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AppendixF:

Environment
The environmental appendix provides the existing environmental conditions in Downtown Bethesda
with regards to Watersheds and Water Quality, Impervious Cover, Stormwater Management, Heat Island
Effect, Air Quality and Urban Green. In addition to the existing conditions analysis, the Environmental
Appendix supplements the recommendations in the Sector Plan and provides additional analyses, more
detailed methodology and presents further findings with regards to sustainability performance areas
and metrics, urban ecosystems, biophilia and energy. A Carbon Footprint Analysis is also provided based
on the land use recommendations and projections in the Plan.


Sustainability
1.1 Sustainability
1.2 PerformanceAreas
1.3 PerformanceAreaMetrics

Environment
1.4 UrbanEcosystems
1.5 Biophilia
1.6 ExistingEnvironmentalConditions
1.6.1 Watersheds&WaterQuality
1.6.2 ImperviousCover
1.6.3 StormwaterManagement
1.6.4 HeatIslandEffect
1.6.5 AirQuality
1.6.6 UrbanGreen
1.6.7

BenefitsofTrees

1.6.8

SoilVolume

1.6.9

GreenRoofs

Energy
1.7 HighPerformanceArea&Energy
1.8 HighPerformanceRationale
1.9 MontgomeryCountysCarbonReductionGoals
1.10EnergyReductionGoals
1.11GreenEconomics
CarbonFootprintAnalysis
1.12Findings
LEEDND
CommunityWaterandSewer

1.1

SUSTAINABILITY:AMethodologyforGoodPlanning

ThecentralthemeofthisSectorPlanissustainability.Thetenetsofsustainableurbanismincludea
walkableandtransitservedcommunityintegratedwithhighperformancebuildingsandinfrastructure.As
theeconomicheartofMontgomeryCounty,Bethesdaisalreadycharacterizedbyexcellentwalkability,
accesstotransit,mixofuses,communityservingretailandrestaurants,andaculturalandeconomichub
withasignificanturbanidentity.Thesecharacteristicsarestrongfoundationstowardsbuildingalasting
anddynamic21stCenturyurbancenter.ByexpandingupontheseelementsBethesdawillbewell
positionedtobecomearegionalandnationalleaderasasustainabledowntown.

Asustainablecommunityincludesthreeoverlappingprinciplesforpresentandfuturegenerations:1)
strongandprosperouseconomy;2)socialjusticeandculturalequity;3)environmentalresponsibility.To
pursuesustainabilityistocreateandmaintaintheconditionsunderwhicheachprinciplesworksin
tandemwithanother.TheobjectivesandrecommendationsthroughoutthePlanintendtoimprove
sustainabilitybyfocusingonthemostunderachievingperformanceareasorelementsofsustainabilityto
ensurelongtermeconomic,equitable,andenvironmentalsuccess.

Bethesdaisconfrontedwithanumberofchallenges:regionalcompetitionforgrowth;affordable
housing;trafficcongestion;poorairandwaterquality;highenergydemandsandcarbonemissions;and
small,fragmentedparcelsofopenandgreenspace,trees,andvegetation.Byaddressingthesegaps
Bethesdabewellpoisedtobecomearegionalandnationalleaderinsustainability.


1.2PerformanceAreas
TheSectorPlanestablishessixinterrelatedtargetedperformanceareaswithassociatedobjectivesand
recommendationsforeachperformancearea.Performanceareasarethequantifiablebuildingblocksto
whichthethreeprinciplesofsustainabilitycanbedefinedandmeasuredtoensuresuccessineach
category.Theyareindicatorsforhowacommunityisperformingeconomically,socially,and
environmentally.Theperformanceareasareholistic,interlinkingcategoriesofplanningthataimto
improveanalreadygreatdowntownbyfillingintheunderachievingperformanceareasresultinginan
evengreaterBethesda.

Theperformanceareasweredevelopedbyevaluatingcommonalitiesofnewplanningmethodsand
measurementmodelsoutlinedinthefollowing:TheAmericanPlanningAssociationPolicyGuideon
Sustainability;LEEDforNeighborhoodDevelopment;STARCommunityIndex;EcoDistricts;Sustainability
SitesInitiative;SmartGrowthInitiatives;andArchitecture2030.Thesixperformanceareasevolved
throughtheanalyzesofhousingdemographics(demandanddeficiencies);existingandfuture
transportationinfrastructureandneeds;existingparksandrecreationareas;landuse;existingnatural
resources;environmentalconditions;urbandesignelements;historicalbuildings;energyuse;andmany
otherplanningcomponents.

SixSustainabilityPerformanceAreas(indicators)

1. AccessandMobility
o Goals:
Increase&improvetransportationoptions
Reducevehiclemilestravelled
Improvepedestrianmobility
Improvecirculationsystems

2. Equity
o Goals:
Increaseaffordablehousingoptions
Retainmixofeconomiesandagediversity
Ensureenvironmentaljustice
Providegrowthanddevelopmentopportunities
Encourageflexibilityinspaceandprogrammingtoadapttofuture
needs.


3. CommunityIdentity
o Goals:
Improveneighborhoodidentityandcharacter
Supportinnovationanddesignexcellence
Beautifythecitythroughareawidegreeningandimprovedparkland;
Improvestreetscapes.

4. HealthandHabitat
o

Goals:
Improvepublichealth
Increasepublicgreenandhabitatconnectivity
Improveairquality
Increaseaccessandqualityofparksandopenspace

5. Water
o

Goals

Improvestormwatertreatment
Waterconservation
Improvedstreamquality

6. Energy
o

Goals:
Reduceenergyconsumption
Contributetocarbonreductiongoals
Reducegreenhousegas

ManyoftheseperformanceareasarealreadywellintegratedintothefabricofBethesdasexistingurban
landscape.Bethesdahasathrivingidentity,mixedusedevelopment,diversetransitoptions,awalkable
streetgrid,andmanyotherfeaturesofawellplanneddowntown.Ontheotherhand,improvementscan
bemadetoallperformanceareas.Habitatandhealthcanbeimprovedbyprovidingadditionalparks,tree
plantings,andgreencover.Waterqualitycanbeimprovedthroughtheinstallationofstormwater
managementfeatures,andreducedimperviouscover.Equitycanimprovebyincreasingaffordable
housing,accesstotransitoptions,ageinplacepotential,andadditionalparksandresources.Accessand
mobilitycanbeimprovedprovidingtransportationoptions,andimprovingpedestrianandbicycle
mobility.


1.3PerformanceAreaMetrics

Themetricschartbelowquantifiesthemeasurableperformanceareasindicatingwherewearetodayand
whereBethesdacanbetomorrow.Someperformanceareasareeasilymeasuredsuchasthenumberof
newbicyclelanesproposed,whileotherslikehealthandwaterqualityaredifficulttoquantify.Manyof
therecommendedchangeswilltakemanyyearstoachieveandcannotbeaccuratelydetermineddueto
unforeseenfactorssuchaseconomicsanddevelopmentdesire.

SustainabilityPerformanceAreaMetricsforBethesda
PerformanceIndicators

Existing

Proposed(atfullbuild PercentChange
out)

Multiunitrentalunits

4,669

8,456

81%increase

MarketRateRentalAffordableHousingUnits

1992

7,187

260%increase

RentRestricted

826

Minimum826,Maximum
1269

54%increase

Employment/Jobs

37,700

51,900

38%increase

TreeCanopyCoverinHPA

45.35acres

62acres(approx.)

37%increase

TreeCanopyCoveroutsidetheHPA

91.77acres

TBD

TBD

AreaofGreenRoofs

0.75acres

3036acres(approx.)

48%increase

NumberofParks

13(foratotalof19parks)

16%increase

PlayAreas(perdistrict)

TBDthroughimplementation ProposedNetincrease

Area(Acreage)ofParks

10

13(foratotalof23acres)

30%increase

Milesofbikelanes

1.19miles

5.52miles

364%increase

Residentvehiclemilestraveled(VMT)

4.62miles

3.71miles

20%decrease

Employeevehiclemilestraveled(VMT)

1.90miles

1.27miles

33%decrease

Bikesharestations

10

TBDthroughimplementation ProposedNetincrease

Equity

Habitat+Health

Health

Access+Mobility

SustainabilityPerformanceAreaMetricsforBethesda
PerformanceIndicators

Existing

Proposed(atfullbuild PercentChange
out)

Commutersusingdifferentmodesof
transportation(NADMS)*(percent)

39.6

50

26%ProposedNet
increase

Greenroofs

0.75acres

36acres

48%increase

StormwaterManagementTreatment
(PercentofSectorPlanArea)

TBD

Water

Allnewconstructionmust
complywithstateandlocal
stormwatermanagement
regulations

Energy

LEEDCertifiedBuildings

TBD

LEEDSilverBuildings

TBD

LEEDGoldBuildings

TBD

LEEDPlatinumBuildings(exceedsASHRAEby 1
15%)

TBD


ENVIRONMENT
Theenvironmentisonlyonethirdofthesustainabilitypuzzle.A
healthyenvironmentmakesforadesirableplacetolive,work,and
playwhichstimulatestheothertwosustainabilityprinciples:equity
andeconomics.Environmentalsustainabilitymeansmaintainingclean
air,freshandcleanwater,protectingnaturalresources,reducing
consumptionofnonrenewableresources,andmaintainingor
enhancingbiodiversity(plantsandanimals)therebyhelpingfuture
generationsmeettheirownneeds.
Thissectionwilladdresstheexistingenvironmentalelementswithin
BethesdaandoutlinetheSectorPlansrecommendationsforhowconditionscanbeimproved.
Bethesdasnaturalresourceshaveexperiencedimpactsfromdevelopment.Ecosystemshavebeen
altered,forestshavebeenremoved,streamshavebeenchanneled,airqualityisreduced,urbanheat
islandeffectissignificant,andenergydemandishigh.Restoringtrees,reducingimperviouscover,and
providingstormwatermanagementwillhelpmitigatefortheselossesandimprovethequalityoflifefor
itscitizens.Abaselineenvironmentalanalysiswasperformedlookingattheexistingimperviouscover,
treecanopycover,habitat,waterquality&stormwatermanagement,energyuse,andregionalairquality.
AlimitedcarbonemissionanalysiswascompletedindicatingtheprojectedlevelsaftertheSectorPlan
recommendationsareimplementedtodetermineifthecarbongoalssetbytheCountywillbemet.

1.4URBANECOSYSTEM
TheoverarchinggoaloftheSectorPlansrecommendationsistoimprovetheurbanecosysteminthe
performanceareasof:water,energy,habitat&health,andcommunityidentity.Anurbanecosystemis
describedastherelationshipbetweenhumans,thebuiltenvironment,andthenaturalenvironment.They
aredynamicandinterdependentsystemsthataffectthehealthandwellbeingofacommunitynowand
inthefuture.Improvingthenaturalenvironmentandreducingthedemandforenergywilldirectly
improvetheurbanecosystembenefitinghumansandwildlife.Therearemanyapproachestoimproving
theurbanecosystem.Whenimplementedcomprehensivelyandonasitebysitebasis,these
performancebasedservicescanbequantifiedandmeasuredforahealthier,greener,andmore
prosperouscommunity.

1.5BIOPHILIA:CONNECTINGTOTHENATURALENVIRONMENT

Humansevolvedoutdoors,engrossedinnature,exposedtosunlight,freshair,andwater.Thiscultivated
anintrinsicinterdependencebetweenhumansandotherlivingsystemscalledbiophilia.Biophiliais
humansinnatebiologicalconnectionwithnature.Ithelpsexplainwhyanimalcompanionshipand
strollingthroughaparkhaverestorative,healingeffects;andwhythesoundandsightofwatercalmfear
andanxiety.Biophiliamayalsohelpexplainwhysomeurbanareas,parks,centers,andbuildingsare
preferredoverothers.Fordecades,researchscientistsanddesignpractitionershavebeenworkingto
defineaspectsofnaturethatmostimpactoursatisfactionwiththebuiltenvironment.Theoverall
environmentalrecommendationsintendtoincreaseexposuretonaturetherebyincreasingbiophiliaand
theperformanceareaservicesofBethesda.


Unlikeearliertimes,oururban,suburban,andautocentriclifestylehasresultedinadisconnectionwith
nature.Recently,sociologistandscientistslinkedsocietiesthatdontgetoutinnaturewithacutemedical
symptoms.In2005,RichardLouv1referstohumanbeings,especiallychildren,whodontspendenough
timeoutdoorsoftendevelopawiderangeofbehavioralandphysicalproblemssuchas:attention
disorders;hyperactivity;depression;obesity;myopia;aggression;andmore.
Newapproachestourbanplanninganddesignincludetheintegrationofnaturethroughouttheurban
landscapewiththeaspirationofcultivatingbiophilia.Thisapproachseekstoreconnectpeopletonature
andnaturalsystems,andcanbedoneevenindenseurbanenvironments.Itattemptstomakenatural
resourcesvisibleandexperiential.Thelandscape,thearchitecture,thestreetscanallinfluencethe
biophiliaofacommunityandmakedailylifemoreintrinsic,healthy,andrejuvenating.Includingnatureas
aphysicalanddirectexperiencethatincludesplantlife,water,breezes,scents,sights,andsounds
increasetheexperienceofplacecreatingmeaningful,directassociations.Buildings,althoughindirect,can
evokenature.Buildingswithnaturallighting,materialsandelementsfromnature,spatialhierarchies,
artwork,andbiomimicryshapesinfluenceourexperienceandpresenceinthem.Althoughmoreempirical
evidenceisneeded,weintuitivelyknowthataconnectiontonatureisimportant.Favoritehuman
memoriesoftenincludethosesightsandplaceswherenatureisimparted.

Strategiessuchastreelinedstreetsandcorridors,greenplazas,greenroofs,parks,stormwater
management,evenurbanfarmsallenticepeopletointeractandbeinnatureandarewoventhroughout
therecommendationsandareincentivesoftheSectorPlan.Integratingnatureandnaturalelementsinto
buildingandsitedesignnotonlybenefitpeople(biophilia),butitalsoimprovesecologicalsustainability
andthequalityofthetargetedperformanceareas.Forexample,plantingnewtreesincreasesthe
quantityofairfiltration,providesmorehabitat,coolsstreets,createsanattractivelandscape,and
reducesstormwaterrunoff.Stormwatermanagementfeaturescanprovidevaluablehabitatintheform
ofplantandtreespeciesinadditiontoimprovingwaterquality.Greenroofscanreduceheatingand
coolingcostsreducingenergydemandswhilereducingheatislandeffectandprovidinghabitat,nectar,
andbroodingopportunities.Incombination,thesefeaturesenhancecommunityidentity,improveplace
making,andimprovementalandphysicalhealth.

1.6EXISTINGENVIRONMENTALCONDITIONS

TheexistingconditionsofBethesdasnaturalresourceswereanalyzedtodevelopstrategiestomitigate
andrestoreimpactstogrowahealthierandgreenerdowntownbyboostingtheperformanceareasand
biophilia.Overtime,theseapproacheswilllessengreenhousegasoutputsandreducefuelconsumption;
lowerenergydemandandoperationalcosts;managestormwaterandmimicnatureimprovingstream
andwaterquality;coolstreets,improvehabitat;andsignificantlyimprovequalityoflife.
1.6.1WatershedsandWaterQuality
Awatershedistheextentoflandwheresurfacewaterfromrain,meltingsnow,oriceconvergestoa
singlepoint,mergingwithotherwaterssuchasalake,stream,river,orocean.Asubwatershedreferstoa
smallerdrainageareawithinthelargerwatershed.

Louv,Richard.LastChildInTheWoods:SavingOurChildrenFromNaturedeficitDisorder.ChapelHill,NC:
AlgonquinBooksofChapelHill,2005.Print.
1


Bethesda,locatedinsideofInterstate495(CapitalBeltway)justnorthwestofWashington,DChastwo
watersheds:LittleFallswatersheddrainstothesouthwestdrainingintoWillettBranchbeforeentering
thePotomacRiver;RockCreekwatershedisdividedintotwosubwatersheds;BethesdaMainstemdrains
tothenorth,andCoquelinRundrainstothesouth.EachofthewatershedsflowsintotheDistrictof
Colombia.

InMontgomeryCounty,thehealthofourstreamsareassessedbytheDepartmentofEnvironmental
ProtectionusingaStreamConditionsIndexthatmeasurestheaquaticbiologicalcommunity(fishand
bugs)ofstreams.Themonitoringresultsarethenusedtodetermineifastreamisinpoor,fair,good,or
excellentcondition.Ifconditionsarepoor,sensitivefishandbugscantsurvivethoseconditions.In
Bethesda,theLittleFallswatershedwasratedaspoorwithalowfishandbugcounts.RockCreekwas
ratedfair.Thepoorandfairwaterqualitydirectlycorrespondstotheamountofimperviouscoverineach
watershed.

SubWatersheds
Watersheds


1.6.2ImperviousCover

Imperviouscoverreferstoanythingthatpreventswaterfromsoakingintotheground.Examplesinclude
buildingfootprintsandpavedsurfacesfordriveways,sidewalks,streetsandparkinglots.Impervious
surfacescurtailgroundwaterrecharge,soilsaturation,
sedimentandpollutantfiltration,andtheslowreleaseof
waterfromsaturatedsoilstostreams,wetlands,orother
Impervious
waterbodies.Whenasurfaceisimpervious,stormwater
Cover
67 %
sweepsacrossittakingpollutantssuchassediments,oils,de
icingsalts,sand,petwaste,andlawnfertilizers.These
pollutantsaredischargedintostormdraininletswhich
eventuallydischargeatoutfallpointsalongstreamscausing
increasedstreamsurges,streambankerosion,algaeblooms,
reducedaquaticlife,andreducedwaterquality.

Researchhasshownthatwhenimperviouscoverreaches10
25%ofthetotalarea,majoralterationsinstreammorphology
(shape)occurthatsignificantlyreducehabitatquality.At
greaterthan25%imperviouscover,streamssufferfromloss
ofhabitat,floodplainconnectivity,andbankstability,aswell
asdecreasedwaterquality.2WithintheBethesdaDowntown
SectorPlan,totalimperviouscoverisnearly67percent
overall.Ofthat,38percentisfromroadsandparkinglots.The
remaining29percentisfrombuildingcover.Thesenumbers
arehigh,particularlysincelessthan1percent(approximately)
ofthisimperviouscoverprovidesstormwatertreatmentprior
todischargeintoreceivingstreams.Thisnonpointsourceofpollutionistheprimarycauseofthe
impairedstreams,poorwaterqualityandlossofaquaticlifeseeninthethreetributariesofBethesda.

1.6.3StormwaterManagement

ProtectingandimprovingthequalityandecologicalhealthofMontgomeryCountysstreamsisa
considerableplanningobjective.ThisgoalisespeciallyimportantbecauseMontgomeryCountyispartof
theChesapeakeBaywatershed,anationaltreasureconstitutingthelargestestuaryintheUnitedStates
andoneofthelargestandmostbiologicallyproductiveestuariesintheworld.

OnDecember29th,2010,theUnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)incooperationwith
BaywatershedjurisdictionsofMaryland,Virginia,Pennsylvania,Delaware,WestVirginia,NewYork,and
theDistrictofColumbia(DC),developedanutrientandsedimentpollutiondietfortheBay,consistent
withCleanWaterActrequirements,toguideandassistChesapeakeBayrestorationefforts.Thisdietis
knownastheChesapeakeBayTotalMaximumDailyLoad(TMDL).Afterdeterminingtheimpairedwaters,
Marylandidentifiedacomprehensivesetofpollutioncontrolstrategiesthatcollectivelywillachievethe
nutrientandsedimentreductionsneededtomeettheStates2017and2025goalsforrestoringtheBay
andimprovinglocalwaters.

Center for Watershed Protection, Impacts of Impervious Cover on Aquatic Systems, Ellicott City, MD, 20003

10


HowdoesthisinfluencetheBethesdaDowntownSectorPlan?Therearemanytechniquestominimize
theeffectsofstormwaterrunoff.Inthepast,stormwatermanagementregulationsrequiredlargeareas
oflandwheretherunoffwascollectedinpondlikedepressionsandreleasedslowlyoveraperiodoftime.
However,inMayof2009theStateamendeditsstormwatermanualrequiringtheapplicationof
EnvironmentalSiteDesign(ESD)methodstominimizeonsiteandoffsitehydrologicandwaterquality
impactsduetorunoff.ESDattemptstoincorporateandmimicnaturalhydrologicprocessesintothebuilt
environment.TherearemanytypesofESDsincludingpermeablepavements,bioretention,structural
cells,naturallandscaping,greenroofs,andtreeplantings(seeBethesdasDesignGuidelines).By
regulation,thesemeasuresmustbedesignedandimplementedinnewdevelopments.ESDscanalsobe
integratedintotheexistingstreetscapeoralongsidewalks.ESDstormwatermanagementpracticeshave
thecapabilitytomeetthegoalsoftheChesapeakeBayTotalMaximumDailyLoad(TMDL)forpollution
reduction.Itcansignificantlyimprovethequalityofstormwaterrunofftherebyimprovingthequalityof
thereceivingstreams.

ESDscanbevegetatedwithacomplexvarietyofplantsfromnativegrassestoshrubsandtrees.They
haveanenormouspotentialtofillingreengapsinBethesdaandassistswithimprovedairquality,
reducedgreenhousegasesandheatislandeffect,increasedhealthandqualityofplace,andtheaesthetic
appeal.

Waterquality,oneoftheperformanceareasofthisPlanwillbeimprovedinthe Environmental Site Design


are water quality
threereceivingtributaries.Itwilltakemanyyearstoachievebutwitheachnew
management techniques such
developmentandstreetscapedesign,theconstructionofintegrated
as: green roofs, tree
stormwatermanagementtreatmentswillbegintoreducethequantityand
plantings, rain gardens,
improvethequalityofstormwaterrunofftothereceivingstreams.
permeable pavement, that

SectorPlanGoals:

Reduceuntreatedstormwaterrunofftoimprovestreamquality.

mimic natural hydrologic


functions. They are proven to
help solve stream and water
quality problems while
improving the health and
livability of neighborhoods.

Reducewaterconsumptionthroughconservationmeasures.

SectorPlanRecommendations:
Integrateenvironmentalsitedesignstrategiesthatprovidemultipleperformanceareabenefits
forwaterquality,habitat,healthandaestheticimprovement.Strategiesinclude:
o Intensivegreenroofs(6inchesordeepertomaximizewatertreatment).
o Stormwaterplanters.
o Perviouspavement.
o Bioswales/biofiltration/bioretention/bioinfiltration.
o Rainwaterharvestingforretention,irrigation,andgraywater.
Incorporatemultiplestormwatermanagementfacilitiesortreatmenttraintomaximizebenefits.
Theuseofwaiversshouldbelimited.
Integratestormwatermanagementwithintherightofwaywherefeasible.Stormwater
managementshouldnotdisplacetheproposedbicyclenetworks.
Reduceimperviouscovertomaximizestormwaterinfiltrationand/orgreenspace.
Usepermeablepavingforroads,roadshoulders,parkingspaces,andparkinglaneswhere
feasible.

11

Utilizeenvironmentalsitedesignforparksandopenspaceswhereitcanbeinterpretedfor
communityeducation.
Whenfeasible,exceedtheCountysminimumstormwatertreatmentrequirement.
Usestreettreesforstormwaterinterception,temperaturemitigationandairquality
improvement.

1.6.4HeatIslandEffect

Impervious surfaces collect solar heat in their dense mass. When the heat is released, it raises air
temperatures of the surrounding area producing an urban heat island. According to the U.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,urbanareascangetasmuchas22degrees3Fahrenheithigherthantheir
surroundinggreenerareas.

Increased Energy Demand when Temperatures are above


80 degrees
Higherlocaltemperaturesincreasethedemandfor
coolingwhichutilizesgreateramounts
of energy. In Montgomery County
sixty percent of the energy used for heating and
cooling buildings is generated from coal and other
fossil fuels4 where the combustion byproduct is
carbondioxide(CO2),sulfurdioxide(SO2),nitrogen
oxide (NOx), particulate matter (PM), carbon
monoxide(CO),andmercury(Hg).Thesepollutants
areharmfultohumanhealthandalsocontributeto
complexairqualityproblemssuchastheformation
of groundlevel ozone (smog), fine particulate
matter,climatechange,andacidrain.

Theimagetotheleftdemonstratesthe
increaseinenergydemandwhen
temperaturesriseabove80degrees.

ImageprovidedbyUSEPA.

Akbari,H.2005.EnergySavingPotentialsandAirQualityBenefitsofUrbanHeatIslandMitigation(PDF)(19pp,251K).LawrenceBerkeley
NationalLaboratory.
4
http://www6.montgomerycountymd.gov/dectmpl.asp?url=/content/dep/energy/EnergyWise.asp
3

12


Heatislandeffectanditsassociatedpollutionlevelscanaffecthumanhealthbycontributingtodiscomfort,
respiratory difficulties, exhaustion, heat stroke, and even mortality. Elevated levels of harmful ozone
pollutioncanoccurduringhotweatherduetothechemicalreactionbetweenoxidesofnitrogen(NOx)and
volatileorganiccompounds(VOC)inthepresenceofsunlight.Itisamajorportionofurbansmog.

Ozonecan:
Increasedemandformedications,visitstodoctors,emergencyrooms,andhospitaladmissions
Makeitmoredifficulttobreathedeeplyandvigorously.
Causeshortnessofbreathandpainwhentakingadeepbreath.
Inflameanddamagetheairways.
Aggravatelungdiseasessuchasasthma,emphysema,andchronicbronchitis.
Increasethefrequencyofasthmaattacks.
Makethelungsmoresusceptibletoinfection.
Continuetodamagethelungsevenwhenthesymptomshavedisappeared5.

1.6.5AirQuality
TheWashingtonMetropolitanareaiscurrentlyclassifiedasanonattainmentareaforozoneandfine
particulatematter6asitdoesnotmeettheNationalAmbientAirQualityStandards(NAAQS)setbythe
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).Anonattainmentareaisalocalitywhereairpollutionlevels
persistentlyexceedNationalAmbientAirQualityStandardsoralocalitythatcontributestoambientair
qualityinanearbyareathatfailstomeetstandards.Thesestandardsaredesignedtoprotectthepublic
fromexposuretogroundlevelozone.Designatinganareaasnonattainmentisaformalrulemaking
process,andEPAnormallytakesthisactiononlyafterairqualitystandardshavebeenexceededfor
severalconsecutiveyears.
To assist in the reduction of ozone, greenhouse gases, and improve overall air quality, the Sector Plan
recommends multiple measures for reducing vehicle miles travelled (Section 2.3 Transportation), the
planting of vegetation (Section 2.4 Urban Ecosystem), reducing energy use and demand through the
constructionofhighperformingbuildings(Section2.5HighPerformanceArea).

1.6.6UrbanGreen

Urbangreenspace,suchasparks,streettrees,treeclusters,greenroofs,plantedareasincluding
stormwatermanagementsystems,streams,andcommunitygardensprovidecriticalecosystemservices
andthebiophilicelementsofacommunity.Thereismountingevidenceonthepsychological,physical,
andeconomicbenefitsoflivingandworkinginareaswithurbangreen(seeBiophiliaonpage7).
Numerouscitiesarenowgreeningtheirlandscapeinanefforttoimprovethequalityoflifeforits
residents,createbettercommunities,anddrawnewbusinessesandresidents.

5http://www.epa.gov/glo/health.html

3:http://www.healthymontgomery.org/modules.php?op=modload&name=NSIndicator&file=indicator&iid=7599149

http://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/dep/air/outdoorpollutants.html

13

AGeographicInformationSystems(GIS)analysiswascompletedbytheMarylandNationalCapitalPark
andPlanningCommissionstafftodeterminetheamountoftreecanopy(leaves,branches,andstemsof
treesthatcoverthegroundwhenviewedfromabove)withintheBethesdaDowntownSectorPlan
boundary.ThesizeoftheSectorPlanis451.51acres,ofwhichapproximately136acresor30percentis
intreecanopycover.Twentypercentofthetotalcanopycoveriswithintheresidentiallyzonedareas
withonly10percentcanopycoverinthecommerciallyzonedcore.

ThePlanrecommendsthreemethodsforincreasinggreenareasandcanopycoverin
Commercial/ResidentialzonesofBethesda:expandingexistingparkland;intensifyingtreecanopycover;
andincreasingthenumberofgreenroofs.

SectorPlanGoals:
Increaseoverallurbangreencover.
Increaseoveralltreecanopycover.
Expandgreencorridorsbylinkinggreenstreets,
greenspace,andgreenroofs.
Improvequalityoflifeandqualityofplace
Reduceheatislandeffect.
Improveairqualityandcarbonsequestration
capacity
Improveecologicalbiodiversity

GreenCorridorsareareasofconnecting
habitat(treecoveror/andgreenspace)
enablingthemovementofsmallanimals,
especiallybirds,fromtreetotree,until
theyfindasafehabitattonestin.They
provideunbrokenhabitat,food,shelter,
nesting,andbreedingareas

SectorPlanRecommendations:
ThefollowingrecommendationsareimportanttoachievingtheurbangreengoalsoftheSectorPlan:

Supplementtreeplantingalongstreetsandpublicspacetoachieveaminimumof50percent
overallcanopycover.
Onprivateproperty,provideaminimumof35percentgreencover,whichmayincludeeither
singularlyoracombinationofthefollowing:(seepage16forfurtherdetail)
14

Intensivegreenroof(6inchesordeeper)on35percentofrooftop*.(seepage20)
detail)

Treecanopycoveron35percentoflandscape.

Acombinationoftreecanopyandintensivegreenroofforatotalgreencoverof35
percentorgreater*.

*Ifonsiteenergygenerationrequirestheuseofeithertherooforopenspace,
accommodationsforthesefeaturesmayalterthe35%minimumgreencoverrequirement.

Installgreenroofswithatleast6inchesofsoildepthallowingforgreaterstormwater
treatment,possibleurbanagriculture,andthegrowthofnativeperennialsandgrassesto
improvehabitat,food,shelterandotherecologicalbenefits.(seepage20forfurtherdetail)
Providesoilvolumesforcanopytreesofnolessthan600cubicfeet.(seepages1920for
furtherdetail)
Useappropriateplantspeciesthatwillthriveinlocalsiteconditionsandclimate.Species
shouldbeacombinationofnativeandlocallyadaptivespecieslessoningwaterdemandwhile
providingbiologicalbenefits.

Thefollowingrecommendationsshouldbeincorporatedintodevelopmentprojectswhereverpossible:

Prioritizestreettreeplantingalongexistingandproposedbicyclenetworks,expandinglinear
greencorridors.
Increaseoveralltreecanopycoverandsubcanopycoverbyencouragingtheplantingoftrees
onpublicandprivateland,alongrightsofway,withinopenspaceandexisting
neighborhoods.
ConsiderdaylightingBethesdaMainstemTributaryifpurchasedaspublicgreenspace.
Whenpractical,incorporatevegetationintostormwatermanagementfacilities.
Buryoverheadwiresundergroundtoavoidconflictwithstreettrees.
Achieveanoverallcanopycoverwithspeciesdiversitywherenosinglegenuscomprisesmore
than20percentofthetotalpopulationoftrees.
ApplySustainableSitesInitiative(SITES)principlesonnewconstructionprojects.
Maximizespeciesdiversityalongthehorizontalandverticalplantingplanes.

15


OPTIONSFOR35PERCENTGREENCOVERasrecommendedaboveonpage15

16


PROPOSEDGREENCOVERRECOMMENDATIONS

BethesdasExistingTreeCanopyCover:
140Acres(approximately)

ExistingTreeCanopyCover+

ProposedStreetTreePlanting

=200Acres(approximately)

ExistingTreeCanopyCover+
ProposedStreetTreePlanting+
GreenCover=240Acres
(approximately)

17

1.6.7BenefitsofTrees

Plantingtreesareaverysimple,attainablemeansofreducingtheeffectsofanthropomorphicimpactson
thecommunity.Theyprovideamyriadofbenefitsthatfarexceedthecostfordesign,planting,and
maintenanceofthetrees.
EconomicBenefits:
Large, maturestreet trees arefound to bethe most important indicator of attractiveness in a
community7.
Businessesontreescapedstreetsshow12%higherincomestreams,whichisoftentheessential
competitiveedgeneededformainstreetstoresuccess8.
Shoppersareattractedtoandlingerlongerontreelinedstreetsthatmeansmoresalesand
profits.
Treesaddasmuchas20%valuetoproperty.
Strategicallyplacedtreescancutsummerairconditioningcostsforbusinessesbyasmuchas50
percentormore.
Rentalratesofcommercialofficepropertieswereapproximately7%higheronsiteshavingquality
landscape,includingtrees.
Officeworkerswithaviewofnaturearemoreproductive,reportfewerillnesses,andhavehigher
jobsatisfaction.
Treeplantingandgreenroofscreateslocaljobopportunities.
TrafficCalming:
Thepresenceoftreesreducesthespeedofdrivers,andreducesthefrequencyandseverityof
crashes.Speeddifferentialsarenotedfrom3mphto15mph.

AirQuality/PollutionReduction
Treeshelptocleantheairbytrappingairbornepollutantssuchasozone,nitrogenoxides,
sulfurdioxides,carbonmonoxide,carbondioxide,andsmallparticulateslessthan10microns
insize.Amaturetreecanabsorb120240lbsofparticulatepollutioneachyear.
Treescanfilterupto60%ofpollutionparticulates.
Greenroofstrapgreenhousegasses,airborneparticulates,andreducesmogcoolingand
filteringthecommutesairandtemperature.
Eachyearanaverageacreofmaturetreesabsorbsupto26poundsofcarbondioxidefrom
theair,whichisequaltotheamountofCo2producedbydrivingacar26,000miles.
Treesreleaseoxygenasaproductofphotosynthesis.Twomediumsized,healthytreescan
supplytheoxygenrequiredforasinglepersonforayear.

WaterQuality/Erosion
Forevery5%oftreecoveraddedtoacommunity,stormwaterrunoffisreducedby
approximately2%.
Treesreducesoilerosionwhenplantedalongstreamsandwaterways.
Treescaninterceptbetween7percentand22percentofstormwaterrunofffromimpermeable
surfaces.

7
8

GeorgiaUrbanForestryPublication,ShadeHealthyTrees,HealthyCities,HealthyPeople,2004
http://www.state.sc.us/forest/urbben.htm

18

EnergyandWasteSavings
Treessaveenergybyreducingenergyusedforcoolinginthehottermonths.Theyprovidea
windbreakduringwinter.Thisresultsinburninglessfossilfuelstogenerateelectricityfor
coolingandheating.

ReduceCrime,IncreasePublicSafetyandBuildCommunity
AUniversityofIllinoisstudyfindsthattreesinurbanareasaredirectlycorrelatedwithlower
levelsoffear,fewerincivilities,andlessviolentandaggressivebehavior.9

Healing&Health
A2008studybyresearchersatColumbiaUniversityfoundthatmoretreesinurban
neighborhoodscorrelatewithalowerincidenceofasthma.
Hundredsofstudieshaveindicatedthattreeshelplowerbloodpressure,createarelaxedfeeling
andincreasedoverallwellbeing.
Inurbanareaswithmorestreettrees,peoplejudgewalkingdistancestobeless,andare
thereforemorelikelytotravelonfoot,whichhashealthbenefits.
Treescanmakethewaitforabusfeelshorter.
Streettreesandsidewalkgardensbuildneighborhoodandcivicpride.
TreescanprovideprotectionagainstskincancerbyreducingUVBexposure(themostdamaging
typeofsolarradiation)byabouthalf,accordingtoastudybyRichardGrant,PurdueUniversity;
andGordonHeisler,USDAForestService.
Exposuretoevensmallamountsoftreesandgrassaidsconcentration,leadingtogreater
effectivenessibid
Reducedairpollutionfromthepresenceoftreeshelpstoamelioraterespiratoryproblems,such
asasthmatheleadingseriouschronicillnessamongchildren.
Urbangreeningisaneasyandeffectivestrategyforbeautifyingthebuiltenvironmentand
increasingtheamountofspacethatcanbeutilizedbycitizensandwildlife.

Habitat
Streettreesprovidefood,shelterandnestingforbirds,insects,andmammals.
Urbanhabitatscanactasreservoirsforendangeredspecies.(Howenstine,1993)

1.6.8SoilVolume
Thereiscompetitionforspaceinurbanareas.Sidewalks,buildings,roadways,bicyclelanes,stormwater
management,trees,andlandscapingallrequireland;allareofimportance.Landscapepanelsand
plantingbedsareanintegratedelementofacommunitybutoftentheydonotcontainenoughsoil
volumetosupportthegrowthandlongtermhealthofmaturetrees.Rootsarevitaltothesurvivalof
treesandneedenoughsoiltosupportexpansionandsurvival.

Kuo, F.E. 2001, Environment and Crime in the Inner City: Does Vegetation Reduce Crime? Environment and Behavior, Volume 33,
Number), pp 343-367.---www.herluiuc.edu

19


Therecommendationforsoilvolumesofnolessthan600cubicfeetisbased
onastudydonebyCaseyTreesthatfoundtreeswithgreatersoilvolumes
haveagreaterchanceofreachingmaturity.Theillustrationbelowexhibits
thebestconditionsfortreegrowth.Whensoilvolumes
are500cubicfeetor
greater,treecanopiescan
reach20feetormore.The
minimumof600cubicfeet
isthebase,exceeding600
cubicfeetishighly
suggested.

1.6.9GreenRoofs
Rooftopscountformuchof
acitysimperviouscover,
GraphicprovidedbyCaseyTrees:TreeSpaceDesign:GrowingtheTreeOutoftheBox.2008.CaseyTrees
contributetoheatisland
effect,createecologicaldeadzones,andaremostoftenblockedofffromhumanuse.Thesamefootprint
caninsteadbecomeanopportunitytocooldowntown,providepassiverecreation,providespacefor
renewabletechnology,deliverstormwatermanagement,andprovidehabitatforplants,birds,bees,and
ahostofotheressentialspecies.Greenroofscanalsoactashabitatconnectorslinkingtrees,parks,and
othergreenspacestowidengreencorridorsbeyondtreelinedstreetsandparks.
Therecommendationfor35percentofarooftobeagreenroofwithadepthofatleast6inches
(extensiveroof)allowsfornewopportunitieswithimmenselypositiveeffectsforhumansandthe
environment.Outlinedbelowaremanybenefitsprovidedbygreenroofs.
NoiseAttenuation
Greenroofshaveexcellentnoiseattenuation.Anintensive(>4)roofcanreducesoundby4650
decibels(Pecketal.1999).

NewAmenitySpace
Greenroofscreatenewopenspaceopportunitiesinwhatwouldotherwisebeunusableor
uncomfortablespace.
Greenroofsadvancesmartgrowthprinciplesandpositivelyaffecttheurbanenvironmentby
increasingamenityandgreenspace.Greenroofscanserveanumberoffunctionsanduses,
including:
o Communitygardens(e.g.residentialandlocalfoodproduction):Usinggreenroofsas
thesiteforanurbanagricultureprojectcancreateurbanbusinesses,improveaccess
tofreshfoods,andreduceacommunitysurbanfootprintthroughthecreationofa
localfoodsystem
o Commercialspace(e.g.displayareasandrestaurantterraces)
o Recreationalspace(e.g.lawnbowlingandchildrensplaygrounds)
GreenroofsareabletocooldowntownsduringhotsummermonthsandreduceHeatIsland
Effect.Insteadofthesunhittinganimpervioussurfaceandradiatingheatintothesurrounding
downtown,thevegetationonagreenroofabsorbsthesunlightandcoolsthesurfaceand
surroundingair.
20

Withgreenroofs,waterisstoredbythesubstratesoilsandutilizedbytheplantsservingasa
stormwatermanagementfacility.Thedeeperthesoilmedium,thegreatertheamountof
stormwaterthatcanbetreated.Forexample,aroofwith57.9inchesofsoildepthcanholdupto
5.9inchesofwater.
Greenroofscanmoderatethetemperatureofthewater.
Greenroofscancontributetolandfilldiversionby:prolongingthelifeofwaterproofing
membranes,reducingassociatedwaste;theuseofrecycledmaterialsinthegrowingmedium;
andprolongingtheservicelifeofheating,ventilation,andHVACsystemsthroughdecreased
needforuse.
Theriskposedbyelectromagneticradiation(fromwirelessdevicesandmobilecommunication)
tohumanhealthisstillaquestionfordebate.Nevertheless,greenroofsarecapableofreducing
electromagneticradiationpenetrationby99.4%(Herman2003).

StormwaterManagement
Reducetheamountofstormwaterrunoffanddelaythetimeatwhichrunoffoccurs,resultingin
decreasedstressonsewersystemsatpeakflowperiods.
Waterisstoredbythesubstrateandthentakenupbytheplantsfromwhereitisreturnedtothe
atmospherethroughtranspirationandevaporation.
Insummer,dependingontheplantsanddepthofgrowingmedium,greenroofsretain7090%of
theprecipitationthatfallsonthem;inwintertheyretainbetween2540%.
Greenroofsnotonlyretainrainwater,butalsomoderatethetemperatureofthewaterandactas
naturalfiltersforanyofthewaterthathappenstorunoff.
Greenroofsreducetheamountofstormwaterrunoffandalsodelaythetimeatwhichrunoff
occurs,resultingindecreasedstressonsewersystemsatpeakflowperiods.

ModerateUrbanHeatIslandEffect(UHI)
Throughthedailydewandevaporationcycle,plantsonverticalandhorizontalsurfacesareable
tocoolcitiesduringhotsummermonthsandreducetheUrbanHeatIsland(UHI)effect.Thelight
absorbedbyvegetationwouldotherwisebeconvertedintoheatenergy.
Greenroofscanalsohelpreducethedistributionofdustandparticulatematterthroughoutthe
city,aswellastheproductionofsmog.Thiscanplayaroleinreducinggreenhousegasemissions
andadaptingurbanareastoafutureclimatewithwarmersummers.

ImprovedAirQuality
Plantsongreenroofscancaptureairbornepollutantsandatmosphericdeposition.
Plantsfilternoxiousgases
Greenroofscanmoderatetemperaturesandreducedemandonpowerplants,andpotentially
decreasetheamountofCO2andotherpollutingbyproductsbeingreleasedintotheair.
OwnerBenefits
AdditionalcompliancewithMS4stormwaterrequirements
Reducesheating/coolingcosts
Taxincentives

LEEDCredits

Last2xlonger
Increasedpropertyvalue
Greatmarketing
Mayincreasesalesvalue
21

Loweremployeeandtenantturnover

GreenRoofExamples

Outdoorsittingandobservationarea

Outdoorgatheringandplayarea

Creative habitat and


educationalarea

22

ENERGY
1.7HighPerformanceArea
Buildingscontribute65percentofthegreenhousegasinMontgomeryCounty.Reducinggreenhousegas
isessentialincurbingclimatechange.InanefforttoaddressclimatechangeandmakeBethesdamore
sustainable,thePlanproposestheconceptofaHighPerformanceArea(HPA).TheHighPerformance
Area(HPA)isageographicareaandinstrumenttoacceleratesustainabilityintwoofBethesdasmost
underachievingperformanceareas:Equity(Section
2.2.3)andEnergy(Section2.5).Theconceptisto
rewarddeveloperswhoexceedcountyminimum
requirementsforenergyefficientbuildingsand
affordablehousing.Throughenergyefficiencies,
renewableenergysystems,andevendistrictenergy,
notonlycanwelowerenergyconsumption,butalso
createjobsandeconomicopportunitiesinthe
community.TheHPAwillalsofillinthegapsinthe
underachievingperformanceareasofenergyand
affordablehousingbutwillsupportinnovation,and
a21stCenturyenergyandclimateconsciouslifestyle.
Inturn,thiswillattractnewbusinesses,residents,
andrenewcommunitypride.

TheHighPerformanceAreawillalsohelpmeetthe
Countysclimateobjectivesforreducingcarbon
emissions,greenhousegases10,energydemand,and
maketransitorienteddevelopmentevensmarterby
providinggreaterdensitywiththelowestecological
impact.Byaddressingtheperformanceareaof
energy,theSectorPlanadvancescomprehensive
andholisticsustainableplanningintheCountys
densesturbancommunity.

ThedevelopmentoftheHighPerformanceAreaisalsoinresponsetocommunityfeedback,theCountys
greenhousegasreductioninitiative,widespreadnewsustainableplanninginitiatives,andgrowingmarket
demandforsustainabledevelopmentandlivingthatincludeshealthyplacestolive,workandplay.
Undertakinggreendevelopmentprojectsdemonstratesacommitmenttoquality,permanence,and
stewardshipthatimprovesanownersoradevelopersreputationinthecommunityandintheindustry
asawhole.Thoseinvolvedwithsustainabilityareviewedasinnovators,exemplars,andleadersintheir

10

MontgomeryCountyClimateProtectionPlan,2009

23


fieldsandgoodpeopletodobusinesswithinthefuture.InhisSitePlanningandDesignHandbook,
ThomasRusswritesthatbuildingsoncereflectedaneleganceofdesign,athoughtfulconstructionbased
onawarenessoftheenvironment.Buildingsinthistraditionwereactiveworkingmachines.11Green
developmentisactivebuildingthatitremindsusofourconnectiontoaworldlargerthanourselves,a
worldtobeinheritedbyourchildren.Ourresponsibilitytodayistocreateandmaintainsound
environmental,social,andfiscallegacies.Thepracticeofsustainable,greendevelopmentisthecrucial
pillarofthatresponsibility.

SectorPlanRecommendation
TheHighPerformanceAreaaimstoraisethelevelofsustainabilitybyincentivizingtheconstructionof
buildingsthatexceedtheminimumenergyperformancerequirements.

Anoptionalmethodbuildingover4storiesmustexceedthecurrentexistingASHRAE90.1*
requirementbyatleast15percent.
ShouldtheCountyapprovetheInternationalGreen
*Note:Thepercentreductionsforbuildings
ConstructionCode(IgCC),buildingenergyperformancemust
belowASHRAEandtheIGCCwasdeveloped
withtheassistanceoftheInstitutefor
ranktwopointslower(moreefficient)thantheZeroEnergy
MarketTransformation;Montgomery
PerformanceIndex(zEPI)scorelistedinthemostrecent
CountyUSGBCchapter;theNewBuildings
Institute,MontgomeryCountyDepartment
InternationalGreenBuildingCode(IGCC)aslocallyamended.
ofEnergy;MetropolitanCouncilof

Government;andtheAmericanCouncilfor
anEnergyEfficientEconomy.

Thisstretchcoderewardsdeveloperswhobuildforthebenefitofthe
communityanditsresidentselevatingpublicrelationsandpublicgood,loweringoperatingcosts,saving
energy,andattractingtenants.

1.8HighPerformanceAreaRationale
InMontgomeryCounty,foursectorscontributetogreenhousegasemissions(GHG):transportation(34
percent),commercialbuilding(32percent),residentialbuildings(33percent)andsolidwaste
management(1percent).ReducingGHGinthecountyrequiresanaggressiveprogramtodecreasethe
energydemandsineachsectorsource.Toaddress
buildings,MontgomeryCountynowrequiresallbuildings
10,000squarefeetorlargertomeetLeadershipinEnergy
andEnvironmentalDesign(LEED)Silvercertification.LEED
isanexceptionalmodelforenvironmentallyresponsible
construction,howeveritdoesnotensurehighefficiencies
inenergyperformanceandoftenLEEDCertified,Silver,and
evenGoldbuildingshaveheftyenergydemandsthat
contributingtogreenhousegasemissions,andthelossof
nonrenewableresources.

11

Russ,Thomas,SitePlanningandDesignHandbook,2009,SecondEdition,Chapter3

24

WhiletheCountyismakingheadwaytowardsthepurchasingofcleanenergy,47percentoftheenergy
usedinMontgomeryCountybuildingsareheatedandcooledusingcoalandotherfossilfuels12.The
byproductofcoalcombustioniscarbondioxide(CO2),theleadingsourceofclimatechange.Reducing
demandsforcoalandothernonrenewableresourceswilldirectlyreducegreenhousegases.

Increasingbuildingefficienciesispartoftheequationtoaddressclimatechangeandenergydemands.
Presently,allbuildingsexceptforlowriseresidentialbuildingsmustmeetminimumrequirementsfor
energyefficientdesignscalledAmericanSocietyofHeating,Refrigerating,andAirConditioningEngineers,
orASHRAEStandard(90.1).Thisisanationalstandardthatcontinuestoevolveandmovetowards
greaterenergyefficiencieseveryfewyears(2004,2007,2010,and2013).Althoughstrictinapplication,
technologyisadvancingquickerthanthestandards.Inanefforttocurbenergydemandfurther,
MontgomeryCountyisonthevergeofapprovingtheInternationalGreenConstructionCode,orIgCC.
Thisisthefirstmodelcodetoincludesustainabilitymeasuresfortheentireconstructionprojectandits
sitefromdesignthroughconstruction,certificateofoccupancyandbeyond.Thenewcodeisexpected
tomakebuildingsmoreefficient,reducewaste,andhaveapositiveimpactonhealth,safetyand
communitywelfare.Ifapproved,thisisaprogressiveCountyeffort.Nevertheless,existingtechnology,
economicreturnsandregionalcompetitionallowforevengreaterbuildingefficiencies.Providing
incentivestodevelopersthatexceedminimumstandardscontinuestoadvancetechnologywhilekeeping
Bethesdacuttingedge.

1.9MontgomeryCountysCarbonReductionGoals
Curtailinggreenhousegasisnoteasy.Ittakesmultipleagencyinitiatives,legislation,andintentionaswell
asacombinedeffortofallsectorsofgovernmenttoparticipateinthisdifficultendeavor.Montgomery
CountyGovernmenthasadoptedmanynewprogramsandpassedlegislationwiththeintentionof
curbinggreenhousegasandclimatechange.TheCountysClimateProtectionPlan13(CPP)(2009)requires
thecountytostopincreasingCountywideGHGemissionsby2010andachievea10%reductionevery5
yearsthrough2050.However,inMarchof2015,theMontgomeryCountyDepartmentofEnvironmental
ProtectionpublishedtheirannualreportonCPPanddeterminedthattheCountyisnotontracktomeet
thegoalsestablishedintheCPP.Thisisnotsurprisingaspopulationgrowthandenergydemandfor
technologyandresourcescontinuestorise.Nooneagencyorentitycantacklegreenhousegasreduction
andclimatechange.TheMNCPPC(Commission)canstrengthentheirroleinassistinginthiseffort.It
canexpandbeyonditspresentcapacityasdirectedinCountyBill(3407)whichrequirestheCommission
tomakerecommendationsforcarbonemissionsreductionsinmasterplans.Italsohasthedirectiveto
furtherconsiderandcurbenergyasdirectedintheApprovedandAdoptedGeneralPlanRefinementof
theGoalsandObjectivesforMontgomeryCounty(1993)whichidentifiestheCommissionasanagencyto
PromotetheefficientuseofenergyandplanfortheCountyslongtermenergyneeds.Italsostates
thattheCommissionmustConsiderenergyconservationpracticesduringmasterplan,subdivision,site

12

http://www.rockvillemd.gov/DocumentCenter/View/204
https://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/DEP/Resources/Files/ReportsandPublications/Sustainability/Working%20
Group/ClimateProtectionPlanSustainableWorkingGroup09.pdf
13

25


plan,andthemandatoryreferralreview.TheseareprominentandsupportivechargesforBethesdas
HighPerformanceArea.

HighPerformanceAreaImplementation
TheHighPerformanceAreawillbeimplementedthroughthepublicbenefitspackageintheCommercial/
ResidentialandEmploymentZonesforoptionalmethodofdevelopment.Earlyinthedevelopment
reviewprocess,atthetimeoftheSketchorPreliminarySitePlan,ifthedeveloperdesiresmaximum
density,thecommitmenttoreachingthegoalsoftheHighPerformanceAreawillbemet.
1.10EnergyReductionGoals

Improvebuildingenergyefficiencyandreduceenergydemand.
Reducevehiclemilestraveled.

SectorPlanRecommendations:

IntheHighPerformanceArea,buildingsmustmeetthepublicbenefitscategoryforCREnergy
ConservationandGeneration59C15.856(b).Anoptionalmethodbuildingover4storiesmust
exceedthecurrentexistingASHRAE90.1requirementbyatleast15percent.ShouldtheCounty
approvetheInternationalGreenConstructionCode(IgCC),buildingenergyperformancemust
ranktwopointslower(moreefficient)thantheadoptedstandardinordertoachievethe
maximumallowabledensityforthezonedproperty.

Utilizewholebuildingdesignapproachtonewconstruction,consideringtheinteractionsofall
buildingcomponents,buildingenvelopeandsystemstocreateamorecomfortablebuildingthat
savesenergyandreducesenvironmentalimpacts.
Reduceheating,coolingandlightingloadsthroughclimateresponsivedesignandconservation
practices.
o Designbuildingmassingthatmaximizesnaturalventilation,airflowandaccesstonatural
lighting.
o Usehighperformancebuildingenvelopes;selectwalls,roofsandotherassembliesbased
onlongterminsulation,airbarrierperformanceanddurabilityrequirements.
o Installlightemittingdiodes(LED)lightingthroughoutbuildings.
o UseEnergyStarapprovedand/orFederalEnergyManagementProgram(FEMP)
designatedenergyefficientproductsthatmeetorexceedU.S.DepartmentofEnergy
Standards.
Maximizeuseofalternativeenergysystemstosupplyaportionorallofabuildingsenergy
demand.Somealternativeenergysystemsmayinclude:
o Solarpower.
o Geothermal.
o Cogeneration.
o Biomassandbiogasstrategies.

26


Purchaseelectricitygeneratedfromrenewablesourcesorlowpollutingsources.
Maximizesolarorientationanddesigntechniquesthattakeadvantageofpassivesolarheating,
coolingandlighting.
Designbuildingswithoperablewindowsforcrossventilation.
Utilizegreenroofstoreduceheatingandcoolingdemand.
Utilizelowalbedosurfacestodiffusereflectivity,reducingheatislandeffect.
Considerzeroenergyconcepts.
ExceedCountyrequirementsforminimumLEEDcertificationoritsequivalentstandards.
Utilizedistrictenergy(centralheating/cooling)iftwoormorebuildingsarebeingconstructed
adjacenttoeachother.
o

1.11GreenEconomics
Aspartoftheresearchtoinvestigatetheeconomiccostsandbenefitsofgreenbuildings,over40
differentstudieswerereviewed.Thesestudieswereconductedbyanumberofdifferententities,
includingconstructioncompanies,realestatefirms,nonprofits,academicsandgovernment
agencies.Thesourcesforthestudiesreviewedaspartofthisresearchareshownbelow.

Thefocusoftheresearch
wason12statistical
studiesthatinvestigate
theeffectthatgreen
buildingcertificationhas
onsalesprices,rents,
occupancyrates,and
effectiverents.When
greencertificationhasa
positiveeffectonthese
measures,wecallthe
addedvalueresulting
fromgreencertificationa
greenpremium.
Theconclusionfromthese12statisticalstudiesisthatgreenpremiumsdoexistforsalesprices,rents,
occupancyrates,andeffectiverents,andthereforethatgreenbuildingsgeneratehigherrevenuethan
theiruncertifiedcounterparts.
SalesPrices
Ninedifferenteconomicspapers,publishedbetween2009and2012,testedfortheexistenceofagreen
premiumonpropertysalesprices.Twopaperstestedforthispremiumusingsamplesofsinglefamily
homes,whilesevenuseddatafromcommercialofficeproperties.Samplesizesrange,butthebest
studiesofcommercialofficepropertieslookedat6,0007,000properties.Allstudiesdecisivelyconcluded

27


thatagreenpremiumexistsforpropertysalesprices.Findingsforthemagnitudeofthisgreenpremium
vary,andareshownintablebelow.

SALESPRICEFINDINGS
SINGLEFAMILYRESIDENTIAL
TheValueofGreenLabelsintheCalifornia
2012
HousingMarket
TheValueof"Green":Evidencefromthe
2012
FirstMandatoryGreenBuildingProgram

COMMERCIALOFFICE
2011

TheEconomicsofGreenBuilding

2011

GreenNoiseorGreenValue?
SustainabilityandtheDynamicsofGreen
Building
Income,ValueandReturnsinSocially
ResponsibleOfficeProperties

2010
2009
2009

DoingWellbyDoingGood

2009

DoesGreenPayOff?

2009

NewEvidenceontheGreenBuildingRent
andPricePremium

AUTHORS
NilsKokandMatthewE.Kahn
RamyaRajajagadeesanArouland
J.AndrewHansz

SAMPLESIZE

RSQUARED

FINDING

1,609,879

0.864

9.00%

14,055

0.780

2.25%

AVERAGEOFSINGLEFAMILYRESIDENTIALFINDINGS=

PietEichholtz,NilsKokandJohn
Quigley
FranzFuerstandPatMcAllister
PietEichholtz,NilsKokandJohn
Quigley
GaryPivoandJeffreyD.Fisher
PietEichholtz,NilsKokandJohn
Quigley
NormMiller,JaySpiveyandAndy
Florance
FranzFuerstandPatMcAllister

5.63%

5,993

0.616

13.00%

6,156

0.420

30.00%

5,993

0.616

13.30%

7,647

0.594

8.50%

1,816

0.340

16.50%

927

0.468

7.85%

6,158

0.420

36.00%

AVERAGEOFCOMMERCIALOFFICEFINDINGS=
AVERAGEOFALLFINDINGS=

17.88%
15.16%

Thetwopaperslookingatgreenpremiumsinthesinglefamilyhousingmarketproviderobustand
conclusiveevidencethatgreenpremiumsexistforsinglefamilyhomes.Sevenstudiesinvestigatingthe
greenpremiumoncommercialofficespacefoundpremiumsrangingfrom7.85%to36%.Themost
significantfindingsforthemagnitudeofthisgreensalespricepremiumwere8.5%,13%,and13.3%.
RentPremiums
Theresearchincluded8differentpapersstudyingtheexistenceandvalueofgreenrentpremiums.Seven
ofthesepapersstudiedgreenrentpremiumsforcommercialofficespace.Theremainingstudylookedat
thegreenrentpremiumsformultifamilyresidentialproperties.Allstudiesfoundagreenrentpremium
toexistwithfindingsrangingfrom1.8%to12.11%.
Thestudiesofcommercialofficepropertiesprovidesignificantandsubstantialevidencefortheexistence
ofgreenrentpremiums.Theaverageofallfindingsindicatesaroughly5%greenrentpremium,although
thetwomostsignificantresultsareonthelowerendofthespectrumwithestimatesof1.8%and2.6%.
Thesenumbersmayseemlow,butrentpremiums,unlikesalespremiums,compoundovertime,
providingadditionalrevenueeverytimerentispaid.Asaresult,evena2%rentpremiumsignificantly
increasesarentalpropertysprofitabilitynowandintothefuture.

28

RENTPREMIUMNUMBERS
MULTIFAMILYRESIDENTIAL
CertificationMatters:IsGreenTalkCheap
2014
Talk?

COMMERCIALOFFICE
2011
GreenNoiseorGreenValue?
2011
2010
2010
2009
2009
2009

TheEconomicsofGreenBuilding
SustainabilityandtheDynamicsofGreen
Building
GreenDesignandtheMarketfor
CommercialOfficeSpace
DoingWellbyDoingGood
Income,ValueandReturnsinSocially
ResponsibleOfficeProperties
NewEvidenceontheGreenBuildingRent
andPricePremium

AUTHORS

SAMPLESIZE

RSQUARED

FINDING

1,544

0.840

7.60%

18,519

0.620

5.00%

20,801

0.816

2.60%

20,801

0.817

1.80%

7,308

0.600

12.11%

8,182

0.680

3.00%

GaryPivoandJeffreyD.Fisher

7,627

5.20%

FranzFuerstandPatMcAllister

6,158

0.610

6.00%

ShaunA.BondandAvisDevine

FranzFuerstandPatMcAllister
PietEichholtz,NilsKokandJohn
Quigley
PietEichholtz,NilsKokandJohn
Quigley
JonathanA.Wiley,JustinD.
BenefieldandKenH.Johnson
PietEichholtz,NilsKokandJohn
Quigley

AVERAGEOFCOMMERCIALOFFICEFINDINGS=
AVERAGEOFALLFINDINGS=

5.10%
5.41%

OccupancyPremiumandEffectiveRentPremium
Salespriceandrentpremiumsarethemostthoroughlyandstatisticallyinvestigatedbenefitsofgreen
buildings.However,inadditiontopricesandrents,occupancyratecanbeausefulandmeaningful
metricforevaluatingtheprofitabilityofabuilding,bymeasuringthepercentageofunitsthatare
occupiedandthereforepayingrent.Thisresearchincludessixpapers:threepapersthatstudied
occupancyratesinisolation;andthreepapersthatstudiedthecombinedeffectonoccupancyratesand
rents.
Anotherthreepaperslookedattheeffectofgreencertificationonoccupancyrates.Thefindingsofthese
papersareshownintablebelow.Scholarlyarticlesonthistopicislessrobustthanestimatesofsales
priceandrentpremiums.However,thereisstillsignificantevidencethatanoccupancypremiumdoes
exist,andthefindingsofthesethreestudiesgiveasenseofroughlywhatmagnitudethatpremiummight
have.
OCCUPANCYPREMIUMNUMBERS
COMMERCIALOFFICE
GreenDesignandtheMarketfor
2010
CommercialOfficeSpace
Income,ValueandReturnsinSocially
2009
ResponsibleOfficeProperties
AnInvestigationoftheEffectofEco
2009
LabelingonOfficeOccupancyRates

AUTHORS
JonathanA.Wiley,JustinD.
BenefieldandKenH.Johnson

SAMPLESIZE

RSQUARED

FINDING

7,308

0.460

13.83%

GaryPivoandJeffreyD.Fisher

1,199

1.30%

FranzFuerstandPatMcAllister

24,283

0.280

5.29%

AVERAGEOFALLFINDINGS=

6.81%

Effectiverentisanaggregateofrentandoccupancyrate.Morespecifically,effectiverentisrent
multipliedbyoccupancyrate.Thisservesasausefulmeasure,asratherthanquantifyingrentpremiums
andoccupancyratepremiumsindividually,theeffectiverentpremiummeasuresthecombinedeffectof
thetwo.Thus,theeffectiverentpremiumisourmostaccurateandcomprehensivemeasureofthe
additionalrentalrevenuegeneratedbypropertiesthathavebeengreencertified.Onlyonegroupof
29


authorstestedforaneffectiverentpremium:PietEichholtz,NilsKokandJohnQuigley.Theyfounda
significantgreenpremium,andestimatesofthemagnituderangefrom4.7%to7.6%.
EFFECTIVERENTPREMIUMNUMBERS
COMMERCIALOFFICE
2011

TheEconomicsofGreenBuilding

2010

SustainabilityandtheDynamicsofGreen
Building

2009

DoingWellbyDoingGood

AUTHORS
PietEichholtz,NilsKokandJohn
Quigley
PietEichholtz,NilsKokandJohn
Quigley
PietEichholtz,NilsKokandJohn
Quigley

SAMPLESIZE

RSQUARED

FINDING

20,801

0.709

7.60%

20,801

0.710

4.70%

5,993

0.410

6.40%

AVERAGEOFALLFINDINGS=

6.23%

ConstructionCosts
Asdiscussedabove,therearesignificantmarketadvantagesassociatedwithgreenproperties,namely
theirabilitytogeneratehigherlevelsofrevenuethroughhigherrents,salesprices,andoccupancy.But
thereisalsoanadditionalcostassociatedwithconstructingagreenbuilding,anduntilrelativelyrecently,
thisupfrontcostappearedtooutweighthebenefitsofgreenbuildingsinmostcases.Recentresearch
providesevidencethatthisupfrontadditionalcostofbuildinggreenisoftenexaggerated.Manydifferent
entities,fromrealestatefirmstoconstructioncompaniestononprofits,havedonetheirownstudieson
theadditionalconstructioncostofbuildinggreensupportingtheclaimthatgreenbuildingislessthantwo
percentmoreexpensivethannongreenbuilding.
Studiesoftheadditionalcostofbuildinggreenarelessdatadriventhanthoselookingatgreen
premiums,duemostlytothelackofpublicdataonthingslikeconstructioncosts.Instead,thesestudies
relyonindustryprofessionalswithgreenbuildingexperience,relativelysmallsamplesofgreen
constructionprojects,andsurveyresponsesfromthebuildingcommunity.Regressionanalysiswasnot
conductedforthedatasetsavailable,andthereforewecannotspeakconclusivelyaboutthestatistical
significanceofanyofthesefindings.Nonetheless,anumberofdifferentscholarshaveindependently
determinedthattheadditionalcostofgreenconstructionisnomorethan5%,andamajorityofscholars
agreethatgreenconstruction,whendoneright,cancostlessthan2%extra.Infact,thestudywiththe
largestsamplesize,conductedbyDavisLangdonConstruction,foundthattherewasnodifference
betweenconstructioncostsforgreenbuildingsandconstructioncostsfornongreenbuildings.Allof
thesestudieslookedattheadditionalcostofbuildingaLEEDcertifiedbuilding,andtherewerenostudies
thatlookedatthecostsofEnergyStarbuildings.
Perhapsmoreimportantthantheprecisevalueofthegreenconstructionpremiumisitsvaluerelativeto
theexpectationsoftheconstructionindustry.Theresearchongreenconstructionpremiumsisdecisive
inassertingthattheadditionalcostofbuildinggreenisnotashighasisperceivedbythedevelopment
industry.14Infact,thesamestudysuggeststhatadditionalcostscanbeavoidedaltogetherwhengreen
strategiesareconsideredearlyinthedesignprocess.
EnergySavings
Thelastandperhapsmostvitalbenefitofgreenbuildingsareenergyandfinancialsavingscreated
throughenhancedenergyefficiency.Theseenergysavingshelpownersanddevelopersquicklyrecoup

14

TheBusinessCaseforGreenBuildingbytheWorldGreenBuildingCouncil

30


theirinitialinvestmentsinbuildinggreen,andoftenmakeoccupyinggreenbuildingsmoreaffordable
thankstolowerenergybills.Fivedifferentstudiesofenergysavingsingreenbuildingsfoundenergy
savingsrangingfrom12.9%to35%.Thereisalsoanecdotalevidenceofcompaniesandorganizations
profitinginthelongtermbyincreasingtheirenergyefficiency,withanexemplarylocalexamplebeingthe
TowerCompanies.Thisevidenceisbackedbyonesurveythatfoundthat70%ofbuildingprofessionals
citeloweroperatingcostsasthegreatestbenefitofgreenbuilding.15
PaybackPeriods
Usingresearchongreenpremiums,greenconstructioncosts,andenergysavings,astatisticalmodelwas
createdtocalculatehowlongittakesfortheinitialinvestmentinbuildinggreentobepaidoffbythe
benefitsofgreenpremiumsandenergysavings.
Thesecalculationsnecessarilyincludedanumberofassumptions.Mostoftheseassumptionswereheld
constant,whiletwo,constructionpremiumandeffectiverentpremium,servedasindependentvariables
andchangedinordertosimulatedifferentscenarios.
GreenAssumptions
ConstructionPremium*(Yaxis)
EffectiveRentPremium*(Xaxis)
EnergySavings
BuildingParameters
ConstructionCostpersq.ft.
OperatingCostAssumptions
Cleaningpersq.ft.
Repairs/Maintenancepersq.ft.
Utilitiespersq.ft.
Roads/Groundspersq.ft.
Securitypersq.ft.
Administrationpersq.ft.
Fixedpersq.ft.
MarketAssumptions
Rentpersq.ft.
OccupancyRate
DiscountRate
*Independentvariable

Value
Average:2%
Range:0.5%5.0%
Average:6%
Range:4.0%13%
15%
$165
$1.47
$2.09
$2.70
$0.29
$1.26
$1.45
$4.20
$35.00
88.1%
5%

15

WorldGreenBuildingTrends2016byDodgeData&Analytics

31


Thechartbelowshowshowlongthegreenconstructioninvestmenttakestobepaidbackfordifferent
combinationsofconstructionpremiumsandrentpremiums.

Summary
Thereisstatisticalevidencesupportingthenotionthatgreenbuildingsgeneratehigherrevenuethan
nongreenbuildingsinanumberofways.Findingsindicatetheygeneratehigherrents,salesprices,
occupancyrates,andeffectiverentsabovenongreenbuildings.Thefindingsdemonstratethatgreen
premiumsdoexistforthesemetrics,whichspeakstothemarketingpowerofgreencertification.
Second,theupfrontcostofbuildingagreenbuildingisoftenpresumedtooprohibitivewithdistantand
lowfinancialbenefits.However,thefindingsindicatethatgreenbuildingsmaybeconstructedat2%
additionalconstructioncostorless,andsometimes,ifconsideredattheonset,theremaybeno
additionalcosts.Thenumbersalsoindicatethatpaybackbeginsonaverage,withinthesecondyearand
continuesforthelifeofthebuilding.
Lastly,theenergysavingscreatedbymoreefficientgreenbuildingsleadtolowerutilitybills,lower
operatingcosts,andbetterprofitmarginsforgreendevelopersandtenants.
Overall,thisresearchsupportstheclaimthatgreenbuildingsaregoodbusinessinvestments,andthatthe
additionalprofitabilityofgreenbuildingsoutweighstheadditionalupfrontcostofconstructingthem.

32


CARBONFOOTPRINTANALYSISRESULTS
1.12Findings:
Embodiedemissionscontributionstototalgreenhousegasemissionswillincreaseinpartduetothe
demolitionofexistingstructuresratherthanutilizingexistingbuildings.Embodiedcarbonemissionsofa
buildingarethecarbondioxideproducedduringthemanufactureofmaterials,theirtransportand
assemblyonsite.Theproposedzoningwillincreasethebuildingsizeandheightandthereforedemolition
ofolderbuildingswithnewconstructionisanticipated.Thiscontributestogreaterconsolidationand
urbandensityreducingsprawlandvehiclemilestravelled.Atthesametime,agreatdealofenergyis
neededfornewconstructionmaterialfromaroundtheglobecontributingsignificantlytothetotalcarbon
footprintofbuildings.
Theprojectedpopulationisexpectedtoincreaseby11,300people,5,300households,and14,200jobs.
Overall,thepopulationisprojectedtodoubleinsize,yettotalcarbonemissionswillonlyincreaseby
approximately23percent(seechartfollowingpageProjectedTotalIncreaseinCarbonEmissions).This
numberdoesnotfactorinimprovementsintechnology,buildingefficiencies,andtheHighPerformance
Areaduetotheuncertaintyoftheapplicationandoutcome,whichassumesevengreatercarbon
emissionreductionpossibilities.Asdataforbuildingenergyconsumption,vehiclefuelefficiency,vehicle
milestravelled,andotherinputparameterschange,itmaybepossibletorerunthemodelusedforthis
determinationtoseehowdesignandtechnologyimprovementsaffectprojectedoutcomesandreduce
carbonemissionsfurther.
Percapita,itislikelythatemissionsforvehiclemilestravelledwillsignificantlydecrease.Projections
indicatea36percentdroppercapitawhichmayimprovelocalairquality,heatislandeffect,andhealth
(seechartonfollowingpageProjectedTotalDecreaseinVehicleMilesTravelledperCapita).However,
thesebenefitsmaybenegatedduetoincreasesinpopulationifenergydemandsfrombuildingsand
energysourcesdonotbecomemoreefficientandcleanerasindicatedintheresultsaboveforoverall
totalcarbonreductionemissions.Tocomprehensivelyreducecarbonlocally,buildingsplusreduced
vehiclemilestravelledmustcontinuetoimproveinenergyefficiencies.
TheresultsusingtheKingCounty,WAcarbonmodelingmethodologyareshownbelow.

Year
Emissions MetricTonsper
Person/Travelled

MTCO2e*

MTCO2e*

2005(Baseline)

17,635,856

0.69

2040(Projection) 21,687,635

0.45

33

34


Methodology:
MontgomeryCountyBillnumber3407requiresthePlanningDepartmenttomodelthecarbonfootprint
associatedwithitsmasterplans,andtomakerecommendationsforthereductionofcarbonemissions.
MNCPPCcurrentlyusesagreenhousegasmodeldevelopedbyKingCounty,Washington.Theinputsare
derivedfromnationalaverages,andwhereverpossiblewehavesubstitutedMontgomeryCountydata
obtainedbythePlanningDepartmentsResearchandTechnologyandtheTransportationDivision.The
resultsarereportedintermsoftheequivalenteffectofagivenvolumeofcarbondioxide(carbon
dioxideequivalents).
ToprojecttotalemissionsforBethesda,thespreadsheetmodelconsideredembodiedenergyemissions,
buildingenergyemissions,andtransportationemissions.Themodeldocumentationdefinesembodied
emissionsasemissionsthatarecreatedthroughtheextraction,processing,transportation,construction
anddisposalofbuildingmaterialsaswellasemissionscreatedthroughlandscapedisturbance(byboth
soildisturbanceandchangesinabovegroundbiomass).Buildingenergyemissionsarecreatedinthe
normaloperationofabuildingincludinglighting,heatingcoolingandventilation,operationofcomputers
andappliances,etc.Transportationemissionsarereleasedbytheoperationofcars,trucks,buses,
motorcycles,etc.
InputsforBethesdaincludethenumbersandtypesofhousingunitsandthesquarefootageofdifferent
categoriesofretail,commercial,andpublicbuildings.Themodelisrunonceusing2015datatoestablish
baselineresults.Themodelisrunagainusinghousingunits,andcommercialandretailspaceprojectedto
developunderthesectorplan(2040)toestimatefuturegreenhousegasemissions.Themodelestimates
emissionsoverthelifeofthedevelopment,andresultsaregiveninmetrictonsofCO2equivalents.The
actualoutcomeofthemodelislikelytobehigherthantherealityduetocontinuouschangesin
technology,energyefficiencies,andalternativeenergysources.
Toprojecttotalemissionsforanarea,thespreadsheetmodelconsidersembodiedenergyemissions,
buildingenergyemissions,andtransportationemissions.Themodeldocumentationdefinesembodied
emissionsasemissionsthatarecreatedthroughtheextraction,processing,transportation,construction
anddisposalofbuildingmaterialsaswellasemissionscreatedthroughlandscapedisturbance(byboth
soildisturbanceandchangesinabovegroundbiomass).Buildingenergyemissionsarecreatedinthe
normaloperationofabuildingincludinglighting,heatingcoolingandventilation,operationofcomputers
andappliances,etc.Transportationemissionsarereleasedbytheoperationofcars,trucks,buses,
motorcycles,etc.
ThisisdifferentfromtheCountyEmissionsInventorypreparedbytheMontgomeryCountyDepartment
ofEnvironmentalProtection,whichestimatesannualemissions.Themodelonlydealswithemissions;no
calculationsareincludedtoestimatepotentialcarbonoffsetsfrombestmanagementpractices.The
estimatesalsoassumebusinessasusualwhenprojectingemissions.
LEADERSHIPINENERGYANDENVIRONMENTALDESIGNFORNEIGHBORHOODDEVELOPMENT(LEEDND)
Recognizingthatbuildingsarejustonecomponentofsustainability,theUnitedStatesGreenBuilding
Councildevelopedarigorousauditandratingsystemtomeasuretheoverallsustainabilityofa
communitycalledLEEDforNeighborhoodDevelopment(LEEDND).Theratingsystemholistically
quantifiesalltheelementsthatmakeaneighborhoodsustainable.Themostsustainableneighborhoods
35


exhibithighlevelsofwalkability,asenseofplace,socialcohesionandstabilityamidchangingeconomic
andsociopoliticalconditions,andaddressclimatechange,energyefficiencies,publichealth,affordable
housingandtransportation.

TheU.S.GreenBuildingCouncil(USGBC)conducteditsfirstassessmentforamasterplanontheDraft
BethesdaDowntownPlanusingtheLEEDNDratingsystem.Theresultsofthescorecardanalysisandfinal
reportidentifiedwherethePlandoesanddoesnotalignwithLEEDNDv2009criteria.Theassessment
identifiedveryfewbarrierstosustainabilityasthePlanmakesexplicitreferencestoamajorityofLEEDND
prerequisites.Thiscrediblethirdpartyfeedbackalsoprovidedvaluableinsightintothegapswhere
elementsofsustainabilitycouldbebolstered.Manysuggestionswerenotgermanetoamasterplanand
fallwithinotherreviewagencies.OtherrecommendationswillbeincorporatedintothePlansDesign
Guidelines.ThisvaluableassessmentpavesthewayforfuturedevelopmentprojectsinDowntown
BethesdatomorereadilyachieveLEEDNDcertification.

COMMUNITYWATERANDSEWER
Thisareaiscurrentlyservedwithpublicwaterandsewer.Nosignificantupgradesareneededtoserve
growthinthesectorplanarea.However,specificcapacityevaluationswillbeperformedbyWSSCs
PlanningGroupandDevelopmentServicesGroupwhendetailedinformationisprovidedasvarious
parcelsandpropertiesaresubmittedfordevelopmentreviewinthesectorplanarea.Theextentofany
impacttowaterand/orsewersystemcapacity,whetherofalocalizednatureorrequiringacapital
improvementprogrammed(CIP)project,willbedeterminedbyWSSC.Anynewdevelopmentgenerating
100,000ormoregallonsofsewerperday(approximately700unitsor3500employees)wouldbe
requiredtoparticipateinsystemupgrades.DevelopmentsofthissizearenotexpectedinBethesda.

36

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Legislation
1. MontgomeryCountyCouncil.Resolution16395.EnergyEfficiencyandEnvironmentalDesign
2. MarylandDepartmentoftheEnvironmentNationalPollutantDischargeEliminationSystem
MunicipalSeparateStormSewerSystemDischargePermit.February16,2010.
3. MontgomeryCountyBills:Bill3307:Renewableenergy,Bill1014:Buildingssolarpermits,Bill
3706:Greenbuildingspropertytaxcredit,Bill314:Buildingsenergyefficiencyenergy,Bill17
06:Energyefficiency&environmentaldesign,Bill214:Environmentalsustainabilitybuildings
benchmarking,Bill914:EnvironmentalsustainabilityBill3207:Environmentalsustainability
ClimateProtectionPlan,Bill2907:Environmentalsustainability,climateprotection,Bill3407:
Greenhousegasemissions:environmentalsustainability,climateprotection,Bill1706:Energy
efficiency&environmentaldesignclimateprotection,Bill3007:Energyefficiency: Bill914:
EnvironmentalSustainabilityRenewableEnergyCountyPurchase: Bill3507:Energyand
EnvironmentalAdvocacy:Bill714:wouldcreateapreferenceforacertifiedgreenbusinessinthe
County'sprocurementofgoodsandservices:Bill514EnvironmentalSustainabilitySocialCost
ofCarbonAssessments:Bill814:PACKETJUNE10,2014BuildingsCountyBuildingsClean
EnergyRenewableTechnology
4. S.1059:ZeroEmissionsBuildingActof2007.Thebillrequiresthatallnewandrenovated
buildingsownedorleasedbythefederalgovernmentmeetanimmediateenergyefficiency
reductionof50percentoftheaverageenergyconsumptionofsimilarfederalbuildingsin
operationin2003.In2010therequirementwouldincreasetoa60percentreductionand
increaseby10percentatfiveyearintervalsintothefutureuntilcarbonneutralityisreachedin
2030.Formoreinformation,readthisweeksAngle,theInstitutesnewsletterongovernment
andanalysis.
5. H.R.620:Establishesamarketdrivensystemoftradablegreenhousegas(GHG)allowances.
6. H.R.823:AbilltoauthorizeFederalagenciesandlegislativebranchofficestopurchase
greenhousegasoffsetsandrenewableenergycredits.
7. H.R.2635:CarbonNeutralGovernmentActof2007.Newefficiencystandardsforfederal
buildings,sothatby2030theyhaveachieveda100%reductioninfossilfuelgeneratedenergy
consumption
8. H.R.2643:thebilldeclaresthat"itisthesenseoftheCongressthatthereshouldbeenacteda
comprehensiveandeffectivenationalprogramofmandatory,marketbasedlimitsandincentives
onemissionsofgreenhousegases."
9. S.6:NationalEnergyandEnvironmentalSecurityAct.
10. S.280:ClimateStewardshipandInnovationActof2007.
11. S.485:GlobalWarmingReductionActof2007.
12. S.1168:CleanAir/ClimateChangeActof2007.ThisbillamendstheCleanAirActtoestablisha
regulatoryprogramforpollutantsandgreenhousegas(GHG)emissionsfromtheelectric
generatingsector.

40