as

concentration"
to

be

and

relaxation

fact,

"passive

as

"a

hypnagogic

terms,

ontogenetic
"regressive"
called

using

the

definition
of referring
psychoanalytic
belonging
to an earlier
phase
expression

(Dreyer
term,

in

the

p. 244)

1964,
its

with

employed
appears

accompanying

relax-

thinking".
in

usual

the

"absorption"

to

imagery.
initial

seeing

may,

the

initiate

be

to

the

the

thus

and

very

deeper

paralysis.

self-induced

subjects

paper,

emerging

(and

(1978)

Sartre's

those

this

given

seems

were

reported

deepening

ever

This

and

state

and

whether

of

experiences.

the

former

the

soon'noted

who

the

imagery

be

a considerable
in

that,

end

to

was

from

those

profuse

suggest
hypnagogic

cycle

"envigorating"

mentation
in
term

more

the

"envigoration"

subject,

also

self-perpetuating

deepening

the

subjects

introductory

was

experienced
to

and

for

at

this

it

elsewhere

of

may deepen

mentation)

Leroy's

noted

and

emerging

imaginal

opposed

As

my studies

ation,

as

relaxation

hypnagogic
But

having

were

eyes

all

emphatic

more

as

their

integral

an

and

and

rather

"envigorated"

However,

"refreshment"

former

the

receptively

extent

of

subjects

practically

formed

forthcoming

which
close

a certain

experiment.
of

in

and

relaxation

every

energy

watching

emerge,

To

experiment.

in

position,

whatever

each

in

a gaining

a relaxing

attention

functioning

studies

kind

waking,

active,

mere

my own

imagery

of

the

than

requirements

in

pejorative

those

absence

cases
of

it

is

arguable

connotations,
where

tiredness

hypnagogic
either

is
men-

102
deliberately

spontaneously

or

sleep

(as

setting

sleep)

in

or

intentionally
p. 27,

(1977,

which

studies
thinking'

does

which

interpret

Part

(1971)

it

which
two

is

human
that
proposed
"(1)
the receptive
modes:

intake

of

toward

manipulation

the

the

action

environment,
of

mode,

and
the

of

is

recent

more

'primary

process

to
in

Consciousness"
function

beings

in

but

referring

mainly

primarily
toward

mode oriented
(2) the action

mode

(Deikman

environment"

Deikman

a some-

progressive

nor

"Bimodal

on

it

which

As Tappeiner

note
to

return

regressive

paper

in

Two).

take

not

the

into

"regressive""is

out,

points

as neither

Deikman's

In

(see

a pre-

prophesying

setting

other

any

intention".
of organismic
Tappeiner
By "recent
studies"

terms

in

4)

note

leading

religious

produced
term

biased

what

in

or

in

either
and

preceding

experiments,

1977)

(Tappeiner
is

psi

a state

induced,

oriented

1971).

explains,

the striate
and the sympathetic
muscle
system
system
are the dominant
physiological
nervous
The EEG shows beta
waves and baseagencies.
line
is increased.
tension
The principal
muscle
are
manifestations
of this
state
psychological
heightened
logic,
focal
attention,
object-based
boundary
perception,
of formal
and the dominance
the sensory;
and
over
shapes
characteristics
have a preference
meanings
over
and textures.
colours
The action
mode is a state
of striving...

(Deikman
in

By contrast,

the

receptive

1971,

p. 481)

mode,

is the dominant
the sensory-perceptual
system
than
the muscle
rather
and paraagency
system,
functions
to be more prominent.
tend
sympathetic
The EEG tends
toward
and baseline
waves
alpha
is decreased.
tension
Other
attributes
muscle
attending,
of the receptive
mode are diffuse
boundary
decreased
thought
paralogical
processes,
over
of the sensory
perception,
and the dominance
to originate
This
the formal...
appear
mode would
in the infant
state.
and function
maximally
(Deikman

It

is

itself

in
in

reference

to

the

latter

a number

to meditation)
One might

of states
that
Deikman

call

the

direction

(in
(in

1971,

p. 481)

mode as it
this
Tart

case
1969)

regressive

demonstrates
in

reference

stated:
in

the

103
but the actual
developmental
experience
sense,
the psychological
is probably
not within
scope
is a de-automatization
It
occurring
of the child.
its
in an adult
mind,
gains
and the experience
from adult
and functions
now
memories
richness
to a different
mode of consciousness.
subject
(Deikman

modes

process,

to

"the

receptive

for

that

p. 483),

(ib.,
particular

believe

ought
to

of

hypnagogia

the

model,
the

of

not

to

be

flow

from

know

that

activities
on

the

option

of

has

they

to

similar

studies

but

author

may help

us

system

encountered

the

and
into

system

Two.

Part

those
and

as

These
attributes

emotive
are,

in

Deikman's

belonging
those

side

division
the animal
the sympathetic
prepares
for
the stress
of
emergency
reactions
under
hunger,
It
accelerates
pain,
rage
and fear.
increases
blood
the pulse,
provides
pressure,
The
added blood-sugar
of energy.
as a source
does in almost
division
every
parasympathetic
blood
lowers
it
the opposite:
pressure,
respect
the heart,
of bloodexcesses
slows
neutralizes
facilitates
digestion
and the disposal
sugar,
it
the tear
glands
of body wastes,
activates
is generally
calming
and cathartic.

(Koestler

1978,

to

correlated
division.

parasympathetic

which

aspects

aspects
in

of

impli-

certain

perceptual-cognitive

discussed

physiological

goal"

p. 481).

as

the

strategy

appropriate

out

the

be

a different

brought

dichotomized

the

for

of

can

a different

the

generally

organism,

it

by

be

with

ignoring

out

as

the

addresses

the

of

pointed

nervous

part*of

model

Jib.,

the

psycho-

associated

dichotomy

as well
to

sympathetic

is

reality

autonomic

with

but

pursuit

both

states

implications
of

two

he points

although

organismic

understand

adjacent

it

in

world

are

better

in

bimodal

active-receptive

which

of

orientation"
not a 'regressive'

a nature

Deikman's
cations

his

from

dimension

processes
between

style

purpose

the

engaging

the

particular,

cognitive

a retreat

for

employed

similarities

is

mode

or

world

are

"functional

the

itself

primary
In

since

equate

not

p. 483).
the

and

does

and

there

mode

primary

the

(ib.,

although

receptive
the

secondary

theory

that

out

the

with

analytic

(1971)

Deikman

Significantly,

p. 34)

1969b,

p. 293)

We

104
The emotional

features

grouped

different

under
(1978)

Koestler

two

the

of

by

terms
their

summarizes

divisions
different

have

been

authors.

various-descriptions

as

follows:
(1924)
Allport
related
to the parasympathetic,
the sympathetic.
Olds

the pleasurable
emotions
the unpleasant
ones to
(1960)
distinguishes

'positive'
between
and 'negative'
emotive
systems,
by the parasympathetic
respectively
activated
and
in the hypothalamus.
From
centres
sympathetic

different
Hebb (1949)
theoretical
a quite
approach,
that
arrived
also
at the conclusion
a distinction
be made between
two categories
should
of emotion,
'those
in which
is to maintain
the tendency
or
increase
the original
conditions
stimulating
(pleasurable
or integrative
emotions)',
and 'those
in which
the tendency
is to abolish
the
or decrease
(rage,
fear,
disgust)'.
(1966)
Pribram
stimulus
has made a similar
distinction
between'preparatory'
(warding-off)
Hebb
and 'participatory'
emotions.
(1963)
distinguish
between
and Gellhorn
an ergotropic
(energy-consuming)
through
the
operating
system
division
threatening
to ward off
sympathetic
(energy-conserving)
stimuli,
and a trophotropic
through
the parasympathetic
which
system
operates
in response
to peaceful
or attractive
stimuli.
has summarized
Gellhorn
the emotional
effects
of
two different
types
of drugs:
on the one hand the
'pep pills',
such as benzedrine,
and on the other
the tranquillisers,
The
such as chlorpromazine.
former
the sympathetic,
the latter
the
activates
division.
in
When administered
parasympathetic,
doses,
'slight
the tranquillisers
small
cause
in the hypothalamic
balance
to the parashifts
in calm and contentside,
sympathetic
resulting
before
to the state
apparently
ment,
similar
falling
asleep,
whereas
more marked
alterations
lead
to a depressive
The benzedrinemood'.
drugs,
hand,
type
the sympaon the other
activate
division,
in
increased
thetic
cause
aggressiveness
doses
and in man in small
and
animals,
alertness
in larger
doses
euphoria,
over-excitation
and
behaviour.
has summed
Cobb (1950)
Lastly,
manic
form:
'Rage
in a pointed
up the implicit
contrast
is called
the most
the most adrenergic,
and love
(characteristically
cholinergic
parasympathetic)
reaction'.

(Koestler
Koestler
ample
ated
clusive
here.

evidence
by

the
proof
Such

carefully
that

points

out

the

1978,
that,

self-assertive
division,
sympathetic-adrenal
for
proof

the

symmetrical

can

be

forthcoming

pp. 293-4)
"while

there

is

emotions

are

medi-

there

correlation
only

is

no

suggested
when

human

con-

105
outside

emotions

as a worthwhile

ognized
An

interesting

and

pertinent

ing

sections

division

to

this

of
its

occasions,

Koestler

'force

each

other,

argue

that

the

shift

in

one's

to

whereby,

within

the

should

be

It

in

presented
modes is

this

or

an

to

shift

in

the

'paralogically':
their
of

action

it

receptive

see
and

(physical
that

other
mode.

is,

appear
than

be

as

(Liberson

those

19).

chapter

also

concepts
formed

encountered

organismust

have

and
in
it

its
appears

environment

psychological)
be

When

Both

occurrence,

spontaneous

percepts,

an
it

such

as

and

in

present
appears

induced.

ragarded

character-

be

deliberately

mode,

to

evidence

it

as

viewed

acti-

of

the
to

seem

pre-

still

Deikman's

all

mode

can

and

sympa-

from

of

one

significance"

p. 302;

associations
rules

a state

induction

deliberate

which

is

the
is

and

hypnagogia:

biological

1966,

take

as

the

"important

Liberson

to

above,

spontaneously

occurs

mic

the

hypnagogia

whether

state,

from

receptive

also

measure

some

be

may

former

former.

in
the

with

the

sections,

of

spontaneously
it

clear

it

but

the

objects

of,
environment

balance

allowed

shall

self-transcen-

internal

of

limits

predominant

features

istic

is

earlier

of

reinI

subjectification

although

latter

the

dominating,
vity

degree

of

release

Later,

to

images),

of

parasympathetic

lead

and

the

On other

predominating

or

case

on

divisions

act.

only

hero

the

two

'sexual

external

a certain

division

thetic

the

hypnagogic

one's

brought

villain.

with,

in

(including

against

the

may not

identification
events

to

the

the

feature

a typical

out,

a catalyst

in

the

with

follow-

and

as
as

leads

increasingly

hypnagogia

parasympathetic

which

points
in

the

action,

being

as

present

act

identification

aggressiveness

vicarious

into

activity)

parasympathetic

that

p. 295),

the

conditions,

antagonist

(ib.,

Koestler

in

is

certain

self-transcending
(self-transcendence
screen

and

made

paper,

under

may,

by

discussions

the

of

ding

present

observation

triggers

that

object

at

- which

psychology

be recwill
class
of study by experimental
(ib.,
is not the case"
p. 294).

hunger-rage-fear

the

and

according
in

the

images
to

"striving"

a set

and

106
Interestingly,
to

tend

subjects

in

refreshment
bute

and

or

report

hypnagogia,

Deikman

of

a mode

shifts

components

to

component

tendency

for

other

example,

"a

decrease

because

anxiety

he further

in

of

in

the

to

my observation

of

envigoration

or

(ib.,

reduction

there

is

thus,

for

and,

mounting

anxiety
would
This is clearly
above in respect

mode.
vation

and increase

ation

Further,

the

sensory

over

the

features

As

anxiety
sense in

as a conso far as
is relaaction,

by

1948;

Vihvelin

and

the

autosymbolic

is

the

sensory-imaginal,

the

on

same

boundary

Deikman,
draws
the

was

as
attention

deep

(Schultz
in

chapter

sensory

hypnosis

(e. g.

levels
and
(see

in

the

of

relaxation

Part

the

mark

in

that
in

the

presence
it
clear,
its

makes

4.

chapter

of

phenomenon

of

of

the

that

all

Critchley
the

sections

Kleinsorge

itself

where

1979b;

in

pointed

translates

not
imagery,

other

and

pheno1965;

explicitly

cases

occurrence

1959;

Two).

hypnagogic

is

noted

to

deprivation,

the

is

McKellar

do

myself

Luther

it

another

of

basic

the

of

as we saw

also

dominance

of

(e. g. Silberer

those

the

is

the

hypnagogia.

one

thinking

in

hypnagogist,

which

in

1972)

abstract

the

1978)

also

investigators

phenomenon

changes"

Sartre

is

mark

Indeed,

moreover,

of

impact

formal

in

experiences

mode's

Dusen

van

imagery.

into

receptive

some

formal

that

imaginal

of
the

being

in anxiety.
Conversely,
a decrease
hinder
to the receptive
a shift
highly
compatible
with my obserto the ever deepening
of relax-

hynnagogia.

of

studied

mena

out

therefore,

decrease

relaxation
makes
linked
to a future
as an affect
anxiety,
ted to the action
mode, whereas muscle relaxation
to
of the receptive
component
mode causes a shift
latter

attri-

an

p. 482).

of

muscle

of

suit:
can

mode"

as

changes

follow

that
and

that

notes

tension

muscle

a shift

explains,

sequence

pertinent
feelings

this

autogenic
and
induction

receptive
of

this

phenomenon

In
"body
1955;
mode.
paper,
in

training
Klumbies
phase

1964),
of

107
Internalization-subjectification

It
the

mode

receptive

become

'fluid'.

object

ordinarily

mark
in

the

in

which

tude

in

menon

"irrelevant"

are,

perceptual,

certain
be

can

p. 483)

(1971,
two

the

that

full

tend

to

domi-

is

clearly
phenounimpor-

in

the

hypnagogia

in

where

imaginal

more

than

the

of

of

manner

receptive

operation.

For

instance,

illustrate

the

application

of

to

Poetzel's

(1960)

obser-

to

are

that

ordinarily

ordinarily

attitudes

reference

stimuli

are

(ii)

speaking,

perceptual

makes

way
and

an atti-

a similar

Moreover,

order

they

the

prominent,

in

in

modes

vation

in

noted

adopt

attitude

we observe

an

This

showed

and

the

where

(i)

to

which

enhanced

too,

properly

seen

of

experiments

results

object,

associations.

experiences

mode

the

become

respects:
become

features

tant

The

abandonment,

two

aspects

meditation
them

abandonment".

passive

of

in

instructed

specifically

hypnagogia,

In

focal,

not

in

boundaries

conceptual

acquire
prominence.
(1969a,
1969b)
Deikman

subjects

importance,

diffused

may

mode

of

attention:

becomes

is

attention

attributes

nate".
one

and

his

of

"passive

little

of

perceptual

receptive

he

"sensuous

attention

unnoticed

reports

of

as

As

the

of

that

appear

would

fascinated

and

differently

processed

Deikman

according

in the periphery
perceived
of awaredream
(focal).
"In
former
the
case,
ness or in the centre
dominate,
in the latter
logic
rational
processes
case,
in the periphery
Stimuli
holds
sway...
are processed
to

whether

to

according
the

of

goal

hypnagogia

i. e.

this

be

can

into

in

not

penumbra
further,

(normally

the

subject

can

tive'

to

thus

viz.

be

stimuli

said
in

to
his

it

consciousness"

since

asttention

be

more

external

organism
extero-

receives

of

features

unimportant)

the

way

mentation

differentiating

selective,

more

fainter

"the

the

ongoing

stimuli,

it;

put

in

uses

p. 483).

1971,

seen

thought

of

mode

(Deikman

proprioceptive

(1925)

Leaning

This

intake

oriented,

sensually

mode.

incorporates

and

and
ceptive
diffusedly,
uli

many

indirect,

more

strategies"

receives

focal,

the

receptive

paralogical
In

are

as
is

and

and

not

isolating,
for

clamour
'open'

stim-

and
internal

it:

'sensi-

108
than

environment
"striving"

The

al

attitude
is

stimuli

physical
this

incorporability',
13,18)

to

of

be

will

in

other

on

the

lying

psychological

may take

lie

to

key

hypnotic

of

root

hypnagogic

to

explain

mentation
Depending

organism.

behind

important

the

"absorbed

or

as

Significantly,

'egolessness'.
appears

such

This

the

at

it

setting

and psychological
'role-playing',

cultural

on names

to

the

of

states

important

(LEB).

the

may help

8,12,
the

of

does

it

as

may hold

presence

prevailing

tion"

of

boundaries

open-

Indeed,

(chapters

later

ego

by

earlier,

"psychological

of

essential

argued,

its

that

elements

experiences,

and

mentation

seen

'lbseriinng

hypnagogic

all

be

constitute

phenomenon
latter,

with

et
to

level.

a psychological

Ornitz

sensitivity

and

as we saw

along
will

1921;

openness

in

attention

Arnold-Forster

paralleled,
on

his

engaging

of

and sensitivity
feature,
latter

ness

is

(e. g.

attitude

1967).

he

when

'adaptability',

these

terms

factor

of

there
"absorp-

attention".

factor
(1974) interpret
this
ast
and Atkinson
'total'
for
having
disposition
attention
episodes
of
a
(i. e. percepfully
that
representational
engage one's
imaginative,
tual,
resenactive,
and ideational)

Tellegen

kind
functioning
This
of attentional
ources.
in a heightened
is believed
to result
of
sense
imperthe reality
of the attentional
object,
to distracting
events,
and an altered
viousness
in general,
including
an empathiof reality
sense
sense
altered
of self.
cally
(Tellegen
in

Instructively,
tion",

the

cribed

by

above

p. 274)

(ib.,
great

eptive
"passive

latter

the

of

The

abandonment".

been

employed,

other

writers

tation,
esthetic
"fascination"

as Tellegen
to

expanded
experience,
and

describe
awareness,
etc.
"complete

same
and

the

to

or

point

out,
states

experiences,
(1968)

absorption"

the

terms

similar

of
incor-

unfolds

psychological

Maslow

des-

be

asserting

latter

Atkinson

peak

be

'fascination"'

appear
in

the

as

atten-

'psychological

the

mentation
state

"can

and
terms

of

aspects

"total

of

these

'absorption'

as

hypnagogic

attitude

that

p. 268)

1974,

Atkinson

episodes

state

these

as

of

porability'

writers

and

importance

to

referring

terms

such

and

recin

have
by
of

medi-

mysticism,
uses

to

the

describe

terms
peak

109
experiences.
to

the

including

senses,

in

object

its

all

and

Atkinson

1974,

interest"

is

present,

the

representation

aspects

p. 274).
the

interest"
with

one's

of
"a

continue,

attentional

by

(cited

"totality

When

writers

and

all

experience

above

of

"allocentric"

the
of

kinesthetic

one's

Tellegen

unified

describes
"totality

involving

as

mode

perceptual
openness

(1959)

Schachtel

takes

object"

place.
this

In

state

tational

system

maintain

salient

thoughts

about

"fascination",

of
is

fully

(Tellegen
is

a characteristic
becomes
subject
for

ability

is,

he

consciousness",

further

not

but

are

in

imaginal

Vogel

do

"we

fascinated

'this

it"

is

where
'actihis

loses
1966).

al,

"hypnagogic
they

consciousness':

not

by

et
that

by

as

state

and

states

'contemplated

belong

image

p. 49)

is,

as we know,

This,

'fascinated'
(e. g.

that

happening"'

hypnagogic

absorbed

(1978,

are

"cannot...

such
really

not

later

becomes

phenomena

gogic

p. 274).

testing

Sartre

to

1974,

completely

reality

Similarly,

is

the

of

that

vities',

'this

or

Atkinson,

and

representation,

primary

my imagination'

only

represen-

the organism
engaged,
'meta-cognitions',

qualifying
the

the

wherein

contemplate
(ib.,
p. 50).

hypna-

the

He

that

explains

happens
here
is similar
to certain
psychoses
what
form.
possess
which
a simple
and also
a delirious
images
belong
form.
Hypnagogic
to the delirious
I am still
is,
to reflect,
to become
that
able
But to maintain
of being
conscious
conscious.
is
it
the integrity
of this
primary
consciousness
be in
that
the reflexive
necessary
consciousness
before
itself
does not place
it
that
turn
charmed,
to
in order
the acts
of primary
consciousness
them and describe
them.
observe
(Sartre
It

in

encountered

further

on

this

brought

out

by

manner

gatory
that

is,

the

accompanied
the

line
Sartre

Sartre

First,

to

the

that

added

here

are

sciousness
is

be

also

might

uses
mean

charming

receptive
of

argument

that
the

by

'primary

con-

primary

logic'

as

it

mode.

But

before

we move

there

are

certain

points

clarification.

term

"fascination"

secondary

pp. 50-51)
of

activities

need

"deterioration
of

1978,

of

in

a dero-

consciousness",

consciousness

and

the

110
maintenance
is

in

are

to

understood

it

is

in

mena

the

manner

sible:
of

them

produce
in

paralysis

return
thing,

he

continues,

even

it

localization.

of

to

the

if

(be

it

and

being

impos-

time
from

is

condition
we

case

which

attention

to

some-

a thought,

it

means

this

the

of

the
in

In

objectification

object

etc)",

the

this

pheno-

field,

emerge

state".

spatial

a sort

results
tion

wakeful

"all

acco-

To pay

the

"but

(convergence,

ourselves,

to

assigning

for

does

object:

because

visual

we find

He
it

its

is

it

as
state.

on

basis

we must

which

attention

centred

are

attributes

"fascinated"

is

the

"bond-

into

waking

normal

a motor

of
contraction
mmodation,
different
"these
movements
to

of

attention"

of

have

attention

of

the

consciousness

fascinated"

and

when consciousness
it
is not
fully

that

not

in

primary
a following

is

dimension

the

operate

that

mean

not

to

reference

explains

it

"charmed"

the

Second,

the

of

"regressive":

considered

age".

integrity

the

of

in

subject

rela-

a thought)".

or

a sensation

"there

way

basis
the motor
of attention
In falling
asleep
type
From it
there
is weak.
results
a different
but
is
for
there
It
the
object.
of presence
it,
that
cannot
observe
externality;
we
without
is
What
them.
hypotheses
build
is,
and control
is precisely
lacking
of
power
a contemplative
keeping
oneself
of
way
a
certain
consciousness,
from
images,
from
distance
one's
own
one's
at a
them their
thus
thoughts,
own logical
permitting
development...

(Sartre
Sartre's

Now,
of

problems

apparent
of

least

of

of

the

equation

It

contemplation.

importance

to

conceptual

muddle

the

of

and

objects,
be

placing

a distance

self

intentions,

e.

notion

attention
it
me that

one's

part

resulting

to

if

notions
advance

being

latter

between

the

'assumed'

etc),

which

is

thus

an

of

can

also

attibetween

that

anything

instincts,

avoid

distance

it

body,

to

clearly

'self';

of

paramount

of

understanding

our

temporal

and/or

is

we are
is

that

with

of

the

physical

thoughts,

that

a number
from his

raises

subject

Contemplation

the

considered
(i.

is

better

a spatial

to
of

which

seems

state.

placing
and

oneself

the

these

clarify

hypnagogic

tude

to

approach

not

p. 49-50)

1978,

be

is

not

the

psychophysical
emotions,
considered

to

111
be

the

which

(here

life'

'contemplative

one

external

contemplation

stood

somehow

dividing

active

the

receptive

the

to
is

one

p. 274)

two

to

how

in

In
the

meditation,

Gaffron

the

attention,
when

an object
former,

are

volume,
inner
the

the

Awareness
looking')
weight,

boundaries

The
believe,

employment

the

of

receptive

and

studies

in

consciousness.

Zen

clue
in

phenomenon,

is

focal,

The
the

object
self"

on

the

object.

side

of

"the

object

dominant

'interior'

(a)

centred

far

centred

and

of

cannot

(1956)

features

movement.

one

con-

of

state

which

found,

appear

Gaffron

distance,

surface,

observer.

the

both

the

the
is

and

form,

('mere

(b)

attention

"exteriorly',

of

attention

and

object,

to

though

experi-

round
revolves
phenomenon the argument
between two types
differences
of centring
the different
about
ways one feels
viz.

experiential

one's
the

to

be

is

highly

even

"contemplate".

or

about

reference

in

ments

comes

in

(1974,

"diffused

identical,

not

"fascination",

illustrations

Deikman's
mode

identified,

if

sense
is

and

be

in

Atkinson

sense)";

to

the

attention

and

"meta-cognitions"

this

in

and

"absorbed

that

we must

centring,

attention"
not

similar,

namely

out

carry

clearly

of

argued
'centred'

'centred'

Piagetian

of

be

not

Tellegen

that

"absorbed

a very

is

distina component

might

focal

of

under-

a component

is

object

it.

us

a roughly

are

sciousness,
to

tell

terms,

attention",
lead

in

it

and

be

pertinently
is

of

object

should

attention"

it

that

object

the

which

sense

contemplating

the

that

all

although
the

absorbed
(in

these

And

observe

similarly

'centred'

to

"dim fused

understood

careful

that

and

attention"

generally

be

attention"

mode.

to

(1971)

"focal

mode,

"diffused

not

Deikman

between

the

is

this

In

between

it

and

a distinction

only

attention

with

life'

activity).

one's

attention.

guishes

in

internal

But

'active

is

this

with

self

concerned

not

between

directs

self-awareness.

metaphysical

we are

since

and

obviously

by

or

occult

distinction

coiriion-view

between

an

identifies.

one

the

and

object,

is
of

qualities
and
on

separateness
far
the
side

'proprioceptive'
feelings
seems

to

(Deikman

the

near
In

side
the

perceived
the

experience
from

of

an

the
object
of

qualities
of

of

tension

and

intrude

or

1971,

p. 483).

extend
It

into
is

112
internalization

this

of

inappropriateness,

the

shows

in

contemplation:

tify

and

able

in

stand
the

ance,

state

designed

are

object,

from

the

apart

"passive

by

either

the

directing

and

conceptual
"passive
through

abandonment"
the

oneself

on
attention
(dissociating

object.

"Objects

of

absorbed

Atkinson

(1974,

p. 275)

tell

intimacy

that

whole

therefore,

are

in

object

by

to

the

between

and

one's
'forgetting'
in

absorbed
Tellegen

the

self-like

the

and

importance

an

for

reserved

a temporary

two

the

of

becoming

and

negating

between

attention",
"acquire
us,

normally

which

self

to

extent

inst-

exercises

'concentrating'

or

oneself)

acquire

for

barrier

experiential

objec-

meditation,

'attention'

one's

must

unobtain-

distinctions

the

that

an activity

object,

concentration"

dissolve

to

as

subject",

one

contemplate
In

object,

inapplicability

the

fascination.

of

employs

one

to

the

of

indeed,

order

the

of

subjectification

"objectification

Sartre's

to

opposed

or

self

and

and

may,

quality".

is viewed as a
the state
would appear that,
whether
in" of the environment
(absorbing
"taking
the environment)
into
the environment
of the self
or as an absorption
It

(into

the

same:

internalization

cability
tion

object

"total

of

contemplation.

is

not

one

the

of

of

In

'active'

depths

the

internal,

external,
perceptual
imaginative
environment,

immediate

relationship
he

i. e.

a sense

with

than

real"
chapter

in

In

which

captive:

the

separative,

was

found

be the

by

factor

susceptibility":

(see

reality

one's
is

of

state

a state

of

of

great

Tellegen

of

fascination

self-hypnosis

in

Atkinson

most "consistently
it shows how in

self

that

(1974,

associated
hypnagogia

in

subjects

there

of

"more

and

one

here

one-

environment

'caught',

relevance
and

the

vivid"

reports

aspect

an

contemplative

endow

"more

is

attention

contemplative
is

It

is

which

this

it

held

cised.

reality

ordinary

or
to

into
'forgets'

one

the

nor

enters

wherein

appears

neither

environment

secondary

immediacy

of

4).

sense

relinquishes

This

mentation.

it

with

atten-

is

one

but

the

inapplitotal

of

'receptive',

but

is

result

fascination,

object,

the

manipulating

self,

the

attention"),

is

is
which

is

ostra"absorption"

p. 275)

with

to

hypnotic

113
a subject

and

plation

(or,

'fascinated'
by

being

and

in

operational

to
is

hypnagogia

in

attention
focal
sciously

is

internalizing

way

is,

fact

subject

'fascinates'

the

is
is

and

men.

unusual

to

instrument
the

in

the

say
ball

player,
the

than

often
to

on

come

of

cability
the

act

focal
of

point
and

of

seeing
and

his
mere

absorbed

attention.
an
then

is,

hypnagogia

that
is

explain
the
is

It
his

of

case

too,

an

and

However,

he

or

rather

at
one's
usually

to

appears
the

notice

finds

inapplihimself

a succession

aware

how

which

point

the
as

opponent)

subject

is,

athlete,

racquet

his

That

pheno-

a similar
his

not

musical

opportunities.

becomes

attention

awareness
-

image,

(or

he,

The

sport,

then

in
sports-

pianist

of

body.

the

and

it

or

one.

illustrate

hypnagogia
first

activity

noticeable

piece
talk

scoring

and

readily

will

including

court

in

or

become

In

the

degrees,

more

internalize

creates

absorption

'fascinated'

a musical

science.

whole

not

images,

changing

of

would

and

anticipates

more

of

of

scientists

matter)

may

a con-

although

violinist

professor

in

form

varying

artists,

musician
of his

That

i. e. by
'charms'

merged,
this

music

attention

a merging,

nature,

that

a creative

realm

a tennis
(indeed,

as

in

becomes

It

the

and

absent-minded

menon

in

life.

an extension

as

which

'absorbed'.
object

an

but

to

a creative

hear

thus

are

that

hypnagogia,

occurs,

execution

musical

he

it

for

instrument,

of

receptivity

and

fact,

to

such

the

relin-

object)

juncture

very

In

waking

instance,

during

that

of

become

object

it;

instrumentalist,

any

aspect

on

its

subject.

individuals
For

the

manner
by

which

in
our

creative

of

concentrated

peculiar

exaggerated

throughout

internalization

'diffused'

analytic

exclusively

not

or

this

at

note

both

not

and

that

thus

and

hypnagogia.

important

is

It

that

'fascinated'

Auto-suggestibility

(subjectification
of

become

activities

activities

contemplation).

attributes

contem-

of

may become

incorporability

environment

attentional
is

of

psychological

the

imaginal

attitude

imaginal

one

versa,

in

attitude

in

absorbed

vice

absorbed

the

quish

being

by

the

relinquish

may gradually

of

diffused

attention
interrupted.

is

and

i. e.

the

defocussed
This

114
is

be

to

implies

'fascinated'
one

to

begins
to

on

come

we know
from

initial

the

environment.

It

is

first,

the

manipulation

may

facilitate

a state
to

Voluntary

further

may

attention

it

since

defining

characteristic
by

be no

can

voluntary

the

of

voluntary

which

striate
eye

p. 481)

that

tension

is

activity".

in

as

complete

function
of

shall
it

will

concern
manifests

tension

muscular

to

how

inappropriate
the

highly

notion.

compatible
"a

as

the

The

con-

of

stri-

spontaneous

only

kind

are

capable

of

attention
of",

Similarly,

in

is
Deikman

"baseline

muscle

mode would
the infant

appear

in

aspects
in

undertaken

with
parti-

activity,

"this

with
the

is

associated

the

two

state".
evol-

chapter,

feature

types

to

a wider,

a later

the

his

with

state

contrast,

developmental

in

acts

p. 49)

mode

itself

always

(1978,

weakness".

only

"is

Sartre

In

myself

(1911,

pre-

maximally
be

the

as

being

voluntary

that

esp-

This,

children

and

will

It

"intimately

receptive

dis-

spontaneous

without

"the

"muscular

decreased"

setting,

utionary

young

the

a discussion

tion

and

attention

effort.

mode

of

continues,
and

and

originate

is

muscle

by

states

action

effort

characterized

later,

As Ellis
of

of
is

muscle

Ellis

terms.

singularity

attention

animals

by

attention

(1971,

in

here

see

1911)

Ellis

of

attention".
indicates

attention,

(As

absorption.

discussion

notion

muscles;

attention,

of

which

the

of

view

cularly

by

given

Deikman's

the

diffusion

present

type

of

definition

latter's

ving"

feeling

the

concept

cept

the

former

the

and

by
and'

the

of

some

muscles

cisely

by

on

in

ushers

cited
the

clarify

explains,

accompanied
there

attention,

as we shall

attention

introduces

pecially
pp. 25-26)

(1889:

Ribot's

between

tinction

the

focal

double-consciousness

of

that

dissociation.

partial
Reference

on

that,

attention,

includes

features,

two

since

withdrawal,

characterized

these

to

appears

state

attention

is

of

of

or

diffused

object,

apparent

only

his

grip,

which

absorption

is

the

one

a progressive

his

Thus

and

although

is

one

from

a psychophysical

relaxes

fascination

back

this

as

stages

subject

of

But,

that

aware

steps

one

hypnagogia

the

state

that

absorption

is,

becoming

contemplate.

that

its

by

since

expected

of

of

voli-

attention

115
in

the

has
of
of

human

adult

is

attention

will.
indeed
form

object

entirely

hypnagogia

is
the

were

care

hypnagogic

imagery,

she

the

use

of

'willing'

of

casual
be

his

would

be
but

a more
writing

correct
on

the

says

'I

it

be

nice

be

suggesting

or
or
gentle
'I want'

would

like

if...

'.

a similar

one
More

of

suspects
recently

hypnagogic

reported,

(McKellar

1979a,

p. 193)

by

wishing
McKellar
imagery

says:
less
imagery
he
has
the
or
One subject
more
in
terms.
his
these
defined
control
nightly
he sees a lot
He told
of landscapes.
me that
'The scene
is going
He said,
own
on of its
it'.
in
He
but
I
can
put
something
accord,
have
"I'll
'I
a
say,
can't
gave an example:
"I'd
like
but
I can say,
a diffcloud",
square
different
thanks".
And
one will
a
one,
erent
His gratitude
I can't
and word
specify'.
come.
his
towards
autonomous
obligingly
of thanks
imagery
may be noted!
system
subjects

the

of
on the control
"a difficulty
arises

where

control

into
by

that

term".

on

rendered
would

happen

becomes

roundabout,

to
p. 377) appears
in her discussion
when,

didtinction

to

modalities

translated

the

this

that

appears

senory

(1925,

Leaning

(1979a)

subject's

shape

and

aware

concentrated

will

really

hypnagogia

in

will.

examining

not

the

don't

in

either

If

'I

any

attention,

indirect,

type

in

like

an

diffused

'willing'

will,

in

way.

of

What

absent.
the

it

notion

we become

particular,

"spon-

the

and

general,

employment

term,

However,

absent.

employed

its

would

if

case

is

or

of

the

opposite
of

engages

'devious'

to,

devoid

that
it

then

in

diffused:

somewhat

else

never

in

that

the

in

will

states
is

be

completely

of

adjacent

be

its

expect

to

would

were

employment

is

prolongation

implies

attention"

thus

attention",

notion

and

control,

We would

taneous

or

appearance

hallucinations.

"voluntary

term

The

This

the

imagery:

hypnagogic

of

type

automatic

for

condition

(1907)

Leroy

or

spontaneous

a necessary

induction,

of

mode

the

auditory

and

visual

The

that

argued

also

Interestingly,

subject).

some

116
Similar

p. 623),

(1909,

a point

brought

out

explicitly

inability

of

taneity

the

of

lack

subjects'
for

instance,

over

control

as

in

"the

that

is

attention

interpretation

to

wish
is

It
a sample

from

end

the

images,

when active
only
fashion,
another
thing.

Merely
even

What then
and continuation

occasionappear,

see

to

the

a curtain

as

(1968,

is
by
the

readying

formulating

appears

to
the

starting
attention

and
"paying

attent-

O. H.

Myers'

type

of

attentional

"interrupts
or
is
them
to
as

to
the

an
flow

interrupted
"but

think
if

the

brings

Moreover,

to

of

control

and

notes,

paid

the

attentional

to

play,

a whole.

p. 248)

attention
namely,

of

only

are
that

reports,

same

interrupts

state

which

attention",

usually

of

of

"the

will

and

reference

and

without

one

induction

the

into

Edmunds

flow

although,

similar

brought

hypnagogic

on

that

quotations,

when

images",

active

p. 49).

notes

employment

to

belong

all

which,

activity

the

"active

"concentration"

of

to

of

Sartre's

Baillarger's

as

the

border

above

scores

imagery.

hypnagogic

flow

the

inappropriate

quite

states

is

designs".

referring

are

soon

required

a herbaceous

from

clear
taken

authors

see
floral

with

patterned

the

the

Baillarger

interrupts

selected

must

one

"concentration

same writer

consciously

p. 48),

attention

1978,

that

image

resembling

a subject

ally,

(Sartre

the

themselves".

generation".
as

and

prolong

voluntary

its

spon-

appear

to

order

of

remarks

the

on
be

cannot

"in

the

(1978,

images

the

disappears

the

of

Earlier

subject

iced,

p. 65)

hypnagogic

to

are

be

must

understand

Sartre

to

it"

on

and

their

they

of

phenomenon
turned

try

them.

'absence'
case

and

with
reports
on
hypnagogic
images

"if

that

the

(1957,

Myers

images".

of

teems

of

necessary,

ion",

control

of

phenomenon

e. g.

to

appearance

a certain

the

are

subjects

(1957).

Myers

to

we

Alexander

e. g.

importance

paying
attention
that
p. 59) notes

(1933,

O. H.

pp. 14-15),

avoid

Leroy

by

reported

paramount
if

states

carefully

says

of

literature

The

imagery.

been

(1933,

Leroy

is

This

the

have

experiences

in

also
about

to

not

some-

think

suff-

a problem".

for the initiation


be required
flow of imagery
hypnagogic
is

an

117
attitude
to

"diffused"

of

"focal"

tion".

latter

the
in

employed
one.

receptive
gently
embracing

active

Attention

is

("allocentric"

it

in

the

empathic

(somewhat

by

i. e.

attitude,

nalizing

In

but

forcefully
mergingly,

taking-in,

organism
and this
by

level

inter-

merging,
on

of

part

the

state

digesting

to

akin

will

a relaxed,

becoming

this

above

or

but

or

the

is

parasympathetically,
on the psychological

physiologically
is paralleled
behaviour
an

object

opposed

voli-

in

directed

not

attitude).
behaving

is

but

manner

as

"passive

volition

contemplatively

not

in

or

implies,

a tense,

taking

and

implied

concentration"
term

firmly,

though

attention

attention

"passive

and
As

not

"reflexive"

and

quotations,

"absorbed"

and

the

physiological

side).
It

be

would

Foulkes

(1966,

al's

et

rich

appears

and

have
It

personalities.
induction
as

well
the

presence

sympathetic
with

person
be

his

using

defense-alarm

As Wallace

an
in

both

and

relaxed
hypnagogic

to

defensive
experimental
as

state

imagery

its

and

emerge

the

require
para-

components:
is

that

obvious
the

of

most

time

the

prohibit
is

employs

would

emerg-

needed

apparently
to

opposed

focally

concentrating

clearly
What

which

that

of

characteristically

may have

reaction
and

his

genetic

makeup

attitude
history:

'fighting

put

pp. 363-4)

(1973,

Benson

history

man's

more

It

diametrically

man's

opposite

implies

would

imagery.

and

defense-alarm

shed

with

of

system.

sympathetic

in

to

psychophysical

system

reaction

easy

hypnagogic

activity
and empathy.
personality
a defensive
This

those

and

over

control

sympathetic

that

opposed

that
the

of
two

here

restrictive
appear

of

these

of

separatively.
ence of hypnagogic
is an attitude
here

early

as

rather

exercise

and

the

is

persons

are

would

ourselves

observation

imagery

prolongation

and
the

remind

personalities

who

nondreamers

p. 283)

profuse

self-accepting

and

to

hypnagogic

whose

subjects

instructive

has

had

(although
in

see

chapters

for

survival'

an

strongly

it

may be

appearance
18
in

value

survival

become

thus

and
an

19).

the

suggested,

establithat

argued

probably
Survival

environment

in

earlier
here
which

is

118
inimical

the

that

say

believed

or

would

opposite

threatening
therefore,

for

state
is

a state

of

affairs
becomes,

is

affairs

be

to

reaction

and

may

one

thought

not

of

induction

the

token

same

defense-alarm

the

which

Such

required

the

environment

obsolete.

is

what

in

and

By

so.

psychophysical
the

when

prevail

be

to

precisely

establishment

of

hypnagogia.
from

Apart

the

hypnagogic

ation,
his

grip

separating

himself

analysing,

worrying,

increases
(i.

face

to

began

faces

(1962,

p. 97)

eased,

or

he

interested

(Oswald

1962)

imagery
can

only

part

of

in

this

book;

one
the

concerns

or

or

on

"Awareness

by

dissipating

a'

conversation

' with
it

effort...

the

One must

have

that

hypnopompic
hypnopompic

loss

of

.
put

of

the

must

once

will...
exclusively

Manaceine
as

to

to

prosection

indicated

one

into

enters
be

must
make
do

that

it

born

the

without

put
imagination".

also
of

in

good

entirely

(1897)

continuations

while

and,
(see

ego

be

becoming

desired

was

the
it

over

i. e.

the

"to

necessary

visions

to)

it,

absolutely

de

attention

it

is

side

that

But

(1922)

recourse

suggests

subject,

it

where

hypnagogia)

of

of

interpretation

of

Coue

use

occurrence

it,
the

his

observed

control

suggesting

need

fear

one's

suggestions

the

or

also

(c)

of

Significance"

of

as

(ii)

state,

of

internalizing
part

incr-

preparation

which
(pays

becomes;

(i)

images

parti-

the

with

it

becoming

change

that,

mind

oneself

Oswald's

"while

p. 119)

observation

by

it

the

all

night

of

them,

increased

profuse

empathic

longation

an

exerted

it,

(1976,

process

more

be

during

them"

Oliver

imagery,

hypnagogic
more

in

that

and

of

his

with

hypnagogic

more"

it

(b)

a hypnagogic

since

her;

his

that

stops

criticizing,

invited

that

towards

"noticed

learning

the

the

float

observation

that

having

e.

we
-'here,
(1925,
p. 318)

Leaning's

found

(i.

becomes

subject

of

relaxes

environment);

self-accepting)

one

her,

to

cularly

that

more
that,

nearer

the

on

person

by

relax-

of

reality

environment

the

reported

come

the

of

as the

surrounding

acting

ourselves
who

subjects

from

aspect

appears

the

on

becomes

e.

may remind

(a)

'friendlier'

the

imagery

physiological

imagery

intellectual

the

necessary

aside.
On

observed
dreams

can

119
be

prolonged

direction

as
in

quoted

Now,
the

by

remaining

one

wakes

un

"is

the

that
in

not
is

the

attention

localization

of

the

same

example

between

by

by,

in

the

manner

(b)

the

to

is

not

object

intense

in

all

likelihood,

result

to

the

termination

or

of

muscular

in

motor

is,

once

once

is

minimized

an

image

the

or

by means
would,
lead

would

by causing

state
is not

it

reflective
attention;
hypnagogic
images,
observe

for

necessary

necessary

that

of
(c)

to

of

orientation

a tension

interruption

unless

be

that

localization

the

accompanied

refuted,

'internalized',
and

hypnagogia

is

Sartre

images

and

subject

indeed,

'not

as

Sartre's
in

attention';

thoughts
is

(a)

that

seen

in

assertions

consciousness

considered

distance

a switch

in

gaze

(1978)

attention",

reflective

the

or

of

restated

object

Spinoza's

be

can

and

imaginal

of,

it

of

the

abolished

also

Sartre's

to

centring

or

of

one's

(see

manner

qualified

contemplative
basis

back

section,

previous

with

4).

chapter
referring

argument
it

best

that

true

hypois,
build
that
we cannot
them.
This can be achieved
in various
theses
and control
different
degrees
depending
to
of success
and
on
ways
in,
i. e. depending
the hypnagogic
stage one is operating
and absorption
of the subject.
on the depth of relaxation
it also depends on the empathic
More subtly,
one
attitude
to bear on the observation.
brings
As argued above this
is

highly

and

interpretation

imagery

control

example,
make

could

(1957)
although
image
My own
For

example

subjects

not

saw

to

able

he wished
suggest
in

do

to

that

trying

an open

in

de Manaceine

to
pink

which
he

is

others

p. 239)
kalei-

produced
to

O. H.

reported

one

a common
a red

by

disappear

Myers

that
a desired

consciously

a similar

visualise
rose,

1897,

similar

on

this

employed.

visions

which

bring
so,

were

methods

somewhat

above

quoted

he was

instance,

is

This

hypnagogic

of

examples

forms

architectural

figures.

studies

cited

hypnagogic

terrifying
on

when

paper

various
which
(cited
by
Burdach

his

control,

prolongation,

imagery.

in

concentrating
doscopic

this

induction,

the
the

of

in

Earlier

For

to

conducive

would

appear.

phenomenon.

rosebud

a withering

some
red

120

rose,
row

flowering

of

falling

a frame-work

serve

as

it

idea

with

(see

field

retinal

the

had undergone
image
(in

nearly

and make it

of

Delage

1903,

p. 248)

claimed

image

almost

at

think

object

an

about

image".

hypnagogic

open
that

once

it

appeared

tion

to

it.

One of

shift
different

his

p. 41;

1979a;

their

hypnagogic

going

hypnagogic

point

of

were
latter

the

of

could

need

stories
and

Warren

to

picture

it

summon

not

but
(df:

(1921)

Herve
both

any

imagery,

look

at

could
from
it
(1957,

McKellar's

St.

atten-

close

they

control
in

participate

de

summoning

subjects

could

even

hypnagogic

on

and

only

could

become

to

a gallery.

p. 116)

Some of

is

do

to

paying

object

space.

subjects

images

able

he

saw in
to bring

(1976,

up the
call
Janet

petals.

he

prolong

Oliver's

in

p. 193)

(1903)

could

view

directions

Delage

The

he

that

a cross-bow

for
it
to
semi-sleep
(1878,
Maury
p. 93) reported

manner
a portrait
a similar
(1895),
Herrick
unable
although

its

to

and could
its

the

Galton's

in

in

fixate
in

back

of

"all

will:

as would

appear

bring

changes,

a rosebud

hypnagogic

it

image

a dozen

control
frequently

such

One of

could

hypnagogic

no

object,

1894).

Binet

before

very

schema

make

and

thought

and

petals.

had

a corresponding

subject's

"starting-point"

of

that

stated

simple

eyes

also

pp. 115-118)

(1883,

for

closed

eyes

by

continuously

he

appeared

some

(Cited

up visions

call

p. 303)

choose

simply

could

his

a succession

they

Goethe

closed

could

(1892,

including

appearance

forth

once

Ladd

them.

in

its

made

but

asleep

over

he

whenever

Mitchell(1896)

Similarly,

flowers

a windowsill.

on

bringing

and

unfolding

he

p. 115)
a rosette

a rose,

different

saw

plants

1883,

Galton
of

others

yet

and

Denis,

on-

1867).

reported

that

scenes

voluntarily.

they

wrote:

by concentrating
these
I obtain
visualizations
field
the attention
endeavouring
on the retinal
I see,
to form pictures
and projecting
out of what
At first
I see only
the
them into
a real
scene.
light,
indefinite
I weave
which
retinal
of
play
into
the help
Then
of imagination.
with
a picture
becomes
for
vividly
real
at once the picture
all
in
have
instant.
I
succeeded
prolonging
never
an
to observe
them attentimages.
The effort
these
into
their
former
ively
throws
them back
always
to control
them
the attempt
state:
and often

121
has

voluntarily

Although
be

dependent
these

ables,
instance,

1921,

spontaneous

control

of

both

on

stage

can

clearly
of

people
their

experiences
latter
the
-

absorbed.

It

hypnagogia

need
that

awareness

to

seem

the

presented

he

that

aware

of

sely

the

kinds

two

in

respect

to

is

vation

implying

the

appear,

however,

that

having

earlier

that

is

in

absorbed

under

the

be

to

the

in
the
This

experience.
in

imagery
these

are

distinction
out

the
precibetween

most
(1968)

Edmunds'

which

becomes

one

brought

control.

become

to

obliterate

Yet,

can

hypnagogic

to

hypnagogic

which

involvement

absorption

moment

interrupted.

attending

much

his

quicker,

ability

argument

the

towards

ego

a hypnagogic

an

in

as

complete

and

hypnagogia

enter

and
For

attitude

clearly

so

universal

training.

of

their

observation

very

more

numerous,

be

vari-

personalities

to

tend

contradict

of

into

to

seems

personality

welcoming

and

circumstances

the

hypnagogia
on

relaxed

more

is

one

latter

the

flow

not

pp. 456-7)

by means

that

are

would

and

turned

control

imagery

hypnagogic

might

be

a friendly

have

their

deeper

the

we saw above
who

result.

same

(Warren

factors

specific

the

clearly
obser-

here:

point

test
The experience
afforded
a critical
of one's
to be aware
through
two channels
simulability
losing
Without
the picture
taneously.
one could
lightly
it:
think
and descriptively
about
or
have described
it
to another
aloud
perhaps
could
Alternatively
music
or even conversation
person.
background
listened
in
be
to
rather
a
vague
could
but
definite
fashion
the
attention
was
moment
This
the picture
to any of these,
vanished.
given
between
lesson
object
on the difference
was a real
diffuse
sense
of incoming
reception
signals,
passive
focussed
going
out to meet them with
and actively
attention.

(Edmunds
We can

here

see

not

is,

that

experience,
only

that

in

subject's
his
imaginal

in

general
whole attention
his
in which he perceives
Thus,
taining

control
the

receptive

of

diffuse

the
to

respect

is

attention

is

mode

and

p. 250)
throughout
is

attention
experiences:

diffuse,

physical

hypnagogia

1968,

including

the

diffuse
his

the

manner

environment.
becomes

operating

a matter
within

of
it.

susIn

122
this
if

setting

real

imaginal

or

he

does

legislator
judge
that

its

the

focal

if

arisen

attitude

nitive
in

used

the

relation

the

viewing

of

of

the

it

appears

Although
to

a distinction

that

the

"a

too

the

only

and

interest....,

receptive
of

this

environment
in this
while

which

the

to

is

one

long

of

be

will

that
though
state,

the

one

to

(i.

them

can

noted

and

will
hold
that

glow
a purely
the

internalizes
be

a fearful

inimical.
idea

the

e.

receptivity

remembered

subject

not

hypna-

p. 87)

quiet

(1956)
noting

of

picture

as

the

altogether

out

subjects,

McKellar

flow

(1965,

a vivid

as

makes

scrutiny,

understand
them

with

their

and

and
to

hypna-

method

of

Ardis

refer-

McKellar

dissipates

attention

snuff

It

relaxed

the

writers

state

Sherwood

remain

is

a con-

seemed

this

these

of

respect,

attitude

implies

hypna-

Edmunds'

employed

conducive

may

attitude".
mode

this

unbidden,
and

reality

that

his

carried

attention

attempt

successful

a cog-

remarked

important.

very

have

Similarly,

images]

employ-

from

describing

attentional

not

active

hypnagogic

into

is

imagery.

gogic

is

between

latter

very

confers

which

verbally

directed
in

Indeed,

have

not

during

attention,

neither

the

that

report

drew

that

(1976)

reference

imagery.

diffuse

of

Oliver

employment

itself.

of

as

nature

and

possibility

results.
do

they

context

and

detail

source

ectasy

imagery

(1979b)
good

their

the

p. 543)

latter

the

the

and

logic

he experienced

the

associations

and

(1949,

an

a method
as

the

consciousness
a different
employs
As Poe

itself

would

employed),

ecstasy

portion

gogic

(they

the

to

ence

of

to

as

the

result

mode.

viction

to

it

and

on

acts

knowledge

active

visions,

this

were

gogic

In

attention
conditions

which

of

attention

mode,

one

in

images

the

are

diffuse

of

method

the

when

as well

that

of

Thus,

hypnagogia

is

knowing

of

conditions

status.
in

arise

ment

the

of
of

a way

earlier,

way

attention

to,
in

receptive

the

environment
of

a justification,

and

in

his

the

likened

absorption

remarked

in

operating

diffusion

This

object.

of

is
on

act

not

As

be

can

a child's

with,

activities.

a person

absorbed

absorption

of

identified

indeed

not

factor

the

use
the

Sometimes,
or

image

may

123
into

rise

consciousness

This
it

in

the

a state

attained
in

one

to

continues
he
which
sense

of

up of

two

In

is

adding

one

separate

my own

amount

imagery

gogic
I

by

is,

be

lost

after

that...
I'm

But

cination
imagery

ties

from

them

vented

also
as

such

were

not

subject

ories,
necessary
ingness

after
due

hypnagogic
to

and

in
and

to

the

bits

a clear

both
and

pieces
or

"There

was

lost

it

oh,

like

by

in

not

rehearsal

to

'capture'

changeability

of

to

they

the

fact

which
and

in

place
is,

was

qualiand
'after-

an
his

exper-

would
that

they

'solidify'

imagery.

quality

detail,

and

report

pre-

which

although

to

that

fas-

The

there

the

suspect

the

subjects

recall:

asked

and

strongly
to

yes,

it.

rehearsing.

still

took

they

Oh,

eh...

due

sharpness

were

else

remember
I

experienced
and

irretrievably,

a clock,

can't

was

hypna-

something

else".

were

memory

of

now...

object

often

was

quantitatively

temporarily

a loss

that

made

The
rehearsal.
end of a hypnagogic
former
case, often

the

lost

be

a whole

constant

at
In

both
perhaps
any longer,

constant
order

retain

brightness,

feelings

qualitatively,

it

remembering

suffered

immediately

iences

found

Appendix)

contemplating

colour,

accompanying
if
the
glow',

sense.

something

in

absorption

and

a chemical

it's...

was

difficulty

this

that

there

sure

in

I've

oh,

the

rather

strange-looking
eh...

in

not

obtain

like:

forgot...

this

was

of

that

in

environment
to

without

to

he

provided

a part

is,

that

mode,

imagery
an

and

another

but

remarks

eh...

there

to

tended

would

instanced
saw...

unit

observational

part,

out

qualitatively,

and

integral

either
it.
punctuated

or

a certain

an

a subject

was carried

experience

of

imagery

hypnagogic

of his
latter

as

for

easy

receptive

part

(see

relaxation

the

as

studies

mental

in

it

units

having

engage

the

occur

However,
and

manipulate

regard

himself

always

not

and

observe

can

state.

be maintained

cannot

physical

within

the

nightmares

anxiety.

then

can

activity

manipulative

or

deep

of

hypnagogia,

one

fear

of

presence

terminating

hypnagogia

why

focal

to

a switch

hypnagogic

why

explain

would

thus

mode,

explain

not

would

but

active

and

attention

in

resulting

change

they

became

found

to

membe

the

fleet-

On the

other

124
hand,

rehearsal
was carried
had a halting
it
effect

when

experience
its

flow
It

was

imagery

as

it

to

themselves

learned

to

learned
flow

the

'reality'
who

increased

achieved
these

trary,

effect

orating

the

after
hours
of

7.30

of

that

energy

over

and

hypnagogic

state

and,

obviously,.

tion

to

idoes

observe
in

active

"seldom

achieve

first

brought

not

lead

report

of

of

say

nearly

Likewise,
ions

one

is

in

the

(1976,

his

subjects

one
moving

clear

is

Oliver
of

observing
himself

it

image
towards

opposition

p. 117)
reported

another

objects

in

to

the

is
on

while
"he
the

differentiating

to

between
that

a way

into

turning
the

distance

that

as
As

general.

that

noted

is,
related

me that

or

object

in

notes,
asleep".

there

'chemically'

being

"most

p. 253)

are

hypnagogia

form-

never

they

to

whether

inten-

the

general,
(1968,
Edmunds

environment
and
one's
(1946,
"The
372)
Rouques
observed:
p.
in such
and me changes
object
slowly
to

or

day

the

of

unless

sleep

induced

of

however,

sustained

a feeling

any

full

all

work

time

the

so

type

this

abandoned

until

state

felt

day's

another

into

that

between

they

at

envig-

and

out

evening,

con-

hypna-

remarked

In

as

On the
about

often

on

is

place.

this

imagery

the

be

subjects
imagery

a refreshing

that

state

and

drowsy.

carried

found

people",

kind

this
above,

noted

and

the

mentally
In

can

the

this

that

earlier

were

begin

could

Personally,

again.

ulated,

in

in

hypnagogic

of

who

they

when

observed

all

some

receptivity

vividness,

had

which

they

and

noted

subjects

10.00

attention

at

general,

experiments,

however,

was

not
as

the

on

practice,

control

of

were

in

experiences

gogic

It

experiences,

became

themselves

again.

flow

the

readying

Interestingly,

brightness,

their

report

inadvertedly

its

they

relaxed

although

subjects

when

balancing

degree

this

the

of

interrupted

expected,

diffused

imagery,

it

inhibited

With

of

midst

initially

verbally.

'knack'

of

the

subjects

their

reported

the

was

analytical.

retain

they

while

it

the

report

and

alert

more

This
as

it,

on

have

to

occurred.

because,

imagery

of

decided

then

the

it.

terminated

often

and

in

out

I'm

the
unable

moving".
occas-

several
passively
experienced

image".
'I-It'

This

125
in normal
one has in manipulating
objects
Here one is dealing
but
not with
an 'It'
(Buber 1958).
disappears
The 'It'
either
in which case one is 'fascinated'
or falls

attitude
fulness.
a 'Thou'
gether,
or

into

recedes

merely
ment
itself

the
the

become

to

the subject
while
he had. less and less

so internalized

the

with
in

of

strong

may

even

sympathetic
be

in

sympathetic
(Gellhorn
(1978,

wider

transcending

the

where

followed

by

oriented

activity

ablished

receptive
detail

We know
gogic

mental

lead

into

sleep.

mode
the

next

characterized
and

self-

the

screen

the

villain.
is

an object-

within

an est-

discussed

in

place
is

hypnotic

boundaries

ego

and

(this

chapter).
ordinary
by

events

an

ever

state
is

the

circumstances',

psychological

self-hypnotic
of

take

attitude

'under

series

to

the

developed
of

action

Koestler

against
fully

para-

into

on

re-establishment

allowed

relaxation

This

the

where
As

hero

the

and
also

can

examples,

dissolution

is

a natural

1978).
his

of

in

partial

that,

opposite

aggressiveness

initial

in

is

state

and

one

observed

their

its

with

vicarious

same may be

greater

in

life

Koestler

identification

may release

state

by

one

activity

waking

trigger

may
it

of

a form

established

latter

The

with-

once

cortical

of

place.

context

experiences
been

has

balance

to

Indeed,

imagery

take

cited
put

their

increase

to

activity

p. 295)

may
does not

learn

may

imagery.

of

the

with

1957:

reporting

report

and

a certain

the

imagery

subjects

flow

arousal

seen

The

his

the

allow

a physic-

the subject
again,
(see also Hollingworth
report

practice

rapport

to

and more and


itself
or to

'introverted'

hypnagogia

interrupting

out

experiencing

of speaking
investigator)

the

to

that

that,

any memory of
1976).
Oliver

themselves

case

he is

what

feeling

the

(i. e.
present
person
more a feeling
of talking
Sometimes,
this
oneself.

As noted,

asleep,
it

'introverted',

more

gradually
describes

ally

retain
1911;

latter

the

alto-

perceived
physical
vaguely
environinvestigator).
Even the verbal
report

is,

become

in

with

the

represents
(including
tends

background:

wake-

here

hypna-

deepening

physical

withdrawal

which

and
qualified

into

eventually
by

the

126
insertion
because
means

the
of

series
this

of

to

that

when

formulated
ment
the
to

the

of
more

drift

without

hypnotic

same

hypnagogia.

as

to
losing

entirely
As

asleep.

one

in

explaining
imagery,
gogic

is

It

the

true

when,

were

trained

is,

to

then

in
to

the
into

slip

p. 117)

of

oneself

allow
as

possible
falling

without

subjects

said

made after

are

And although
reports.
retrospective
have been made immediately
after
(see
1976),

in

oscillate

for

instance,

visions

and

his

efforts

and

then

experience
another

they

one
to

are

control

retrospective,

still

the
experiments,
out of hypnagogia,
'waken'
and

again,

reporting

1965;

Silberer

e. g.

(1976)

Oliver's

(1949),

reports
the experiences

of hypnahave

are

Oliver

as

have

may

we have

the

of

experience

1948;

even

most

reports

hypnagogic

Vihvelin

typical

so

g i. e.

employ-

sheer

images".

that

these

many of

is

be

can

hypnahe used for obtaining


procedure
he "would
of consciousness
go to a state
into
the state
of
and then rouse slightly

experiences
they
place,

gogic
taken

the

But

the

asleep
hallucinated
seeing

near

(1976,

Oliver's

of

p. 51).

hypnagogia

testing,

a general

state

one

of

reality

a truism

"as

1978,

which

three

stage

is

sleep

through

Thus

is,
hypna-

of

pre-sleep

element

advanced
close

the

induced

state

to

(Sartre

about

first

the

autosuggestion

of

go

in

seen

It

asleep"

the

and

as

circumstances'.
to

by

experimentally

inception

fall
bring

precisely

the

at

present
down

to

induced

factor

the

we lie

to

intention

the

be

Indeed,

'ordinary

we want

rule...

circumstances'

also

chapter,

in

even

say

can

degree,

a certain

gogia

ordinary

self-suggestion.

section
to

'under

of

on

to
so

his
them,

report

that
it

E. A.

on.

own

subjects

and
Poe

hypnagogic

writes:

) only
how rarely!
(alas,
They arise
in the soul
intense
tranquillity
at its
epochs
of the most
health
when the bodily
are in perfecand mental
tion
when
of time
mere points
- and at those
blend
the confines
with
world
of the waking
have
those
dreams...
I
of the world
proceeded
of
(when the bodily
first
so far
to control
as,
and
health
the existence
mental
of the
are good)
(unless
I
is
that
to
condition
now
can
say,
be sure
the condition
that
when ill)
will
superif
I so wish
it,
vene,
of time
at the point
described...
I can be sure,
already
when all

127
favourable,
of the supervention
even the capacity
and feel

are
circumstances
of the condition,

it...
I have proceeded
or compelling
of inducing
from
the lapse
secondly,
so far,
as to prevent
the point
I speak
of which
of blending
- the point
between
to
wakefulness
prevent
as
and sleep
borderI say,
from this
the lapse
at will,
into
the dominion
Not that
I
ground
of sleep.

the condition
I
that
can continue
can render
-'not
the point
I can
more than a point
- but that
from the point
into wakefulness;
myself
startle
the realm of Memory; convey
and thus transfer
its
impressions,
their
recolor more properly
lections,
to a situation
where (although
still
for a very brief
I can survey
there with
period)
the eye of analysis.
(Poe
Poe's

himself

startling

1949,

into

wakefulness

having
the experience
analysing
during
the experience
per
place
by

employed

how,

also

shows

the

prevailing

back,

can

taken

place.

iousness,

As

register

is

has

one

which
that

of

Foulkes

loss

the

brink

of

sleep,

that

is,

test

of

am aware

his

1911,

case

upon

stumbled
to

passive

litated

the
he

and

that

he

sleep,

taining

that

these

is
his

is

Poe

emergence
merely

aware

experience

of

"highest"
stage

level

of

three

in

also

the
in

he

is

passive,

on
he

am so",

Hollingworth

fact,

is

natural

We must
is

of

main-

and

faci-

that

the

having

that
process

inducing

volition)

images.

these

am upon

disappear

completely
(see also
in

that

consciousness
not

states

when

only

(passive

is

seen".

Poe

saying,

that

been

the

order

However,

in
experiences
himself
trained

awareness

in

ego-involvement

experiences

What

before

and

does

reality

hypnagogic
7).

the

has

"consc-

noted,

abeyance

(1965)

'fancies'

with

has

testing

reality

these

of

also

what
(1976)

Vogel's

and

dreaming.

actual

"I

during

of

of

Oliver's

of

that

going

impression

the

immediately

recalled

sleep,

experience

p. 86)
in

It

standing

experience:
the

almost

be

must

reminiscent
and

be

method

nearing

from

one

when

(1965,

must

a clear

hypnagogia,

out

Sherwood

form,

state

the

analysing

carried

it

this

of

the
hypnagogia.

studying

prevents

and

be

only

will
is

depths

the

speak,

though

picture
This

in

took

what

typifies

se,

then

and

recollected

in

researchers

fascination

to

so

latter

to

many

pp. 543-4)

brink
simply

note
of

here
sleep

preventing

128

however,
aware
brink
brink

tell

to
of

both

of

sleep,

of

sleep

comes
imagery

he

that

aware
found

that

these

images;

when

or

fact

lysis"

it

realizes

the

"the

by

to

returns

employing

he

logic'

the

have

when

so only

(this

is

point

seen
It

judgements
As

argued
by

longed
This

are

would,

A certain

clearly,

observation
active

mode.

which

to

appear

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In

reference

during

his

and

of
to

that

already
may be
to

a switch

use

imply

observation

of
the
is

wakefulness

in

relation

induced
it

to

the

pro-

and
unfold.

mode.

receptive
mode

such

application
not

value

such

an end.

at

terms

to

of

which

concerning

logic:

appears

when

allowing

his

hypnagogia.

in

chapter

reason

to

hypnagogic

while

view

the

re-

waking

of

he

case

reflecting,

point

thus

experthe

either

by

from

he

having

of

of

is

the

however,

The

a later

in

may arise

because

mainly

employed

the

require

confusion

for

the

state

hypnagogia
it,

a few

either

the

hypnagogia

earlier,

accepting

has

is,

up.

incoherence
from

often

for

this,

judgement

stands

made

sleep

pronounced

this

developed

creativity).

he

into

(analysing,

jddgement

"ana-

an

out

that

mode.

it,

by

says

aware

incoherent

made

asleep

recollects/rehearses

active

and

strangeness

be

to

'waking

a value

couldn't

The

wakes

imagery

it.

that

becomes

he

experience

carrying

memorising

p. 26)

the

prior

'fascinated'

himself

thus

the

falling

of

my consciousness

or

on

Poe,

the

once

either

and

and

becoming

consciousness
is
moments

that

He realizes

had,

i. e.,

hearsing),

could

wakefulness,

of

just

and

experience
is

that

wakefulness

has

he

ience

he

drifted

just

fact

view

of

point

sleep

he became

incoherent".

become

moment

has

he

of

process

from

on

immediately
case

natural

rehearsing
(1935,
Archer

that

i. e.,

is

aware of
he is
that

the

also

him

becomes

In

seem

or

Likewise,

he

sleep

of

state)

being

of

of

brink

the

prevented

of

seconds

in

induced

the

which

would

(either

appeared

the

he

that

versa,

vice

images.

on

it

moment

brink

the

on

the
or

hypnagogic

having

in

is

awareness

easy,

simultaneously

fact

his

at

always

is

the

and

that

or

not

a subject

imagery

the

is

It

asleep.
whether

hypnagogic

the

to

falling

from

himself

singularly

is

as
of

the
an

129

and

is

above,

suggested

the

receptive

itself
one

of

imagery

can

long

as

the

(cf:

sets
he

was

consciously

are

"waking

dreams"
the

when,

ction

p. 28)

state
full

retains

believe

in

the

tions",

he

states

ience.

Hypnagogic

as

any

of

'full

dream

his

sometimes
of

stage

'observes'

having
ation
this

images

The

suspended
from Archer

and

his

He recounts

tally

symptoms

of

whereas

imagery

p. 45)
that

in

one

does

my exper-

to

me as

of

a cessation

real
be

only

his

all

hypnaThus,

stage.

dreaming

(latter

on

occasions

other

perfect

consciousness
Another

throw
day

not

sensa-

or

with

faculty".
should

the
mind

can

of

"regulative

(ib.,

it

are

that

"in
the

contradiction

is

of

contradi-

images

not

(p. 44).

that

itself;

latter

pro-

sleep,

irrespective

hypnagogia)
flow

and

lumps

consciousness

and

the

mind"

saying

Archer

that

together

3 of

are

that

apparent

pictures

and

conditions

throughout,
and

an

does
or

we realise

these

fantastic

"this

constraining

waking

of

the

of

that

the

problem.

a nap

waking

consciousness

experiences

part

between

experience,

when

the

? aury's

"the

"dream-activity

or

against

reality

of

under

into

enters

says

guard"

phenomena"

of

he

criti-

appearance

conscious

p. 41)

consciousness"'.

resolved
gogic

(ib.,

arguing

intermediate
still

the

out
and

when

its

off
is

unfolding

carried

this

"removal

observation

(ib.,

Archer

p. lO7:

studying

under

ceeding

is

the

not

their

make

That

judgement

to

It
controls").
"I was perfectly

say

is

points

established

observe

suspends

faculty
1911,

and

can

one

confines

individual.

an

observing

p. 50)

regulative

has

and

phenomena

Hollingworth

that

as

(1935,

hypnagogic
the

mental

he

long

Moreover,

the

within

in

activity

and

'wakefulness'

of

latter

the

once

it.

of

possible

hypnagogia

so

the

moment

are

in

so

concentration

degree

a certain

mode

Archer

that

aspect

remain

analytically,
cism.

a receptive

a conscious

as

is,

As with

arousal

sympathetic

of

mode.

active

there

attention,
as

the

of

attribute

after

more

quot-

light

lunch

on
he

that

I woke so far as to know perfectly


where I was,
and to be aware of the passage of time;
yet my
dream went on parallel,
to my waking
as it were,
consciousness
people
continued
to say
- imaginary

had

130
by

do
things,
quite
uncontrolled
and
for
Thus I was able,
an appreciable
time
a minute,
or even
- perhaps
dreaming.
watch
myself

1935,

(Archer
We can
form

that

attention

is

the
he

that

he

dream

is

is

is,

to

which

of

mode

have

switched

to

argue

that

Maury's

"full

did

images

fantastic
aware,

like

realm,

a realm

Archer,
that

to

imply

essarily

1933,

(Leroy

that

wherein

their

reality

Indeed,

one

and

unfold
is

to

are

need

This
above

is

in

borne

in

one

takes

and

background

it

in

with

by

be

in

the

physical

images
nec-

not

stages

nightmares,

and,

existence
them,

analyse

is

they

so

will
here

important
consciousness,
imagery,

of

in

environment

another

unquestionable.

a physical
Edmunds'(1968,
p. 250)
will

to

latter

hypnagogic

their

continue

he was

does
'unreal'

What

awake

as

the

as

concentration,
flow
the
with

the

reality

dismissed

and

"full
of

far

environment

temporarily

the

under
his

that

becomes

also

should

physical

seen

(he

dream

e.,

so

the
he

had

reality

recognition

can

dissect

by

belonged

in

imagery
the

only

acknowledge

being

out

the

the

particular

attention,

with

that

Thus,

This

concerned

secondarily

are

and

will:

(i.

that

shows

the

it

images

physical

dream

operated

in

'observation'.

that

primarily

The

they

not

permit

note

coexist

only

does

he

as

can

p. 125).
and

long

these

one's

hypnagogia,

of

that

p. 344).

belong

do not

his

mode).

believe

sensations"

it

terminated

that

and

his

fascinated

by

active

merely

operating

still

some

ongoing

as

consciousness"

"not

or

1938,

(Isakower

the

in

longer:

the

on

still

have

conditions

consciousness")

any

degree,

he would

similar

asleep

uncontrolled

would

or

however,,

is

which

a certain

will

He is,

importance

great

is

Archer

concentrated

continues

his

p. 45)

quotation

fully

not

receptive

employed

same

this

primarily

This

activity.
is

in

double-consciousness.

of

conscious

it

that

see

my will.
space
of
more - to

to
"in

and

only

environment.
observation

flow

so

long

a rather

as
vague

fashion".

can be argued

that

hypnagogic

this
observed
and explored
and that
by the subject
hypnagogia
entering

imagery

may be

can only be achieved


by means of physically

131
relaxing

mentally

and

to

hypnagogic

the

dissociation
is,

that

the

hypnagogic

doors

subject

'transfers'

of

do

to

any

so

or

(e. g.,

loud

the

long

so
for

search

as

conscious

AND

In

first

this

in

part
nature

They

were
the

all

has

gation
jective

been

the

search

The

best

visual

sensory

grammatical

the

of

expression

their

of

duration,

in

of

of

their

differ
much

from
more

they

ordinary
vivid,

the

also

of

analysis

of
the

gigantic

images

of

memory

detailed,

those

of

characterized

diffused

brevity
quality

the

Although
in

and

sub-

induction,

detail,

and

appear

minute

are

are

illumination,
subject.

of

and

these

by

investi-

Their

correlates.

clarity

colour,

variety

involving

phenomena

whole,

in

common

a great

physiological

autonomy,

vividness

size,

quite

of

carried

was

and

means

hypnagogic

in

be

to

the

of

experimentation

On the

impart

they

by

possible

externality,

be

to

mechanisms.

out

researched

'internality'

examination

modalities

speech

modality.

by

being

active

an

phenomena

found

controlled
for

an

found

also

carried

reports,

paper

were

and

motor-kinesthetic

They

take

also

towards

for

brought

is

can

of

hypnagogic

of

latter

in

occurring

minute

volume

ONE:

PART

the

of

the

which

incidence.

reality

of

drawn

concern

CONCLUSIONS-OF

and

occurrence

and

decides

subject

hypnagogia

not

is

ideas.

SUMMARY

the

the

generation

intellectual

or

abstract

and

is

which

of

attention

reporting

verbal

conversation,

all

active

a door)

of

attention

words,

structures,

out

banging

Music,

increase

a sudden

Simultaneous

an end.

place

of

along

may operate

etc.,

because

either

because

systems,

hear

if

observed,
the

to

awareness

traffic,
events:

them

of

his

of

may be

consciousness,

closing,

background

as

a form

automatism

he may

receptive

primaryattention

sensori-motor

i. e.,

the

constitutes

of

his

automatic

and

opening

drawn

to

a degree

kind

register

This

while

to

switching

mode-paying

wherein

independently,

almost

to

this

reality.

reality

some

with

in

remaining

and

mode,

thus

and

of

sense

usually
proportions.
and
and

fancy

in

they

do

132
not

blend

with

with

the

them

latter

content

includes

designs,

faces,

nature

scenes,

Other,

bipolar,

offered

most

are

scenes

with
dimensions

which

familiar,

and

ing,
izable

names,

pompous

-conversations,
to one's
responses
whole

quently,

poems

kind,

auditory

their

externality,
tactile,

thetic,
thetic
feeling

outline),

a variety

visual

image
Like

This

includes

iences,

ments

onset

than

phenomena

ones.

of

the

apparently

or

rate,
thorax,

by

is

state

a fall

slowing
lowering

and

by

in

the

the

the

of

and

the

swelling
of

the

seeing

body

the

through

coursing

of

hypnopompic

the
the

sensory
the

are

less

speech

subject.
(sleep

pressure,

experhas

subject
commonly
that

at

which
stateis

onset)
of

from

repor-

occurs

irrelevant

slowing

respiration

blood

modalities.

phenomenon
or

var-

anticipatory

after

tonus,

muscle

shift

synes-

blurring

An experience

hypnagogia

of

numbness

nonsensical
made

kines-

and
falling,

jerks,

dreams,

of

sleep
of

by

somesthetic,

tastes,

all

experiences

responses
Physiologically,

terized

in

Hypnopompic

ends

visual

characterized

(e. g.,

occurring

onset

fre-

Less

the

olfactory,

phenomena,

occurs

meaning-

a sound.

continuations

and

awoken.

to

to

vividness.

cold

and

response

sleep

are

disturbances

smells

hypnagogia

of

consists

in

the

iety

both

of

unrecogn-

moment.

include

or

ring-

oneself,

As with

touched,

heat

of

the

of

references
to

as myoclonic

being

schema

a sense

body,

ted

is

one

hearing

containing

gustatory,

such

body

other

and

and

thermal,

that

a doorbell

phenomena

phenomena

experiences

called,

of

autonomy,

hypnagogic

Other

the

composed.

hypnagogic

phenomena.

include

directed

thoughts
are

a four-

quotations,

remarks

been

perseverative,

sentences

nonsense,

spoken
ful

being

name

irrelevant

neologisms,

in

hypnagogic

phenomena

one's

writing.
have

reproductive,
visual

hypnagogic

and

accommodated

comprising

noises,

print

lights),

and
objects,

classification

be

can

unfamiliar

Auditory
crashing

of

clouds

inanimate

and

people,

by

classification

(colour

animate

inject

to

attempts

Their

images

figures,

of

when

made.

formless

arrangement

group

images

ordinary

characheart

the

abdomen

increase

of

to

133
insensible

perspiration
temperature,

rectal

EEG from

shift

of

brain

wave

low

logical

measurements

decline

in

of

frequency

in

the
the

Although

cushioned

gogium'

both

dreaming,

of

physical

between

full

wakefulness

hypnagogic
On the

used

phenomena

by

stage.

to

frequent

the

to

seems

which
its

external

for

decline

affect

word

argued

it
of

in

the

'regressive'

characto

by

of

readthe

significance
of

understanding

an

of

characteristic

at

experadequate
instant

a given

the

and

mentation
increase

the

the

out

pointed

also

with

mentation,

an

felt)

hypnagogic

as

a feature

engaging

the

on

section
may be
It

connotations.

pejorative

way

is

halluci-

in

experience.
As

view

grouping

a hallucinatory

have

concomitant

that

its

hypnagogic

defining

(or

workers
of

character
of

natory
the

Many

for

stimuli),

i. e.,

thought

of

level

with

the

hypnagogic

suggested

'autosymbolically'

forth
is

what
symbol
in hypnagogia.
regressive

is

consisting

susceptibility

awareness

an

studies

hypnagogia

internal

or

sleep

to

physiological

phenomenon,

puts

are

consists
I

and

subject

which

and

a reference

into

of

the

equip

autosymbolic
which

the
and

it

in

and

symbolism

ience

as

stimuli

presence

the

'hypna-

pure

relaxation

attitude
on

incorporate

in

rise

relaxation

level

receptive

sensitivity

awareness

state

components,

be

suggestions
to

mere

might

its

and

physiological

and

that

mind

fora

a progressive

from

in

(paralleled

iness

is

cognitive-affective

by

terized

reports

stretch

dimension

this

a steady

measurements

above

argued

psychological

and

with

On awakening

have

Bearing

dreaming.

physio-

a steady

writers

hypnagogia

which

stages

the

slower

direction.

subjective

that

indicate

correlate

and

of

opposite
some

These

experiences.

values

to

control

circumstances,

(hypnopompic),
changed

to

movements,

activity

volitional

hallucinatory

of

eye

rhythm).

found

subject's

immediate

his

(theta
are

slow

fast

amplitude

frequencies

the

of

appearance

in

fall

temperature,

skin

and

of
world

the

"Regressivity"
biased

a rather
is,

thus,

receptive
distinct

more
mode

from

the

(chapter
term

carrying

appropriate
which
active,

7)

is

to
another

134
hypnagogia

analytic,

mode.

Indeed,

transpire

in

receptive

the
level

physiological
the

in

fically,

this

for

conditions

control
respect,

it

is

towards
latter's

the

increases

environment
These
same features

hypnagogic

attitude

ational'

the

imagery.

and

Speci-

that

'convers-

both

imagery

hypnagogic

occurrence

induction,

the

suggested

one's

boundaries

ego

attention.

as

on

mental

and

physical

and

internalization-

of

and

prolongation,

it

renders

amenable

control.
The

of

out

of

sensitivity,

passive-absorbed

pointed

also

the

of

subjectification
(empathy),
are

by openness,

typified

the

on

predominance

a loosening

by

to

appears

characterized

mode,

parasympathetic

side

psychological

(LEB)

to

by

a whole

as

the

rather

hypnagogic

of

control

and

To begin

justified.

induction

the

ation,

the

requires
mentally,

the

since

of

to

imagery

hypna-

of

relax-

of

let

of

prove

might

properly

more

occurrence

i. e.,

relax,

prolongation,

be

now

analysis

psychophysical

hypnagogic

of

alone

which

can

presence

subject

induction,

the

imagery

with,
the

necessitates

gogia

for

conducive

conditions

the

on

placed

stress

considerable

necessity
and

go physically
health

great

value

the subject
Second,
the LEB renders
more
subject.
loosening
its
by
stricof existing
of
virtue
accepting
to the subject
It also makes available
a mode of
tures.
his
wakeful
of
within
reach
normally
not
experiencing
to

the

Third,

mind.
ery

both

trol

the

which
tioning

participating

in,

in

a unique

subject
the

within

thus

gain

lete,

and

pinning

of

ground

analytic,

which

as

logical,

and

the

ontogenetically

is

by

constitute
in

essential
active

mode.

subject

mental
no means

nature
obso-

a fundamental
to

addition

counterpart

Func-

sleep.

hypnagogic

old,

thought,

imagery

consciousness

of

adult
an

of

his

may

all

state

of

fact

con-

hypnagogic
own

his

mode

them,

acquiring

an aspect

in

into

Fourth,

wakefulness

receptive

knowledge

although

which,

both

from

gain

his

of

accepting

insight

nature.

own mental

distinct

is

him

helps

become

to

imag-

hypnagogic

the

prolonging

subject

and

his
and

of,

places

may

requires

into

i. e.,

of

method
the

processes

mental

own

the

to

the

holding
conscious,

underits

135
the

Finally,

so

carried

out

namely,

that

may occur

lead

sleep,

may

logically
experiences.

has

to
open

with

observation
be seen
will
phenomena,

far

in

Part

do not

Although

eyes.

properly

2 that

which,
render

hypnagogia

a number

the
dd not

however,

from

important

of

undertaken
lead

states,,

visions
of

in
of

occurrence

or

always

discussion

Part

this
3,

hypnagogic
into

eventually

indistinguishable
other

problem,

hypnagogic

Moreover,

sleep.

hypnagogia

of

nature

experiences

be more

will

the

a very

raised

hypnagogic

necessarily

of

examination

phenomenoprocesses,

and

it

PART TWO

HYPNAGOGIA
STATES,

AND

ITS

RELATIONSHIP

PROCESSES

AND

TO OTHER

EXPERIENCES

INTRODUCTION:

In

this

to

psychological

other
this

and

those

of

hypnagogia

the

shall

they

of

a number

imagery,

sleep

in

Conversely,
and

processes,

and

theories

shall

at

least

in

induced,

is

hypnagogia
(or

daily

once

states
data

existing

light

more

shed

which

in

in

hypnagogia,
The

conditions,

experimental
in
essence
natural

it

makes

rather

than

the

terms

of

use

logical'

certain

when

mality

arose

which

applied
within

research

connote

out,

pointed
following
pire

in

and

terms

and

part
a

taken

as

of

'reality'
employed

which

they
further

be

will
the

paper,

different
to

describe

-137-

are

been

studied

as

argued

hyphagogic
from
them

that
being

instance,

for
'para-

an abnorterms

merely

and

earlier
they

indicate

both
the

kind

As already

coined.

were

abnormal
it
consider

implying

they

well

that

and

as

hypnagogia,

orientations

within

reality

not

be

than

systematically

more

as

have

being

Thus,

such

that

areas

consi-

under

to

sense

unnatural.

hypnagogia:

to

as

well

'psychotic'

should

mentation

be

will

rationale

as

or

processes

experiences,

nature.

occurs

a phenomenon

encountered

phenomena

unusual

occur

also

hypnagogic

as

nightly),

enter

we all

state

naturally,

of

eidetic

these

the

to

'natural'

and

abnormal

states

dered

and

to

of

latter

these

concerning

Since

if

myself

avail

photic,

former.

the

and

viz.,

scintillations.

hypnagogia

relating

in

perceptual

states,

dream

and

on

experiences,

stimulation,

electrical

deprivation

manner

light

creativity,

induced

direct

and

current

the

encountered

and

psi,

meditation,

character

realities

throw

and

processes

of
and

attitudes

hallucinogenic-drug

isolation,

the

in

carrying

observations

kind

the

themselves

cognitive

states,

other

preceding

conceptually,

and

dreams,

hypnosis,

on

find

operate

to

clues

In

concerning

part

it

relating

experiences.
the

that

the

expand

of

process

and

this

may provide

phenomenology

pulse

in

further

shall

the

argue

individuals

which

in
states

be made

to

'abnormal'
in

task

out

paper

hypnagogia

of

examination

the

of

part

in

this

and

trans-

experiences
of

the

wakefulness,
coined

in

the

138

latter

to

referring
their

invariably

therefore,

are,

hypnagogia
and

connotations

such
taken

Thus,

evaluative.

terms

should

merely

as

when

be

stripped
descriptive
of

of

phenomena.
shall

begin

other

states

and

believe

as
tate
if
their

it

my comparison

would

an understanding
attention
obvious

a considerable
on the feature

is

drawn

presence
stress
of

by

processes

enlightening,

of

the

to

certain

has

it

relating

be

in

hypnagogia

of

features

auto-suggestibility

laid

in

these
to

further

operandi

hypnagogia,
been

first

and

modus

to

of
of

hypnosis,
facili-

hypnagogia,

hypnosis

and

especially

since

earlier

arguments

in

the

latter

state.

runDmrn

HYPNOSIS:

the

Indeed,
is

nosis

close

(muscular,
letting

self,

subject's
(in
ment

go,

the

the

two

(1961)

the

case

hypnosis

of

becoming

voice),

noted,

are
in

it

even

more

centres
the

more

and
the

their

(quieting

both

more

on pro-

physical

aspect
In

cases
the
on

onethe
environthe

internalised.
between

similarities
As Gill

striking.

hyp-

and
of

from
withdrawn
is concentrated

side

cognitive-experiential.
states

both

probasleep.

hypnagogia

worry).

gradually

we fall

as

both

of

it

thought

similarities

mental

to

ceasing
is

the

embraces

and

attention

hypnotist's
On the

which

autonomic)

state

induction

The

relaxation

gressive

in

observable

stages.

p. 106)

between

relationship

clearly

successive

1979b,

a hypnotic

we go through

that

able

(McKellar

James

William

and

Brenman

hypnosis,

departure
from
we see a significant
normal,
waking
instead
logical
of relatively
modes of thought:
stable,
for
kind
the most part
of thought
which
employs
fluid,
the
material
we
see
words
as its
emergence
of
forms
images
which
often
archaic
employ
visual
and
forms
do not follow
the
which
as material,
symbols
of logic,
rules
and which
moreover
ordinary
are not
limitations
bound
to realistic
of time
and space.
(Gill
Similarly,

P.

Sheehan

(1979)

points

and
out

Brenman

1961,

pp. 57-8)

that

in
to temporarily
The capacity
relinquish
reality
hypnosis
to a regression
to the kind
corresponds
of
functioning
the flow
that
may facilitate
of prelogical
ideational
With
the loss
processes;....
of this
between
the distinction
reality
orientation,
and imagination
fades,
modes of thought
and primary
process
to flow
and fantasy
more
are allowed
such as imagery
into
The new orientation
is
that
awareness.
easily
by the flow
process
can
of primary
material
created
be expected
to show some of the qualities
of the dream
hypnosis,
then,
a greater
may involve
state;
concern
internal
does
than
than
usual
mental
processes
with
the waking
imagery,
as a result,
vivid
state,
and,
hallucinations,
fantasies,
and dreamlike
phenomena
may more easily
occur.
(Sheehan

-139-

1979,

p. 94).

140
Kubie
hypnotic

the

Margolin

and

process

and

from

each

differ

argued,

as
psychologically
hypnotist
subject,
induction

of

is

there

tain

a gradual

between
In

world.

the

hypnotist.

the

and

relationships

elimination

for

they

physiologically

external

except

with

contact

the

between
These,

state.

both

in

the

and

hypnotic

the

as

a distinction

made

other

well

relationships

motor

(1944b)

one

the

of

sensori-

all
to

required

They

process

further

mainthat

argue

Ontogenetically
the hypnotic
process
can be viewed
in that
it
as a phenomenon
of regression
approaches
the sensori-motor
in the first
state
of an infant
Naturally,
in the hypnotic
weeks of life.
process
divest
this
itself
regression
cannot
completely
of
has been acquired
that
all
but the
subsequently;
later
is channelled
of all
expression
experiences
this
through
earlier
According
mechanism.
to this
description,
the onset
of the hypnotic
state
can be
defined
as a condition
of partial
sleep.
(Kubie
In

this

from

indistinguishable
as

the

subject's

The

hypnotist's

the

subject's

are

the

my analysis
incorporated

infancy

the

infant

is

as
between

that

information

perceptual

channel

preexisting

central

impressions

become

the

past

relevant
ible
for
tile,

the

and
to

instance,
olfactory,

the

an

to

as

and

Ego

(e. g.

pathways
part
of
immediate

of

auditory
other

which
is

the

be

to

as much

outer

in

hypnagogic
image
sensory

so

it

experiences

acquires
qualities

part

of

"the

Ego

one

integrated

fused.

that

present

through

experience
are

a psych-

world
and as
(ib.,
p. 612),

organism

a unified
present

stim-

creates

association

discussion
of

strikingly
external

becomes

auditory)

of

promental
hypnotic
condition

this

Present"

the

p. 612).

extension

is

assumed

to

become
endogenous

Moreover,

as

p. 611).

ongoing

breast

both

an

wherein
to

that

entering

and

(ib.,

subject's
refer

Past

(a)

feelings"

Ego boundaries"

my present

explanations

as

This

own mouth.

Ego

is,

that

in

blurred

are

seemingly

hypnagogia

of

mother's

his

stimuli

process.

analogous

when

boundaries
to

of

and

1944b,

incoming

experienced

Margolin

and

state

ological
in

is

own psychic

"dissolution

self,

thoughts

voice

Kubie

cesses.
as

own

the

the

to

similar
uli

"...

condition,

Margolin

and

visual

with

that

new

in

which
is
This
suggests
in

posswhich,

form,
(e. g.,

tacArnold-

141
1921;

Forster

feeling

the

experienced

spatial

in

hypnagogia,

The

further

the

induction

rent

suggestibility

of

sity

of

omenon

the

which
of

hypnagogic

reverie"

ted

intensity"

with

to

lessened

"the

compatible

with

and

perceptions

and

background
they

ground

to

his

ability

and

Margolin

distance

receptors

thetic
influences

and

vividness"

(ib.,

these

hypnagogic

hypnagogic
in

repression
against

their

observation
of

all

sensorial
(e. g.

physiological
evidence
More
basic

(e. g.

physiological

need

to

make

themselves
of

elements

they

et

Kubie

in
there

in

al

1967)

kinaesrepressive

exceptional

on

that

dreams

some

form

of

(see

argu-

20)
chapter
is a heighten-

agreement
and

with

place

evident

is

hypna-

disagree

from

hypnagogia

projective

and

would

'censor'

the

in

with

escape

the

customary

all

the

states

tactile

(b)

Kubie

auditory),

experienced

with

both

psychological

1921).

Arnold-Forster

important,

and

back-

the

lessens

of

namely,

Ornitz

a vague

and

dream

experiences,

in

sensations
in

those

Although

presence
that

in

actual

highly

Interestingly,

slant

to

order

is

fascination

psychoanalytic

imagery

the

ments
ing

the

and

imagery,

escape
are

p. 613).
on

dreams
and

therefore

writers

the

due

with

"in

further

gustatory,

likewise

can

memories

is

concurrent

"whereas

that

"undilu-

the

comparisons

and

moments

imbued

the

that

memories

during

that

perceived

appainten-

the

and

mind

are

(a)

are

olfactory,

reveries,

gogic

images

phen-

the

and

argument

that

intense

nuclear

both

and

latter

exclusively
almost
(i. e.,
visual

are

the

restriction

the

the

comparisons.
out

"the

is

make

absorption

point

data

sensory

to

and

more

make

at

images

such

hypnagogia

subject's

subject

p. 613),

The

the

the

that

through

(ib.,

fashion"
are

hypnagogic

flow

observations
in

of

the

of

opportunity

sensations".

that

passivity,

automatic

which

concurrent

feeling

explains

process,

may

subsequently

the

which

components

sensory

generally

of

argue

relationships,

sensori-motor
of

front

in

of

now.

writers

above

is,

that

(b)

and

immediacy

temporal

and

and

1948)

Vihvelin

unfolds

here

time,

present

1965;

of

imagery

hypnagogic

of

Silberer

and

prerequisite

Margolin
for

argue
the

that

induction

the
of

the

142
hypnotic
atory

focus

areas

of

dent

in

stimulus

they

14),

they

(Kubie

alertness

"fixing

subjects
input
ual

The

to

and

"this

the

induction

upon

physiological
in

created

ness
mally

the

which

only
the

of

eye

voice
"in

inhibition

which

adjusts

activities

of

both
the

vis-

oculo-motor

a relevant

the

also

a basic

is

seen

by

eye",
and

motor

variegated
depend"

human

the

the

on

is

the

sensory
p. 614).

(ib.,

in

factor

is

the

by

a diminution
in
and
stimulus

but

intensity"

a similar
(ib.,

rightly

point

out

"sensory

logical

prerequisites

to

all

in

the

responses

of

p. 614).

'sensory

conshas

which

adaptation

subjective
which
of

stimulus

as

"a

adaptation

a stimulus

sensory

both
the

known

Sensory

discontinuous

as

writers

phenomenon

Psychologically,

with

these

role.

by

associated

fluctuating

human

In

a droning

organ

receptor

rhythm....

of

general

hears

initiating

the

any

intensity

manifested

of

sees

a minimum

of monotony
in which
fact

plays

adaptation'

which

hypnagogia.

factor

The

animal's

The

Ego boundaries

which

an

monotone.

restriction
to

hypno-

the

exploring

and

immobilization
of

constant

turn,

In

reduces

apparatus

reduces

side

constrasts
As we know,

tant

its

in

roving

ear

with
impulses

spot

inhibition

relative

simultaneous

sensory

is

the

as

deprivation

a state
p. 614).

a single

on

continuous

sensori-motor

entire

body

eye

causes,

apparatus
the

the

just

spot;

sound".

or

and

to

(chapter

results.

interference

an

or investigatory
in maintaining
1944b,
Margolin

a low,

to

one

only

is

contribute

sensory

similar

yield

exploratory
to be basic

thought

are

they

present,

see

in

rhythmical.

state

they

factors

depen-

monotonous

are

As we shall

basic

the

also

is

or

and

is,

that

immobility

human's

or

is

hypnagogia.

(b)

hypnagogic

the

surrounding

this

continuous

during

of

induction

turn,

related

closely

hypnagogic,

wherein

experiments
tic

are

excit-

with

and

either

are

are

In

immobilization

another,

induction

system,

nervous

intensity,

or

a concentrated

of

processes.

relative
low

form

indeed,
the

central

factors

two

one

the

(a)
of

These

formation

the

non-excitatory

upon

in

is

state

are

awarenor-

perceptibly

As

these

adaptation

is

one

sleeplike

or

authors

of the physiohypnoidal
states",

143
latter

the

of

one

The

to

writers

same

induction

of

of

of

attitude

the

expectancy
is
occur,

to

ing

to

to

for

of

centre
his

count

one

two',

Ten

minutes

'in

or

himself

earlier:

And

"not

the

he was
his

of

emergence
was

only

such

of

grey

cloth.

out'"

(Kubie

asked

to

but

white

He was

himself,

to

1943,

pose

matter
images

he was

to

able

had

as

resula child.

from

absent

add

asked

This

himself

quite

two,

the

as

me? "

of

asked

pp. 176-6).
he

with

in

'one

silently,

a question

recall

asked

ring

a small

vivid

"was
breath

on

vivid

of

the

and

patient

gaze

the

use

own amplified

silently

is

listen-

an

the

hypnagogia
His

his

This

deviced

in

reported

data.

likely

a specially
Indeed

of

thoughts,

"What

associations,

usual

in

out,

of

by

pp. 175-6)

sounds

later
point

in

field

breath

starting
ted

a large

is

experimentally

to

his

is,

that

sudden

through

that

remembered

state.

amnesic

focusing

be

1944a).

listening

silent,
while

sounds,
the

repressed

must

expectancy"

hypnagogic

induction

the

secure

the

induced

(1943,

and

creates

or

Margolin

Kubie

turn

expectancy,

breathing

and

stimulus

untoward
of

be

rhythmic

of

remain

nothing

can

apparatus

it

secure

and

a prerequisite

paper

recovery

to

relaxed

(Kubie

earlier

relaxed

respect,

that

one's

apparatus
this

this

security

of

sense

In

in

which

the

and

precursors
the

endows

predictability,

state.

rhythm

important

are
rhythm

of

that

out

point

steady

attitude

an unconscious
(ib.,
p. 615).
an

"a

hypnagogic

the

course,

adaptation

that

a quality

with

of
also

sensory

and

sleep

being,

certain

his

new

items".
A point

that

would

deprivation
on sensory
monotony
made between

be

and

communication

to

Margolin

1944b,

and

the

sense

system

two

- as
cesses,
for
In

organ

the

one

spatially
to

be

extinction
regard

p. 615)

to

and
to

a later
McCulloh

above

writers

in

which

he regards

separated

of

the

the

but

functionally

for

already

known

in

Kubie

and

other
by

principally
the

central

Margolin

to

and

nervous
rhythmicity
like

the

"adaptation

central

and

accounted

in

(Kubie

the

adaptation

discussion

distinction

the
by

rhythmicity

monotony

monotony,

in
is

experiments

personal

of

interest

of

pro-

factors

nervous
system".
draw attention

144
to

the

by

made

observation

1908,1909;

1894;

Sidis

Lovell

and

Morgan

factor

and

of

its

1929;

Jacobson

1942)

investigators

numerous

Kleitman

hypnagogic

the

of

1939;

effect

influence

cumulative

(Bolton

the

on

this

of

organism:

is maintained,
The longer
the
a state
of monotony
is
in the peripheral
the minimal
change
greater
stimis
to disrupt
the state
which
required
ulus
of sensory
Sustained
monotony
adaptation....
produces
a state
de-afferentation
of the cortex
of functional
comparable
in Bremer's
to that
which
was produced
surgically
(1937)
demonstration
that
experimental
when high
section
and section
of the cranial
cervical
nerves
the cerebrum
deprives
influences,
of all
afferent
the cortex
yields
electrical
activity
potentials
in sleep.
identical
those
with
obtained
(Kubie
The
of

the

is

to

by

the

of

reduction
to

leads

a focus
excitation

of

also
bolic

that
(functional

and

latter

it

that

activity

the

the

and
becoming

by

cortical

in

this

nonrespect

for

the

production

to

cycle,

cortical

sur-

a necessary

that

and
of

posits

the

is

limitation
all

phenomenon

that
monotony
p. 54) remark
(i. e.,
the induction
of sleep

hypnagogia)

help

may
of

chapter

stimulation

Interesting

inhibition.

and

induction

a later

surrounded

excitation

),

(1909,

Sidis'

condition

in

activation

'higher'

excitation
inhibition:
in

or

of

(b)

central

sensory

reduction

central
or

of

a hypnagogic

to subcortical
of

of

) and

from

the

as

well

occurring

etc.

shift

that

argued

effects

those

great

brings

as

(subcortical

ones

a focus
be

will

a critical

a switch

or

non-excitation

is

deafferentation)

occurring

psi,

of

(a)

a state

p. 616).

stimu-

is

monotony

(e. g.,

argument

1944b,

of

such

switch
' lower'

of

it

sensory

meditation,

requires

respect,

of

sonsciousness

an earlier

areas

effects

spontaneously

to

state

deafferentation

sustained

a physiological

hypnotic
rounded

the

deprivation,

centres(cortical)
in with
tie

is

of

of

states

points

of

occuiFence

a number

sensory

same

the

as

induced

of

through

created

importance,
together

a state

(reduction

cortex

lation)

in

that

remark

and Margolin
functional

the

field

a greater
that
that

"limitation
of

consciousness
In

monotony".

is
sleep
it
takes

voluntary

of

the

anabolic

place

when

and
the

same

phase
stimulus

activity,
inhibition
paper
of

Sidis

a metathresholds

145

are

above

becomes

levels

the

non-reactive
("stimulus

lation

the

hypnotic

the

to

if

is

fulfilled,
the

this

way,

to

have

a complex

layers
of
tion

for

take

place

in

hypnotist
in

the

to

abate

his

induction

the

the

in

subject
the

sensory

cannot
anxiety,
an

examination

it

becomes

sine

an

emotional

it

become

possible

be

methods

(ib.,

doze"
is

subject

this

diffuse

conscious
and

in

a state
or

non

condinever

The
state
him

for

alertness

allow

and
and

state

or

unconcious".

of

used

goal

can

"a

techniques

the

security.

p. 617)

else

unconscious

latter

of

of

either

is

creation
would

"To

qua

the

comes

forms.

deepest

"the
which

will

stimuli

state

of

avoided,

alertness.

the

a sense

or

tension,

the

also

never

signal

of

the

evident

same

latter

hypnagogia:

to

of

to

of

sentinels

whether

the

painful

is

attitude

if

overcome

implies

stimuli

it

is

be

exteroceptive
in all
animal

fac-

of

"Thus,

'promise'

to

The

normal

happen

a number

absence

for

aims

response

expected

reaches

for

the

personality.
"

p. 617)

an organism.

and

from

that

induction

(1944b,

of

such

a retreat

hypnotist...

the

reversed

from

security
the

of

the

significance

attention

of

if

on

cannot

attentiveness

or

of

finally

instead

In

a sense

stimu-

the

necessary

life

or

pain

in

dependent

the

may become

satiation,

a receptor

monotonous

Margolin

and

is

in

drowsiness"

withdraw

of

alertness

satiated,

if

or

reaction

induce

of

of

signals

animal

an

that

and

factors

Kubie

experiences

and

a result

emotional

state

exteroceptive

tors

as

state

the

that

argue

perception,

exhaustion").

Discussing
of

of

this

anger

or
From

by

hypnotists

that

diminution
the progressive
of the internal
responses
that
to sensory
reduces
automatically
signals
share
depends
internal
inflow.
tension
upon sensory
which
of
to reduce
to become able
this
But in order
attenalert
to the warning
tiveness
which
signals
sensory
stimuli
feel
individual
must
at least
an
provide,
as secure
feels
to bed....
when he retires
as he ordinarily
in the subject
The hypnotist
must somehow induce
a
identical
from disturbing
freedom
the
affects,
with
the approach
signals
to
relaxation
which
emotional
sleep.
normal
(Kubie

and

Margolin

1944b,

p. 617).

146
In

with

within

The

hypnotist

him":

of

been

discussed

with

the

in

increased

there

stage

2 of

Also,

as

sleep,

long

it

as
For

subject

kinds

both

visual

sounds

may be

of

which

they

although

the
on

them

'sleep

bounds

learning'.

hypnagogia

of

the

from

receptive

front

him,

outside

But,

external

to

the

percipient,

dependent

on

his

intellectual-emotive

disappear

the

will

i. e.,

his

turns

becomes

or

else)

subject.

he

moment
active

the

of

'contemplative'

the

of

part

of

in

a certain

suggest

as

degree

in

appear

coming

far

appear

anywhere

or

heard

It

as

possible

the

oneself

hypnopedia.

on

mode,

active

to

a certain

is

along

respect

to

chapter,

the

7,

attitude

they

attitude:

chapter
to

images

might

entirely

are

of

has

stretching

with

place

parallels

hypnagogia

conducive

same

altered

of

relation

hypno-

carries

clear

in

along
p. 621).

an

have

both

activity

takes

objectifying,
images

the

instance,

and

acquires

section

highly

cortical

expansion-or

mode.

in

subject

hypnagogia,

was

argued

the

the

of
(ib.,

remarks

first

that

boundaries

boundaries

subject

suggestibility
in
and

observed

ego

image

incorporability

the

(auto-suggestibility)

so

the
These

The

hypnagogia.

there

which

something

pp. 618-9).

(ib.,

was

expanded

"becomes

inside

around

newly

subject's

is

state

a fragmentary

of

these

tist

hypnotic

the

of

incorporation

an

in

developed

reexpansion

partial

Ego

fully

the

these

to

switches
fearful

angry,

(either

on

attention

or

anxious.
important

The

i. e.,

external,

appears

the

subject's

will,

blurred.

Perceptions,
it

localized:

is
In

dissolved.
already
gation,

diminution,

consciousness

One sees

appears.
of

zation
there

is

binocular),

seeing
no

and

nose

images
In

eye

are

seeing,

blinking,

the
are
clearly

not

have

pathways

as

occur,

elon-

deepens

diminishes
but

object

boundaries

ego

(swelling,

convergence
no

of

hypnagogia

of

As hypnagogia

hearing.

shadow,

and

disturbances

hears

no

independent

perceptual

sensations

and

focusing,
no

schema
etc. ).

tactile

of

the

the

although

heightened,

stages

early

body

noted,

body

although
though

that,
and

outside

subject's

as

the

is

here

thing

the

and
is

there
for

dis-

no

locali-

instance,

(vision

is

not

no

to

turn

need

147
the

to
the

or

right

are

visions
the

of

is

These

body

wherein

(1957)

thetic

ones

to

the

that

not

and

a hypnagogist

gist
tion
than

can

never

and

then

the

two
the

that

or

there

that

argue

of

out

appears

the

suggestive
is
image

simply

telling)

its
of
it

stages:
is
ness
this
as

second

significance

and
is

suggestion.

that

argued
deep

the

that

less

us

at

shallower

present
In

regard

this

to

becomes

physical
either

weak

of relaxation
stages
early
followed
1933)
Leroy
(e. g.,

then

a feeling

of

lightness

by
'as

it
the

of

accompanying
hypnagogic

certain
of

significance
of

if

that

it

appears

as

is

in

we saw
might

in

a heavy
has

an
be

level.

lacking.

schema
one

conscioushypnagogia

entirely

body

second
(fore-

identification,
or

the

of

and

there

the

rather

simultaneously,

autosymbolism
ideoretinal
the

body

sugges-

stages

(1972),

Dusen

hypnago-

a continuum

of

recognizable
Van

the

the

awareness

end

might

suggesting

at

then

one

with

remember

what

where

image

emergence

a feeling

by

just

the

emerge

self

which

first

carrying

the

that

that
proposed
section,
in hypnagogia
even at

earlier

gogia

the

encountered

be

another

was

appearance.

alteration

mere

even

case

case

and

the

of

the

there

appears

body',

in

that

image

comes

is

inference,

and

kines-

inference

of

of

and

lacking.

'his

part

suggest

Let

at

awareness

facto

form

appearance

heralded

might

encountered

certain

or

in

which

some

events

gradually

in

and

infancy

including

even

to

said

- suggestion
image
second

link,

awareness

is

was
be

draw:

these

as
in

be

a child

de

imaginal

operate

to

occurring

con-

the

far

so

of

However,

former,

the

thing

only

to

unable

image

hypnagogic

one

is
so.

is

to

sensations,

as

intrinsically

in

thought

are

of

sort

body

physical

the

localization

inferentially

identify

characterize

the

argued,

the

are

justify

assumed

schema

front
is

perhaps,

those

see:

them.

about

hypnagogia

of

and

this

Campbell

As

to

in

always

say

might,

to

schema

outside

objects

can

'regressive'

to

order

localization

their

a subject

similar

and

as

activities

very

appear

all

term

conceptual

and

far

as

considerations

the

of

detailed

in

down

or

up

or

and

and,

that

left

the

sharp

subject,

cerned,

use

to

In
numbness

changes
no

hypna-

body'

and
(e. g.,

148
"I

feel

As

Isakower

light

quite

body

point,

(pp.

344-5)

ego

regression

body

becomes

further

advanced

perceptual

ego

is

and

argues,

messages

separate

is

external,

and

known

as

1921,

p. 151).

menon

is

reports

are

out-of-the-body

a deeper

induced

1962,

Muldoon

by

body

1961)

who make

and

what

dissociation
Arnold-Forster
latter

this

psychics

use

character

are

(e. g.,

and

pheno-

occultists

1965,

Carrington

and

(p. 337)

no longer
hypnagogic/hypnopompic

later,

see

per-

become

internal

world,

complete

As we shall

Ophiel

pp. 76-77,

In

of

the

is

what

outside

which

Isakower

lose

to

the

ego

having

world,

experiences

deliberately

Fox

boundaries

tend

of

of

regression

localization

external

(p. 333).

there

body

stand-

the

function

(p. 339),

body

the

than

and

outside

p. 332).

alterations
first
and

in

sets

that

e.,

the

from

schema

hypnagogia

The

with

distinguishable

(e. g.,

(i.

perceptions

stage

body

e.,

identification

fused

blurred

of

in

follows.

that

ception)

schema

with

concerned

(i.

1938,

a psychoanalytic

dissolution)

to

of

Isakower

from

noted

leading

the

bodiless":

and

hypnagogia

of

1977,

Huson

this

to

end.
thus

We may
mena

those

ble
This,

we saw
to

(1944b)

be

in
of

nature

p. 276)

(1974,
as

ibility".

These

of

aspects
1950)
similar
associated
ciation,

to

add

Tellegen

and

on
of

with

absorption

centring

appears

be

Atkinson's

hypnotic

susceptto

attention
hypnosis

often

refer

affinity

with
(Sarbin

a concept

of

(which

attention
Tellegen

intrinsic

and
to

fact

the

mono-ideism,
by

to

hypnagogic

attention,

have an
which
instance,
White

Braid's

on

interpreted

self-altering

of

area
For

that

which

"Absorption,

draw

Margolin

and

discussion

to

of

resem-

process.
in

characteristics

elaborated

Kubie

presence

also

Absorption".

to
said
development.

its

and

the

by

earlier

component

in

investigators

an

that

writers

of

pheno-

be

and

absorbed

represents

may

hypnotic

the
to

like

would
for

"hypnotic

also

reference

an essential

to

arged

conclusion

a capacity

that

is

absorption
I

experiences,

stages

for

case

we encounter

that

earlier

above,

the

Further,
the

in

occurring

as

hypnagogia

consciousness

of

states

and

in

that

see

very
has

Atkinson);
absorption,

been
dissowas

149
by

assigned

E.

hypnosis.

ation

of

ative

involvement",

point

out,

scales.

Hilgard,
to

we found

writers

also

concept

has

Is

in

they

nature

furthermore,

be

the

case

that

approximate
call

for

Shor's

and

his

the

of

two

Fantasy

the

stronger

Absorption

frequency

of
just

susceptibility,
Absorption".

The

(1962)

of

sense

"imagin-

p. 276)

content
its

explan-

of

(1974,

of

counterpart

"heightened

concept

"the

found

hypnotic

to

to

in

role

Atkinson

that

Absorption

argue
an

and

particularly

be related
to

a central
(1970)

Hilgard's

Tellegen

Reality

the

absorption

J.

factor,

markers,

as

(1965)

corresponds

Absorption

vements

Hilgard

"depth
in

the

of

reality".

latter
trance"

facet

of

invol-

CHAPTER

DREAMS:

In

follows

what

iences
be

in

comparable

Hypnagogic

for

dreams";

they

were
of

geny

suggested
hypnagogial

(1901)

Leroy
had

the

of

two

major
in
stand

groups
so

Archer
them

as

the
e.,

leading

further

of

argued

latter

pp. 26-27)

full-grown

to

spoke
else"

nothing

in

dreams

fact,

should,

in

dreams]

rather

our

drawn

be

the

the

p. 148)

divided

state"

into
which

dreams

no

that
them".

of

emphatically

and

argued

the

fact

than

making";

experiences
between

most

be

e.,

visions

"borderland

to

can

in

constituted

"embraces

which

[i.

state

(1921,

or

embryo-

p. 100)

hypnagogic

and

a relationship

They

dreams

Arnold-Forster

one

and

this

dream";
(1878)

"the

(1911,

catch

of

Maury

(p. 63),

of

the

that

boundary

"dreams

bud.

dreams

hypnagogic

(1935,

from

"differ

that

the

close

defined

clearly

[i.

of

phenomena

can

the

of

for

dreams";

Hollingworth

to

former;

the

former

elements

chaos

dreams"

able

and

origin

same

elements
the

proposed

exper-

the

"the

"the

observation

be

should

latter.

were

of

"careful

that

the

of

(p. 100);

dream"

the

they

"forerunners

the

that

visions

"anticipations

Baillanger

for

in

Gruithuisen

hypnagogic

argue

to

hypnagogic

called

phenomenological

dreams:

as

experiences

Purkinje

and

respects

all

the

between

dreams

nocturnal

and

discuss

shall

similarities

physiological

and

called

they

that
of

being

nipped

'oneiragogic'

'hypnagogic'".

He

that

fashion,
that,
in
begins
dreaming
only
some
such
all
forget
the
dreams
dream
out,
have
to
time
we
we
when
Our meminduction,
the opening
vision
or phrases.
in
dreams
res.
plunges
medias
always
almost
ory of
in some experience
involved
find
We suddenly
ourselves
how
there.
this
idea
But
got
we
with
no
or action,
forgotten
been
have
have
that
what
may
we
means
only
incidents.
long
train
of preceding
a
quite

(Archer,

-150-

1935,

27).
p.

151
As one
in

to

things

out

is

"it

that

gogic

in

present

iences,

to

differentiate

from

imagery,

am awake

specifically

dreaming".

enough

pointed

between

Van

Eigenlicht

and

hypna-

(1972)

Dusen

saw

hypnagogic

to

and

visions

few

Dement

A flash

length.
the

that

a sequence

the

screen

times,

he

Archer,

images,

of

observe

is

one

then

dreaming

Leroy

and

1933;

hallucinations,
themselves

present
which
(1933,

the

subject

pp. 101-105)

(1957,

an

The

If

are

that

of
"it

is

to
Image
here,

a person
into

with

some

question

turn

some-

agreement

[Extra-Temporal

a dream".

without,

discipline,

E. T. I.

imagery

dreams

can

observe

a dream,

is

hypnagogizing?

investigators

Various
1925;

or

Myers

adding

a difficult

definition:

hypnagogic

fragmentary

his

into

of

across

except,

images

dreams,

it
of

image]

hypnagogic
=

course,

find

transition

the

hypnagogic

nocturnal

in

But,

once

passed

not

them

these

all

Not

another

between

ideas".

that

though

possible,

link

is

me.

"are
one

in

phrase

brief,

p.

measurable

picture-palace".

of

sources

main

(1935,

of

brought

following

(e. g.,

once,

process

visions

bits

Archer
never

however

connecting

believes

have

ever

hypnagogic

association

an

has

Hypna-

dreams

called

a nonsense

incidents,

that

any

rule,

or

my cerebral

of
'pure'

are

vision

charac-

be discrete

1957).

a dream

sleep

of

argues

they

of

moment

has

p. 64)

of

exper-

coherence.
to

be

to

"I

hypnagogic

a distinguishing

thought

conceded:
through

in

internal

Kleitman

and

gone

seconds,

thus

to

researchers

not

as

fragmented

too

instance,

for

39),

the

organisation
were

earlier
but

used

and

1957;

Myers

dreams

therefore

experiences
pieces

by

thought

nocturnal

was

gogic

he

impossible

was

was

and

teristic,

of

p. 41)

that

A mark

as

but

reported

dreams.

and
be

dreams,
(1969,

true

subjects

hypnagogic

Gastaut

stretching

a continuum

p. 32)

of

experiences

from

dreaming

(1938,

al's

practically

are

them".

catch

et

his

to

reference

"these

Davis

of

Tournay

(e. g.,
1848,1878;
Maury
1941)
that,
argued
unlike

hypnagogic
as

experiences,

coherent

stories,

as

a passive

watches
concedes

that

they

are

dreams

even

when

like

shows

spectator.
are

Leaning

sometimes

they

Leroy
complete

152
dreams
They

for

except
he

are,
in

mix

but

believe,
osity

and

ject

"waits

judging

the

his

life"

spectacles

as

selves

that
with

one

with

without
to

subject

tends

the

visions

convey

"what's

as

see

next?

in

experience
Leroy

curiosity

next,

'It's
time
these

Leroy

not

be

can

of

vision
my fingers

pre-

of

interest,

am I

to

going

a hypnagogic
its

doing

rounds

the

working

away"

(p. 107).

a dream,

Leroy

to

always
images
the
their

the

since

into

themselves

Indeed,

a distinction
the

in

personal

logic.

and

that

hypnagogic

sleep

keeping

belief

that

one

can

contents

of

the

vision)

one's

appear

limbs
in

the

partialthough
"adven-

problem

here

presented

is

that

not

cases
some

certain
motor
in

impotence
response

hypnagogic

dreaming

of

chara-

(p. 118).
The

feel

(p. 109)

is

some

and

move

as

distinction

the

"I

between

dreams

sleep

on

whilst,

hook

case

hand,
other
(such
dreaming
as

of

the

with

"spectacles"

to

adhere

Another

retain

to concede

extend

character

cteristics

to

wants
as

appears

easy

dream

characteristic

One

hypnagogic

the

a fishing

on

complete

by

reported

observations.

seeing

threaded

visions

he

tures"

on

being

whole

hypnagogic

that

a maggot

and

cipation

him

to

same
that

p. 112).

cases

detached

as

at the
stupid,

1933,

hypnagogic

the

of

characterized

unquestionably

state

sub-

'where
is
' without
the
car
going?
to know,
the
and without
attaching
to this
I
absurd
question,
since
images
I reply:
animated
are
real;
not

all

reported

subject

to

the

questions

' thinking
to the purchasers!
going
is quite
I have just
that
said
what
of a 'drunkard'.
are the words

However,

and

curi-

unfolding

in

(Leroy

on

with

reports:
I say
to myself
wanting
really
importance
least
know
these
that

is

of

what

float

a milk

not

without

detached

instance,

For

he saw

and
the

and

happen

to

105-113).
which

he watches

as

only

going

(pp.

"

ask

them-

does

(p. 125),

kind

only

one

cases,

most

does

present

which

comprehend

The

he

which

images

pleasure"

to

(p. 105).

the

in

a real

seeking

but

in

it,

kind,

a special

"the

reality

contemplates

sometimes

participation.

watches,

(p. 97),
the

of
of

subject

of

anything"

such

lack

subject's

"hallucinations

says,

hallucinations
not

the

has

153
been

hitherto

be

definition,

by

that,

"a

(as

distortion,

may,

attributes
defining

main

defining

second

(loss

roundings
the

of

ness

reality
cf.

situation:
in

for

argue

dream

sciousness
grounds:

they

loste

the

consciousness

start

to

it

However,
above,

to

dream

while

Herve

de

in

loss

of

his

becomes

(1948),

like

con-

one

must

not
he

otherwise

to

return

want

who

definitional

on

so

situation,
to

deeply

hypnagogic

hypnagogia

starts

sur-

Those,

between

in

then,

conscious-

and

Vihvelin

dream

is

he

(1867,

p. 38)

of

consisting
her

while

her

environment.

she

of

experience

by

Miller
Quite

chapter

(1906)
a number
was

to

and

will
in

not

described

a whole

of

unfolding

aware

The

following
not

of,

and
I

and
is

as

rich
on

chapter

frequently,

break
for

'Psi'

scenes

have

been
into

able
dreams

between

in

the

detailed
drama

front

of

respond

to,
kind

this

of
long

situation.

that

as

'Creativity'

dreams.

into

hypnagogic

could

and

remark

turn

more

typical

particularly

experience

Myers'

them

turn

any

on

still

although
(1906:
see

afternoon,

claimed

"without

(see

Miller

the

experiences

he participated
ideas".

of

consciousness

Denis

to

imagery

hypnagogic

one's

hypnagogic

cases).

the

of

aware

activities.

possible,

retaining

St.

which
of

be

1948)

he

when

is

observe

induce

flow

(and

is,

Vihvelin

the

of

A person

or

that

content.

consciousness,

testing,

do

one

hypnagogia!

to

to

consciousness

stipulate

dream

of

a dream.

of

constitute

of

that

distinction

a clear
and

that

and

dream

unreality,
to

imaginal

could
Hauri,

be

ceases

(1941)

Tournay

(1878),

Maury
to

of

(absorbed)

involved

he

their

of

features

taken

how

on

'thinking').

involvement.

when

to

they

defining

being

ego

be dreaming

to

said

of

if

considered

dream,

of

dimension
that

a third

and

(1967)

dimension

order

description

NREM sleep

as the
in fact,

in

thought

considered

dreaming

detailed
to

length,

and

been

have

is

hinges

then

Kleitman

and

it

so

asleep

argument

fairly

opposed

and

fall

to

whole

Rechtschaffen

and

These

has

to

coherent,

contents"

sleep,

Dement

subjects

experimental

Sawyer,

The

dreaming.

defines

relate

with
one

dream.

to

able

one

associated

for
when
They

reported

her

resting
do

not

case):
in
appear

154
in the true
to be dreams
of the word in that
sense
is going
I am conscious
that
on around
of all
me.
instance,
for
I 'dreamed'
Yesterday
that
afternoon,
for
house
When
I was bidding
a large
at an auction.
I saw a truly
I walked
out of the house,
superb
seain detail.
even now I can visualize
which
scape,
It was certainly
I have
not reminiscent
of anything
Whilst
any of our coasts.
nor along
seen in a picture
I was looking
at this
a man came up and stood
scene,
'Only
He repeated
beside
that
me.
a quotation:
which
in the heart
' - the rest
is retained
I have
can...
The foregoing
is the most recent
forgotten.
but only
in
'dreams'
have
had
I
this
twilight
many
such
of
one
state.

1979,

(Dudley
described

Archer

(1935)

in

hypnopanpio

the

a similar

experience

p. 86).
occurring

state:

I had fallen
On board
steamer
an Atlantic
asleep
Presently
lunch
I
and begun to dream.
awoke
after
I was,
where
and to be
as I knew perfectly
so far
yet my dream went on
of time;
of the passage
aware
to my waking
consciousness
as it were,
parallel,
to say and do things,
imaginary
people
continued
for
by my will.
Thus I was able,
uncontrolled
quite
of time
space
a minute,
or
- perhaps
an appreciable
is
dreaming.
And
this
to
watch
myself
more
even
by no means a unique
experience.
(Archer
More

the

and
so

than

often

not,

however,

finds

himself

subject

a dream.

lost

becomes

(1857)

As Taine

it:

described

poetically

pp. 44-45).

testing

reality
in

1935,

just
The deadened
noise
of the cars
can only
reach
taken
At that
the dream has completely
you.
you,
The
The illusion
instant
the scene
changes.
comes.
imaginary
The
body.
takes
object
appears
on
a
phantom
inner
forest.
forest
becomes
the outer
the
to be real;
You see patches
of blue
sky in the distance,
a deer's
flight
frightened,
head,
the scared
of birds;
you
the rustling
the buzzing
of
of insects,
can hear
in the branches.
leaves,
the whispering
caught
of wind
(Taine
Oswald

(1976,

p. 45)

the

visions

and

people,

when

nearer,
many

in which
in

fact,

of

the

they
which
earlier

aroused,

seemed

to

contrast
moments

that

"as

become

more

observed
voices
will

be

describe

participating,

p. 42).
draws

sleep
complex,

and

little

adventures

little

dreams

a more

spectator-like

drowsiness".

McKellar

with
of

1857,

quality
(1957,

155
p. 191)

1979a,

p. 41;
145)

that

reported
in

would

their

We moved

the

up

hypnagogic

he

it.

on

saw

of

the

'I

"the

one

sheep

face

and

frightening

very

Reporting

one

(1979a)

McKellar

them.

of

the

all

slaughterman's
was

ima-

standing

was

what

they

as

moreover,

sheep

me,
feel

could

p. 191).

experiences,

occasion,

a group

image

The

1979a,

(McKellar

indeed"

much

an animal:

He told

gangway.

expression

of

house.

image,

In the

felt'.

into

changing

of

capable

experiences
On one

a member

a slaughter

outside

the

of

pp. 132,

were

subjects

dreams.

sleep

himself

found

their

of

(1978,

Green

and

hypnagogic

their

'dreamed'

a subject
ger

some

in

participating

Green

and

of

his

own

writes:

I am still
one of my own hypnagogic
cross
about
quite
In it
I saw a group
they
images.
of people:
as usual
Then another
appeared,
stranger
were strangers.
down.
handgun,
them
to
proceeded
shoot
a
and
produced
the image was the product
Although
of some subsystem
indignant.
life,
I
These
was
very
mental
own
of my
doing
hurt
to
they
nothing
were
were
anybody:
people
One
innocent
of unprovoked
victims
aggression....
the imager
does feel
responsible...;
at times
on
feels
doze
to
to
off
an
obligation
wakefulness
return
in
hypnagogic
things
right
some
previous
put
and
again
episode.
(McKellar
his

One of
claimed
an

he could

that

may walk

actor

magician

into

step

onto

transform

and

(1979b,

McKellar

subjects,

p. 89)

his

the

stage"

the

action,

p. 191).

1979a,

reports,

hypnagogic
"act

and
even

"as

visions

the

part

change

the

of

characters".
(1976,

Singer
immediately

p. 47)
falling

upon

self-observations
gogic]
dream

patterns"

ject

"In

tinues:
the

Other

when

testing

present

in

(e. g.

Aristotle

the

was

in

stage

I
movements,
1977).
Slap
also

examples,

reality

where

characteristic

ego

nocturnal

1931,

vol.

3 chap.

3;

in

early

but

recalled

a subHe con-

naps.

fairly

one

hypnagogic/hypnopompic

as

served

involvement
of

my usual

of

afternoon

awakened

eye

see

he

Subsequently
during

systematic
[hypnaof the

contents
typical

were

record

dreamed

often

out

carried

"the

that

experiments,

rapid

(p. 48;

dreams"

did

EEG study

those

of

evidence

for

cycle,

sleep

found

(p. 48).

up

wired

that

he

he

that

noted

asleep,

and

dreams

having

any

without
rather

and

vivid

loss

dreams

of
are

state,

are

nightmares

Leroy

1933;

Kanner

156
1957;

1957;

McKellar
Foulkes

dissociated

of
"the

typical

than

its

elements

REM-period
is

"primary

be,

that

it

contains

which

makes

its

become

they

interpretation

analytic
1938; McKellar
In

of

view

only

during

REMs

(see

the

that

1962;

Rechtschaffen

1965;

Berger
during

stages

1 and

of

the

to

further

Indeed,

et

always,
1962,

al

them

makes
than
by

in

appear

"the

omission
his

that

succession
residing

of

snapshots
in

dreams

not

visual
the

the

dreaming

1965,

"there

that

may
in

similar

involvement,

process)

and

p. 239).

p. 241)

interdiffer-

and

imagery

was
like

is

often,

but

(see

e. g.

Roffwarg

dreams)

and

dreams

waking

shorter

display

also

which
in

be

to

appear
they

continuity,

dreamer's

have
and

Vogel

instantaneous

than

"much

that

duration).

if

visual

descending

of

(ib.,

primary

'telescoping'

of

Lentz

researchers

ego

REM-period

in

Dement

suggest

suggest

Sometimes

events

1964;

species

and

orientation,

on

corresponding

reports

uity

p. 253

one

of

Foulkes

colleagues

characteristic

absent

absence

and

rightly

not

place

during

and

1976).

the

Niedermeyer

dreams"

of

dreams.

continuity

al

authors

symbolism
and
(lack
in others
of affect,
hypnagogic
On the whole,

revealing

et

only

same

classes
(reality

REM-period

Maron

EEG dream

coherence,

than

not

two

respects

some

ent

least

at

the

on

1962;

(Foulkes

class"

entire

al

professional
to

apply

takes

et

EEG,

which
to

may

public

general

nal

data

symbolic

psychoIsakower

in

Vogel

and

diffused

successfully

be

Foulkes

and

also

1967;
Alpha

continuous
2,

1963;

al

and

see also
1972; Oliver

1 but

Berger

Foulkes

'definitive'

the

not

et

1967;

1976),

1961;

displacement

dreaming

EEG stage

Kamiya

also

p. 238;
Budzynski

emergent

dream,

depth-level

1957,1979a,
evidence

a REM-period
bizarre

to

susceptible
(ib.,

thought,

and

well-organized
In addition,
p. 238).

like

images

form

the

less

no

(ib.,

to

in

occur

seems

shown
in

process"

so that

dream

that,

showed

imagery

visual

counterpart"

often

condensation

investigation

experiences

of

hypnagogic

former

the

hypnagogic

many

1978).

Horowitz

(1965)

Vogel's

and

though

even

1957;

Myers

at

least

life.

shorter
is

This
so

that

something

a movie...,
'understanding'

which

achieved

the

subject
like

more
the

contin-

rather

than

157
in

his

imagery"

visual

As one

subject

a series

of

tion,
rise

the

On the

In

Vogel

and
their

of

reality

testing

a follow-up

In

study,
of

dream-like

et

1966,

fantasy

Fantasy

to

asked

were

fantasy

were

lated.

The

is
in

dominate
as

the

much

do with

they

the

hypnagogic

in

common

one

another"

dreamers

conforming

to

than

the

social

hypnagogic

kind

same

(ib.,

being

hypnagogic

the

occurrence

and

hypna-

waking
corre-

hypnagogic
as

that

p. 283).

The
the

ratings

more

self-accepting,

CPI

as

significant
scales
to

pointed

having

pre-

neither

fantasy

nocturnal

nondreamers.

TAT,

ego-controls
but

between

were

and

"that

this
of

and

(Foulkes

significantly

Fantasy

standards,

in

nocturnal
and
intercorrelated

test,

true

with

earlier

a Dreamlike

on

and
from

the

of
the

mentation

positively

(1966)

in

CPI

highly

not

observed

Dreamlike

hypnagogic

during

were observed
in this
study

that

showed

fantasy

thematic

As

including

infer

correlations

positive

poise

be

to

under

con-

and

observations

experiences

were

investigators

fantasizing

of

Symonds

and

differences

results

whereas

found

loss

functions

Spear

onset.

sleep

their

rate

another,

that

anxious

these

(1965)

tests,

fantasy

dreamlike

less

onset"
sleep
32 subjects

The

The

scale.

one

at

psychological

given

experience

of

signs
to

on'

individual

p. 283).

mental

observation

Foulkes,

at

"substantial

in

were

Vogel's

and

dreaming

of

occurrence

share

and

p. 236).

study

Foulkes

confirmed

with

life

waking

earlier

'held

who
(ib.,

phases"

alpha

the

with

those

than

stricted

gogic

duration

and

interesting

the

made

"subjects
and

ego-control

and

in

observed

in

comparable

continuity

hypna-

that

showed

are,

differences

the

considering

Foulkes

also

giving

dreams.

nocturnal

al

construc-

factor

the

also

sometimes

that

dream

the

instantaneously.

occur

displaying

through

of

be

well

like

were

unity

mode

research

same

and

to

similar

events

the

be,

can

REM dreams

to

those

the

be

to

may

dreams

that

p. 240).

themselves

This

note,

hand,

dreams

length

p. 240).

notion

other

gogic

of

(ib.,

images

seemed

investigators

the
to

it

but

stills

1965,

Vogel

and

"the

reported

itself"

thought

(Foulkes

less
greater

Conversely,

and
the
rigidly
social
nocturnal

158
dreamers
controlled

by

study
tively

Foulkes

imate

the

(Adorno

et

reports

of

their

1966,

during

study

findings

on

three

above

onset

Foulkes,

awareness

so
in

as
are

experiences

of

surroundings

on

(1969)

in

(b)

loses

and

that

events

world,
the

illustrated

by

that

his

belief

place

in

the

kind

of

content

the

that

he

completely
his

that

external

subject
immediate

of

breaks

the

that

the

awareness

subject

reality

took

(a)

internal

over

(c)

They

(1965)

Vogel

and
control

onset.

ego
based

who

and

hypna-

those

with

respectively

external

taking

study

volitional

sleep

involved

(c)

and

surroundings,
reality

(a)

withdrawn

the

Foulkes

of

indicate

the

the

showed

accord

Trosman

by

at
to

marks

in

are

and

loss

further

becomes

with

above

the

produced

awakenings

latter

in

gradual

interest

loses

The

reached

provided

becomes

subject

syndrome

significantly

hypnagogic

process.

(hallucination)

testing

approx-

characterized

and

a graded

on data

(b)

mentation,

present

closely

REM periods

of

sleep

Vogel,

did

than

be more

were

reports"

p. 283).

conclusions
by

reached

the

hypnagogic

of

from

"dream

reports

to

functioning

In

posi-

authoritarian

dreams

awakenings

more

more no-content
(Foulkes
et al
The

earlier

correlate

to

the

of

an

scales.

individuals

these

nocturnal

is,

that

state

to

responses

conception

significantly

gogic

in

latter's

1950).

al

extremes,

both

the

shown

(1964)

the

of

showed

standard

The
by

analyses

also

nondreamers

was

MMPI pathology

on

self-

Moreover,

Rechtschaffen

and

item

CPI

socialized,

REM dreams

scores

with

highly

persons.

recalled

of

be

to

defensive

and

intensity

study

found

were

world

internal
(1969,

p. 77).
In
et

al

was

p. 78).

(ib.,

of

stage
ego

"ego
I,

in

2)

They

to

be

functioning"

which

the

found
for

ego

maintaining
sleep

is

a statistically

"there

each

EEG stage
with

p. 81).

distinguished
remained

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or

onset"

(Alpha,

a different
three

intact

nonregres-

during

that

associated

Vogel

reported,

of

impaired

(ib.,

They

state".

function

ego

sometimes

tendency

significant
and

"the

that

noted
content

sive

the

considering

combination

latter
ego

stage
they

states,

relatively

called
viz.,
intact,

159
i. e.

it

ondary
only

maintained

both

process

mentation)

and

one

of

them

(this

D,

in

which

the

EEG),
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either

Rapaport

configuration

tions

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to

lass

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1,

that

of

kinds

loss

of

contact

"some

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finally,

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pared

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iscent

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(ego)

logical
to

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that
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of

ments

into

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relation-

sensory

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appearance

appearance

of

content;
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appearance

findings

they

follows

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remin-

loss

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deprivation

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deprivation
psycho-

subjects
sleep

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experiments
and

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onset

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stage.
of

Vogel

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(hallucination)

with....

a successful

findings

found

deprivation

in

world

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to

external

latter

content

(R)

psychology

the

precedes

pp. 87-88).
of

sequence

nonregressive
the

place)
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restructuralised

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to
from

and

external

state

a closer

testing

sensory
"consistent

(ib.,

correspond

the
the

reality

of

be

observed

investigators

following

regressive

onset"

sleep

and

them:...

with

contact

time

to

by

stage

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a return

results

that

complete

the

always

accompanies

of

(p. 85).

hallucination"

R,

2).

I-D-R

the

withdrawal

to

(disorientation

by

2 respectively,

onset.

that,
loss

that

marked

to

not

func-

both

and

stage

psychological

or

accompanies

or

was

during

did

reality,

content,

1),

stage

as

(regressive/nonregressive)

content;

regressive

alphadestructuralised

accompanied

stage

precedes

regressive

precedes

and

content

withdrawal

during

lost

or

electroencephalographic

sleep

with

mainly

exceptions

I-D-R

the

during

ship

and,

stage

present

always

of

is,

showed

analysis

some

each

that

state,

reality

which

(usually

between

correlations
to

during

mentation

were

with

relatively

(usually

(sec-

content

on
psychic
structure
,
functions),
is,
that

of

testing

Although

and

1959

nonregressive

reality

ego

was

restructuralised,

relatively

return

contact

observed

ego

Gill,

and

an abiding
were

was

nonregressive

sensory
et

al

deprivation
(1969)

offered

experia

to which
the
view
onset
of sleep
according
psychodynamic
for
desire
decathexes,
sleep
produces
a sequence
of three
information,
a decathexis
of perceptual
namely,
a decathexis
apparatus,
and a decathexis
of the perceptual
of reality

160

ducing

the

needed

p. 91).

is

thus

defense

which

is

in

tied

the

seen

way

subjects
(this

regression

that
and

"part

(ib.,
continue"
frequency,
EEG

of

earlier

of

to

the

as

less

the

anxious

richer

their

in

hypnagogic

the

drawal

which

cates

by

to

sleep,

protect
they

hypna-

be

present

Two criticisms
the

concerning
the

other

D and
In

order

to

in

the

R dream,
p. 90).

(ib.,
kinds

instigators,
and

sleep

regr-

p. 90).

turn

"different

disturb

through

manifest

a process

conclude,

to

a secondary

(ib.,

"represents

is,

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represent

disturbance"

of

function

of

and...

some

others

to

prot-

p. 90).

(ib.,

it"

are

potential
kinds

tend

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producing

sleep"

different

dreams.

wishes

with-

or

dreams

dreams

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investigators

have

in

unconscious

this

(a)
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indip. 90),
dreams
are

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of

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the

dreams

true

than

to

tends
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Thus,

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hypnagogic

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on withdrawal

states

(ib.,

that

cannot

input

sensory

state

wishes,

Primarily,

ego

reduced

findings

unconscious

rely

regression.
essed

(1900)

wishes

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produces

instigated

result,

is

Freud's

that

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observation

instigator

dreams

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definition

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against

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dreams).

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by

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content

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stage)

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need

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ego

input,

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of

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appear

onset,

sleep

p. 89).

in

changes

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(ib.,

function

testing

(b)

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number

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regressive
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categories;
2,081
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single,
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mid
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161
(c)

scene,...
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ject

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linguistics)
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have

gators
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autosymbolic

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ation,

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a psychodynamic
contend

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1925,

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in

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onset,

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a car

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1965),

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possibility

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of

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Of

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linguistics.

p. 79).

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definition.

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innapropriate,

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psychological
that

(b)

appearance

162
of

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ject

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ssion)
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2,

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point

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cases)

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of R, which
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p. 79),

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individual

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preted

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themselves

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in

part

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of

of

(ib.,

ability

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of

(D).

appearance
i. e.,
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ition

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part

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undistorted"

and

rent

as

simply

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p. 89).

sacrificed

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good

(ib.,

are
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to

applicable

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it

a process-mentation

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very

lost

changes

onset"

that

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sleep

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be

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testing
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why

for

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occurrence
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(a)

of

functioning

of

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It

might
more fully
appears

163
have

to

Dreams

shades

and

like

would

p. 286)
many

had

already
in

stages

dream
They

van

are

Van

Although

commentary.

less

list

dreams,

of
that

Ellis

"there

are

probably

three

kinds

types

of

discussion.

my present
lucid

(1969:

different

nine
are

(1897,

Eeden

van

than

the

remark

fact

that

there
to

(1965)

the

and

no

Eeden

sleep,

of
but

condition,

takes

sleep
called

call

discontinuity
de

dreams

very

St.

without

that

protests

his

experience,
"it

that

when

the

dream,

the

and

place

with

of
Denis's

wrong

what
This

memory".
in

is

of
the

in

of

would

sounds

of

the

transition

very

from

waking

is

gener-

what

to

prefer

like

much
into

visions

ideas.

belies

healthy

very

hypnagogic

flow

in

a normal

it

of

only

a moment

but

dream

description

the

hardly

turning

a break

body

initial

the

occurs

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tired.

unconsciousness,

ally
Herve

"coherent"

classes

that

state"

dream,

He says

protests.

beginning

to

to

interest

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not

his

menta-

up.

waking
is

two

out

Eeden's

initial

the

are:

regressive

Vogel

and

attention

dream

of

of
and

least

at

enumerated

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which

Foulkes

pointed

the

1913)

original
of dream.

the

draw

to

experience,

dreams:

may be

there

that

periods

a nonregressive

of

to

Referring
above

lengthy

by

accompanied

hypnagogia

with

develop

and

maintain,
tion

similarities

many

Van

Eeden

continues:
hallucinations
In hypnagogic
but we
we have visions
bodily
In the initial
have full
dream
perception.
dream.
I have
I see and feel
type
as in any other
I know
complete
recollection
of day-life,
a nearly
I am asleep
I am sleeping,
but all
that
and where
inner
body,
of the physical
perceptions
and outer,
Usually
or peripheral,
visceral
absent.
are entirely
I have the sensation
or flying,
of floating
and I
that
the feeling
observe
with
perfect
clearness
of
fatigue,
the discomfort
has
of bodily
overstrain,
fresh
I feel
I can move
and vigorous,
vanished.
in all
directions;
I know that
yet
and float
my body
is at the same time
dead tired
and fast
asleep.
(van
What

van

Eeden

is

describing

here

Eeden
is

1969,
an

p. 146).

unusual

form

164
dream,

hypnagogic

of
is

by

advocated

(see

between

tinuity

floating

dream

the

for

of

bodily

of

absence
feeling

of

a term

coined

by

(1931)

who

p. 216)
con-

boundaries

ego

which

hypnagogic

The

the

and

1978,

achieving

life.

loosening

as

noticeable
and flying

ecially

of

Evans-Wentz

'Psi')

on

and

the

of

and utilization

e. g.,

chapter

waking

phenomenon

core

(see,

yogis

occultists

and

induction

the

is

esp-

sensations,

freshness

and

envigoration.
been

had

by

Aristotle

asleep,

there

is

something

what

then

presents

noted
is

one

when

dream,

lucid

The

that

declares

which

sometimes

while

dreaming"

(see

Faraday

1972;

Corriere

and

as

Hearne

not

unlike

the

van

awakes

his

be

to

it

prompted
the

to

two

it

has

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to

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termination

attitude
ted
full
be
rent.
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is

of

waking

awareness

leads
subject

to

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is

temporal
the

sleep

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at

in

tail
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the
he

be

end
morning"

subject

either

reinstated

i. e.,

he

appears

subject
awake in his
in the

has

not
that
second

fully

factor

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in

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is

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'overcritical'
that

the

to guarantee
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dreaming

observation
certain

where

contributing

sufficient

mentation,

cases

wakefulness

interpreted

be

saying
is
dream

in

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the

dreaming

state

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awareness

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This

in

to

Firstly,

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their

dream

state,

of

he

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of

of

eight

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mind.

presence
argued

him

terms

a dream.

the

one

noted

of

sense

in

in

whereupon

dream

the

Hearne

of

a lucid

1976;

1981;

early

and

1968a;

Berge

place

dreaming,

observations.

that

awareness

of

In

of

appears
by

takes

noted.

awake

My qualifying
that

dream

five

in

continues

himself

occurs

mentation

waking

fact

we are

Watkins

dream

dream

is

La

a
that

Green

C.

1976;

the

between

he

that

aware
he

while

hours
(p. 153)

Eeden

or

lucid

the

in

that

1921;

1978;

but

remarked

perceive

initial

differ

initial

the

whereas
"in
the

becomes

to

1977;

is

p. 212)

Sparrow

Hart

They

occurrence:
cycle
of it,

1976;

Garfield

state.

mental

"we

asleep

"often

consciousness

itself

Arnold-Forster

also:

is

It

1981).

we are

himself,

that

wrote
in

(1934,

Descartes

Similarly,

dream".

Eeden

van

of

is
that

being

it

the
might

only
often
'awake'

repor-

appa-

165
in

a dream-world

he

soon

dream

to

discover

lucid

only

dreams.

during

(see

short
be

As can

imagines

for
only

eventually
her

kissing

case

of

for

the

bathroom

close

states

so

lessly

blurred.

having

woken
lay

bed,

do

so

his

that

earlier

he

merely

a call

to

it

was

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his

daylinght
up.

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his

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5.30

eyes

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The

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utes

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elaborate

of

find

height

himself

normal
breakfast

another

such

for

find

to

his

state

he practised

time

third

that

and

subject

the

a journey

'woken

for

up'

his

making

reports

as

the

and

images

previous

incident
A personal
(1933,
pp. 115-118)

Leroy

not

deep

waking

reports

made

having

'woke

his

unusually

the

pp. 87-88)

He then

which

to

already
4 and 11).

to

wrong

which

and

having

hypnagogic

flying,

up

reality

bath

of

take

tend

on with

getting
in

subject

in

p. 106)

up

as

of

an

of

wake

or

getting

and

(1968,

a bathtub

regularly,
full
memory

of

up

dreams

experience

to

the

sides

to

wakefulness

awakenings

on

in

the

wake

within

workers

some

his

of
does

dreams

lucid

leaving

(1979b,

in

by

who was

McKellar

himself

false

Chapters

which

having

above,

a dream

goodbye
(see

breakfast

the

dreamed

who

he

hallucinatory

of

waking

husband

her

been

McKellar

a subject

of

in

being

routine.

morning

someone

eventually

thought

into

himself

tell

p. 53).

seen

latter

the

had

periods

imperceptibly

grade

to

that

are

1981,

Berge

La

up,

dreams

Lucid

place

he

that

realizes

up and

'awakes'

blind

enjoyment

166
the

of

his

with

hand

inosity
to

visual
his

open

in

fact,

all

the

time.

was

not

properly

the

hypnagogic

the

state

an

out-of-the-body

body

are

is

discussed

is

brought

of

its

in
up

this

at

to

tendency

point
in

occur

state

and

its

phenomenological

dream

and

the

lucid

be

found

deal

a great
the

OOBEs of
in

occurred

Tart

patterns.
to

be

a mixture

"something
(false
dreamlike

one

a dream

his

of

two

with

delta

dreaming

of
is

sleep

(1967)

to

(see

distinguished

the

in

have

to

were

no
EEG

subject's

experiences

awake

spend

state

there

expressed

onset

He reports

1 dream

"something

is

at

also

seemed

of

initial

the

state".

any

subjectively
one

because

will

sharply

such

and

that

both

tended

addition,

that

'Psi'

Tart

subjects

in

waves

move

subject
it

it

time.

subject
In

concludes

occurs

a stage

his

can

with

Eeden

van

"borderland

physical

this
on

subjects

dreams.

otherwise)

appear
This

else".
the

as
one's

awareness

dream

or

state.

A variety
is

his

else"

or

in

his

the

hypnagogic-hypnopompic

the

waking-up

Yet

developed

clearly

discussion

towards

one

1981).

OOBEs from

his

the

dream

conjunction

Hearne

also

of

experis,

'he'

that

section

as

that
and

the

of

three

the

Although

initial

time

of

body,

in

OOBE laboratory

his

that

that

dream

lucid

the

and

is

similarities

dream
the

that

recalled

body.

detail

more

the

literature

and

both

117-118).

experiences,

consciousness

physical

to be

these

This

been

which

strengthens

one's

correlated

his

'outside'

around

his

that

had

to

and

(OOBE).

outside

spatially

not

(pp.

parapsychological

oneself

were,

further

of

experience

arms

seemed

state"

and

man-

a condition

hypnagogia

above,

the

'aware'

is

subject

dream

finally

his

yet

lum-

the

presumably

in

was

similarities

in

finding

of

they

state

to

discussed

known

what

"I

related

open
of

both

that

the

eyelids

When he

where

and

and

is

ience

found

hypnagogic

the

relationship
is

field.

He concludes:

dream

of

he

his

intensification

an

blankets

the

under

to

mental

eyes

A phenomenon
types

led

force

to

attempt

simply

his

of

aged

His

visions.

in

which

and then

of

difficult

semi-wakefulness
the

subject

returns

to

wakes

it

this

to

up momentarily

time

retaining

categorize
from

a vestige

167
of

in

pompic

is

the

from

a waking

lucid

dream

is

experience

half-waking

or
in

'going

that

the

a dream

of
into'

is

subject

the

after

in

a dream-like

It

one.

hypno-

hypnagogic

the

resembles

also

the

resembles

state

a continuation

it

woken;

that

taking

it

that

has

subject

This

consciousness.

waking

also

state

resembles
that

aware

a
is

a dream

place.
hypnagogia

Interestingly,

in between

the

and

states
time
(1928)
out a long
ago by Swedenborg
were pointed
who
Dusen 1972,
is said
to have made great
use of them (van
1975)

who wrote:

and

is the vision
But different
which
comes when one is
in
full
the eyes closed.
Nay,
wakefulness,
with
is still
kind
there
another
of vision
which
comes
between
in a state
midway
sleep
and wakefulness.
he is fully
that
The man then
supposes
awake,
as it
in as much as all
his
Another
senses
were,
are active.
is that
between
the time
vision
of sleep
and the time
when the man is waking
of wakefulness,
up, and has
from
his
off
sleep
shaken
yet
not
eyes.

(Swedenborg
As noted
dition

is

sleep

dream

curious

and

my first

and

awoke,

then

liar

p. 101)

This
to

to
and

described

away".

In

his

of

(ib.,

condition

esting

in

this

respect

(1908)

who wrote:

"I

often

felt

during

the

finally

time.
was

occupied

conscious,

night.

discovered,
with

and

that

hypnagogic
other

is

to

illusions,
senses

and

this

noted:

"I

had

morning.

a real

and

activity

of

(1955,

subsidiary

perhaps

be

".

A very

inter-

by

Hyslop

reported
had

that
that
centres

not

slept

awake

the

all

field

my visual
I

was

were

(1976,

pp. 2-3),

describing

his

own

better

at

selfevidently

asleep".
Oliver

fami-

Critchley

be wide

however,

of

might

that

seemed

the

sort

'inter-dormitum

of

the

my mental

"a

which

whether

just

p. 283).
as

post-dormitum,

and

was

lulled

con-

support

in
it

thought

same

had

that

remember

experience

all

that

"the

took

dreams

forget

not

again"

a sort

as

must

this

the

7387).

para.

p. 284)

almost

was

second

sleep

refers

predormitum

I
to

seemed

went

one

thought

which

event.
I

passing

he recounted

conclusion

But

or

on

coming

be

to

consciousness

of

(1897,

Ellis

earlier,

1928,

feedback

168

feedback

the

of

dream-like

to

sometimes

lost

too

is

the

laboratory

to

able

third

"higher"

experiences
to

ship

is

"higher"

level

to

he

is

sounds

latter

save

dependent

on

sufficiently
level

he

unable

to

room.

In

in

room

the
he

state

and

as

his

of

the

also

distortions

and

a
this

still
the

sound

well

relation-

room.
in

that

Oliver's

dream
to

able

found

"just

had

state,

take

and

of

what

as

that

in

occurred

a similar

he became

cog-

[he]

must

third

the

and

second

has

which

state

daydreaming,

reality

the

in

dream

a split-consciousness
deep

in

in

a curious

of

that

probably

himself

morning",

terms

stock

is

he

Ellis

in

"deep-

the

experience

dissimilar,

all

terms

reality,

the
with

"higher"

time

of

though

him

in

the

control,

even

next

this

or

no

entirely

of

of

nocturnal

the

has

although

In

the

at

one

in

the

perception

being

in

common

"higher"
borders

which
abnormal

or

para-

perception.

normal

for

implications

Some

The

discussion

philosophy:

so

in

far

hypnagogic-hypnopompic
dream

blown
the

In

in

filled

arouses

aware

having

forget

him

is

not

the

of

nizant

the

then

'realistic'

fairly

level

who

he

here

the

to

not

report,

anything

in

see

testing,

state

and

disconnections

objects

level

in

arouse
leaving

of

of

We can
est"

he

report.

distortions

as

which

unaware

bodily

if

over

"layers"

that

room

awareness

dreamlet

verbally

can

his

the

of

the

level

three

He notes

aware

report.

still

and

and

may respond

kind

It
of

a dream

such

to

dream

the

also
and

person

has

section
can
may
his

take

been

shown

that

that

there

are

a full-

be

place

while

environment,
(e. g.

environmental
'knows'
that
there
at

least

that

shown

sometimes

objectively

either

correctly

has

of

awareness

(e. g.

subjectively

this

state

demonstrated

being

asleep).

that

retains

subject

claim

one

to

review

speak

and

not

observer

him

enable

between

state.

that

and

required

that

is

is

experience

for

to

this

he

level

"deepest"

son

in

consciousness

of

on

differentiates

hypnagogia,

induced

the

latter

the

per-

stimuli)

or

his

is

body

are

more

certain

than
cases

1G9
in

which

dreaming,

state,

and
is

it

Although
a detailed

into
tus

of

mainly

and

this

at

the

in

to

reference

to

point

above
like

would

sta-

observations
discuss

to

(1967)

Malcolm's

enter
the

concerning

wakefulness,
which

blurred.

critically

discussion

implications

certain

brief,

is

my intention

not

dreams

hypnagogic-hypnopompic

the

wakefulness

philosophical

sleep,

carry

between

distinction

the

views

in
the

on

subject.
The

hinges

dreaming
dream

thrust

central

be

suppositions

flow

the

asleep"

hypnagogic-hypnopompic
ning

awareness

He further

asleep.

identical

are

feelings,

false"

view
lish

that

(p. 58).

is

his

that

are

they

implies

such'

Both

pp. 59,66,109)
a dream. Sullivan
simply

argues

always

inferential

fly

in

face

and

that,
with

as

of

shown

directly

anything
here

not

"The
and

such

What

of
in

evidence
with
and

the

form

that

not

are
is

of

images.

But

to

Malcolm,

they

dreamt

such

(p. 66).

occur"

"one

that

never
dreams.
It

with
with...

are

Malcolm
'I

dreamt

Again,

nature".

dreams

'I

deals

hypnagogic
not

my discussion

Similarly,

dreams".

estabasleep

to

directly

one

his

(1967,
and Malcolm
of 'experiencing'

pp. 331-332)

deals

to

that

not

so

these

recollec(p. 65)
and

so'

statements

dreams

are experiences
dreams,
they
can be

inferentially.

not

dreams

then

while

all

composed

did

is

that

is

statement

retai-

impressions,

According

then?

he

sleep,

at

the

impossible.

two

in

while

impossible

possibility
(pp. 331-332)
asserts

are

dealt

are

(1953,

pertaining
"statements
that

the

is

interest

such

to

tions

it

that
of

of

these

while
holds

in

occurring

saying

any circumstances,

under
is

thoughts,

nothing:

deny

is,

that

of,

dreams

Sullivan

a dream

composed

particular

that

have

anyone

is

only

cannot

a person

"if

aware

composed
of

composed

that

that

and

experiences.

are

can

(p. 52),

Of

assertion

state

and

Malcolm

What

showing

so on...

someone

From

experiences.

environment,

or

with,

can

a person

asleep

above

states

images

is

what

his

of

a person

had a dream
such as "if
a man
(p. 50) which
clearly
contradicts

statements

presented

evidence

One,

while

have

to

said

he was

follows

two,

concerning

arguments

suppositions:

and,

asleep,

while

intelligibly

it

two

on

Malcolm's

of

That

they

are

and

170
immediate
in

shown
the

all

experiences

in

respectable
of

asleep

it

holds

dreaming"

these

Again,

dream

see

can

their

that

dreams

lucid

"one

cause

The

dreaming

for

the

objective

ming

no

technique

that
by

the
means

of

absur-

making

gR

this

result
is

one

are

in

being

of
there
that

claim

bed

are
they
One might,

asleep.

'dreams',

that

be

erroneous

(see

reported

above).

But

might

mere

denied
make

cannot

do

and

aware
'Psi'

on
who

can

aware

or

round

the

to

assert

in

a dream.

objective

the

he was

he was

by

asleep
examples
this

Malcolm

judgments

deciding

betherefore

and

(1953,
that

that

the

of

pointed

could

employ
but

some

evidence

is

of

dreaming

can

awareness
correlations.

one

It

has

of
out,
any
dream

would

For

asleep

criteria

occurrence

p. 205)

one

is

one

presentation
of

confirmation

subjective

am asleep',

are

Nonetheless,

employment".

express

(p. 112).

As MacDonald
sense

could

reports

judging

revolves

a judgment.
makes

of

question

and

asleep

is

one

that

they

unjustifiably

judgments"

erroneous

not

is

who

is

absurd

and

chapter

dreams

within

too,

possibility,

that

how

proves

people

lying

judgments

his

therefore

of

such

dreamt

a person

and

that

argue

latter

that

subjects

body

physical

course,

the

of

reports

presented

also

which

In

dreams

how validly
they
no matter
from premises
which
are

seen

in

appreciable

that

judgment

drawn

We have

and

lucid

'I

unintelligible,

are

dreaming.

judging

someone's

supposed

experiences

and

asleep

they

true.

not

is

an

am dreaming'

of

fear

inherently

an

the

displaying

up

no matter

judgment

conclusions,

at,

arrived

have

idea

course
(p. 109).

of

of

the

the

the

occurrence

'I

of

asleep

for

notion

powerfully

of

state

am asleep'

absurdity

very

signs

(is]

imply

for

clearly

'I

"If

former...

while
of

are

the

very

would
the

the

judgment

of

the

is

may wake

dream

appearnace...

therefore
of

person

the

unintelligible",

a judgement

the

sentence

words...
is

inferences

denies

"the

that

not

psychological

in

of time.
further
Malcolm

arguing

dity

and

hypnopompically

space

and

where

nightmares

physiological

remain

form

and

such
"it
confirsuch

now

emerging

be

confirmed

been

shown

171
that

subjects

sleeping

imenter

they

that
fists

their

La

by

displayed

REM sleep"

in

Similarities

is

gogia

is

by

accompanied

1981).
is

time

That

attested

unambiguous

stage
(Hearne

experiences

injected

arousal

which,

et

with

more
to

that

a certain

precondition
impinging
is

arousal

other

of

results
clear

ases

in

sure

during

were

only

ned

similar

tion.

the

heart

rates

of

a night

during

dreamlike
cated
indicators

which

"marked
in

a study
tend

to

(although

Interestingly,

passage

in

(1961)

al

study

showed

fall

with

NREM to

pres-

NREM sleep

rates

from

not
the incre-

blood

heart

variability

is

that

Kamiya

the

the

of

situation

and

respira-

reports

respirREM

tends

above

obtai-

that

successive

pressure

'thin-

to

review

preceding

the

"a

be

opposed

on

blood

used,

sympathetic

systolic

REM mentation

periods

increases
the

et

was

interprets

found

4% respectively.
Snyder

quality.

to

opposed

as
in

results

Moreover,
and

periods

6% and

and

rate,

drea-

might

careful
the

subjects
4 sleep
stage

perceptual

that

(1964)

al

et

observed

solution

as

that

shows

heart

REM sleep
7%,

i. e.

'dreaming'

Snyder

respiration,

and

arousal

However,

studies

that.

as

during

how a sleeper

for

NREM sleep.

which

saline

memories",

responsible

during

in

sympathetic

and

stimuli

where

been

inhibition.

study,

determines

which

has

emotional

controls

NREM sleep,

to

epinephrine

vivid,

This,

characteristic

peripheral

(1970)

al

hypna-

of

activity.

a defining

as

of sympathetic
in
an increase

opposed

suggests

parasympathetic

compared

reported

as

features

physiological
of

subdermally

(NREM)

correlates:

as

Hersch

The

ase)

of

the

denied

during

increase

certain

defining

sometimes

REM sleep

ation

signs

physiological

dominance

the

however,

as

the

clenching

a pre-planned

Hearne

throughout

their

the

One of

king'

to

eyes

by

an exper-

p. 9).

1981,

ming

dream

at

asleep

"electrophysiological

the

of

closed

1980,1981;

indeed

to

communicate

(lucid)

their

Berge

are

subjects

to

able

having

are

moving

(e. g.

pattern
the

or

are

to
show

studies
of

autonomic

REM sleep"

incremore
indi-

172
1973,

(Rechtschaffen
studies
pathetic

activity

cervical

sympathetic
stimulation

cular

formation)

NREM sleep,
(vagal
to

but

also

a decreased

well

as

(1967)

their

opposite

more

heart,

were

higher,

they

awakenings,

logical
This

arousal

factor

personality
just

is

people

during

arousal

from

NREM

(NREM

ments.

But

for

the

Foulkes
during

to

it

theta

in

preceeds
of

none

of

occurrence
and Vogel

(it

even

dreaming
study
stages

included

are
as

can

where
with

stage

since
i. e.,

consisted

higher

prevalent
distinguish

by

the

temporal

rapid

and

was

this

that

eye

absolutely
be

dreaming.

of

sleep

to

EEG,

factors

these

physio-

valid

If

except

find-

these

of

during

difficult

the

they

group

to

group

REM),

(1965)

hypnagogic

the

this

levels

ignored,

been

similar

be

would

REM sleep

factor

is

is,

opposite

entirely

group's.

other

NREM sleep

REM sleep,

during

be

arousal

the

than

that

From

light-sleeper

the

also

occurrence

have

to

seems

were

spontaneous

their

degree

the

sub-

signal

more

1970).

not

physiological

higher

naturally

than

for

i. e.

NREM sleep

a certain

may

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possible
whose

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to

temperature

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movements,

"during

movements".

sleep,

body

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necessary

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conclusion,

the

of

is

eye

during

that

data,

sleepers,

experiences

deduces

Zimmerman

heavy

(1973,

sympathetic

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21% (Zimmerman

71% against

group:
ings

dreamlike

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of

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response

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rates,

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light

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bursts

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Rechtschaffen

decreases

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Zimmerman

NREM sleep

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the

enters

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1971b)

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(1971a,

al

discharges

REM sleep).

that,

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et

reflex

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level

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discharge,

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jects

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direct

to

Baust

there

cat

nerve

as

wakefulness

activity

the

and

and

REM sleep

The

(reduction

responses

p. 176)

in

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showed

nerve

p. 175).

seen

dreaming
EEG ranging

2 NREM sleep)

move-

necessary
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was

the
reported

from

and

alpha

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173
BEMs (see

of

absence

What

and

state
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by

Zimmerman

the

deep

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jects.

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induce

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between

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pheral

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and

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overlooked

that

interface,

state

be

to

seems

1976, p. 48).

Singer

also

states,
dissociation
area

but

parameters,
correlates

174
mental

of

is,

that

state,

the

'dissociated'

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meaning

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in

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of

signify

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diately

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of apparitional
occurrence
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hypnopompic
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the
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level

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vide

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tal
to

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siderable
ges in imaginal
measurable

extend

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the

(1965)
REMs,

NREM sleep
also

explain
as

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11).

may proto

conducive
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crucial

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decrease

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in

sleep

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the

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like

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of

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the

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may

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be dissociated

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ness

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measurements

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wakefulness

organism's
in

from

drawn

states

enga-

reflected

however,

to

respect

to

very

coarsely

the

175
fact

the

that

in

ening

the

between

two

mental

ponding'

Clearly,

sleep'

pp. 155-6)

sleep

deprivation

the

when

,
awake,

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- talking,
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dissolution
behaviour

be

pharmacologically

produced
In

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cortex

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are

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reorganization

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etc....

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also

(see

also

in

only
is

in

the

Fruhstcxfer

and

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1969,

lower
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subjectively
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response
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levels

sleeping

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REM sleep
In

REM sleep

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Lubin

also

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threshold

(Ornitz

to

et

al

to

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REM sleep

rate

than

those

of

magnitude
that

rate

the

1966).
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wakeful-

of

than

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are
to

appear

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longer

autonomic
of

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latency
than

Moreover,
organism

and

than

heart

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1967,

et al
1971)

of

heart

Johnson

e.,

small

psychological)
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organism

greater

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and

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to

sensitive

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them.

respect

during

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respects.

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and

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Fruhstorfer

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such

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responses

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other

chapters

as

imaginal

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to

shown

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at

elicited

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accepted

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EEG and

Bergstrom

one

wakefulness.
autonomic

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but

Hypnagogia

be

to

cortical

in

argued

the

where

from

i. e.,

such,

sleep

evident

to

as

subject

is

clearly

control,

associations

switch

be

stages),

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'nocturnal'
the

appears

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bizarre

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is

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seen

dreams)

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sleep
hypnagogic

uli

indicate

surgically"

relinquished

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complete,

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of

ness

in

reorganization

gogic

the

conditions

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mentation

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more

Such

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"under

instructions,

to

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p. 106).

1960).

Oswald

the

1975,

least

at

'corres-

of

EEG can

the

is

subject

sets

out,

pointed

by

merely

(Staal

standards
Such

two

happ-

difference

or

established

'criteria'

(1965,

extreme

not

is

identity

the

between

physiological

As Kamiya

is

states

difference

or

important

experientially

organism.

identity

the

of

something

during
stimresponds

176
do

not

et

al

lead
1967).

these

cues

when

the

the

of

habituation

to

However,

auditory

are

during

AERs)

of

cess

response

or

a direct

channel

p. 340).

The

imaginal

than

the

to

physiological

i. e.,
as

the

of

or

sleep-dream

all

are
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to

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in

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body

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organism

method

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importance

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The

reality.

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it,

between

associations.

it

is

as

Foulkes

at

hypnagogia
times
and

to

and

distinguish

Vogel

(1965)

REM sleep
between
discovered,

more

more

remarks:

Comparisons
how difficult

the

of

appearance

rather

stimuli

imaginally;

magnitude

would

the
internal

and

idea

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1967,

al

towards

magnitude

absorbed
of

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represented

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than

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late

neural

sensations

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to

the

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becomes

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is

input

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of

out,

responses:

a central

change

perceptual

pointed

that

state,

tending

'interpreter-cognizer'

This

two.

to

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(1966)

represent

sensory

unresponsive

pretation

to

stimuli

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than

evoked

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to

is

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averaged

for

subject

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ted

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same.

Zerlin

hypnagogic

would

organization

cerebral

time,

at

and

of

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(e. g.

reactions

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way

increase

AER seem

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ponents

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same

logic

the

Ornitz

reorganization

and

late

the

neuronal
the

1966;

Lubin

and

Davis
the

stimuli

the

awake:

representations

to

to

interpreted

is

organism

respect

ment

due

be

cannot

Interestingly,
in

(Johnson

show
the

177
"hypnagogia
of REM sleep.
the

contains

of

quality

variable

and

unaware

state

(if

one

means

no

it

within
find

in

from

REM dreams,

blown

complex

or

actively

the

kind

of

hypnagogic

out

mental

activity

p. 160)

sleep.

hypnagogia

on

is

not

This

is

probably

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amount

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not

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been
of

absence
The

graded

for

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of

both

those
the

states

of

sleep

dimension
being

by

of

Hernandez-Peon

of

injected

acetylcholine

proposed

by

Jouvet

(1961)

its

latest

in

elicited

that
fact

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for

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syndrome.
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1)

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further,

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reorganization

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(1965)

stimuli

stage)

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the

REM sleep

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waking

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"NREM

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sleep,

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of

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of

An interesting

along

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cognitive
4).
chapter

reality/unreality,
(see
subjects

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new

sleep.

during

throughout

the

NREM

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components

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structure

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daydream";

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ness,

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mentation

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1973),

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and

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ness)

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stages

inhibition
In

the

strong
two

sleep
while

of
case
doses
areas
weaker

178
doses

NREM sleep,

elicited

may be related
system

1974).

In

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inal

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zing

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concept

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by

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ature

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Reports

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perception,

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consciousness

consciousness

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"mental

simply

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the

although

in

can

untenability

dichotomy

suggest

the

continuity

(1901,1902)

deep

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between

effort

of

sleep

evidence

to

dichotomy

of

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reported

dimension

Another
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paper
increases
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hypnagogic
dreams).

hypnagogia

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clear

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with

Elam

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do,

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associationis-

evidence

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active

to

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liter-

179
during

cognition

known

course,
In

be

to

the

brain

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vely

may be

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vity

during

NREM sleep

upper

stem
for

"these

hypotheses

suggest

tatory

and

inhibitory
can

sleep,

pheral
ness".

The

discovery

and

Courjon

1970;

studies

lateral

dorsal

duction

is

REM sleep

of

'linked'

the

there
kinds

two

1965),

of
is

there
are

areas

of

phenomena

PGO) are

follow

upon

appear

before

Jouvet

1965).

nucleus

acts

also

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along

neural

tex.

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last

temporal

in

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of

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dreaming.

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but

sleep

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Jeannerod,

and

geniculate
travelling

sensations
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to

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(the

nucleus

lateral

may

a whole).

as

human

(Delorme,

eye

brain

mentioned

wakefulness,

the

of

production

geniculate

the

conten-

Hernandez-Peon

in

to

pro-

forebrain,

visual
to

point

pathway

for

imagination

imaginal
the

limbic

correlated

visual

two

perception

is

of

opposed
that

pathway

geniculate

relationship

as

know

a relay

which

above

lateral

the

system

for

PIPs

in

the

(see

the

movements

We also

their

information

the

movements
eye

loci

Jouvet

in

raphe

closely

are

The

brain

implicated

and

and

observed

the

is

al

et

caeruleus

production

cats
in

spikes

G in

visual

and

sleep

Interestingly,

lateral

in

PGO spikes

Now,

the

phasic
the

sleep.

disputed,
that

in

implicated

periorbital

of REM sleep.

agreement

1961;

Hendley

and

locus

the

(Jouvet,

cat

implicate

and

pons

wakeful-

(Rechtschaffen

to

the

the

as

peri-

during

obtain
in

and

man

the

is

betwen

Niebyl

separate

sleep,

neuroaxis,

that

hypothalalamus

two

are

that

remarks

relationships

that

in the production

that

p. 171)

such

in

whereas

RAS,

the

to

implicated

tion

of

of such activity

the

wakefulness

region

acti-

along

appear

suggested

electrodermal

ofexci-

1963)

1973)

respecti-

rearrangements

Mikiten,

(PIPs)

stem

paucity

PGO spikes

the

indication

major

activity

Jouvet

and

behavioural

(1967)

(1973,

mental

potentials

in

osbserved

the

1959;

of

of

sleep-dreams.

brain

storms

is,

same

(1966)

lower

the

that

of

Rechtschaffen

stem

Lubin's

alter

and

Jeannerod

integrated

and

activity

indicators

Mouret,

to

the

and

Rechtschaffen

Michel

respect

the

REM sleep,

with

in

and

during

occur

The

case

Johnson

to

reference

state.

hypnagogic

the

corto

the

both

conveying
perceptual
information
The
outwardly.

geniculate

spikes

to

eye

180

the

in

located

the

the

whose

visual

imaginal

imagery,

visual

suggesting
iation

of

the
and

mentation

not

to

that

argue

during

dreams

and

1971

the

increase

on

of

from

but

of

stem,

(This

is

or

PIPs

results

connections).
As Proust

once

introduced

"some

with

is

laws

the

of

(1929,

Gross

"the

that

are

vity

logic

thinking

radically.

of

the

can

cribe

goes
(194)

Froeschels

the

suggested
radically

different

of

thought

argued

that

during
there

from

of

wakefulness.
is

a certain

activity
in

all

during

remarked

complete

them"

passidirected

the

experienced
i. e.

be

will
in

recalled,

hypnagogia
the
(1949,

in

desBoth

experience.
in

there

Mayer-

also

the

Froeschels
laziness

associa-

state

from

it

whet-

contradicting

of

even

operating

to

as

associative

p. 375)

association

wake-

present".

nature
not

it,

mentation

the

state

PGO)

of

pre-sleep

describing

those

cortex

the

'theoretical'

of

a hypnagogic
(1967b),
Rapaport

rules

the

question

during

and

that

that
in

succeed

on

of

in

state

(a)

formally

1948,

different

waking

this

this

parts

neuronal

dream

reasoning

in

and McCarley

that

affirmative

evidence

processes

so

from

loosening

in

of

the

but

p. 189)

by Vihvelin

quoted

self-observer

the

observed,

and

mental

what

from

inactive

activity

of

is

This

various

place

unreality

form

in

taking

(1973,

menta-

processes

or

an

as

thought

Hobson

cortical

that

as

well

(see

not

assocfor

necessarily,

constitute

might

bizarreness

the

not

a halt)

are

cortical

occipital

Rechtschaffen's

to

(b)

and

to

brain

spikes)

issued

be

the

on

states.

firing

with

to

seem
the

states

neuronal

organization

same

answer

ted

dreamy

considerable

fulness

her

deep

prior

accounting

waking

the

giant

formation,

perhaps

of

the

stay

come

dreamy

and

conjunction

to

addition

the

thus

be

to

increase

to

as

between

areas

brain

the

although

(image

other

of

firing

for

orders
(in

in

brain

the

activity

and

to

REMs and

and

and

dreams

during

known

decrease

differences

qualitative

thought

interpretation)

driven,

brain-stem

tion,

two

is
somehow

is

activity

latter

the

as

related

PGO spikes

of

appearance

increase

(perhaps

However,

possibility.

PGO spike

the

of

pons

neurons

reticular

this

suggest

generator

neural

to

to

appears

movements

thought

are

formation
p. 24)

181

ked

that

the

hypnagogic

in

hypnagogia.

during

formation

'similarity'

term

the

from

the

in

former

it

the

is

during

ance

of

the

what

is

"psychologically

sentence

upon

waking

which

the

meaning
conscious-

'sameness'.

with

that

remar-

a different

in

has

identified

states

basis

has

it

he

point,

the

works,

meaning

p. 39)

(1967b,

Rapaport

the

to

being

consciousness

hypnagogia

ness:

More

import-

syntactical
is

wakefulness

replaced

by

the

hypnagogic

outstanding"

during

experiential

changes

state.
the

Indeed,
over

the

into

hypnagogia

functions

logical
Different
the

over

control

exercises

is

interpretation
bound'

to

trying

As Roffwarg

ject

awake

lation,

pointed

the

from

transition
Since

is).

doubts

ssed

the

depicts
p. 283).
not
have

may
not
ested

and

slower

somewhat

mental

(1970)

come

from

the

the

same

significance

above

mentation

during

stage
(see
1962).

al

that

that
of

imaging

in

in

resembles

same
to

generator
for

and

have

the

Elam

exprein

sleep

1974,

EEG patterns

therefore,

may
As sugg-

organism).
the

sleep

and

similar

(and,

PGO spiking,

hypnagogia

and

initial

the

that

awareness

(Giora

stimu-

(1969)

"closely

found

out,

a sub-

or

Snyder

pattern

pointed

created

intriguing

to

visual

functions"

Johnson

respect

et

REM sleep

EEG activity

As

in

new

1 REM sleep

(the
hypnagogia,
sleep"
(1970)
many writers
paper

Johnson's

same

is

is

their

'state-

to

waking

"whether

random

is

Evarts

of

ones,

confusion

blocked".

EEG during

old

the

similar
is

some

of

"it

remarked,

of

psycho-

EEG descending

and

remarkably

how

out

the

rules

stage

1962,

activity

alpha

the

sometimes

circumstances

under

when

too,

al

although

organism

between

(1966)

EEG is

REM sleep

the

why

Evarts

also
et

to

EEG emergent

and

1970;

the

which

reorganization.

to

similar

according
is

and

same:

differentiate

1 (hypnagogia)
Johnson

the

this

Perhaps

state.

be

not

cognizes

and

firing,

now

still

may

patterns

in

are

change

and

for

allow

sound

consciousness

physiological
to

deeper

jerks,

a country's

waking

certain

withdraws

neurons

to

come

and

myoclonic

likened

government:

and

that

deeper

goes

flashes,

) may be

etc.,

and

enters

(flickers,

constitution

of

it

as

organism

explosions,

of

various

type

and

appears

to

control
be

182
predominated
too,

shift

brain

by

temperature

- especially
a different
to

Summary

and

In

this

to

indicate),
these

a waking

a limbic
activity
further

which

states
in

them

must

have

from

that

state.

conclusions:
discussed

have

chapter

the

between

relationships
dreams.

nocturnal

and

hypothalamic

individual

the

by

of
during

in

a person

physiological

ences

for

meaning

ascribed

seem

EEG activity

that

suggests

and

correlations

some

as

(probably

activity

stem

phenomenological

hypnagogic

following

The

experihave

points

been

argued:
the

First,
can

state
to

hypnagogic

Second,

addition,

physiological
these

Fifth,

to
they

such,

brain

parameters

may form

organism
Sixth,

the
of

sciousness
dream

argues

ophers

that

do

that

fact

the

the

against
dreams
or

view

experiences,

are

not

composed

that

did

as

the

con-

a hypnagogic
some

i. e.,
of,

be

level;
for

by

expressed

statements

and

may retain

not

experiences

states

cortical

having

all,

not

a specific

a person

are

that

of

wakefulness.

is

he

that

if

in

them

in

dream-state.

significance

to

ascribed

i. e.,

dream;

most,

part
dream

the

a different

evidence

not contain,
images,
and
and
about

below

hypna-

the

them,

of

nocturnal

to

peculiar

that

than

the

of

structures

and/or

experiences.

share

parameters

carry

may

of

types

of
to

appears

reorganization

while

states

anyone

"inter-dormitum"

hypnagogia

place

environment

dream

of

a variety

encompasses

Fourth,

neuronal

respects

a dream.

include

may

may encompass
it

related

in

his

of

a variety

span

experiential

hypnagogia

ences

being

there

Third,

the

all

take

may

awareness

'awake'

being

of

awareness

experiences

some

retains

subject

gogic

in

comparable

dreams.

nocturnal

the

dreams

full-blown

be

hypnagogic-hypnopompic

the

of

experiences

philos-

that

feelings,

thoughts,

about

them

not

actually

they

constitute
take

inferplace.

CHAPTER

10

and

its

MEDITATION:

In
it

gogia

to meditation

respect

promote

would
if

parison

stages

of

1955;

Mishra

1967).

four

deal

stages

traction
of

The

pratyahara,

tion

the

reduction

two

desires,
of

elimination

and

fifth

The

'noise'.
withdrawal:

involves

stage

the

or
in

samadhi

which

by

is

"is

there
to

said

is

a dissolution

is

associated

is

a continuous

be

'absorbed'

of

subject-object

with

an

three

stages

Samyama

yogi

acquires

siddhis

On the

physiological

1973).
yoga

paranormal

correlated

with

heart

rate

and

skin
resistance
1970;
Wallace
Wallace

and

is

consumption,
in

Moreover,
meditators

as
display

Anand

et
et

there

and

al

which
spacelast

the

them

practising
tuning

out

(1961)

the

of

inwards

(psychodecreases

significant
blood

lactate,

EEG alpha
rhythm
Wallace
al 1971;

a progressive

-183-

attention

powers.

this

side,
of

of

called

in

that

said

or

turning

withdrawal)

oxygen

(e. g.,

Patanjali

attention

logical

increases

and

Finally,

transcending

the

and

environment
in

of

p. 438).

(Honorton

object

differentiation

experience

1977,

time"

'medi-

period.

object

image,

or

the

within

the

the

as

maintenance
in

this

object

translated

a longer

of

in

within

the

of

sixth

object

Whereas

limited
is

concentration

and

on an

fluctuate

often

further

The

environment.

features

the

reduc-

input

sensorial

time.

to

the

with

psychophysical

attention

of

(dhyana:

stage

attention

image

of

may be allowed

seventh

tation')

the

quietening

proprioceptive

deepens
from

with

the

two
and

detached

period

delineated

confines
in

a certain

attention

stage

is

dis-

psychophysical

latter

and

pranafirst

The

with

exteroceptive

concentration

for

image

or

the

concern

psychological

and

and

cultivates

attention

of

Vivekanada

niyama,

samadhi.

concerned

traditional

(e. g.,

yama,

are

com-

the

of

Sutras'
are:

dhyana,

first

and

emotions

stages

dharana,
with

the

features

'Yoga

hypna-

to

facilitate

and

the

noting

Patanjali's

eight

yama,

clarification

by

began

relationship

showed,
slowing

and
activity
and

Benson

advanced
of

the

184
dominant

frequency

alpha

(i.

stimulation

photic

with
was

rhythm

Zen masters:

observed

followed

the

to

theta.

logical

This

ation

which,

as

(1975)

in

his

is

also

known

an

wondered

state

which

not
is

meditation
by

orted
fall
1973;
1976).

Bagchi

"meditation

reflex

response

(my

level"

stages,

switch

to

it

by

out

functions...

constitutes

"a

is

(1969,

pre-hypnagogic
fact

In

the

view

strongly

1975;

suppto

appear
Wada

e. g.

p. 142)

probably

practices;

meditators

twilight

Dusen

van

Gastaut

(see

to

Pagano

and
et

in

below

Hamm

al
that

speculated

state

Indeed,

the

be observed

will

which

the

stimulus-

cortical

the

other

than

ation

and

and

deliberately
be

will

also

to

fascination,

is

inapplicable,

instead

they

are

wherein
is

hypnagogia.

absorbed

In

meditation,

physiological
the

psychohypnagogia.
yoga

psychophysical
induced

are

mark

of

relaxIt
leading
thinking

reflective
the

however,

none

consciously

attention
or

contemplation

a distinctive

of

Raja

spontaneously.

occurring

that

as

Patanjali's
of

of

of
the

as well

factors

only,

both

features
of

stages

hypnagogic

remembered

that

necessary

five

withdrawal:

sketching

activity

are

first

brief

my very

parasympathetic

withdrawal

stages

nature

represent

back

logical

of

in

to

observation

an

not

sleep".

ventil-

underlining).

Referring
Yoga

of

abdominal

yoga.

to

way
"Physio-

breathing

is

(1959,

Wenger

and

may

of

Berger

and

(see

meditational

practices

Adriance,

Younger,

gave

decrease

pointed

trained

even

their

during

asleep

forms

alpha

know

of

hypnagogic
that

evidence

is

progress

activity

1972)

al

meditation

whether
does

et

some

in

from

manipulation

of

part

p. 42)

that

that

alpha

with

Swedenborg's

of

study

a continuous

we

switch

below,

see

experi-

eventually
as

(Timmons

shall

essential

which

and

their

a decrease

correlated

1963)

Billow

we

it

is

breathing

thoracic

by

reported

EEG in

of

progression,

correlates"),
(e. g.,

(1963,1966)

first

range

alpha-theta

blocking).

no alpha

progression

Japanese

towards
pure

show

to

response

of

absence

and Hirai

hypnagogic

a typically

an

they

e.,

Kasamatsu

Significantly,

ments

and

advanced
as

in

185
hypnosis,

being

of
to

directed

the

a means

single-pointed
is
It

interest

of

the
Let

the

the

disciple

head

affairs
used

he
"the

to

Dusen

(1975)

notes

that

of

"

from

(p. 101:

102,

(pp.

sounds

certain

by

fascinated

becomes

dizzi-

release

and

as

parts

flowing

energy

ease

become

them,

my underlining).

Swedenborg,

on

during

body,

the

over
of

of

writing

that

notes

numbing

all

irresistibly...

them

is

the

also

sense

mind

ego

brain

the

alterations,

tinglings

the

of the Real.
slayer
1979,
(Regardie
p. 102:

mind

(1979)

a wonderful

drawn

is

in

axiomatic
that

of

cortex

pulsations

audible

Van

of

is

"it

slayer"'

body

occur

buzzing,

toe,

internally
being

the

Significantly,

105).

the
'The

way'.
slay

there

to

'focused'

intensifying

occultism,

and

or

lightheadedness,

ness,

not

image

primarily

and

that

note

Regardie

body,

the

is

is

or

term

state

withdrawal
to

mind,

my underlining).

of

this

it

object

the

meditator

mysticism

of

the

meditation

is,

is,

concentration.

conscious
in
'dragon

or

the

of

it

hypnagogia:

the

in

all

image

or

that

Perhaps

maintaining

branches

most

it.

employedat

for

in

as

dissecting

to

attending

an object

on

analytically,

or

analysing
be

not

should

focused

attending

merely

as

merely

defused

not

nonetheless,

since

'focused'

attention

instead

but

is

says:

had
Swedenborg
practice
a personal
Since
childhood
Hindu
Yoga and
to be one of the ancient
happens
that
He
would
relax,
enlightenment....
of
Buddhist
ways
in
total
focus
with
his
on
a
problem
and
eyes,
close
breathing
his
time
At
the
would
same
concentration.
the
Awareness
and even
world
outer
of
stop.
nearly
disappear.
diminish
perhaps
and
bodily
would
sensation
issue
he
focus
the
one
on
would
His whole
existence
he
The
was
concenproblem
to
understand....
wanted
in
blossom
and surprisout
new, rich
trating
on would
ing ways.
(van
Swedenborg

(1742)

tration

as

"a

(1975,

p. 21)

in

himself

kind

of

passive
"is

explains,

to

refers

his

potency"
an attentive

pp. 19-20).

1975,

Dusen

method

of
van

which,

concenDusen

receptiveness

as

meditation".
Of

the

hypnagogic

In meditation,
to call
effort

nature
first
the

of

the
mind
back
mind

meditation
wanders
up
sets

van

Dusen

off....
an internal

writes:
The

186
the person
trying
to concentrate
split:
and a host
The observant
odds and ends appearing.
of other
perinto
mental
son may be beguiled
one of these
perambulations
later
he wandered
to find
that
only
off
into
Zen monks doing
this
a dream and sleep.
same
to
on a spot
of thing
sit
sort
up with
eyes fixed
sleep.
prevent

Dusen 1975,

(van
He goes

on

to

pp. 23-24).

that

explain

learns
inner
Next
the observer
to watch
processes.
disturbed
Much that
the meditator
was the
earlier
inner
The obserfirst
processes.
of these
surfacing
images,
faint
feelings,
ideas,
words,
ver watches
He
come and go.
scenes
and later
whole
sentences,
is watching
spontaneously.
mental
processes
occur

inner
is
It
that
the
seeking
events,
common
observer,
This
something.
overreacts
upon
seeing
or hearing
the
tends
to knock
spontaneous
proout
overalertness
delicate
from
the
are
which
emerging
psyche,
cesses
first.
to be learned
A balance
needs
at
and faint
between
the
responding
and spontaneous
phenobserver
level
turn
At this
the
that
original
mediomena
up.
has deepened
into
hypnagogic
tation
the
state.

(van
The

to

tends

ness
the

to

and

that

argues

tator

not

saw

above,

we

of

meditation

take

his

from

appropriate

having

and

he

environment,

is

falling

asleep--

and

this

Dusen.

However,

van

Dusen

is

prevented

gogia,

its

that

literal

by
is,

role

the

instead

in

this

of

series,

Dusen

it

if

tends

the

mediit.

prevent
earlier

is,

stages

the

medit-

physical

and

psychologically
at

point

also

to

argue

and
allowing

the

himself

appears

a prolongation

to

deep

withdrawn

nece-

van

so

that
of

places

the

that

does

Yoga,

prolongation

steps

state

state
of

i. e.,

hypnagogic,
a

this

important,

often

Patanjali's

about

relaxation,

mental

the

clearly

brought

it

maintenance

induction,

hypnagogic,

that

overalertclearly

analysis

More

and

with
are

having

ator

sleep,

does

As

is

meditation

its
in

my

the

hypnagogia.

of

into

lead

for

in
for

that
points

oneself

earlier

my underlining).

quotation
process

balance

to

required

exploration

the

p. 24:

required

forward

put

above

to

attitude

conditions

ssary

the

end

learning

the

arguments

to

an

put

receptive

to

and

in

observation

1975,

Dusen

the

point

made

by

that

sleep

intensification

lead

van

of

hypnagogia

i. e.,

of

to

into

play

sleep,

hypna-

187
is

it
into

Dusen

its

from

ted

instead
or

enlightenment.
"inner

faint,

but

still

the

final

"In

the

trance",

but

sciousness
It

and

is

a paralysis

particular,
the
an

kind

or

deepened

and

his

subjects

abandonment"

as

instructions

ran:

intensified

given

the

bearing

in

in

states

altogecon-

data

is

hypnagogia

we

mind

earlier

hypnagogia

(in

trance

here

of

the

at

least

more

than

nothing
and

experiences

they

to

adopt

an

concentrated

Deikman

meditation,
from

a procedure

adapting
his

instructed

lost

or

body".

(b)

studies

experimental

(1963,1966),

and

dreams.

hypnagogic
In

p. 25)

awareness

of

fascination),
to

referred

stage

intensified

therein

and

absorption

(1975,

delicate

less

(a)

dreams,
and
on hypnagogic
attention
on internal
arguments

samadhi

Personal

is

the

have

leads

meditation,

real.

that,

obvious

preven-

sleep,

Dusen

a feeling
of

may be
which,

longer

no

awareness

there

seem

would

intense

of

van

are

bodily

Suddenly

ther....

stage

medi-

series

into

lead

trance.

of

induction

to

developing

processes:

the

hypnagogic

clear,
but

exists,

these

Indeed,

experiences

are

a state

in

to

trance

explains,

into

tendency

from

prevented

turns

trance.

natural

via

and

series

a deliberate

as

viewed

it

a natural

sees

hypnagogia,

tation,

upon

sleep:

of

a state

Van

dwelt

and

seized

Patanjali's

attitude

on

Yoga,
"passive

of

a blue

His

vase.

I do not mean analysing


By concentration
the differor thinking
of the vase,
ent parts
a series
of thoughts
ideas to the vase;
but
the vase,
or associating
about
in itself,
trying
to see the vase as it
exists
rather,
to other
Exclude
things.
any connections
without
feelings
body
thoughts
or
or
or
sensounds
other
all
but keep them
Do not let
them distract
you,
sations.
your
all
attention,
you can concentrate
out so that
itself.
Let the perthe
vase
your
awareness
on
all
fill
of the vase
your
entire
mind.
ception
(Deikman

tions

these

for

psycifjhysical

which,
attention
The instructions
seen

instructions

Again,

as

directions

as
to

can

withdrawal
we saw
attention
for

the

earlier,
and
deliberate

1969a,

be

recognized

and

diffused

are

marks

concentration
induction

p. 201).
as
and

of

direcabsorbed

hypnagogia.
can
of

be
a state

188
that

fascination

of

gogia,

and

latter

by

The

by

the

p. 29)

points

tation

is

in

which

he

initiated

subject
but

for,

an

with

hypnagogia,

open

(1969a)

phenomena
to

organize

foreground
at

an

the

and

reported

loneliness
sudden
in

her

to

bring

and

her

tation

back".

of

the

special

exercise

falling,
if

she

(1971,

way

of

result,
of

ways
that
be

the

seen

to
all
in

sub-

individual

subjects,
inability
in

for

"clamour

the

attention

organization";
luminescence";
of

one
of

emptiness,
in

were

p. 484)

Her

a vacuum.
thoughts

no
for

searched

"a

p. 484).

the

of

both

thoughts

interprets

these

'deautomatization',

perceiving

attention

and

progressed

attention;

she

Deikman

the

1971,

out

were absolutely

anxious

of

Certain

of

and

usual

could

of
there

the

or

as part,
the

her

cut

visual

we saw

Deikman

of

called

subjects

which

kind

as

that

made

mind

undoing
to

isolation

realisation

changes
due

sense

as

subject

meditation

"a

is

as

to

a process

requiring

everything,

resisting

"a

in

Deikman's

of

seem

exhibited

environment

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lead,

sensations.
by

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vividness

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reported

with

merging

as:

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by

developed

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(1969b,

absorbed

the

(see

reports

also

were

full

would

to

reported

extraneous

attention

visualized

qualities,

related

were

is

autonomous,

self-like

on meditation

barriers

jects'

of

changes

Deikman

and

in

increase

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'chemically'

experiments

stimulus

".

hypna-

contemplative

of

This

the

with

self-surrender

passivity

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characteristic

up

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image

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stage

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which

to

its

to

the

the
an

In

fascinated

As Deikman

phase

receptivity...

becoming

his

to
is

and

subject.

active

a preliminary

no effort.

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"the

out,

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image,

reversed

the

is

internal

an

vase.

becoming

as

the

becomes

is

a blue

subject

in

meditation

and

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imagery.

the

on

concentration

imagery,
is

deepened

and

of

the

of

in

spontaneously

visualization

fascinate

the

of

object

procedure

to

used

hypnagogia

hypnagogic

emerging

and

between

instead

case,

gogia,

concentrating

the

as

such

latter

and
the

when

closer

image,

prolonged

attending

relationship

even

further

be

can

itself

presents

was

as withdrawing

and
used.

thinking
The

attention

medi-

189
from

thinking
the

of
from

Gill

is,

an

p. 178).
the

its

leads
the

also
ence

unfolds:

see

During

meditation

the

to

on

everything

categorisation

and

resulting

deautomatization
and

'primitive',

that

tic

intellectual
(p. 31).

thought"

and

ceptual

organization,

Werner's

completely
of
in

imagery

when

(c)

of

physiognomic
to

between
tion

and
is

and

the

objects,
fusion

and

animated,

and
of

(e)

to

modalities"

significant
in
hypnagogia,
present

note
and

that

as
analy-

in

adult

the
his

persubjects

"primitive"
fulfilled

functioning
an

loses

its

vivacity.

and

in

thought

instrument

that

children
these

are

(b) syncretic,
sensuous,
(d) dedifferentiated
with

characterized

sense

toward

shift

that

it

revealed

between

distinctions

The

the

become

yet

and

cultures

primitive

by

present-day

the

colour

imagery

the

of

"a

reported

necessity

detail,

of

be

a more

of

not
of

whereby

more vivid

relatively

respect

It

studies

people

"(a)

has

prohib-

p. 31).

occurred

phenomena

latter

for

replaced

both

of

criteria

to

"attention

of

notes

that

(1948)

fullness

sensuousness,

and

the

thought

reflective

Werner's

the

attended

characterized

typical

direction

the

that

is

preceding

(p. 33)

changes

and

experi-

to

organization

Deikman

consistently

were

the

1969b,

thought

mode

in

which

explicitly

organization

an

cognitive

might

is

style
is

is,

is

(Deikman

cognitive

a perceptual

(this

and

thought

mode"

receptive

abstract

else,

intellectual

perceptual

and

image

or

a percept

active

conceptual

chapters).

of

the

ited...

under

setting

relevant

exclusion

abstract

and

set

creative

"shake-up"

the

after

abnormal

in

as

of

insights

with

mentally

well

followed

a form

also

direction

on which

be

organization"

us

in
as

schizophrenics,

depend

is

occurring

depending

of

furnish

might

study

organization

other

level

the

concept

"Deautoma-

can

which

hypnagogia

processes

e. g.,

individuals,

in

that

Given

mental

subjects,

a shake-up

the

that

explain

reverse

-a

He borrows

who

a retreat

deautomatization
into

(1961)

were,

or

advance

(ib.,

it

as

percepts

sequence".

Brenman

and

tization
by

learning

normal

in

it

reinvesting

and

these

may thus

self

and

object

and

a dedifferentia(Deikman
1969b,
p. 31).
features
are also
by

relate,

through

the

190
latter,

the

with

discussions

my earlier
they

sections
thus

the

for

at

this
its

sight,
and

the

mystical

Although

be

will

arguing

and

of

the

of

to

us

that

all

seem

respect

and of hypnagogia
inferences
as to

make

and
and

attitudes

in

human

of

modes

of

primitive,

evolution.

original

out

to

the

in

particular

the

first

at

bring

would

later

activities,
the

of

stage

early

in

and

hypnagogia,

of

link

also

oldbrain

with

argumentation

environment

mental

placing

issues

states

enable

correlated

not

explicit

They

primitive.

on regressivity,

a very

might

philosophical
these

the

with

mystical

empirical
function

actual

and

possible

structure

capacities,

needs,

in

experience

and

the

remote

past.

The

is

meditators

of

the

or

'cortical'

world

external

drawal

(a)

kind
an

as

functional

similar

in

detail

oundings

hermits,

gious

the

thus

in

the

cutting

East
out

some

of

mystic

sensate

experiences
(c)

sensations,

(a)

unity,

(d)

intense

ineffability,

in

are
from

more

surrreli-

people
the

exter-

themselves
and

are

hypnagogia.
Deikman

what

features

principal

(b)

realness,
and

up

auditory

to

conducive

the

relation

Indeed,

wall

practice
clearly
stimulation
-a
Relevant
to the study
of hypnagogia
(1969b,
pp. 35-43)
as the five
proposes

darkened

and

visual

completely

with-

on meditation

manuals

indicates,

even

both

(the

psychologically

and

that

produces

discussed

quiet

itself

word

sensory

psychological

withdrawal.

psychological

as

and

world,

in

that

rational

isolation

most

practised

physically

who withdraw

caves

be

of

argued

hypnagogia

is

fact,

In

(b)

sensory

pro-

renunciation

and
of

to

temporary

intellectual,

the

hypnagogia

to

assist

of

be

might

religious

out

state

implicit

an

of

14).

should
to

is

state

Chapter

it

suggest

it

feature

isolation

sensory

may create

thinking,

important

argues,

a functional

and

of

(1969b)

many

meditation

my viewpoint,

induction

hypnagogic

by

he points

producing

From

isolation.

of

adopted

addition,

In

practice

barriers

stimulus

in

Deikman

sufficient,

long-term

the

nal

renunciation

deautomatization.

duce

of

of

attitude

(e)

unusual

trans-

phenomena.

The first

feature

is

an intense

feeling

of

reality

191
for

that,

individual,

the

Significantly,

experience.

"(a)

in

that

meditation
distinct
a function
they

usually

ness

is

placement
transfer

is

judgment

synchrony;

(b)

the

p. 36)

some

detail

in

real-

of
(c)

realdis-

of

capable

intensification,

reduction

and

and

sensorial

ideational

of

although

and

function

of

represents

feeling

se;

per

themes

argues

realness
the

the

of

judgment,

reality

varieties

all

discussed

are

of

of

of

Although

contents".

feeling

a quantity

therefore

affecting

(ib.,

sensations,

considered

and

Deikman

that

in

inherent

be

can

ness

from

operate

not

the

truthfulness

the

attests

reality

sense

in

chapters

reality

and

17 and

kind
this
that
be
this
very
same
18, it may
point
at
noted
in
hypnagogia
found
is
feeling
only
also
not
- especially
of
fools
the subject
it
in the late
sometimes
where
stages,
in
the
imagery
his
unfolding
taking
as
the
to
of
extent
world

objective
he

hallucinates

schizophrenia
'spills

over'

a hypnopompic

Deikman

to

attached
sensations
"stimuli
of

of
be

might
become

argues,

and

ideas

the

inner

in

as

place

tation

might

or

partial

If

realness

investment

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a quantity

oldbrain
of

of

decrease

attention
function,

experiences

through

sensitivity
of

leading

in
as

partial

external
1967)
to the

al

et

activity)

and

to

sensitivity

withdrawal;
of

or

partic-

of

imagery

a variety
Ornitz

what

images

are

full

in

feeling

the

and

statements

how

process

Through

hypnagogic

of

this

with

thoughts

These

of

In

on objects.

raised

out

particular

invested

become

1921;

formerly

awareness".

explain

from

fading

increase

is

the

hypnagogia

(psychological

activity;

to

study

(Arnold-Forster

reduction

attached

transfer',

the

ranging

and

reality

p. 36).

in

deautomatization

dream

deautomatization,
of

bestowed

they

carrying

confuses

and

quality

enter

world

(1969b,

real"

stimuli

that

'reality

called

mentation
take

becomes

objects

importance

ular

"the

ordinarily

reality

where,

wakefulness

cognitive

and

perceptual

(1969b)

dreams

reality.

waking

During

as

reported

nocturnal
into

testing,

reality

often

blends

that

awareness

with

reality

dreams)--

it

for

ability
is
but

and

latter,

the

his

loses

or

in

occurring
in

(he

internal
Deikman

reorien-

cortical
to

full

activities.
proposes,

192
its

then

ing

phenomena

occurring

the

phenomena

of

in

this

ity

1 of

(a)

(e. g.,
it

the

just

the

to

already

ting

the

tical

(e. g.,

the

hearing

The

sense

of

seen

in

relation

are

the

sense),

same

Cortical

experiences.

(b)

above,

these

of

none

(c)

activities

either

just

as

environment

or

they

Rationality

(cortical

the

and

are

subject

se

Deikman

a stage

of

the

ssive"

sense

hypnagogic

(and

prior

or

"return

to

the

and
to

experiences

the

the

to

maturation
description

same

direction,

contrast,

meditation,

physical
between

reality

per
as
judg-

on reality
form

feeling

of

often

reality
are

hypnagogia

that

is,

endowed.

described
i. e.,
use

predominant

and
of

judging

of

Innocence",

Adamic

thoughts

around.

any

are

is

it,

and

experiences

mystical)

hypna-

of

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of

mystical

true

of

of

reality

the

least

a barrier

imposes
the

detail,

'objects'

real

only

intensity

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cortical

perceived

the

cortex,
point

normally

argued

that

to

the

that

it

is

are

--images

be

which
"infantilism"

possible

from

it

i. e.,

rational

By

stages

not

with

as

late

dependent

put

fact

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If

we know

as

interpreting.

of

of

(at
be

will

and

but

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repor-

a decrease

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same

activity)

the

it,

tends

The

the

are

distinct

indeed,
-to reduce

ment

as

as

a state

environment
see in some

not

are

real

'irrational',

is

in

and

hypna-

dissociation.

to

activity,

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and

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the

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(b),

activities.

soon

and

and

and
in

of

clearly

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contemporaneous

a function

we shall

experiences

differentiating,
in

as

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real

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true

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of sub-cortical
interpretation
of

then,

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to

(c)

be

might

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placesthe
and

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physical

may range

belief

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real-

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but

or

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in

the

of

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itself
and

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imagery

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awareness

double-consciousness,
Realness

how the

the

exclusion

we have
of

in

dissociations

(b)

the

dreams).

gogic

the

on

and

hypnagogic

to

that

to

real

(c)

to

tive

full

we saw

respect

1848)
as

called),

hypnagogia,

and

paper

awareness

Maury

is

partial

this

in

experienced

from

in

light

some

state.

Part

In

throw

might

of

range
ular

presence

variable

to

as
the

"regre-

193

decreased,

of

numerous

behaviour

and

cognitive

later

chapters,

ations

in
In

that

unusual

of

one

an
his

of

ment:

"Now

of
the

when

of

there

kind

p. 37).
changes

vase

in

the

recreates
both

In

of

these

between

relationship

in

first

perception
have been

the

is

motion
perception

contents

actually

be).

'Attraction',

attention
'in

the

the

reflect
-

grip

successful
of'

during

became
reported
in

kind

is

moving
1966b,
(Deikman
'chemical'

of

discussed

earlier

the

processes
With
present.

regard

to

that

"the

shifting

light

and

darkness

movement

of

attention

(whatever

such

suggests

'movement'

may
among
might

'absorption',

'expansion',
dynamics

of

the

focusing

is

experienced

force".

internal-

of

p. 37)

the

my

actual

(1969b,

of

a powerful

...

I was

an

vase"

object

with
suddenly

this
is

it

or

subjects

feel

the

"it's

this

something

the

and

clearly

and

psychic
thus

of

hypnagogia

various

would

shape
reports

Deikman

report
of

as

experi-

and
and

his

there

though

subject

as occurring
ization
and empathy,

...

my eyes...

sensation

physical

which

shape

of

connected

and
I

sense

happening

sensation
of

report

reports,

place

Another

the

the

absorption

a particular

powerful

a very

than

of

during

It's

thing.

of

expansion,
on

part

subject
it's
but

my vision

particularly

p. 109).

the

the

as

understood
rather

dark

the

of

a strong

experienced

happens",
in

(ib.,

centre"

kind

this

be

perception

and

attraction,

grip

and

vari-

Deikman

percepts,
can

light

of

pinpointed

my vision

body

their

feature

He quotes

who

a physical
of

of

mode

stimulus.

only

not

like

"...

in

argued
all

principal

phenomena

subjects

when

happening

the

be

will

unusual

of

unusual

a shifting

motion

feelings

normal

schizophrenic

practically

second

these

external

and

the

the
that

of

many

representing

feels

to

experience,

an

para-

and

hypnagogia.

reference

mystical

in

found

facilitate

(e. g.,
and

it

neuro-

increased,

might

attitudes

are,

and

abnormal

epileptic

be

to

is

study

normal,

experiences)

psi

mentation,

says

cognition,

and

perception

whose

and

mental

realness

which

understanding

normal

in

by

reoriented,

or

The

activity.

processes

physiological

our

oldbrain

of

predominance

effort

to
as

focus
being

194
There

of
effort

of

tions

of

subject

his

of

ness

of

on)".
in

the
of

a state
taking

grip
absorption
in

place
"in

being

the

Deikman

above,

have

experienced

place

following
is,

hypothetical
it

symbolic
referents

that

the

process

perceptual

perception

relatively
p. 37).

force,

phenomena
and

sound,

He relates
but

as

this
points

the
to

the

second
"subject

the

the

same

report,
might
taking
percept;

normal

of

reconstructed

outside

reconstruction

was

to

or

this

translation"

and

that

so

forth)

light,

of

taste"

and
(conflict,

action

concept
out

of

a resynthesis

sensations
smell

that

experience

points

psychic

unstructured

to
to

similar

attentiveness,

solving,

of

interpretation

"sensory

of

and

points

He refers

as

mode

diffi-

easy,

strained,

being

and

the

with

slow,

very

of
vase

condi-

description

to

the

as

effective-

sensation

of

mode

"the

do

this

sensation".

problem

movement,

1969b,

says

a physical

as

repression,

our,

respect

of

percept

as

perceived

via

In

perception

awareness

normal

the

attention

deautomatization

the

defines

the

to

force

of

fascination.

of

that

of"

have

subject's

a powerful

focusing

successful

quoted

of

grip

the

Deikman's

hypnagogia:

encoun-

the

or

fascination

and

of

Silberer

them

powerful

a very

of

by

fruitless,

the

that

phenomena"

(quick,

successful,

Second,

being

they

consciousness

gay,

relaxed,

state

experiencing

consciousness...

functioning

cult,

of

the

experi-

represent

which

experiences

the

Silberer's

to

defined

are

state-

dynamics

the

(effort)

These

above
of

similar

very

"functional

"autosymbolic

the

the

reflecting

as

is

attention

in

noting
interpretation

etc.,

hypnagogia.

in

tered

worth

Deikman's

pp. 199-200)

(1965,

so

points

that

"attraction",

ence

of

are

First,

ment:
the

two

col-

(Deikman

to

Silberer's

it

differs

autoin

its

genesis:

in
dreaming,
a symbolic
In the hypnagogic
and
state
ideas
occurs.
and
translation
activity
of psychic
force,
light,
may play
a part
Although
and movement
the predominin hypnagogic
and dream constructions,
conceptual,
verbal,
visual,
are complex
ant percepts
'Sensory
translation'
images.
refers
and activity
to the experience
concrete
simple,
of nonverbal,
action.
of psychic
perceptual
equivalents

(Deikman

1969b,

p. 37).

195

tion
in

is

of

hypnagogic

tion

by

know

from

the
the

study

of

sinking,
colours,

of

clouds

too

these

(1972)

from

indeed

being

of

If

activities.

the

in

latter,

the

the

eved,

This
when

directed
then

of

at

(b)

to

effort
it

is

is

not

present,

as

in

the

'normal'

hypnagogic

which

attention

outsie

an object
of

'simple'

is

both

the

ations

such

as

light,

explosions

of

An important
the

'chemical'

both

case

be

may

visual,

in

meditation
the

Silberer's
drows-

(a)

condition
and
of

presence

does

not

a series

other

sens-

flashes

of

and

expanding,

seek
as

experienced

auditory,

shifting,

of
second

and

non-analytic

must

that

mind

the

then

process,

subject,

kinesthetic,
drifting,

the

in

would

oversight,

phenomena

if

But

think.

It
an

conditions

under

out

carried

might
ideoretinal

of

time

same

bear

attention

etc.

autosymbolic
We must

in

subject

forms

the

internal

an

falling,
at

changes

translation"

hypnagogic

and

achi-

perception'

turned

"sensory

drifting,

been

has

the

inwardly

an

with
image,

nature.

were

observations

object.

functional

all

a complex

and

begin

is
If

con-

whereas

see,

meditation

external

colours,

that

iness

we shall

familiar

to

of

as

the

an oversimplification,

be

difference,

in

be

object

between
hypna-

of
were

meditators

in

an

swirling

argue

the

those

and

subjects

such

of

be made

to

withdrawal
'internal
the

internal

appear

light,

to

is

psychological
is involved

object

preclude

perceptions

difference

of

as

activities,

external

an

were

meditation

'inner'

not

an

the

instead

image

psychic

of

perception

subject

character

of

former

the

Whether

phenomena,

suggests,

once

imagery.

of

in

swirling

etc.
does

actual
of

drifting,
light,

autosymbolic

Deikman's

of

experiences
is that
gogists
cerned

the

a point

the

with

explosions

sounds

translations

hypnagogia

falling,

of

of

tentatively

As we

of

flashing

as

descrip-

this

phenomenology

or

seen

"predominant".

adjective
the

justified

qualify

flickering

being

also

to

sensations

be

to

are

Dusen

or

the

experience

swelling,

them

of

is

"complex"

enough

descrip-

Deikman's

whether
as

contents

cautious

use

people

many

van

is

he

fact,

however,

debatable,

It

sound.

point
relationship

to

be borne

in

between

the

mind

here

subject

is
and

that
object

196
the

may enable

subject

to

to

experience

the

object

as

natively,

in

this

thoughts,

intentions,

of

be experienced
tions

state

to

of

image

becoming

An extreme

of

loud

sound:

this

indication

the

In

how

of

between
it

processes,

may not

these

quasi-perceptual

might

be,

as

to

hallucinogenic

of

the

which

might

when

unlikely

gogic

images

magnetic
Whether
sciousness

of

fluidic

awareness
into

as

waves

which,

we are

indeed

dealing

faced

with

the

as

psycho-

and

speculative
all

sound

This
hypna-

view

electro-

are

images.
(1974,

be.
conuncon-

a universal

compounded

certainties,
(turning

'objectified'

more

must
into

emerging

feelings,

Koestler

activities

they

which

neuro-

and
to

to

or

intuitions,

experiences)

awareness

not

analysis,

with

respect

'solidified'

experiences

significance,

experience",

last

and

in

perspective.

of

of

translation"

scope

ourselves

or

some

electron

might

corre-

of

biochemists

in

subconscious

a personal

impressions,
of

the

a sudden

sound

that

correspond

proper

we allowed

the

states

"direct

and

a conglomeration

object-based

conscious

its

in

by

form

some

argued

extreme
it
facie

prima

be

attentional

"sensory

and

groups)

subject).

incidentally,

deep

(in

in

of

be

pp. 330-339)

seen
if

achieved

we are

scious,

seem

is,

of

cellular

the
would

improbable

is,

second

physiological

and

However

processes.

could

must

physicists

that

may collectively

be

there

all

the

brain').

experiences,

which

measure",

idea

'visceral

(1964,
drug

logists

and

experiences

Leary

processes

logical

gut

at

(or

towards

(which

from

subject)

attention
feel
this
then

the

be

the

image

be

away

of

would

psychological

awareness
also

direction

state

his

to

from

moving

non-analytic

since

addition,

lation

that

in

of

a pulling

receding

opposite

subject

may
percep-

respect,

as

second

absorbed

may be related

states

this

the

literally

internally,
an

in

example

this

is,

and/or

enlarged

termination
and

the

object-image

quasi-sensorial

in

image

alter-

subject's

A shift

that

towards

a movement

as

and

manner,
the

the

the

towards

properties

himself':

consciousness

would,

(or

image

first

the

'in

attention.

object-image

another
in a similar
felt

or

of

kinesthetic

as

the

them

etc.,

alterations

of

internalize

so

"The

contents

p. 58)

of

observed,

197
"have

no

the

resemble

non-things

definition

in

comparison

may

gogic
both
is

of

have

out

to

be ideo-retinal

it.

It

has

been

taken

place

state

nearest

hypnagogic/hypnopompic
implies

This

ness.
with

hypnagogic

their

possible

ultimate

ideo-retinal

in

pathways

(optic

Although

it

can

lead

may,

turn,

thus

present

the

problems

subjects

'miss'

defined
seeing
it
is involved
this

out

of

not

only

when
in

his

and

eyes

the

that

the

focus

and

eyes

to

observe

indeed

of

are

both

the

even

subject

is

seeing

found

be

whole

and

yet

directional.

of
has
But,

specks

and

clouds

coming

out

of

in

if

are

hypnagogia,

(a)

that

and

only

report

light

images

can

front

of

be moulded
the

subject

we bear
at
and

moulded

and
that

also

eyes

they

in

were

projected
are

is

picture
its

to

shown

in
the
if

mind

the

stages
we remind

in

seen

illumination

is
indication
of

to the

respect

an explanation
for
both
the
account

to

and

seen

namely,

image,

an

a hypnagogic
if

and
the

argument

the

order

depth,

stimulation

ideo-retinal

in

but

eyes

A further

that,

brain.

the

in

if

how

only

not

be

visual

but,
more importantly,
shut,
images
the
simultaneously
arise

thus

are

(i)

the

appearing

clouds

that

imagery

that

stimulation

projected

that

in

would
to

remains,

electrical

and

(b)

shown

binocularly.

still

It

of

of

solved,

specks
and

be

(ii)

and

be

to

the

substance

open,

perceived

when

is

are

areas

schemata

with

need

must

simultaneously

point

involved

he

show

ideo-retinal

to

objects,

when

both

the

of

is

parts

that

argued

subject

two

other

and

be

still

its

deeper

stimulating
nerve)

in

many

these

wakeful-

a subject

stimulation

electrical

by

be elicited

retina,

the

whether

that

ordinary

likely

what

again

stages

nature.
'specks'

speck-like

of

origin.

Experiments
can

to

less

the

researchers

1925)

those

at

deeper

the

experiences

debatable

course,

of

that

Hypna-

dissolve

(Leaning

out

The

clouds

to

defy

also

many

and

and

pointed

have

must

observations

by

specks

light

which

metaphorical.

observed

of

they

respect,

substance".

and

than

been

themselves

argued

into

time

literal

this

physics

quantum

space,

be more

images

form

to

of

terms

visual

in

dimensions;

spatio-temporal

entering
ourselves

converge
has
fact

sharp
nonthat
and
of

last

198
the

states

drawn

deeply

more

how consciousness
and

now as

specks

gery.

The more
imagery

the

it

more

as
and

disappears.

inds

"the

us,

city,
It

of

becomes;

and

the

of

(b)

and

the

in

activities
(b)

to

pect

have

utions

a full

of

A thrill

that
sions

of

the

The

sound

before

But

these

arguments

nature

and

of
its

took

to

but

res-

correspondents

be

times

three

or
the

convol"something

saw

threads

slender
body....

Both
like

light,

it

instantly

as

the

nervous

system,...

went

through

same

correspondent

me -

flashes

falling

of

clouds
images.
(In

brilliant

with

of

sensations

he

central

cells'

hypnagogic

connection

"two

recognized

experienced

of

aspects

glowed

that

were

changes

and

p. 152)

occasion

the

of

arms

excitement

frequently

other

arms

starshaped

disappeared".
he

On one

moon...

'giant

the

all

the

what

projection

and

centre

that
of

but

from

springing
the

of

qualitative

object-like

stated

my own brain".

a starfish,

as

the

being

of

specks

(1925,

glimpses

caught
of

like

Newbold

Romaine

Prof.

as

to

electromagnetic

and

Leaning's

of

one

position

quasi-perceptual

sometimes

velo-

and

due

and

times

other

some

and

colour

body

his

meditation

and

electrochemical

actual

its

a blur".

shifting

kinesthetic

as

attention

the

the

uncertain

knows

himself,

in

state,

experience

in

find

may

he

rem-

to

able

more

becomes

both

that

subject
(a)

the

specks

p. 52)

is

if

electron

argued

attentional

to

able

be

thus

into

physicist

versa,

hypna-

properties,

(1974,

an electron...

the

of

in

disintegrates

the

vice

ima-

Conversely,

Koestler

as

appreciate

substance'

emergent

it

(as

object-like

activity.

accurately

location

hypnagogia

prevailing

more

may

further

to

(absorbed)

exhibits

physics,

location

the

it

is

stage

'thought

involved

he

as

attention

able

now as more

analytically
In

velocity

in

it

the

determine

and

into

be

then

clouds

becomes

(a)

hypnagogic

may perceive

greater

his

as

a deeper

itself

unfolds

observes

one

its

the

(b)

we might

one

in

is

subject

and

in

when

fascinated),

he becomes

gogic

hypnagogia

exits

and

enters

consciousness

of

instantly

and
also

of

one

reported

light

explo-

and

asleep).
of

are,

course,

imagery,
with

other

such
types

in

no way

as
of

its

to

deny

symbolic

imagery.

199
in

Both

hypnagogia

zations

as

the

is

thing

simply
it

that
levels

they

that

a symbol

can

be made

standing

for,

different

may correspond

different

organization

in

much

different

In

and

to

'symbols'

as
be

may

one
or,

another,

two

may perceive-cognize

simultaneously.
As Deikman

(1969b,

talk

"may

be

when

in

the

of

energy

cognitive
takes

place,

'presence',

and

liberated

during

(e. g.,

tists
to

this

go"
active

of

state

as
(see

than

just

The

notion

it

may be

by

also

Trmner

the

to

relaxation,
intense
1911).

switch
or

organi-

hypnagogia,

'illumination'
it

a metaphor,

occurring

of

unconscious
'peace',

of
of

1980),

produced

Moreover,

other.

a resolution
experience

of

may

a liberation

also

result

processes

experience

is

the

different
between

the

out,

the

and

is,

organizations

unification

when

in

and

hypnagogia

Baker

tension
mode

or

steam

that

above,

sensory

of

like".

the

points

but

different

aspect-symbols

more

actual

permitting

occurs,

conflict

or

be more

act

each

meditation

p. 38)

may
about
from
derived
an

mystics

of

in

as

or

argued

series

for,

correlations
to

as

able,

from

perspective

water,
(H2O)

events

do

that

of

etc.

stand

at
way

strong

some

things,

same

water

represent

physiological

stand

entity

zations
it

to

the

respect

a similar

psychological
them
enable
its

or

to

things

aspect-states

to,

for

By this

interpretation.

mean

as

a symbol

emotions,

one

correspond

a human

ideas,

of

stands

than

are

states.

(pictures,

electro-

incongruous

concept

that

etc.,

to

of
ice

the

a sound,

e. g.,

appear

more

interpreted

is

and

act,

things

or

to

open

not
or

an

instance,

For

organi-

which,

imagery,

symbolic

mind.

waking

a picture,

other

and

of

some

is

entity

multi-level

and

activity

activity

chemical
to

internal

of

human

the

meditation

multi-sociations

with

presented

in

and

energy

being

held

a view

explained
of

the

occul-

in

respect

"letting
of

application
Deikman

by

states

the
that

translation
when (a) heightened
may occur
sensory
(b)
is
directed
the
to
pathways,
sensory
attention
the
is absent,
thought
and (c)
controlled
analytic
is one of receptivity
to stimuli
subject's
attitude
(openness
instead
the general
of suspiciousness)...
as perceptual
context
psychological
may be described
In this
of consciousness
special
state
concentration.

200
becomes
the subject
ordinarily
processes
of awareness.

of
aware
excluded

intra-psychic
the
or beyond

certain
from

1969b,

(Deikman
However,
(a)

as

may not

becomes

earlier,

be required

when

image,

internal

an

noted

in

absorbed

two

are
conditions
"sensory
that
ated

already

of

it

attention
be

by

reiter-

Deikman

includes

which

may
other,

autosymbolic

phenomena

imaginal

constructions,

novel

latter

the

must

defined

hypnagogia

is

attention

while

But

as

condition

hypnagogia

imagery

translation"

p. 38).

of

of

of

case

present.

memories,

perseverations,

presence

object

emerging

experiences

complex,

more

the

the

the

throughout

be present

not

in

and

the

scope

and

etc.
discusses

Deikman

that

experience,

mystic

hypotheses,

viz.,

own psychic

structure,
of

structure

as

has

second,

the

second

principal
if

that

electrochemical

and

thinking"

would

"constitute

ained

to

the

one

words,
as

the

of

nature

process".

hypothesis,

the

of,

idual

the

of

some

of

others

learned
his

since
stimuli

(Werner

Deautomatization

contrast

theory

argues

from

resulting

expansion"
sion

third

this

In

unity.

and

and

stimulus

1948;
would

von
thus

of
it

as
In

other

'solipsistic'

in

for

Senden

1960;

permit

aspects

infers

constitute

temporary

to

qualities

sensaone

operating

responsible

pert-

"perceptual

a
or

unity

processes

this

for

a reversal,

far

would

homo-

are

which

to

automatization

infancy

perception

so

from
and

is

perception

intervening

the

without

experience,

thought

one's

above.
to

experience

thought

stimulus

of

an experience

the

real

relation

consciousness
in

tions-and-associations-of-memories
the

in

of the

and

experiencing

the

one's

discussed

mystical

of

the

of

of

been

perception
the

three

constitutes

contents

activity

electrochemical

the

that

idea

of

perception

discussed

activity

of
be

would

has

substance

the

of

light

the

first

of

feature

perception

actual

a valid
nature

the

been

also

therefore

and

geneous"

in the
as

as

The

"the

then

principal

unity,

feature

"the

the

of

and

world.

which

third

regression,

the

The

argues

his

the
the

Shapiro
of

suspenthe indivselection

exclusion
1960).
reality

that

201

As argued
and

and

sive.

The

tory

concepts

and

of

acts

in

addition,

the

mystical
kinds

to

prototypical

that

effect

is

to

increase

memories

ineffability

of

these

the

normal

ta)

of

and

reproduce

memory

typical

to

hypnagogia

or

the

are

of

(b)
fascination,

and

conviction.

In

conviction,

the

able
tile

origin,

as

in

to

the

experience.
The

second

different

from

in

of
the

the

inability

earlier

of

comfort,

to

mystical

one

in

above

that

of
mode
security,

fascination
may be

they

not

of

are
and

may

quoted

mode

this

if

receive

return,

earlier

ineffable

(schema-

features:

the

unstructured,
they

that

phenomena

non-analysis,

that,

section,

and

these

experiences

probably

earlier

kind

of

hypnagogist's

are

an

fact

p. 284;

and

experience

firstly,

fascination

due

very

an

to

The

intensity

hypnagogic

of

state

the

to

of

thought

the

to

1959,

of

subject

this

senses:
they

argued

the

1964).

and

relevance

analytic

(c)

to

two

quality

sets

vividness

vehicles

(Schachter
The

isolation

"categories

by

intensification

the

due

in

the

meditation

and

be due

infant

processes"

Suraci

also

the

of

thought

recall

suitable

three

of

reorientation,

in

may

of

in

abandoning

cognition,

and

not

union

sensory

conditioned

p. 40).

lies

the

or
of

contemplative

see

childhood"

1969b,

Deikman

is

experiences
early

of

by

(a)

which

suggestive

functional

memories

memories

(infantile)

in

and

p. 40;

mind

adult

experience.

state',

which

fourth

on primitive

a "regression

of

distinguishes

mystical

very

of

theory

ineffability.

of

p. 40)

exclu-

expana-

Deikman's

a preverbal

of

notions

mutually

the

that

based

renunciation

such

to

(1969b,

first

the

useful

to

relates

ineffable

an

not

provides

experience,

is

(ib.,

of

it

by

contributes

are

and

accessible.

explanatory

good

a qualifier

probably

This

about

a main

as

also

phantasies

breast".

brought

paper,

sensory
experience...
'undifferentiated

nonverbal

and

this

stand

as

of

"is

kind

related

and

in

Deikman

three

first

The

become

hypnagogia

Interestingly,
between

to

hypothesis

third

regression:

awareness
earlier

may

of

stages

various

feature

above

hypotheses

second

of

from

blocked

hitherto

were

be

ineffinfan-

secondly,
remembered

rehearse-memorize

experience
its

ineffability

is

202

(quoted

As James

lize.
"states
and

beyond

going
in

and

states
van
lation

the

of

dimensions
levels

of

totality

of

that

hypnagogic

all

iences

of

are
in

that

this

ization
of

of

view

is

similar

normally

of

of

tionality'

of

hypnagogists,

users,

to

respect

data

among

ships

phases

image

seemingly
may or

may

The

ideas,

the

experience,

hold

his
viz.,

experience

true
of

fifth

in

the

ineffable

the

goes

trans-sensate

beyond

in

respect

the

"vertical"

of

the

apparent

'irra-

psychotics,
(e. g.,
individuals

LSD-

for

with

the

the

the

appa-

modalities,
in
conviction

regards

'solution'

problems

light

of

later

to

of

the

phenomena,

customary

which

analysis.
Deikman

experience

mystical

"irrel-

relation-

synesthetic

of

Kepler's

tides).

emphasize

the

feature

principal

This

society.

sense
of

a James

water,

notion

moon

next,

feelings

kind

third
to

relates

not

the

different

unrelated

of

reports

many

to

of

unjustified

rently

the

of

instance,

mystics,

creative

hypnagogia,

one

of

evancy"

the

of

association

and

unrelated,
for

above

account

made

statements

organ-

entirely

The

by

proposes

inter-

permits

expressed

may

see.

an organization

urban

a modern

symbolism.

concepts

is

it

'vertical'

new

properties
I

one

many

exper-

encompassed,

are

as

molecular

my interpretation

organization

"the

and

the

many

argued

(1964),

is,

extensive,

to

be

kind

this

"a

which

of

of

the

to

Ehrenzweig

consciousness

structure

reve-

of

presently

kind

the

aware

"a

hypnagogic/hypnopompic

'logical'

on

novel,

are

with

such

experience

is

not

of

that

a treatise
the

is

it

place,

schemata

of

'understands'

as we shall

takes

non-linear

Bond

In

of

type

conscious-

experience

and

some

agreement

diverse

and

to

nature

state

relationships
in

this

concepts"

of

the

that

of

"becomes

subject

Although

case

it,

sudden

interrelationships

experiences

in

Deikman,

The

and

existence".

the

doubtless

1979).

simultaneously

meaning

verba-

in drug-induced
both
place
1965,
Sherwood
Poe 1949,

(e. g.,

the

put

very

This

taking

as

life",

p. 41)

'field

ordinary

significance

of

to

1969b,

Deikman

the

Wambach

complex

may be only

hypnagogia

1972,

Dusen

too

verbalization.

reported

often

also

by

of

extensions

great

being

intuition

mystical

of

ness'"
is

"revelation"

the

to

may be due

mystical
in

sensory

which

pathways,

203
ideas,

and

found,

vivid

memories":

'iences

the

are

dimensions
from

ness,

and

gests

that

consciousness",

the

p. 382)
[these

trans-sensate

images]

sciousness
blank

'abstract'

tasy".

This

Van

the

one

breaks

The

individual

said

what

was

'self'

in

our
is

realness,

(1972,

p. 104)
"is

infinite
awakens

suddenly

the

images
as
seen

being

the

on

and

(1964,
shapes

way

to

in
and

its

all

hypnagogia

deepest

enlightenment.

are

answerer

This

one.

representations.

a trance,

experienced".

fan-

conviction.

the
or

satori

con-

unconscious

that

from

up

experience

with

of

though

with

characteris-

encountered

of

that

associated

not

suggests

sug-

from

scope

certainty,

a kind
and

experiences

surface

replete

still

or

meaningful-

incompatible
out

undevto

Ehrenzweig

their

other

of

questioner
into

of

emptiness"

hypnagogia

of

loss

to

produce

"full

is

each

image

Dusen

Suddenly

by

so

sense

a strong

level

cancel

and

it

experience.

"owing

that

argues

"the

such

that

or

ignored

a different

has

consciousness,

of

of

exper-

responsive

that

and

such

a new

previously

reported

perception

of

capacity

(p. 42),

pro-

"unidentifiable,

that

operation

array

intensity

the

reflective

as

stimulus

awareness

the

normal

tic

the

of

is

maintains

perceptual

the

of

blocked

result

intense,

with

experience

Deikman

unutilized

or

eloped

of

the

perception"

indescribable".

hence

"filled

although

puzzled
Poe

(1949)

hypnagogic
images
that
of his
[they)
have in them a pleasurable
ecstasy,
as far
the most pleasurable
beyond
of wakefulof the world
or of dreams,
ness,
as the heaven
of the North-man
is beyond
its
hell.
I regard
theology
the visions,
in some meaarise,
with
an awe which,
even as they
the ecstasy
so
or tranquillizes
moderates
sure,
-I
(which
them,
through
seems a porregard
a conviction
in
itself)
that
this
tion
ecstasy,
of the ecstasy
itself,
is of a character
to the human nature
supernal
world;
of the spirit's
outer
and I
- is a glimpse
if
is at all
this
term
conclusion-arrive
at this
intuition
by a perception
to instantaneous
applicable
has,
the delight
that
experienced
as its
element,
but the absoluteness
I say the absoluteof novelty.
in these
fancies
let
them
ness - for
me now term
impressions
is
there
psychal
really
nothing
even
in character
to impressions
approximate
ordinarily
is as if
It
the five
received.
senses were supplanted by five
to mortality.
myriad
alien
others
(Poe

1949,

p. 543).

204
On the

hypnopompic

Sherwood

side,

(1965)

writes:

I have sometimes
to consciousness
come back
with
great
reluctance,
still
exhilarated
with
an inspired
poem
I am reading,
the last
strains
of which
are still
in my ears.
The lines
ringing
are too lovely
and
important
to be lost
and I make frantic
to
efforts
them through
the mists
retain
of returning
consciousPerhaps
I succeed,
ness.
yet,
when they
are examined
in the cold
light
I am blankly
of day,
astonsihed
to find
that
has gone out of them.
all
virtue
The
fragment
lovely
is meaningless
although
my other
self
to something
was so lately
moved by its
rarity
approaching
ecstasy.
(Sherwood
(1979),

Wambach
psychologists,

reporting

the

on

1965,

work

p. 90).

of

fellow

some

that

says

to biofeedback
when their
subjects
were hooked
machines,
between
and were registering
zero
and four
they
to recall
cycles
per second,
were unable
when
they
they
had said.
They had been
awoke what
'asleep'.
But when they
deep state,
were questioned
when in this
they
insights.
often
reported
It
mystical
seemed
in this
deep state
that
be reached
material
could
that
was not normally
to the conscious
available
mind.

(Wambach 1979,
A wider
insights"

ical
if

we took

look

in

view

the

himself

of

of

attitude
it)

of

the

of

of
its

of

Whether

personal

of

This

present
abandonment,

be

achieved

be

the

called

to

is

that

that

is

we

it

"aims

particular
'enlighten-

called

end

If

by

achieved

non-analysing-categorising,

by

cultivate
in

and
is

is

in

gradually

viewed
or

require
in one
that

as

a leap
the

form

nothing

regular

and

life.

the
and

into

another
can

The

application
deliberately
to

a return

explicit
or

would

everyday

exemplified

mode"

1969,

Suzuki,

as

would

self

would

perhaps,

a person

p. 485).

Unconscious

achievement

these

we learn

which

this

of

epistemology.

world

"action

a Universal

assumption,

instance,

practices

a separate

striving

abandoned.

for

a Zen monk

meditation

concept

mystical

"myst-

occurrence

might

(non-mindedness,

which

prolonged

what

non-striving,

non-separateness
put

at

the

the

1971,

the
might,

experience
and

(Deikman

ment'"

and

Buddhism,

changing

at

look

a closer

Zen

at

of

hypnagogia

attitude

mystical

an

understanding

pp. 16-17).

the

unity

a Superconscious
or
in

implicit
all

go wrong

kinds
because

205
is

there

nothing

attitude,

mode
an

to

introduction
of
to

demolish

(in

the

in

It

defining

four

of

lated
even

argued

Also

interesting

W. T.

Stace's

in

hypnagogia

se

experience
the interpretation

We shall
"Creativity"

of

by

earlier,
in

see

how

the

on

an

the

hypnagogia

both

about

reinvested
quality".

and

addition,
exper-

mystical

sweeps

sometimes
deja

the

or

vu
corre-

significantly
and

(1975)

James's

Geers

1967)

a form

of

approach

to

mysticism

as

between

genuine

of

of

also

and

light,

throw

and

shared,

hypnagogia.

"Schizophrenia"

significance

schizophrenic

the mystical

marker

stages

may

which

and
authoritative,
"may be either
which

important

on

in

and

mystics

later

and

occurring

a regularly
to

chapters

awareness

accompanying
certainty,

is

This

appear,

relevant

by

given

false".

be

the

paramnesia.
is
my discussion

is

which

of

(Buck

distinction

pertinent

per

we saw

very

and

in

i. e.,

In

is

see,
to

explain

transiency

before'",

itself

(1960,1973)

the,

he makes

(1897)

this

abandoning

W.

of

which

phenomena

Ellis

in

we carry

two

feeling

there

by

images

viz.,

we shall

hypnagogic

phenomenon

its

as

which,

with

or

'been

as

gradation

"sudden

having

experience,

as

a five-fold

the

includes
us

over

true

of

the

hypnagogia.

by

shared

live

which

"self-like

mysticism,

also

description

ience

of

and

as

becomes

that

note

is

'schemata',

acquires

to

marks
are

passivity,
his

then

with

for

concern

'self')

the

of

interesting

is

and,
(a

aim

partly

endowed:

psychological

schema
which

might

calls

concern,

and

somatic

a collective
the imagery

in

hypnagogia

absence

understood

generally

concern

time

immediacy

temporal

or

important

and

be

hypna-

of

mystic's

analysis

are

personal

as

space

to

orientation

the

of

This

a receptive

prolongation

here
the

is

and

its

Future:

'living'

temporal

and

is

concepts

experience,

us

as

the

spatial

released

with

the

seen

occurrence

for

There

experiences

spatial

the

condition

Present.

the
of

mystical

for

This

place.

functional

in

shift

for

sense

hypnagogic

the

we have

sleep.

both

sense

of

as

this

concern

whatever

state)

is,

a necessary

and

fearful

the

pre-condition

essential

gogia

in

go"

and

first

go wrong

"letting

of

attitude
is

to

by
and

means of
the feeling

creative

mentation,

206
between

distinguishing
of

the

subject

in

the

light

p. 232)

between

tion

object

between

tinction

is

it

experience

lead

tends

to

tions

between

In

the

can

latter
in

ance,

"if

that

writes
knowledge

and

(Wolters
in

templation
other

things

own)"

and

is

here

by

Sartre

but

in

its

to
the

opposite
in

the

neither

can
ible

"there

be

That

it

no

can

thoughts

p. 197).

"You
is

nor

want

stupid....

to

of

which

you

In

the

all

(even

employed

"Tales

your

earlier

attitude,

fit

be

On one

former

know

In

at.
there

don

well

the
only

are

nagual

very

intellig-

known

any

occasion

correslatter

the

hinted

the

and

activity

whereas
to

distin-

Power",,

of

The

involved;

explain

"con-

that
"when

perceptual

made
only

for-

"Cloud

told

sense

Nagual.

You

in

abstraction).

consciousness

mode:
are

the

and

p. 174)

analytic,

(1976)
modes

described

Castaneda:

tonal.

Tonal

(ib.,

certainties"

main

inst-

For

("contemplation"

same

pure

states

own

forgotten

the

of

mystical

your

been

in

we

1975,

achieved

relinquished

Castaneda's

rational

cognitive

Nagual

not

and

only

is

sense

two

the

to

have

absorbed

unobtainable,

we are

a differentiating,

convey

between

experience:
ponds

is

activities

used

Don Juan
guishes

ch. 43)

self-awareness

and

ignorance,

1977,

distincobjects.

God divinely,

creature".

section
attention

of

(Organ

other

the

mystics.

Eckhart

perfection"

and

clearly

various

pure

no dishypnagogia

absorbed

hypnagogia

know

as

every

is

analysis
by

is

in

diffused

of

distinc-

no

external

and

that

to

are

become

Unknowing"

object,

there

mystical

we saw
and

(1973,

that

is

dissolution

and

sermons

you

must

yourself

get

his

of

one

diffused

false".

plane
1.

Whilst

as

it

Stace

there

case,

described

are

that

the

between

relationships

the

3.

developed

rational

or

there

fully

viz.,

wherein

see

as

respect,

that

the

and

"true

viz.,

object".

a weakening

test

logical

and

that

subject

same

attention

to

clearly

to

2.

object...

of

"Internalization",

on

of

short

things,

one,

subject

falls

generally

and

as

the

onto

three

in the

no distinctions

are

and

inability

or

experience,

projected

involves

intellect

ability

experience

mystical

"when

us,

the

consciousness

developed

tells

the

of

the

'waking'

of

by

two

interpret

to

fully

The

the

Juan

with
that

says

the
we

207
make

in

sense

talking

boundaries

boundaries,

and

those

the

(pp.

186-7).

nagual"

a state

able:
the

the

to

on

that

further

logical

the

) may not

consciousness?
experience,

but

sciousness
kind

in

the

Sri
life,

who

might,

mystical

mode,
the

within

suggests
waking

nagual

a dissolution
to

con-

of
a different

the

as

however,

state,

to three

orders

for

the

in

regard
ways:
as

are
if

the

nagual.

In
lower

"the

the

to

utterances)

the

by

follower

hypnagogia
reality

wherein

hypnagogia,

as

'objective"

we may

end

allowing

as

street

the

for

a different

or

1975,

Staal

in

claims

make

high-

the

philosopher
"Maya
(appearance):

man

In

is

level

Advaita

undeterminable,

for

Vedas

the

while

(F.

Maya

to

applicable.

unintelligible

mind.

the

non-existent".
the same high

we try

mystical

Absolute"

by

allbetween

experience,

quotes

of

or

truth:

than

more

mystical

third

the

distinguishes

and
of

the

and

and

everyday

argue

(or
them

refers
conceptual,

tonal

levels

three

making

rules

of

first,

the

p. 43)

logician

the

experiences

considering

the

of

says

scripture

different

the

two

in

Without
one

(active

the

it

as

existence

supermind

(ib.,

understood
by

(1954)

reserved

Staal

Vidyaranya

the

into

far

so

and

modes

the

of

and

level

empirical
is
level

p. 42).

of

Juan's

a similar

insight

reorientation

(1949)

of

across

we come

real,

in

not

Aurobindo
mind,

talks

Castaneda

is

general

perceptual,

second

matter,

er

don

suggests

an

applicable

talk

pervading

pervading.

the

affairs

receptive

and

suggests

Koestler

reality.

reality:
-

sorcerer,

experiencing

nagual

tonal

hypnagogist,

of

of

pre-

reality.

of

the

it

the

state

obtain

the

organismic

an

Mystics
one

is,

that

the

to

be

the

and

Juan,

hypnagogia

of

rules

unobtain-

type

active

us
of

mentation

paralogical

the

enable

thinking

Moreover,

of

of

the

that

tonal

the

activities

to

distinction

don

of

alternatives.

using

not

the

describe

that

case

manner,

of

exclusion

thus

the

to

hypnagogia,

itself

asserts

'fascinated'

insistence

may

in

in

as

certain

applicable

not

reflective

affairs

or,

mystic,
in
knows,

to

of

within

we stay
are

Here,

renders

certainty

of

sence

because

only

in

sense
up

by

that

of

either
they

may

208
hold

in

good

doubtful

In

may be
In

Zen

same

time

to

give

is

there

must

the

fact

The

In

tualization".
intellectualization
(1955)

has

mystic

finds
and

ence

is

which

having

ience

itself.
The

the

then

and
itself
in

way

that

of
not

hinted

the

becoming
difficulty
states

experiences

also

to

by

kind

Mysteries

and

perfected
in discussing
(including

the

to

the
the

exper-

hypnagogic

and

mystical)
in a
unfold

to

this

the
be

might

p. 262)

said

who

that

they

knowledge)

that

'experienced'
led

not

to

only
of

their
A main

vo6).

hypnagogia

'universe

i. e.,

integral

and

is

'think'

to

rationality,

1974,

of

not

experience

ability

(TEtcXccix
status

is

It

experience

reasoning

moods"

exper-

the

the

that

start-

the

twofold.

'felt',

'fulfilled'

experi-

experience.

(propositional

psychic
the

the

the

be

the

which

actual

Mysteries

'suffered',
and

in

during

common

Eleusinian

knowledge
as

what

pp. 543-4)

have

(Mylonas

the

acquired

Underhill

place

of

interintellec-

an

analysing

with

the

in

of

to

it

experience

then

seems

Aristotle
in

appear

one

1962).

logic...

by

(1949,

transcend

What

impressions

"certain

cent

at

so much

from

but

reasoning

of

initiates

the

it,

equip

seems

itself.

experience
was

first

appearstA

kind

'right'

must

system

mystical

both

one

one

irrational

the

however,

lon-

no

and at

an

place

took

is,

about

reason
often

that

case

or

comprehending

experiences

the

experience,

after

what

is

understand

a state

and

logics,

some

constructed

take

wakefulness

excluded

Bunge

followed

Poe's

of

"to

a reverberation

recollected

problem

(cf.

another

resembles

this

mystical

merely

like

into

ience

to

immediately

himself

himself

ling

according

"afterglow",

the

called

hypnagogia

In

can

in

law

developed

only

the

this

first,

fully

the

to

of

logic,

a rational

comes

able

intelligibility.

but

a specially

experience

is

of

system;

one must have the


be

we are

law

p. 79),

(1974,

it

But,

limits
the

in

Suzuki

of

pretation.

that

unintelligible

experience]

to

hold
the

the

of

intelligible

words

[the

reality.

intuitionistic

clearly

the

of

example,

part

What

valid.

ger

for

a valid

Brouwer's

e. g.,

draw

logic,

classical

middle

truly

definitively

and
is

kind

we can

whether

clearly

'other'

some

and

adja-

that

the

discourse'

209
has

which

different

rules

but,

consciousness,
and

these

of

use

and

of

method
In

tion').

in

instance,
is

no

to

discuss"

be

and

we now think

what

(historically

once
the

mystical

states"

as

especially
of
and

consciousness
creativity.

personal

they

of

some

extra

bring

For

together

instance,

account of the Renaissance

Staal

is

mystical

that,
states

the

first

as

normal
is now
what

consciousness").

light

encountered

by

states,

exceptional

lectures

(1895)

meth-

subsequently

adjacent

appeared

state

Crichton-Browne's
may shed

as

since

made

psychologically)

and

"consciousness

that

suggestion

and

of

nothing

inapplicable

correct,

be developed

hypnagogia

to

is

argument

is

interesting
will

there

as

an epistemological

my analysis

which

long

there

us,

irrelevant

an

implies

(An

states.

perhaps,

called

if

is,

p. 62),

states,

before

for

saying,

"so

that

these

own reasoning
'Internaliza-

(1977)

mysticism,

meaning
that

on

section

waking

the

their

Ayer's

proposition

which

relation

were

to

may simply

these

(1975,

A. J.

respect,

everyday

different,

both

(see

proposition"

odology

in

themselves

intelligible

"intelligible

in

in

reference

of

that

be

to

seem

verification

this

those

importantly,

most

rules

carry

experiences

than

in

on

"Dreamy

on
the

mysticism,

and

states

mental

Crichton-Browne
historian

discussion

present

phenomena

mental

3. A.

illness,

cites
Symonds

a
who

reports:
in church
Suddenly
or in company,
when I was reading,
I think,
when my muscles
were at rest,
and always,
it
I felt
the approach
Irresistibly
of the mood.
lasted
took
possession
of my mind and will,
what
in a series
of
and disappeared
seemed an eternity
from
the awakening
resembled
which
rapid
sensations
influence.
One reason
why I disliked
anaesthetic
kind
I could
this
was that
not describe
of trance
I cannot
it
to render
to myself.
words
even now find
intelligible.
it
It
in a gradual
but swiftly
consisted
time,
of space,
progressing
obliteration
sensation,
factors
of experience,
which
and the multitudinous
to call
what we are pleased
seems to qualify
ourself.
In proportion
conditions
of ordinary
as these
consciousthe sense
of an underlying
ness were subtracted,
or
the sense
were subtracted,
essential
consciousness
of an underlying
or essential
consciousness
acquired
intensity....
The apprehension
dissolof a coming
the grim
that
this
ution,
conviction
state
was the
last
self,...
of the conscious
stirred,
or seemed

210
The
to stir,
me up again.
tions
of sentient
existence
the power
of touch.
ering

to ordinary
return
began by my first
1895,

(Crichton-Browne
is

It

importance

of
by

preceded

muscular

(see
or

mystic,

he was

ending

of

where

he

p. 75)

here

functional

in

In

thus
the

a similar

the

that

is

argues,

"a

has

training

who

gogist

of

tively

for

(p. 486)

impasse

triggers

of

the

the

"shift

to

a compensatory

case
"a

mode
is

receptive
attempt

of

the

receptive.

mystic

mode

may

control

is
he

the

to

whose
rela-

usually

nor

prepared
mystical

psychosis",
of

mode

life
and

a sudden

perception

ensues

unsupported".

This

the

great
receptive

hypna-

the

(and

gradually

arouse

long

whose
and

rejection

and

out

a desperate

of

the

and

unprepared

each

This,

shift

action

in

points

extreme

the

of

cognition

to

against

acute

in

shift
induced

modes

is

is

Symonds

occurring

experience,

crucial

a collapse

person
the

the

will;

cannot

spontaneously

activity
is neither

psychotic

"In

action".

abandoning

cortical

argues,

receptive

which

and

of

deliberately

hypnagogia

an

Else-

schizophrenia

the

exper-

kind

acute

unlike

and

p. 486)

and

for

enters

it.

Deikman

sharp
him

normally

subdued),

the

of

himself.

experiences.

to

the

(1971,

of

again,

prepared

alertness

equipped

rush

But,

is

two

mystical

due

of

place

against

cases

sudden,

mode".

receptive

Deikman

probably

and

struggle

vein,

and

a naturrally

the

mode

by

end

takes

active

many

wish

and

setting

marked

or

preceded

state

of

onset

accept

hypnagogia,

meditation)
viz.,

an

(which

occurring

other,

to

orientation

normally

on

return

unlike

"this
to

a para-

schema

fought

it

that

to the

the

But,

disliked

"I

to

dissolution

describe

not

myself

unwilling

clearly

he

of

return

body

this).

on

was

of

by

of

a coming

exclaimed:

concentrate

the

Symonds

self,

he

presence

marked

1938

of

could

state

re-establishment

apprehensive

because

ensuing

awareness:

hypnagogist,

conscious

cannot

the

turning

the

likewise,

Isakower

the

(ib.,

body

of

the

"mood"

inward

an

to

points

was,

also

a normal

ience:

trance"

of

and

sensations

boundaries

comparison

state

waking

tactile

and

loss

and

numbness

ordinary

relaxation

pp. 74-75).

Symonds'

that

note

influence"

"anaesthetic

lytic

his

Also,

attention.
of

to

condirecov-

anxiety
mode

for

and

211
experience,
(p. 487).

this

into

material

impaired
The

ego,

not

abandoning

of

is

out,
finds
full

what

most

ego

the

mystical
lack
of fear

seeking

of

"in

is

"ego

trained

this

hypnagogia,
state,

a difference
in
state,

ego

or

Likewise,

into

of

The

to

ego

loss

dissolution

the

to

do

as

van

as
and

in

former,

Deikman

in

the

latter.

points

a schizophrenic

Dusen

absence

and

an

processes".

(1972)

the

noted,

and
of

hypnagogia
normal
in the
lying
respect,
the

of

is

a prolongation
the

cap-

psychotic

these

wanting

van

eruption

between
this

the

difference

death"

and
require

to

the

control

understanding

trance,

a trance,

cannot

response"

hypnagogic

enters

oneself

mode

contrast

awareness....

difficult.

of
loss:

that

and

a mystic

entrance

exploration

to

argues

seek

not

action

an

respect

who deliberatly

does

usually

of

p. 25)

seeker

able

in

Similarly,

(1975,

Dusen

is

that

an attempt

fear
and
implicit

explicit

CHAPTER

11

study

by

PSI:

Although

an early
psi

show

significant

state,

and

ficant

correlations

imagery

ficantly

argued

increase

in

reported

the

tion

hypnagogic

(1975)

hypnagogic

the

of

subjects

(1974)

Harper

(1925)

Leaning

be
might
visions
(1957)
Myers
posited

hypnagogic
O. H.

and

imagery

gogic

knowledge

of

The

word

to

encompass

It

is

an
'psi'

this

chapter,

only

to

telepathy,

are

trance

of

shall

related

in

production

the

of

psi

and,

hypnagogic.
hypnagogic

shall,

experiences

place.

as

umbrella

the

of

of

further,
psi,

-212-

psi

discuss
religious,

and
In

induction,

hypnagogia
tendency

states
the

what

hypnagogia

and

the

in

paper,

clairaudience,

psychophysical

versa,

vice

term

phenomena.

convenience.

conduciveness

in

an

(OOBEs),

states

psi

induction

berate/experimental

takes

paranormal

of

hypna-

visual

constituting

clairvoyance,

a term

that

clairvoyance,
of

throughout

respective

and

phenomenology,

employed

and

that

their

latter

experiences

as

argue

of

type

one

so-called

out-of-the-body

forms

follows

of

obtained
studies.

i. e.,

the

commonly

kinds

all

psychometry,
some

is

and

(1975)

form

early
that

before

event

although

suggested

precognitive,

in

used

reference

be

might

an

showed

Honorton

(1968)

Edmunds

and

Kelly's

subjects

hypnagogic-ganzfeld

in

rela-

"qualitative

Braud

and

in

and

chance"

material".

Wood,

results

psi

from

(1978)

events

two

with

showed

target

Braud,

and

significant
Both

the

psi

an

Green

and

Schacter

consistently

to

correspondence

spontaneous

deviations

signi-

Carrington

and

Green

hypnagogia

positive

is

(1970)

experience

practices.

ESP in

of

study

"insignificant
one

of

signi-

Krippner

events,
psychics

not

hypnagogic

of

recently

phenomena.

occurrence

their

to

paranormal

developing

that

no

hypnagogia

that

suggested
to

revealed

more

did

hypnagogic

the

incidence

the

visions,

conducive

(1975)

survey

between

(1975)

Panati

and

(1925)

crystal

and

during

achievement

Leaning's

(1921)

Warcollier

to

in
of

become

presence
and

deli-

mystical

of

the

213

latter

this

theme

be

veracity

shall

both
of

to

return
of

psi

psi

the

of

examination

regarding

The

mentation.

gogic

perspective

a brief

after

formulations

theoretical

the

Finally,

setting.

and

set

subjects'

in

reports

psi

view

and

events

some
hypna-

and

phenomena

will

not

discussed.
Support

between

psi

for

the

and

hypnagogia

existence

of

close

comes

from

relationships
following

the

sources:
(i)

the

(e. g.,

ualism

Edwards,

Muldoon

Braud

1975;

Braud

and

(iii)

Stanford

Green

spontaneous

1976;

Barker,

cases

(e. g.,

of

which
my own studies
(b) observations
psychics,
circles,

each

over

during

two

of

aware
(e. g.,
(c)
in

and
both

of

phenomena

conditions.

pp. 278-284)

and
thus

(c)

demonstrating
In

examination

a similar
of

not
the

in

each

semi-

floor)

the

and

of

be

thought).
(b)

observed

in

is

noting

an

worth
infrequent

hypnagogic

respect,

crystal

subjects

sessions

quality
It

was

20

of

occurrences

were
(a).

with
develop-

relax
on

comes

also

weekly

lying

or

snoring

Warcollier

interviews

groups
to

hypnagogia

confirmed

partly
(b)

two

30 one-hour

by

1972;

spiritualist

psychophysical
images,
sensations,

physical

the

from

chairs

1921;

Dusen

subjective

phenomenon!
both

on

at

1976),

Drucker

and

(a)

1976;

Braud

and

relationships

instructed

were

(sitting

van

made

of

periods

1974;

Arnold-Forster

encompass

reports

they

which

darkness

All

(c)

Altom

psi-hypnagogic

from

Honorton

Messer,

1941;

1973,

and Braud
1967,1968;

1974;

1975;

McCreery

1941,

Braud

Tart

Mayer

Garrett

1967,1968b;

ment

1961;

Ophiel

1980),

1964;

White
and

and

Thorsrud

.
Confirmation

Bennett

1962;

Fox

Baker

1967,1968b;

Green

1973:

Mitchell

1946;

Tyrrell

1975b;

1975a,

spirit-

undated;

1968,1973;

1965;

undated;

and

on controlled
psi experiments
1938,1948;
Warcollier
Garrett

1930;

(e. g. Sinclair
1949,1950;

1938)

Roberts,

occultism

Butler

Northage,

literature

the

Green

undated;

Carrington

and

1974;

Monroe

(ii)

of

1966,1975,1978;

Carrington
1973;

literature

and

practices

visions

and
that

auditory
nature

Leaning's
revealed

of
(1925,
that

214
these
the

indistinguishable

were phenomenologically
hypnagogic
type.

Psychophysical

induction

of

psi:

Individuals

involved

in

the

of

psi

towards

step

state.

of
to

as

psychophysical

the

(1930)

Sinclair

production

beliefs

and

advocate

phenomena,

first

the

theories

their

of

pective

from

the

nature

relaxation

induction

for

irres-

psi,

the

of

instance,

as

psi-conducive

writes:

hold
your
completely
mental
of,
relax
or awareness
bodily
Relax
sensation...
of,
all
all
mental
in everything
in the environment;...
interest
body,
from your
Drop your
a dead weight,
conscious
Make your
conscious
To
mind.
mind a blank...
it
is necessary
mind a blank
make the conscious
just
'let
to 'let
go' of the body;
as to
go'
of
'letting
the body requires
go'
of consciousness
of the body.

(Sinclair
pp. 46-48),

(1968,

Butler
developing

(undated,

p. 28)

freed

of

is

progress.

into

"place

to

(or

to

(see

also

(1973)

notes

that

the

training

is

at

p. 64)

before

need

for

psychophysical

lack

J. B.

1936),

1888),

"high

1950,

p. 230),

cited

by

White

lack

calmness

carelessness"
lack

of

1964),

of

(Dessoir
and
conscious
inactivity

Bennett
psychic
"the

that
but

at night,
investigators

(Barrett

receptive

naturally

asleep

not
out

pointed

(Schmoll

relaxation

inhibition

1934,1937),

Rhine

(Tyrrell

of

instructs

must

begin

becomes

also

fall

psychics

to

one

Other

overtired".

sitting

Similarly,

rest".

place

be

to

allowed

when

falling

the

would-be

and

and

"should

a condition
of
1966,
p. 31).

time

night"

are

p. 325),

that
into

best

be

simply

Carrington

you

when
the

is

time...

or

writes

(1977,

Huson

relaxed.
ideal

bed

medium
whilst

should

minds

abandonment"

"in

she)

sleep,

their

relaxation
Roberts

responsibility

p. 9)

(undated,

Edwards
learn

go

physical

the

for

conditions

importance.
that

and
He

a trance,

that

utmost

advises

worry

all

pp. 181-2)
the

on

says

of

are

calm

in

writing

clairvoyance,

emotional

1930,

1887,

1882,1883,1924;

self-consciousness
1886;

Schmoll
(Garrett

placidity
interference
and

and

absence

Mabire

1941,

(Carlson:
of

expectation

215

in

the

Conscious

the

Tension,

enters
in

identified

(2A)

Mind,

following

the

(1)

ESP process:

the

p. 38).

Le Shan 1973,

p. 27)

(1964,

White
steps

p. 201;

1964,

(Heywood

(3)

Demand,

Release,

(4)

The

consciousness.

Steps

(:1),

(2),

the

of

the

and

essence

symptoms

(1974,1977)

Honorton

syndrome.
(1977,
Honorton's

Waiting,

Way the

Response

(2A)

contain

defined

by

and

(1975)

Braud

Engaging

the

later

was

what

and

(2)

Relaxation,

the

five

the

as

psi-

conducive

level

cient

of

cortical

(b)

awareness;
exteroceptive

of

to

(c)

conscious

reduction

internal

toward

a suffi-

of
(d)

and

receptors;

peripheral

attention

(a)

maintain

relaxation;

from

"

are

markers

arousal

muscular
input

deployment

p. 466)

mentation

pro-

cesses".

(1975)

Braud
involves
(a)

the

physical

uced
(d)

sensory

arousal,

distraction

and

increased

concentration,

world
can be

It

focussing

feature

(c),
for

of

difference
fication

for

1977).
arousal

of

the

psi

of

performance

situation

has

been

when
further

may become

in
or

arousal
(see

old-

of
appears

direction,

lying

workers

p. 835,

and

that
enough

specific

Interestingly,
level

feature,

agreed-upon

level

a moderate

optimal

Stanford

other

to

the

hypnagogic

of

second
not

1977,

reference

production

a generally

some

with
that

seems

ness

to

pointing

in

in

mode

receptive
(see Stanford

paper

although

arousal,

between

relationship

and

the

fifth

Braud's

positive

this

an

of psi.
here
covered

is

features.

Braud's

phenomena).

be

erate

in

(f)

model

debatable
in

section

decreased
to

a close
is

psi

predominance

related

(d)

and

increased

along with

importance

red-

decreased

functioning,

Honorton's

functioning

a later

brain

functioning

momentary

that

seen

right-hemisphere

and

(g)

(e)

attention,

hemisphere

view,

arguing

production

of

hemisphere

(a),

Braud's

(c)

decreased

mode/right

altered

characteristics:

(b)

mode/left

receptive

syndrome

psi-conducive

relaxation,
inward

a more

action

by

the
that
proposes
following
seven major

e. g.,

this

speci-

activation
Morris

1976;

ill-defined

lowered,

completely

the

consciouslost
along

mod-

216
the

with
i. e.,

the

low

optimal
is

activities
1973)

Braud

drift

may

subject

the

that

to

ability

conscious

one

register

into

deep

is

It

sleep.

conducive

relaxation

(e. g.,

alphoid

EEG (e. g.,

by

accompanied

experience,

level

arousal

of

an

thus

to

argued

psi

Braud

and

Stanford

1971).
Honorton
1970;
Stanford
Further,
Lovin
et al
and
the presence
(1971) found positive
with
psi correlations
but not with
state"
of (a) alpha EEG and (b) an "altered
(a)

either

(b)

or

Honorton

alone.
(1971)
al's

et

very

phenomenologically

ness of significance,
discovery,
omnipotence
as

either

they

case

last

the

cognitive-affective
or as
during
"altered
state"
said
case
is

only

they

that

activity

may

hypnagogic

(1975)
and

inward

focussing

White's

(1964)

the

in

which

mental

many

a psi
the,

as

It

set.

to

themselves

which

setting

of
-

prerequisites

and

understood
Moreover,

an

forms

perhaps,

of

from

psi

(2),

that

a close

look

appears

to

agreed-upon

marks

may

of

be

be

explicit

by

all

with
conscious
is

marks
enough

of

to

a more

the

inducing

relate

for

called
or

and

subjects

mode
seen

(d)

overlap

engaging
these

at

the

of

to

dis-

sensory

and

seem

attention,

analysis

these

reduced

concentration,

step

them

of

(c),

features

of

However,

taining

as

present

increased

traction

none

subject's

in

experiences.

Braud's

mind.

activity

seen

and

marks

distinguishing

characteristics

only

as

them

we view

when

the

constitute

may

a psi

psi

set

defining

the

they

of

subject's

be

may

induction

the

conviction,
1911).

features

two

to

constitute

may

of certainty,
Hollingworth

(e. g.,

prerequisites

state"
may relate
the hypnagogic
aware-

with

closely
feelings

(1975)

Braiid's

Further,

"altered

clearly

workers.
and

closely

mainto

hypna-

gogia.
In

step

second

methods

erse
image

(1964)

White's
is

until

traction

is

the

a blank.

mind

it

or

achieved

induced
either

viz.,
all

paper
by

or
For

pointed
by

two

concentrating
physiological

perceptual,

reduced

is

entirely
instance,

prevented,
Sinclair

out

the

that

div-

apparently
on
and
or

a mental
mental
by

(1930,

dis-

making
pp. 186-87)

217
have

writes:

"After

trating

on a flower...
in

Carlson:
"In

you

J. H. R. 's

receiving,

nearly

rational
blank

screen

might

take

Lodge

1884,

Schmoll
1882;

Mabire

1888;

Burt

the

summarizing
p. 32)

(1964,

methods

forms

1887,

Schmoll

p. 325;

p. 20;

Barrett

White

(1964,

"accomplish
full

of

stream

pp. 123-124;

1905).

the

as

a subjective

1938,

Warcollier

the

same

attention

the

of

mental

the

of
p. 179)
further

or

complete

explain

be

lack

form

one
the

of

of

or

--

another".
analytic,

active,

As
"a

ESP activities
Murphy

relaxation".

strain,

and

type.

receptive

in

out,

points

not

to

White

persistence,

in

is

passive,
is

concentration

screen,

Two,

Step

of

"seem

these

however,

Concentration,
but

features

main

concentration

paradoxically

(1943)

usual

1886,

p. 17;

distract

mind

frequently
the

Dessoir
1895,

his

clear

also
notes:

unanticipated

both

that

says

a blank

passivity,

(1930,

p. 124)

creating

Thomas

or

engage

(see

to

stop

1909;

that

out

a blank"

concen-

mind".

conscious

kind

to
thus

also

of

distraction,

then

Rawson

points

purpose:

was

p. 191;

and

to

practice

exercise
(1949,

incoherent,

which
(see

shape"

Usher

p. 33)

Rush

imagery,

upon

and

p. 30).

and

'daydream'

mind

your

sensory

darkness,

in

sitting

of

possible

as

Hold

1964,

White

the

practised

Sinclair
of

part
and

Dale

that

between
inconsistency,...
the value
The apparent
and the value
of relaxation
of concentration
failure
is
to specify
to stem from
what
appears
is relaxed.
The fact
what
seems
concentrated,
the everyday
to be that
attitude
of perceiving
toward
the immediate
is directed
of time
world
to which
we are normally
adjusted,
and
and space
how
learns
to break
this
attitude,
one
unless
focus
but
does nothing
the
more concentration
however,
Unconsciously,
and
perception.
normal
toward
one may be oriented
events
effort,
without
is unable
to
our normal
which
perception
with
is strongly
this
orientation
and if
make contact,
in another
may be established
contact
motivated,
that
the
only
way - subconsciously
- provided
interfere.
do not
processes
conscious

In
ness"
workers

contrast
and
in

to

(Murphy

and Dale

Rhine's

(1934)

"dissociative
the

psi

factors"
area

have

1943,

argument
lower

pointed

pp. 13-14)
"sleepi-

that

ESP ability,
out

that

"some

many
of the

218
best

telepathic

(Murphy

during

that

noted

1943,

Dale

and

p. 13).

in

losing

"almost

which

Murphy

psi

to

be

characterized

defined

"the

as

connections"

(p. 8),

the

of

exercise
for

reason

dissociation

from

the

world

of

exposition

also

subject,

as

of

preoccupations

and now".

of

mental
in

to

success
(p. 10).
The
the

in

hypnosis,

fact

that
with

to

adjustment

the
and space,
He further
notes that,

to

dissoci-

that

in

time

to

hypnosis

separation

lie

of

Further

relate

requisite

may

explains,
the

activities.

function"

paranormal

provides

a freedom
immediate
"here

he

be

to

fas-

subject's

remarks

or

cleavage

"seems

the

this,

(1944)

hypnagogia

hypnosis.

and
p. 13)

Murphy

mind.

the

my earlier

(1943,

Dale

and

of
These

on

imaginal

ongoing

hypnagogia

aware

data

the
by

is

(1938)

Tyrrell

surroundings".

with

discussion

of

states

ation,

in

between

similarities
this,

agreement

this

to

Germane

her

concern

the
the

with

for
that
the condisome purposes,
we may find,
tions
and drowsiness,
of fatigue
or even of ill
that
basis
health,
us exactly
mechanical
give
dissociation
for
which
we desire,...
and that
the condition
of falling
asleep
or of waking
up
dissociation,
while
sufficient
permitting
gives
to grasp
the individual
more clearly,
at the
level,
the paranormal
impression
for
conscious
he has been reaching...
In the records
which
dozens
cases
we find
of examples
of spontaneous
light
or drowsiness,
sleep,
or transof very
between
ition
and sleeping.
waking
states

(Murphy
In
where

the

state

in

himself

exclusively

on

or

deliberately

subject

he

until

section

on

(cf.

state(s)

out

those

to

or

induce

such

'fascination'

a rose

as
is

and

a psi
but

relaxedly

thought

"Internalization",

cases

achieved

chapters

on

and "Meditation").

"Hypnosis"
For

of

a state

in

concentrates

image

a mental

blankness

sets

typically

pp. 12-13)

is,

that

cases,

non-spontaneous

1944,

my purposes,
it

is

important

in

comparing
to

note

hypnagogia
that

both

be

to

seemed

definitely

quite
of

in

absorption

and

cination

was

are
it

show

subject

(1937)

Gibson

subject

Similarly,

consciousness

observations

his

state.

a semi-dissociated
his
that
reported

instance,

For

experiments

psi

dissociation"

involve

to

seem

cases

to

psi

methods

for

219
induction

the

(muscular

ation

tension,

),

etc.,
in

as we saw
tation')

'fascinated'

is

both

in

lead

into

185)

instructs:

"After

concentrating
able

to

mind

which

be

concentrate

p-. 33)

(1964,

image

the

in

is

but

flower,

it

seeing

Warcollier

is

from

falling

oneself
one's

internal

Dusen

(1975)

prevented
state

gogic
section

The
mind-set

on

about

often

'Meditation').

which

of
is

appear
here

own

to

be
and

make

state,
turns

eventually

remind

(1938,

an

leading

a hypnagogic

to

preventing

intensifying

argued

van

what

that

when

sleep

intensified

hypna-

into

(see

trance

involving

'allowing
and

that

ourselves

relaxation
by

;...

a certain

essentially

into

effort-

aslee

as

instead,

psychophysical

characterized

held

influences

of

and

suces-

where

be

fall

to

meditation,

state

concentration

regard

is

will

White

can

inwardly

in

of

- you
blank

reached

"This

to

exercise

intruding

thinking

pp. 184-

Warcollier

and,

of ego involvement
a minimum
1977,
(Honorton
p. 452) has been

with

are

all

merely

saying

experience

presence

you

must

We may

attention

the

peculiar

a tendency

asleep

says

the

says:

(my underlining).

image".
what

of

sleep

its

where

of

a question

not

avoiding

stage

of

brings

(1930,
the

eliminated".

image]

tends

(my underlining).

specifically

more

in

hypnagogic

practised

if

'Medi-

subject
'paralogical

it

Sinclair

"A

successfully

pp. 222-223)
[on a mental

that

telepathy"

a consciousness

been

have

fact

achieved

a life

on

the

- and
on holding

summarizes:

takes

in

lessly

be

must

experiments

sful

It

a flower

on

con-

the

receptive
clearly

have

you

in

case

is

instance,

For

sleep.

the

induced,

absorbed

state
in

and

phenomenology

(as

either

in

this

Significantly,

mode'.

in

is

deliberate

become

to

image:
cognizes

and

by

image

oneself

to

feature

either
mental

muscular

leading

latter

with

pre-

active

withdrawal

sections,

hypnagogic

spontaneous

or

The

on a particular
or by allowing

centration

concern

parasympathetic

psychological

earlier

relax-

or

worry

sympathetic

fascination.

and

absorption

to

of

to

switch

opposed

psychophysical

lack

relaxation,

(as

dominance

involve

Two

"claptrap"),

everyday

of

Step

of

it

conscious
to

be

to

happen'

striving"
highly

is

"a

220
to

conducive

Standford

1973,1975b;
1976;
logical
on

to

argued

Braud

Mayer

1974;

Alton

and

Braud

1976).

is

here

Of importance

to

also,

psi

1973;

1971;

perfor-

see

also

1975).

Parker

correlate

(Tart

susceptibility

have,

with

Hermon

and

psycho-

identified

1970),

significantly

and Bindler
have been found

hypnotic

Increased

attention,
(Tart

reports"

Drucker,

reports"

with

and

Davidson,

Honorton,
"state

Braud

internalized

correlate

(Honorton,

mance

e. g.,

Drucker

and
and

withdrawal
"state
of
a scale

been

and

Messer,

Barker,

(see

activities

psi

High

significantly

1971).

the

state
actual
atttentional
is
hypnogogia,
in
As
receptive,
attention
the
psychic.
of
the
action
mode
with
associated
commonly
and effort,
tension,
or eliminated.
(muscular
etc. ), reduced
worry,
is

thing

tant

pp. 6-8)

(1944,

As Murphy

but

consciousness,

as

were,

impressions

the

of

'clear

development

the

can move,

of

picture.
within

space'

far

the

for

We need

to

the

so as to

be quietly

psychics,

e. g.,

of

out

devices

which

impor-

most

blotting

or

emptying

actual

out

effort

attentive
it

the

not

"by

out

points

keeping
develop,

emerging

by

observed

introspection".
At

this

in

step
the

their

it

this

diffusedly

which
he

taneously

lies

wherein
There

is

The

"Keep
the

order

not

important

first

eyes
silently,

he

closed
and

while

seeks,
of

"

points

to

be noted

to

the

with

as

body
little

at

attitude

(1930,

the

on
simul-

a void,

answer!

and

two

straddle
exclusively

awareness

Sinclair

target.

to

trying

what

is

a "tension

argues,

relates

point

Nonetheless,

concentrating

an

sought-for

the
the

is

knows

two

are

is

and

experiment

session.

is

he

entertaining

the

towards

ructs:
give

he

the

percipient

the

of

p. 38)

(1964,

consciously,

image

subject

the

because

opposites:

juncture.

White

point,

produced

an

throughout

Most

a separate
for
intention

their

inception

the

at

appropriate

"demand"

the

formulate

but

the

consciousness.

make

not

procedure

performance

psi

retain

would

1964)

(White

Carlson

that

their

to

appear

however,

psychics,

"demand"

would

message

or

picture

at

point
(1930),

Sinclair

and

some

p. 186)

relaxed,
exertion

this
the

of

instand
as

221
this,

Beyond

possible".
"hopes and waits".
(a)

(b)

of

that

of

hypnagogic

of

control

by

entering

p. 245)

spoke

tation

to

"conversation"

of

(1956,

p. 28)
as

subject

"close
spoke

scrutiny",
of "detached

gogia

and

(Eilbert

with

the

minimum

1950;

Stanford

and

hypnato

opposed
(1970)

In

both,

hypna-

achieve

and

maintain

of

ego

assertion

1965,1977;

van

1972).

Dusen

The

is

tension

the

of

White's

only

one

all

Tyrrell,

make
1889;

(Richet

meant
better

for

"tension"
if

be

might

Now,

"friction"

fact,

"equivalent
is

internalization
reached

after

psychological
be

not

constitute

directed

and
the

these

we take
to

and

to

against

(b):

the

patiently"
is

be
that
p. 36).

1964,
It

might,
of

sensation
state

meditation,
line

perhaps

saying

'empathic'

same

Step

to

others

(White

absorption:
The

contrary,

might

Carlson's

an

relaxation,

to

respect

What

"tension".

necessarily

the

which

"waiting

circumstances
of
note
'friction"'

an

1888;

Mabire

appear.

somesthetic

withdrawal.

in

the

of

the psychic's
initial

both

respect

All

speak

a picture

under

understood

this

1938)

Warcollier

mind

this

investigator,

one

Schmoll

(b)

On the
in

"tension".

1887;

that

In

appear.
"tension".

and

argument

a void

of

(pp. 36-37)

to

Schmoll

one's

to

Carlson,

reference

"expectantly"
by

of

quotations
psychic,

1930;

Sinclair

is

speak

psychics

all

not

awareness

an

eventually

answer

sought-for

and

and

into

holding

of

image

'irrelevant'

Three

result

(1964)

White's

"tension",

includes

Three

Step

from

rises

point

second

(a)

that

and

as

volition".
must

expec-

of

the

of

Walters

and

subject

(1903,

Ardis

attention"

Green

van

hypnagogia

a state

state

the

Schmeidler

and

the

(c)

Delage

occur".

might

effortless

attitude

a receptive

it.

"wishing",
the

enhance

that

Green,

states

psi

with

"alerted

of

and

can
"in

described

one

one

by

and

hypnagogia

images

the

gogic

(a)

in

waiting

catch

McKellar

that

observation

into

images,

hypnagogic

particular

(1972)

Dusen's

also

reminiscent

strongly

remark

one simply

is

appearance

in

notes,

not so much by "willing"


achieved
as
(1979a)
hypnagogist
McKellar's
who 'requested'

imagery

of

is

This

(1925)

Leaning's

(1964)

White

of

percipient's

and

argument
mind

will
is

not

222
between

tensed

is

(Trmner

1911)

barriers.

nalization

then

one

falling
accepted

desired

is

that

singular

Having

achieved

simply

waits
form

of

inter-

be
non

be

to
the

result

appearance

tedious

and sometimes

who aim at "blanking"


image, there
a mental

those

of
tension

of

degree

avoiding

might

long

For
p. 68).
the intermediary

without
be no presence
can clearly

external

is

the

atten-

and

'tension'

1889,

Richet

this

to

a mental

of

receptively

due

is

withdrawal,

internal

this

becomes

target,

on

narrowing

of

here

latter,

the

by

What

a void.

psychological
in

some

and

concentration

-a
hemmed

present

when

waiting,

of the
(e. g.,
directly

If

asleep.
as being

image

achieve

fascination

stimulus

of

to

employed

absorption,
tion

here

happening

probably
image

'irrelevant'

an

by

as proposed

White.
In

the

far

so

reached
of

above
by

hypnagogia
(b)

and

percipient
It

indicated

how

receptive

mode

and

fascinated

and

thus

also

and
This
Steps
the

would
Three
percipient

surroundings.

be

and

drifted

loss

lowering

take

place

with
if

on

of
the

the

the

psi

verge

identical,

induction
of

losing

was

the

mode.

We

of

hypnagogia

(hypnagogic

receptive

between

alpha-theta
not

it

EEG frequency.

the

within

analy-

an absorbed
hypnagogic
imagery

testing

of

in

into

three

stage

the

next

also

into

receptive

somewhere

similar,

Four

his

reality

of

'acting'

enter

with

that

correlated

is

having

the

within

that

very

'Internalization'

trance
of

that,

on
does,

often

light

of

see

remembered

state

further

stages

be

p. 108;

becomes

it

consciousness

1938,

section
by

must

loses

section

active

obvious

third

a state

and

another

and

hypnagogia

in

also

the

can,

characterized
thus

resulting

empathic

in

saw

hypnagoaist

the

become

dreaming)
is

in

sleep

Tyrrell

will

hypnagogia

sing

state

instead,

reaching

almost

(e. g.,

section).

is

from

intensified

sourroundings

psychological

is essentially
that
psi
percipient
has been
(a) deliberately
induced,

which

the

the

that

see

the

prevented

internally
wherein

we can

the

It
mode

in

second

EEG rhythms.
to
procedure
awareness

White's
wherein
of

his

223
Perceptual,

quasi-perceptual,
during
psi:

phenomena
In

follows

what

perceptual,
mena
in

studies

and/or

set

e.,

of

phenomena

to

argument
hypnagogia

both

cedent

hypnagogic

of

comparison

or

perceptual

ations

of
parts
(undated,
psychic
cold

as

have

shudder",

extreme

drowsiness",

"become

aware
to

things...

of
the

complete

circle
further

and

Sartre's

body
medium

will

if

throat

from

feel

minutely
observations

as

seeing

the

"There
if

cannot

the
speak.

small,
made

or
at

body

may be

the

feeling

of
and

sensation
large".

development

(p. 16)

Leroy's
hypnagogic
hypnagogic

occasions

completely

enormously
psychic

of

to

established

Another

"a

Roberts

identical

is

for

floating"

".

body,...

well

Roberts

powers
and other
[development/seance]

observation
the

of

"a

or

were

spirit

clearly

and

alterations:

they

alter-

schema

sittings
may feel

heat"

of

light,

medium's

is
what
(1978)

paralysis

schema

the

of
the

with

self-induced

feeling

extent

describes

(1933)

sensation
"feel
as if

colours,

during

psychics

"a

hypnagogia

(OOBEs).

that

same

disappearing

or

would-be

it
the

body

with,
ante-

same

As with

floating,

writes

the

display

they

dissociations

pp. 10 and 16)


development
the

blow

relaxation,

expanding

body

by

To begin

share

phenomena.

shrinking,

body,

the

a blow

phenomena.

that

drifting,

of

section.

psychophysical
find

the
aside
(OOBE) which

setting

states

somato-sensory

reports

such

psi

to

surprising

not at all

are

and

the

examining

ecsomatosis

psi

the

phenomeno-

by

constitutes

and

i. e.,

conditions,

there

above

of

third,

begin

following

the

they

interpretative

telepathy,

accompanying
in

found

which

fourth,

same,

shall

and

undertake

first

The

is

those

of

under

mainly

setting).

be

to

also

section),

the
are

clairvoyance

examination
propose

is

occur

pheno-

a continuation

previous

differences

their

are

circumstances

the

the

all

cognitive-affective

constitutes

in

they

which

logically

since

(this

same

presented

in

order

the

second,

the

are

arguments

in

psychic

first,

that,

argue
and

encountered

occur

shall

quasi-perceptual

hypnagogia,

(i.

and cognitive-affective

when
inert,
is

the
or

that

as
of

My own notes
circles

224
such as: "I
reports
heaviness,
and then

include
"I

felt

and then

my arm started
by

covered

features

the

of

face

another

my face

parts

my face

disappeared",

changing

being

were

bigger",
growing
of my body dissolving;
"my face was as if

shaking",

"half

cobweb",

my body

felt

though

as

impressed

a mask

them".

on

felt

"I

or
(1941)

Garrett

that

notes

faculties
into
sensory
are called
play
all*the
in telepathy...
I have known that
in the telepathic
the senses
of taste
experiment
and smell
were
in knowing
that
me as keen agents
a
serving
The pertelepathic
state
was functioning...
tingling
or
may feel
a faint
electric
cipient
is a tactile
There
response
and 'goosewarmth.
flesh
may appear
on the skin'.

and in

Interestingly,
(1921)

Ornitz

and

hypnagogic
Roberts

"every
how

will

notice

that

a quiet

ling

of

To

the

psychic

the

senses

like

dreadful
self-posed

is

a state

of

of

my mind

which

trance
has

become

senses

discomforts

like

notes

physical

become

to

active?

medium"

so

the

rust-

Likewise,
can

noise

".

"How

become

become

acute,

and

a "sudden

that

the

control

more

(p. 17).

and

acute,

the

a thunderclap

control

more

trance

shock...

question

in

quickly

experiences
seem

that

sensitises

a hurricane"

p. 49)

pp. 52-53)
Arnold-Forster's

observation

power

who

sounds

cough

(undated,

a most

to

(1967)

al's

medium

clothing

Northage
give

the

when

and

relation

subject's
"small
bodily

that

says

1941,

the

state

accentuated
(p. 4)

et

(Garrett

can

be

sure

that

just

not

a submerged
(p. 18)
Roberts

"

it
part

responds:
the medium must examine
this
To answer
question,
the results
communications.
of the controlled
to say things
Are you able
were not prewhich
in your
Do you become aware of
viously
mind?
things
you did not know
about
people
which
before?
Do you 'see'
while
under
pictures
vivid
in the normal
control
which
you do not recognise
different?
Does the body
Do you feel
state?...
does the
become hotter
In short,
or colder?
from
differ
the normal
one?
controlled
state
(Roberts,
However,
developing

a positive
medium's

answer

to

experiences

the

p. 18)

undated,
above

well

questions

within

the

puts

the

225
span

phenomenological
having

selves

that

prose,

poetry

or

having

mind,
having
an

'altered

of

hypnagogia.

thoughts,
music

sudden

were

convictions

of

state

We may remind
things,

saying

which

autonomous

vivid,

hypnagogia.

of

not

and

novel

composing

things

imagery,

consciousness'

in

previously

about

and

one's

people,
being

and

typical

are

our-

in

features

between the visual


The striking
resemblance
phenomenology of hypnagogia
be made
and that
of clairvoyance
will
(p. 21) again
in the following
Roberts
quotations.
clear
writes:
discerned
is generally
A clairvoyant
vision
when
is at rest.
Sometimes
the ordinary
consciousness
it
figure
consist
of a complete
will
or a face
of
form which
or it
may be a nebulous
a person;
to be hidden
in a cloudy
Often
appears
substance.
is in the form of beautiful
it
scenery
or brilliantly
The onset
coloured
symbols.
of the opening
heralded
is frequently
by
vision
of clairvoyant
of delicate
clouds
colours
which
seem to be
the head of the sitter.
These
within
swirling
of the .inward
experiences
consciousness
are often
imaginative.
is one
to be purely
There
thought
by which
the medium can prove
test
they
whether
In imaginary
or imaginary:
are psychic
pictures
before
is
it
the thinker
the picture
visualises
if
is of psychic
the image
it
is.
seen;
origin
'seen'
first
indeed,
thought
and then
about
is often
by the
he
fact
the medium
that
surprised
(or she)
has seen something
is so unexpecwhich
ted.
(Roberts,
(1941)

Garrett

Similarly,

p. 21)

undated,

writes:

In working
for
I have tried,
clairvoyantly,
my
figures
imaginatively,
to build
own understanding,
happen
However,
to them.
they
and to make dramas
hold
together,
never
change
and fall
and continually
image
But the clairvoyant
type.
away from their
'happens'.
have
You come upon it.
It might
always
been there;
for
you open a door
a moment,
and are
it.
The door
confronted
with
closes,
as it
opened,
is gone.
and the image

(Garrett
(undated,

Edwards
"spirit
small,
hand
Turvey

people"
no
very

bigger
large

(1911,

says
than
like

pp. 26-28)
"at

that

a close-up
56)

p. 175)
to

referring
first

a postage

pp. 41 and

1941,
these

stamp,
on

described

the

or

the

may be
on

the

cinema
his

visual

images
very
other

screen".
psychic

of

226
does

moving,

as

Dessoir

(1886,

it

images

into

of

film

of

pp. 123-124)

in

There

diagrams,
(see

cinematograph

film".

"gaze

with

closed

then

soon

emerge

which

seem

to

etc.,
et

1888;

al

(1930)

Sinclair

continually

will

Schmoll

also

1924).

ribbon

wrote:

darkness.

objects,

Sidgwick

or

belt

an endless

another"

one

1887;

sort

a deep

into

eyes

"a

as

experiences

in

change

Schmoll

that

noted

fragments
first.
For example,
of form appear
a
line,
or a straight
curved
one,
or two lines
of a
But sometimes
triangle.
the complete
object
lightly,
dimly
drawn,
swiftly,
appears;
as on
film.
These mental
picture
a moving
visions
lightning
and disappear
appear
rapidity.
with
'recall'
Then one must
first
this
It
vision...
is necessary
to recall
this
vision
and make note
it.
of it,
so as not to forget

(Sinclair
(undated)

Northage
"subjective"

and

1930,

pp. 200-1)

distinguishes
In

clairvoyance.

"objective"

between
former,

the

the spirit
appears
as apparently
solid
and physithat
the moment of perception
real
cally
can pass
before
the median is consciously
aware that
sight
Objective
not physical....
was psychic
clairis frequently
voyance
experienced
on awakening
from
Subjective
is when the
sleep...
clairvoyance
form within
the head,
pictures
and can be miniin every
detail.
ature
although
perfect
They are
dimensional
is able
to see all
and the medium
have a distinctive
them;
they
light
around
also
With
friends
lines
and colour...
spirit
wrinkles,
or blemishes
may be seen in the skin;
also,
texture
of hair
and eyes,
colour
of dress,
even
fingernails.
(Northage,
In

my interview

Appendix)
"mental

she

the

light
whole

that

ones,

physical
Imagine

colour

visions

can

are
seem

always
to

be

'demonstration',

psychic

motivated
colours
"It's

adding:
of

out

not

light".

of
by
are
so
She

small
minutely
or
in detail";
they

both

front

she

and

explained,

yet

see
as

light.

appear
"perfect
in

1981:

clairvoyance

a peculiar

comes
is

full

subjective
"has

that

picture

out

pointed

of

that

picture"

distinctive
if

spoke

(March,

Northage

with

pp. 58-59)

undated,

"all
she

the

Quite

whole

She

also
light:

as
remarked

very

large

move

very

round

as
than

colour

further

ceases

brighter

much

picture,

light".

much

being

and
fast

me".
to

be

that
they
and

During

227

she

becomes

she

does

not

speaking

almost

like

in

although

in

psychic
in

hears

the

her

language",

another

dentist's":

the

at

but

altogether

one does

he is

not

particularly

audience.
"it's

voice

nothing

lose

not

that

reality

people
she

entirely,

really

visions,
words
come and go
- as with
the moment they
it's
like
are spoken,

forgotten

and

are

having

consciousness

concerned

with

what

on.

on how to

Instructing
65),
to

trance

the

familiar

recognise

even

almost

in

absorbed

talking

registers

goes

self-consciousness

so deeply

When

"gas

loses

and

analytical

having

pointed

relaxation

of

psychophysical
like
feels
what

pp. 64hypnagogia

of
initial

conduciveness
that
the
after

notes

(1977,

ESP, Huson

the

out

enterprise,

such

develop

finds

one

three-dimensional

stages

himself

into

staring

space:

depth
'imaginals'
(as I named them)
the
In this
dimly
but more solidly
at first,
appear
and clearly
These may be things
practice.
with
you know in
life
like
books
daily
or bottles
or flowers,
or they
abstract
shapes,
may be large
often
architectural
Keep your
in appearance.
mental
gaze on them and
that
they
notice
are continually
you'll
and
growing
into
like
something
evolving
else,
a speeded-up
film
When I saw my first
of a plant
growing.
surI knew exactly
painting
as a child,
realist
what
the artist
was portraying.

(Huson
Huson

time,

By

this

of

the

is

to

he

explicitly

to

way
learn

become

the

Also,

gogia

the
is

The
extra
reveal
and

the

more
hypnagogia.

on

can

both

psi

of

the

phenomenological
On this

be

that

seen

do

and

their

it

content
the

of
is

points

occasion

(1968)
so

in

their

hypna-

that

throw

will
far

between
is

those

appears
out

presented
Butler

and

subject

pointed

similarities

psi

visual
from

activities.
from Butler

quotation

some

in

state

addition,
to

can

indistinguishable

mental
In

conducive
following

light

it

practically

same.

(p. 77),

Elsewhere
dreams

step

next

ESP scanning".

hypnagogia

in

two-thirds

the

clairvoyance:

"hypnagogic

that

p. 65).

travelled

ESP target.

examples

above

occurring
be

for

are

nature.

the

argues

experiences

to

"hook"

to

has

one

true

achieving

channels

In

explains,

1977,

and

psi
describing

states

228
the

technique

of
for

instructions
the

subject
of

surface
like

mist

brilliant

the

gazes
the

in

scrying

preliminary

which

then

sparks

of

first

the

up

light.

over

into

the
relaxation,

there

mirror

clouding

breaks

After

mirror.

psychophysical

into

quietly

mirror

a black

to

with

see

what

whirling

clouds

the

looks
and

He continues:

then
you can keep your
mind in the quiet
state,
in the mirror
the appearance
to increase
may begin
forms.
Fragmentary
other
and to take
glimpses
landscapes,
faces
of brilliantly
coloured
grave
and luminous
and gay,
coloured
clouds
may all
show
These pictures
themselves...
are the first
cousins
little
to those
curious
which
pictures
are seen by
during
into
the entry
sleep
some people
and again
from sleep.
The psychologists
when awakening
call
images,
them hypnagogic
they
and assume that
are made
by the subconscious.
is true
This
and projected
but
in our present
they
case,
enough,
may be more
just
images;
they
than
may be message-carrying
bringing
information
images,
has been received
which
by the inner
it were,
They are
senses.
as
waking
,
dreams,
and have their
own definite
meaning.
When you have reached
this
stage,
you have
begun to develop
discover
You will
clairvoyance.
for
the curious
trick
the mind
yourself
of holding
in a poised
and yet
relaxed
condition;
something
Many times
seems impossible
at first.
which
you will
become suddenly
excited
at what you see,
and the whole
down immediately.
find
You will
will
close
vision
begin
that
to divide
into
two distinct
visions
your
be much larger
One will
than
the other,...
groups.
be of normal
One set of images
things,
will
everyday
forms
You
to you.
will
present
symbolic
and the other
find
that
the symbolic
will
also
vision
seems to be
with
a positive
questioning
associated
attitude
of
The literal
to be refleyour
mind.
vision
appears
into
your
mind without
cted
any effort
on your
part;
is a passive
it
vision...
Now as you proceed
development,
with
your
you will
have a symbolic
images
find
that
certain
value,
and
inner
is using.
You
your
are the code which
self
have to learn
from your
visions
what
will
such symbolic
forms
We have stressed
these
mean to you.
for
important.
they
three
What a
words,
are very
is not
means to the inner
self
symbol
of one person
has for
it
the meaning
necessarily
another...
If

(Butler
There
points
begin
just

to
with,
like

1968,

pp. 51-54).

interesting
of very
are a number
be brought
lengthy
out of this
the

point

hypnagogia,

is
are

made

once

dependent

more

and

relevant

quotation.
that

psi

on psychophysical

To
states,

229
relaxation,
bring
either

the

to

a halt.

if

Second,

were

discussion

imagery

the

the

former

may be

of

the

As

state.

hypnagogic

experiences

scanning.

On the

has

conclusively

Third,
hypnagogic

he

tude"

or

the

The
the

third:

for

the

p. 22).

That

For

with

that

the

ESP

a psi

always
distinction

is

to
visions.

The

the

state

is

to

If

we
a hypna-

essentially

introduction

the

think")

lead

might

hypnagogic
is

atti-

subject.

then

setting')

latter,

questioning

of

part

attitude

a continuation

to

phenomenon
in

represented

(1924)

and
of

awareness
the

the

point

discussed

in

the

phenomena

those

a juxtaposition
a type

of

of

psychic

the

set

reports

of

(1973)

Butler

made

gives

the

activity

of

a specific
by

section
respect

and/or
from
following
called

meaning

and
,
Silberer

to

Roberts
(1965)

"Accom-

on

distinguishing

features
are

extension

pp. 26-7

in

significance"

only

has

Edwards

also:

precisely

and

imagery

symbolic
(see

is

of

for

autosymbolic
be distinguishing

positive

autosymbolic

is

point

individual

from

"a

"effort

emerging

often

1977)

imagery.

symbolic

This

symbolic

and

questioning

fourth

be

well-known
appears

a psi

'set

of

one's

Huson

the

again,

the

the

on

(Silberer's

instance,

"reading"

connects

(minus

hypnagogic
seen

and

argument

Slight

panying

visions
"effort"

appearance

emerging

be

Butler

"effort"

wherein

and

phenomenon.

state

gogic
of

here

an

the

pursue

once

we encounter

importantly

by

phenomenology

'set'.

of

literal

between

the

the
intrin-

an

of

to

shown

under

However,

be neither

(e. g.,

psy-

that

and do become channels


hand,
imagery
in
emerging

Thus,

one

is

can

"message-carrying".
primarily

it

imagery,

images".
to

would

images

the

them

characteristic

other

been

not

there
calling

between

argued

and

hypnagogic

the

appears

already

setting'

to

refers

draws

feature

'set

appears,

"message-carrying

a distinguishing

nor

state

he

would

for

to

cousins"

"message-carrying"
sic

to

Butler

"first

excitement

psychic

referred

distinction

only

the

of

phenomenologically

as

but

for

not

hypnagogic.

not

and

degree

slightest

justification

no

chic

it
the

which

within
be

that

hypnagogia.
from

psi
setting
both

can

areas.
typical

"psychometry":

230
I see before
me a wide expanse of
it is the sea.
Yes, I feel
it is
I am standing
Ocean.
on the deck

I think
waterthe Atlantic
of a ship -

it
is a warship
seems to be a wooden
ship
- it
for
I see guns - muzzle-loading
of some kind,
time
guns of Nelson's
or thereabouts...

(Butler
Compare

this

with

"I

visions:

but

visible,

the

Irish

the

hypnagogic

hearing

asions,
her

hearing

reported
dead".

Had

setting

or

beliefs

they

from

had

for

argues

but

state
larities

(p. 33).

easily

supernatural

(1941)
a possible
also

in

occurred

reveals
Slight's

be discussed

is

of
psi

double
activity

(1924,

very

see
on

in

importance

occ-

enjoyed
meet

obs. xi)
"George

sentence

The

pp. 278-9)

other

p. 23,

subjects
with
been interpreted

strong

also

we should

place

in

is
seeing

"Agnes

(1933,

source.

some

and,

suggesting
the

it

reported

sentences

taken

that

(pp. 42-3;

Leroy

experiences
have

also

case),

writes

no land

sea;

my mind

Indian

irrelevant

they

some

with
to

detailed

might

Garrett

in

hypnopompically

such

from

sages'

a more
"Charlie

oily

Archer
a Red

Hill"

Gipsy

at

idea

of

the

and

punch"

here

ience

for

an

a calm,

Dublin".

image

1906,

Miller

is

there

Sea near

of

p. 10).
p. 28) hypnagogic

(1935,

Archer's

one of

see a picture

is

1973,

is

'psychic'
appropriate
as

'mes-

following
as

it

a clearly

not

only

hynopompic

psychological
hynopompic

example

simiexper-

below:

from
I was awakened
by a strong
sleep
one night
feeling
that
had something
somebody
to tell
urgent
So vivid
was the dream that
me.
someone had been
to him that
urging
me to listen
I got up, and went
to the door
of my apartment,
that
I had been
certain
by knocking.
However,
there
awakened
was no one
there.
I went back to bed,
and heard
a very
quiet
'You won't
voice
say,
remember
me, but I met you
Lawrence'.
The same voice
ago with
years
continued,
'I
I wish
that
they
am Lawrence.
that
would
realize
dead,
I am decently
the ways of
and finished
with
The voice
In the
man'.
ceased
at that
point...
I had a letter
from a friend
in Dorsetmorning
'Do you believe
the question:
who wrote
shire,
asking
Lawrence
that
in a motorcycle
of Arabia
was killed
to the press
accident,
to
or was that
a story
given
hide
he is doing
that
some important
of work
piece
I should
here
that
at the moment? '
mention
the night
before
I had had no thought
in my own mind of Lawrence
but had thought,
of Arabia,
rather,
of D. H. Lawrence;
but I then
I once met Lawrence
that
remembered
of

231
through
officer

Arabia
English

a very
well-known
who had admired

had
introduced
who
and
on the same day.

It

important

is

thought

of

however,

in

two

Lawrences
to

pointing
hypnopompic

of

Arabia

D. H.

mind

been

not

the

only

to

state

The

by

name but

to

both

of
it

and

had

two

had,

Lawrences
by

them

would

the

on

same
the

thus

the
into

fact

that

interchangeable
in

were

the

appear

'similarity'

transform

not

she

also

tendency

observed

Lawrences

before,

night

example

the

Garrett

although

identical

already

of

high-ranking
Lawrence,

pp. 131-2).

Lawrence.

Garrett's

became
the

1941,

introduced

in

indeed,

day

that

of

her

had

she

note

Lawrence

thought

related
that

to

both

me to

(Garrett

and
D. H.

hypnagogic'same-

ness'.
(1924)

Slight
hypnagogic

experience
been
setting

set and
been attributed

to

present,

a psi

also

illustrates

tive

probing

or

questioning

well

as

following

had

which,

It

agency.

the

reported

the

would

state

and/or
a basic

employed

hypnopompicappropriate

most

psychic
have

certainly

some

supernatural

method
by many

of

introspec-

psychics

as

hypnagogists:

in the morning
half
The next
example
occurred
while
the previous
During
day I had been much impawake.
by the change
in appearance
of a lady
ressed
whom
in the day I
I had not seen for
Later
some time.
some friends
with
conversed
of how a
on the topic
whereas
man aged gradually
a woman aged rapidly
and
from
to influences
a man was
was exposed
which
bearing,
the menopause,
the
as child
exempted,
burden
of the family
and the like.
line
to pursue
this
I had begun
in the
of thought
half
I found
when suddenly
awake state
myself
spelling
B-R-O-W-N,
and dimly
aware
of a bell
out the letters
After
the N the name
tolling
with
each letter.
I
did
to mind and only
then
Marguerite
came rapidly
formed
the letters
together
they
and realize
piece
Then I became fully
awake and
a name known to me.
heard
tolling,
occurred
every
a bell
which
morning
time...
at this
into
I relapsed
waking
a half
state
and began to
in mind.
I remembered
the matter
First
turn
over
had
long
being
informed
forgotten
I
though
- that
Miss Brown was now unprepossessing
although
and even
in appearance
ugly
she had been handsome
and beautiful
before
the onset
and miraculously
of her illness,
It
the onset.
Miss
Brown
seems that
changed
after
had formed
to illustrate
the preexample
a splendid
but I still
felt
train
vious
of thought
unsatisfied

232
the. image of another
lady
and then
appeared
-a
who had personal
Miss
relation
connections
with
fact
dawned on me as if
for
Brown which
the first
time.
Realization
here
lay the real
interest
came that
line
and the previous
of thought
to
also
applied
lady.
the latter
Miss
Brown had formed
a double
bond since
illustration
she provided
an ideal
of
in a woman and at the same time
such change
was
interest.
with
connected
a personal
The name Marguerite
I had
was a mystery
since
heard
Miss Brown's
had
never
christian
name and it
lady.
the other
No association
no connection
with
would
come to this
name and I was left
the
with
feeling
that
further
lay behind
possibly
elements
it
interpretation.
might
Later
which
give
a deeper
in the day I discovered
that
Miss
Brown's
Christian
found
that
name was Marguerite
and on reflection
had been only
there
a few fleeting
occasions
on
have learned
I might
fact.
this
which

(Slight
the

Besides
the

striking

in

which

in

Slight's

case

is

implicit

a method

the

ence

and

gogia

from

a response
adopt

present

example
he

illustrate
feature

that

an

This,

the
Miss

the

as

the

may be

aytosymbolic

same

formed

train

of
in

may,

attitude
only

to

appears

of

the

when

the

to

question
interin

to

be

fully
he

a splendid

which

times

auto-

appreciated
"It

says:

example

thought".

This
due

subject.
questioning

the

forth
at

be

gain

felt
still
lady
appeared".

is

where

fact,

hypna-

order

bringing

seen,

sentence
had

both

questioning

by

we have

previous

(autosymbolism)

"I

this
of

demonstrated

another

of

responded

previous

mental

of

psi
of

however,

is

ess-

their

a mental

pose

observation:

attitude

Brown

specific

must
This

image

the

in

that

without,

mode.

process

in

Slight

one

in

technique
In

women

there

aspects

the

required

Slight's

adopted

Indeed,

symbolic.

seemed

is

two

process.

attitude

then

image.

the

process

by

hypnagogic

another
by

the

and

unsatisfied
is,

it

receptive

one's

illustrates

two

is

in

psychics
on

way

example
which

touches

probing

a questioning

rupting

the

Slight

states

Slight's

by

employed

or

psi

in

the

and

'hypnagogizing'

aspect

questions

posing

That

that

first

The

Garrett's"case

related,
of

Indeed,

method:

or

were

as

activities.

in

pp. 278-9).
the 'mediate'

in

similarity

Lawrences

same

1924,

For

to

the

to
latter
current

instance,
is

related

it

233
to

oneself

the

may be
to

but

which

may be

facts

to

have

this

not

in

fact,

but

'Mary'

name? ' When

and

so

her

to

describe
to

mation

get

steps,

it

that

to

and
try

should

how

in

engaging
his

waking

psi

remark
he

it',

it

in

without

emotion

of

description

as

he

method

touched

that

his

began

awake
to

experiand

his

try
impresto
that

hypnatowards

receptive
both

of

activities
after

ESP/clair-

environment.

physical
the

we

i. e.,
of

remains

may

identical

hypnagogia,

know

it

thought

is

This
to

respect

fully

the

ask

the

e.,
And

do

p. 23).

I
I

and

imaginal

his

and

[i.

engages

allowing

all,
Or,

clear".

a psychic

my

if

his/her

long

became

state

explain
makes

a concurrent

and

of
it.

'They

did

retrace

first

say

veri-

'How

describes

in

so

asked
infor-

as

information:

this

myself

changed

gently,

aspect

other

experience

when
to

observation

imagery

it,

got

more

it

(Edwards

in

lived,

she

some

do.

other

medium

accept
to

such

her

Northage

not

thing

that,

name

the

which

and

"The

is

gives

say

then

to

attunement

continue"

does

for

that

mind

in

inadvertently

added

then

she

and

accurately

experiences

in

find

and
have

may engage
the

he

first

the

something

the

The

half

prior

writes:
one

with

when

back

go

understand

"he

Edmunds'

found

subject

'What

town

my interview

reaction
"I

activities

hold

and

which

and

advocated

receive

given,

the

of

which

out

in

is

name

don't

bear

voyant

both

the

questioning
(p. 23)
Roberts

which

communicators)

'sitter']

gogic

her

could

given

one

elements

object

of

'Mary',

In

back

(my spirit

sion

to

ask

".

' That's

go

because

to

the

related

novel

concerning
known

'thing'

imagery

containing

been

a more

or

of

to

name

said:

that?

ences

to

image

an

satisfied

the

'sitter'

She

dical.

be

double

for

forth...

must

it

also

a line

should
the

ask

should

be

directed

unfolding

psychics.

not

should

medium

I'd

is

by most

pursued

material,

experience.

This,

as

a further

image

argued

be

original

of

some

is

object

may be

outcome

("egocentric")

abstract

questioning

'external'

precise
to

some

the

when

whereas,

the

to

or

turn

by

upon

initial
and

hypnagogizing

then
the

is

Slight

hypnagogic
"relapsed
matter

over

into
in

234
mind".
the

after

sensory

extra
(and

drawing

to

order

the

hypnagogia
(also

supported

Oliver

1976;

easily

the

by

ntly

discussed

more

into

presence

In

the

at

least

the

the

of

state

of

the

case

curre-

turn

may

how

(viz.,

setting

which

to

both

in

the

and

once

of

realization,
is

third

states.

it

is

made
did
then

"only

formed

they

realize

and

experience

psi

to

paragraph:

"which

paragraph:

if

in

case

This
and

the
as

the

idea.

or

is

above

reference

second

the

the

hypnagogia

together

me"

to

such

image

an

discussion

under

letters

and

such

across

twice

known

name

nature
cuts

vu

a sense

of

that

time,

to

relating

feature

the

example

piece

the

of

e. g.,

its

ESP states

with

observation

first

regards
of jamais

in

to

indication

from

sleep)

in

identity.

of

the

into

out

and

what

mind

respect

a strong

abstracted

similarity

A further

for

may be

is

paper

investigations:

1977),

leading

and

in

experimental

Budzynski

of

In

oscillate

of

on

ESP state

experiment.

to

ability

state

preparing

the

with

continue

sketching

the

to

returns

she

of

how

image

the

of

activity

describes

wife

perception

the

after

received),

she

(1930)

Sinclair's

Likewise,

fact

for
A possible
third
the first
time".
on me as if
be
in
the opening
of the fourth
paragraph.
may
reference
is pointed
literature
this
In the psi
out as the charac-

dawned

feature

teristic

or

not

could

facts

These

object

a psi

regarding

novelty,

of

about

known

have

to

appear

of

(see

the

knowledge

the

which

the

e. g.,

Roberts

percipient

of

new

facts

did

not

percipient

p. 18 cited
for

if

as

above).
first

the

time.
This
passing

interest.

whether

the

be
of

interpreted
new

facts.
ever

he

to

seems
fleeting

ter

to

his

as

a mark

In

the

having
doubt

does

not

experience,

course,

of
the
of

the

heard

of

such

Brown's
an

more
of

event

than
debate
is

novelty

extrasensory

example
Miss

of

a matter

character

present

whether

occasions
he

However,

is,
of

presence

remember
few

It

is

realization

novel

of

element

to

acquisition

Slight

does

first
occurred

not

name
on

and
the

he might
have learned
it.
on which
impute
a paranormal
clearly
characleaving
thus
open the possibility

235
a forgotten

of

of

as a mark
is

by

connection
on him

dawned

that

name

Marguerite

piece
name known
taken

as

may

turn

knowledge

to

be

by

Slight's
though

former

beautiful

appearance

the

the

to

conviction

often,

experience

of

experience
impels

you

from

apart
that,
sional

sensing

sounds

heard,

at
the

to
the

early

(p. 45).
this

says

that

not

that

memory

remembered

for

about

Miss

Kubie

1943,

the

recovery

of
White
an

let

a psychic's
any
(1964,
image)

p. 42)

is

of

appears

knowing

as

out
impres-

of

or

seen
in

the

enabling

nonetheless,

development

notes:

it.

it".

points

important

surrounding

about

doubt

pictures

perceive",

p. 38)

psychic

finality
you

usually

'hunch"'.

a true

of

the

you

which

there

a background

always

or

of significance

called

(1973,

background

without
(of

state

also

a "process

accompanies

this

Likewise,

impression

is

which

arise

pictures

this

he

came

Butler

stages

again,

forgotten,

which

of

spoke

"there

interpret

But

forgotten

(see

been

have

would
in

visions

does

simply

and

the

recognised

th