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IFB

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

Textile composites: Micromechanical analysis


and the WiseTex software
Overview of micromechanics for textile composites
Fabric types
The Wisetex software: Basic concepts and theory
WiseTex example:
o

Construction and analysis for a simple biaxial 2D braid

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Mechanics on the micro


micro- (and meso
meso-)) level

Simplified tools:
e.g WiseTex

WiseTex builds a textile


representation and uses
RVE models for stiffness

Braid

Micro- and
Meso-level
analysis

Full FE modelling:
e.g PAM-CRASH

Micromechanics combines
fibre/matrix properties
> yarn properties
ti

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Textile pre
eforms

2D

1D

Main fabric types: Braids, Weaves, Knits, Non Crimp Fabrics and
3D textiles
UD tapes

We aves

Biaxial
woven

8 harness
satin
woven

NCF

Biaxial

Tri-axial

Braids

Biaxial
b id
braid

Knitting

Weft
knit

Warp
knit

Tubular
braid

Orthogonal
interlock

3D braid

3D

Braids

Triaxial
braid

Throughthickness
angle
interlock

Weaves

Triaxial
woven

Lock
stitch

Stitching

Knitting

Multi-axial
warp knit

Stichbonded laid in
warp
Weft inserted warp
knit laid in warp

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Examples of braids

Biaxial braid

Triaxial braid

UD - braid
Only 3/4 of the
braiding yarns are
carbon yarns, the
rest are support
yarns

Without 0Fibres

With 0fibres

IFB

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

An example
p braided structure

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

IFB

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

Examples of weaves

Plain weave

Twill weave (2*2)


also 3*3.

modern machines work on


the same principles
The warp and weft yarns may be similar
(balanced), or dissimilar (e.g. UD weave)

5-Harness weave
also 8H,11H

5H weave

UD weave

IFB

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

Press forming (draping)


Stacking the dry fabrics

The fabric is held in pretensioners (= Blank


Blankholders) ready for press
forming (draping).
Fabrics may have a well
distributed thermoplastic
binder that softens under
heat and temporarily
glues the layers together.

The preform is trimmed and


extracted ready for the next
resin infusion step
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Courtesy BMW
http://www.e90post.com/forums /showthread.php?t=405334

IFB

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

Micromechanics of woven or braided material


Micro-mechanical models for UD
materials could be applied to UD and
NCF composites:
R
Rule
l off mixtures
i t
can be
b accurate
t for
f stiffness
tiff
Laws for failure are available (to be used with
care and supported by tests if possible)
UD material

Micro-mechanics for woven type textiles


have been proposed:
E.G. academic software like WiseTex can be
used to predict homogenized material
properties
i for
f FE-simulation
FE i l i
New research is applying FE solutions for
stiffness and failure at the RVE level

Woven or braided architecture

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

The WiseTex software family


WiseTex is a software p
package
g for composite
p
micromechanical modelling.
g The
composite is described at the Repetitive Volume Element (RVE) level (mechanical
properties, lay-up, geometry)

WiseTex: For description of the geometry

LamTex: For description of lay-ups


37 GPa

TexComp: For computation of mechanical properties

FETex: For creation of FE based models

37 GPa

IFB

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

WiseTex: Architecture definition

P tt
Pattern

3D Geometr
Geometry

Braided Cone

1.Yarn types
specified
2.Yarn assignments to
warp weft
warp,
and inlays
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Geometry
(RVE)

IFB

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

WiseTex: Yarn geometry


Warp and weft yarn types

Spacing of the yarns


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Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

Dimensions of the yarn


cross section (warp and
weft)

Dimensions of the yarn cross


section (warp and weft)

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

TexComp: Homogenisation of the unit cell

M h i l properties
Mechanical
ti

3D Geometry
G

Mechanical properties

Homogenisation of the unit cell


37 GPa

39 GPa

37 GPa

x
y
16 GPa

12

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

TexComp: Basic ideas in homogenisation of the RVE

1. Each yarn is idealised


as a spline type
f
function
i
2. These are descretised
into segments

Each segment () has an orthotropic stiffness matrix in local frame (x


(x ,yy,zz)) given by [C]

C L

13

E11 12 E22

E22

sym

13 E33

23 E22

E33

G12

0
G13

0
0

0
0

G23

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

TexComp: Basic ideas in homogenisation of the RVE


Each segment is transformed to the global frame (x
(x,y,z)
y z) and summated for RVE stiffness

Analytical (stiffness)

Yarn segment stiffness and


stiffness transformations

2
2
a11
a12
2
a222
a21
a231
a232

2a21a31 2a32a22
2a a
2a12a32
11 31
2a11a21 2a12a22

2
a13
2
23
2
33

a
a
2a23a33
2a13a33
2a13a23

([T
14

Assembly
n

[C ] V [C ]G

C T

a22a23
a23a21
a21a22

a32a33
a33a31
a31a32

(a22a33 a23a32 ) (a23a31 a21a33 ) (a21a32 a22a31 )


(a32a13 a33a12 ) (a11a33 a13a31 ) (a31a12 a32a11 )

(a12a23 a13a22 ) (a13a21 a11a23 ) (a11a22 a12a21 )


a12a13

])-1=([T

])T

a11a13

a11a12

cos cos
aij sin
cos sin

Weighting factor of
grain
grain (segment)
volume with respect
to total volume
(V=V
VGrain/VUnitCell)

sin cos
cos
sin sin

sin
0
cos

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Review: Stiffness and Compliace laws


1D Isotropic material (Hookes law)

2D plane stress: Stiffness law

1 Q11 Q12

2 Q21 Q22
0
0
12

1

2
Q66 12
0
0

Q or
where:

2D plane stress: Compliance law

15

E1
1 12 21

Q22

E2
1 12 21

Q12 Q21

{} : Column matrix of stress


[Q] : Stiffness matrix
{ } : Column
{}
C l
matrix
t i off strain
t i

1 S11

2 S 21
0
12

Q11

S12
S 22
0

1

2
S 66 12
0
0

21 E1
12 E2

1 12 21 1 12 21

Q66 G12

where:
[S] : Compliance matrix = [Q]-1
S11 = 1/E1
S22 = 1/E2
S12 = S21 = -12 /E1 = - 21 /E2
S66 = 1/G12

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Iso-stress
Iso
stress versus iso
iso-strain
strain
For the iso-strain assumption stiffness
contribution of each grain (total = n) are
summed for the unit cell stiffness
stiffness.

Identical computations are made for isostress except that grain compliance
contributions are summed
summed.

Corresponding unit cell compliance is


inversion of the stiffness matrix.

Stiffness is obtained from inversion of the


unit cell compliance matrix.
Isostress (Reuss)

Isostrain (Voigt)
Stiffness
Compliance

V
UC

[C]

V [C]
1

V
1
[S]UC
[C]UC

Compliance
Stiffness

R
UC

[S]

V [S]G
1

1
[C]RUC [S]UC

Note: We have done this already and used iso-strain for E1 and iso-stress for E2
Iso-strain (summing stiffnesses)

16

E1 E f V f Em Vm

Iso-stress (summing compliances)

Vf
V
1

m
E2 E2 f Em

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Comparing Stiffness and Compliance computed from Iso


Iso-stress
stress and
Iso-strain assumptions
Upper bound on stiffness

Lower bound on stiffness


Isostress (Reuss)

Isostrain (Voigt)
Stiffness

V
UC

[C]

Compliance

V [C]
1

V
1
[S]UC
[C]UC

Compliance
Stiffness

R
UC

[S]

V [S]G
1

1
[C]RUC [S]UC

These will not be equal due to the


simplifying assumptions made in the
models used especially the ones for
iso-stress

Upper bound

Lower
bound

17

Vf
V
1

m
E2 E2 f Em

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

The Voight
Voight-Reuss-Hill
Reuss Hill model

The iso-strain (Voigt) and iso-stress (Reuss) models represent upper and lower bound
solutions to true values. For design it would be wise to take to most conservative value or,
alternatively, the Voigt-Reuss-Hill VRH model advocates computing both iso-stress and isostrain compliance and taking the average as a basis for the engineering constants.

[S]VRH

18

1
V 1
[S]RUC [C]UC
2

IFB

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

TexGen and Finite Element homogenisation

WiseTex - Model

FE pre-processor
pre processor

FETex

FE + Homogenisation

Simulation

SYSPLY - Analysis
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Material properties from FE-Analysis

IFB

A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014


Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
Micromechanics for textile composites

Exercise in CIP-Pool
CIP Pool

Modeling of a woven fabric with WiseTex


and calculation of the material properties

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