Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 43

# IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## FE composites: Ply modelling for orthotropic elastic

and failure-damage behaviour
Outline of lecture:
Composites constitutive laws:
1. Linear orthotropic elasticity
2. Composites classical failure criteria (for limit load design)
3. Advanced Ply damage and failure laws (for impact and crash)

## Calibration of a PAM-CRASH Bi-Phase ply damage model

Some basic differences between Solid and Shell elements
Tutorials:
1. Shell problem having damage and failure (PAM-CRASH Explicit)
2. Solid problem having damage and failure (PAM-CRASH Explicit)
3. Comparison of classical ply failure and damage models (PAM-CRASH Explicit)
1

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## FE composites: Ply modelling for orthotropic elastic

and failure-damage behaviour
Outline of lecture:

## Calibration of a composites damage model (using PAM-CRASH)

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## FE composites: Ply modelling for orthotropic elastic

and failure-damage behaviour
Outline of lecture:

## Calibration of a composites damage model (using PAM-CRASH)

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Element stiffness matrix: Remember the derivation for an isotropic material

The element stiffness matrix is derived using the following integral (=stiffness according to
the principle for minimisation of potential energy) which requires the strain-displacement
matrix [B] and elasticity matrix [E].

f = B T EBdV u = [k ] u
V

Element stiffness
matrix [k]

## y23 0 y31 0 y12 0

y23 0 y31 0 y12 0

1
1
[k ] = t A 0 x32 0 x13 0 x21 [E] 0 x32 0 x13 0 x21
2A
2A
x32 y23 x13 y31 x21 y12
x32 y23 x13 y31 x21 y12

x
E

y =
1 2

## The elasticity law for the element depends on material

type; elastic, orthotropic (composite), elasto-plastic,
For a 2D plane element (e.g. plane stress) this is a 3*3
matrix relating the 3 stress components to strains.

## frame (important for anisotropic materials).

1
1

0 0

0 x

0 y
1
2 xy

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Element stiffness matrix: Comparison of isotropic and orthotropic elasticity

For a composite element the stiffness derivations are the same; except that the material
elasticity [E] changes from an isotropic to an orthotropic definition.
The elasticity matrix [E] is usually denoted [Q] for a ply in composites notation.
E
Q11 =
T

1 2 Isotropic Case
f = B EBdV u = k u
E
E
Q22 =
V

1 2
E
Stiffness [k]
E
E
Q12 = Q21 =
=
0 1
1 Q11 Q12
2
1

1 2

2 = Q21 Q22
0
0
12

[]

Q11 =

E1

## For an orthotropic material the

elasticity [E] is defined in the
principal (fibre) frame (1,2).

E1

(1 12 21 )

Q12 = Q21 =

Orthotropic Case

21 E1

12 E2

Q66 = G12

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Rather like the transformations we did for the 1D

Bar element stiffness (Local-to-Global frame) it is
necessary to transform the elasticity matrix from the
Fibre to the Global frame.
After this the element stiffness can be computed (in
the Global frame) and assembled for the Global
stiffness matrix [K].

c2 s2
2cs
2
2
[T ] = s c 2cs
cs cs c 2 s 2

(1 12 21 ) (1 12 21 )

E2
Q22 =
(1 12 21 )

) (

Q66 = G
E2

IFB

0 2
Q66 12

## It will have to be transformed

to the global frame (x,y) before
computing [k].

[Q ] = [T ]

Q11

[Q] [T ] = Q16
Q16

Global frame

c = Cos
s = Sin

Q12
Q22
Q26

Q16

Q26
Q66

## Local (Fibre) frame

As with any composites analysis it is necessary to define fibre directions. The can be done
in a number of ways:
1. For example from a fixed vector direction in the Global frame, or from a vector relative
to the Local element frame.

2. Or from a process simulation of the draping and mapping of results to the mechanical
analysis.

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## A composite laminate (usually) consists of many plies.

Each ply has its own fibre direction, mechanical/
failure properties and thickness.

A summation is done to compute [E] for all plies in the Global frame:

[ ]

## 1. [Q] is computed for each ply and converted to Q

2. These are then summated (in the common Global frame) to give
the so-called ABD matrix

[E] =

A B

B D

This is usually a 6*6 matrix having in plane stiffness [A], bending stiffness [D] and a
stretch-bending coupling matrix [B]; each 3*3.
It will have reduced size for 2D or other problems.
The [ABD] matrix is used in the previous slide for stiffness [k].
We shall derive the [ABD] matrix in the lecture on laminate analysis.

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Note the usual notation

is [C] for the full system

## The same operations as before would be required for a solid element:

1. Define a fibre direction relative to the Global frame and input fibre frame mechanical data
(E1, E2, G12)
2. Compute the 6*6 orthotropic elasticity matrix (above) and transform it from Fibre to Global
frame.
3. Compute the element stiffness in the Global frame, etc
8

f = B T EBdV u = [k ] u
V

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Composite element stresses and strains

{u} = [K ] {P}
1

{ x , y } = [B ]{ue }
{ue }

{ x , y } = [E ]{ x , y }
1

{ 1, 2 } = [T ]{ x , y }
{ 1, 2 } = [T ]{ x , y }

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## FE composites: Ply modelling for orthotropic elastic

and failure-damage behaviour
Outline of lecture:

## Calibration of a composites damage model (using PAM-CRASH)

10

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## 2.Compressive failure in the fiber direction.

3.Tensile, or compressive, failure in the
transverse directions.
4.Fiber debonding at the fiber-matrix
interface (often occurs under shear loads).
5.Matrix crazing (microscopic cracks) due to

## Fractographs of the Failure Zone

2
11

Fibre tensile
rupture

11
3

Fibre compression
kink band

1
22

Matrix Failure

## 1.Tensile failure in the fiber direction; this

may start at stress levels well below
ultimate failure.

Intra-laminar Failure

## Failure of composites can be due to:

Fibre Failure

22

Transverse tension /
compression
Matrix transverse tensile cracking
3

1
12
12
In-plane shear

## 6.Delamination: Separation between plies at

the resin rich interface.

23
23

7.Others.

## In addition there may be other causes for

structural failure; e.g.
This may also be due to other causes, such
as excessive deflections or buckling.

Inter-laminar
Failure

Out-of-plane shear

Delamination
(Mode-I)
Ply separation

11

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Methods to handle composites failure

Essentially two methods are most commonly used in FE codes:
1.

## Use a conventional composites failure criteria and either:

a. Eliminate (or partially damage) the Finite Element once the criteria is
reached. Better if this is done ply-by-ply.
This would change the structure stiffness matrix and a non-linear Implicit or
Explicit FE analysis is required. This will be necessary if the structure ultimate
b. Keep the element, with no change in elastic mechanical properties, and
output for visualisation purposes only when (at what load) the failure criteria
is reached. Useful for the design of initial failure load.

2.

## Use a damage and failure criteria:

This allows individual, or coupled, failure of the different possible failure modes.

Used for problems where the post-failure behaviour is needed; e.g. composites
impact and crash analysis. Problems are highly non-linear and most applications
12

## use an Explicit FE code.

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Failure criteria

include:

Useful for:

## Poor estimations between

known coupon test points
No material non-linearities

## For impact/crash we need other

criteria:
Identification of each failure mode
Independent damage/failure of each
failure mode:
o Fibre failure in tension
o Fibre buckling in compression
o Transverse or shear matrix

Max. stress
Max. strain
Tsai-Hill/Wu
Puck + many others..

## First (or maybe last) ply failure

1
22

22

Transverse tension /
compression
Matrix transverse tensile cracking

13

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Failure criteria

Failure criteria

14

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Typical conventional composites failure criteria: For design type

analysis
Usually empirical formulae are used to approximate the combination of the different
modes of failure that may occur. The most popular failure criteria for composites are:
1. Maximum stress criteria.
2. Maximum strain criteria.
3. Tsai-Hill failure criterion.

## 4. Tsai-Wu failure criterion.

5. BUT there are many others (Puck, Hoffman, ).
Failure criteria are empirical formulae used to describe failure of a single composite ply;
they have constants that must be adjusted to fit experimental (coupon) failure data.
It is hoped, sometimes dangerously, that the criteria is valid over a wide range of loadings
often well outside the regions used in testing to calibrate the criteria failure constants.
Under complex loading the law may be invalid as another failure modes could initiate first.
Prediction of failure is risky and should preferably be supported with appropriate testing.
15

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Maximum stress criterion (1/2)

Failure is assumed to occur if any one of the stresses in the material (fibre) system (1, 2,
6, 4, 5) exceed the material strength. That is, any one of the following conditions is true:

1 > F1t
if 1 > 0
abs ( 1 ) > F1c if 1 < 0
2 > F2 t
if 2 > 0
abs ( 2 ) > F2 c if 2 < 0
6 > F6
4 > F4
shears
5 > F5

6= F6

2
6

design
space

Zone of safe
combinations
of 2 and 6

abs(2)= F2c

2= F2t

The above shows graphically the stress condition (2 0, 6 0, all other stresses = 0).
The safe design space is within the limiting failure conditions F6 , F2c and F2t .
This failure envelop may easily be extended to include the additional stress dimensions.

16

Note: The quantities F1t, F1c, F2t, etc. are ultimate (failure) values. If these are used in
design a factor of safety must be included to protect against failure. Alternatively,
they may be allowable values to limit material damage.

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Maximum stress criterion (2/2)

The Puck criteria
models this part
well

Experimental
failure envelope
6

Note:
1.The maximum stress criterion may be over
to resist shear failure.
2.BUT more importantly it may over predict failure
combined action of loads on failure.

## 3.Generally the failure model is good if failure is

dominated by one stress component (which is
measured by a test!).

17

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## The Tsai-Hill Criterion

As previously mentioned a disadvantage of the Maximum stress and Maximum Strain
criteria is that they do not consider the interaction of stress/strain components on failure.
These criteria are not conservative when two or more principle stresses/strains are close
to their ultimate value.
The Tsai-Hill criteria tries to account for interaction of stress/strain components. The
proposed fitting law is:

## Inplane shear failure term

( ) + (
f 2
1
2
1

(F )

f
1

2f )
2

(F1 )

( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( )
f 2
2
2
2

(F )

f 2
6
2
6

(F )

## Failure strength values for the ply

Conditions of stress that causes
failure on the failure envelope

f 2
4
2
4

(F )

(F )

1 = 0

eg failure for F2
(note symmetry)

## Interaction term for fibre and

transverse (matrix) failure
18

f 2
5
2
5

Failure
region
(F 1)
2

( )

f 2
2
2
2

(F )

=1

No fail
region
(F< 1)

Tsai-Hill for 2- 6
1= 0 stress space

## Fibre failure term

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Comparing failure criteria and safe design

2

criteria e.g. Tsai-Wu

1
F2T

F1C
1

Safe design
stress space

F1T
Maximum stress

F2C
Maximum strain

In real design some people work on the safe side and test several selected failure criteria.
Then use the within the bounds of the selectedl criteria as the safe loading area.
Examples of potentially dangerous predictions!!!!
19

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Failure criteria available

in PAM-CRASH

Visualisation only
Failure activated

Available
failure
criteria

20

10

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Failure data for a ply (in

the fibre frame)

Lay-up

Mechanical data

http://tu-dresden.de/die_tu_dresden/fakultaeten/

Dresden
notation:
RIIt = F1t
RIIc = F1c
Rt = F2t
Rc = F2c
RII = F6

21

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## TU Dresden program: Plot of example failure envelopes

22

11

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

on laminate

23

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Failure
criteria

Scale factor
for failure

Failure
type

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

24

12

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## FE composites: Ply modelling for orthotropic elastic

and failure-damage behaviour
Outline of lecture:

25

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Some differences of the Bi-Phase and Global ply model

G0

The Global ply and Bi-phase are fundamentally different. The Global ply has a
damage+plasticity model and Bi-Phase uses damage only (but also other differences)
important if residual deformations and springback are required (Global ply is then better)
Global ply is strictly more correct; but some data/parameters are difficult to get (or
understand !)
26

26

13

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Typical input for failure data for PAM-CRASH composite models

Basic structure of PAM- composites cards (these are linked and reference each
other):
Parts cards
Reference fibre direction data (this can
be simple vectors, or an external file
from a separate draping simulation)

Materials cards
Mat 31 for solid
Mat 130/131/132 for shell
Specific output for Contour/THP plots
For shells laminate stacking sequence

Ply cards
Elastic data for orthotropic behaviour
Damage data for composite models
And/or ply failure data (for shells only)

Information on layups,
orientations (relative to the
directions in Part cards),
thicknesses, ply types

## Actual ply data (modulus and

damage); failure model to be
used and data

27

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Damage type methods suitable for impact and crash: Allows treatment
of individual composite damage modes
The FE code PAM-CRASH contains two damage models suitable for impact and crash
analysis of composites. They are typical state-of-the-art models in this field. The main
features are:
1.

The Bi-Phase model for UD and woven composites (shell and solid elements):
a. Considers fibre and matrix separately for mechanical stiffness and failure.
b. Used simple damage mechanics to degrade mechanical stiffness properties.
c. A useful model if only limited or composites manufacturers data is available.

2.

The Global Ply model (Ladeveze model) for UD and woven composites (shells only):
a. Considers the composite as a homogenised orthotropic material.
b. Uses damage and plasticity laws to degrade mechanical properties.
c. Probably more accurate, but does require some special (non standard) mechanical
testing for shear behaviour.

28

14

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Ply Model 1: The Bi-Phase ply damage model

The model separates matrix and fibre phases
(Bi-phase). For each phase separate matrix and
fibre damage functions can be defined.
Calibration against coupon tests is not straightforward.

FIBERS (f) +

=
UD-COMPOSITE (UD)
3

MATRIX (m)

2
=

UD= unidirectional
f = fiber
m = matrix

stress

## Simple damage functions are used to degrade

mechanical properties for fibres and matrix phases,

E() = (1 - d ()) Eo

Eo
E()
Residual
strength

## Damage function: this is based on the state

of fibre strain, or J1/J2 in the matrix.
Various (standard) techniques
are available for definition of the
fibre directions.
OR information may be
transferred from a pre- draping
analyses (V2010).

strain

Z
8

n2

l
l

l
l

l
l

l
l

y
4

4
l
l

n1

global
system

2
1
local system
for bricks

1
2
local system
for shells

29

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Ply Model 2: The Global Ply damage model

Three damage variables, d1, d2 and d12, characterise ply damage:
1. Axial (Fibre breakage):

E1 = E1o ( 1 - d1 )

## 2. Transverse (Matrix microcracking):

E2 = E2o ( 1 - d2 )

## G12= G12o (1 - d12 )

E1

2
1

G12

Gd = Go (1 - d12 )
Go

12

23
22

E2
21
13

12

11

Ed = Eo (1 - d)

12

Diffused matrix
microcracking
due to
transverse

22

12

damage growth

## Model needed for damage

and plasticity growth

11

Fibre/matrix
interface
debonding
due to
shear
1

## Fibre failure due

30

15

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Some features required by composite ply damage and failure models

Shear and transverse directions
Fibre Direction
250

200

e.g. residual
damage =0.9

150

E=131 GPa

100

50

E=118 GPa

experiment
simulation

0
0.000

0.050

0.100

0.150

0.200

0.250

31

Residual damage

## Shear is symmetric but non-linear with

coupled modulus damage and plasticity

damage)

## Similar methods are required for

31

IFB

31

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Typical fitting simulation to test (woven fabric - Global Ply model)

-0.009

-0.008

-0.007

-0.006

-0.005

-0.004

-0.003

-0.002

-0.001

1000

0
0

900
M46J Experimental
M46J Sim
T1000J Experimental
T1000J Sim

-50

Tension

Simulation T1000J
Experiment T1000J
Simulation M46J
Experiment M46J

800
700

-100

xx (MPa)

600

xx

-150

Compression

500
400

-200

300
-250

200
100

-300

0
0

-350

0.002

0.004

0.006

xx

0.008

0.01

0.012

0.014

0.016

xx
180

160

140

xx (MPa)

120

100

80
Simulation 7
Specimen 7
Simulation 11
Specimen 11

60

40

Shear

20

0
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

xx

32

16

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Example calibration strategy using PAM-CRASH model 131 ply

type 0 (Bi-Phase)
Example for a UD composite material covering elastic, damage and failure
Tests needed to calibrate the model are:
1. Tension/Compression in the fibre direction
2. Tension/Compression in the transverse fibre direction
3. Shear in the 45 direction

## The model is most easily

checked using the three
single element test cases
shown below

2
1

Case 3: Shear

33

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

4

2
1

## Case 2: Transverse matrix

Case 3: Shear

http://www2.ifb.uni-stuttgart.de/FEM/TutorialsAndMaterialCalibration.htm

Note:

All documentation and datasets are on the web at the above link

The documentation and datasets use material model 131 - Ply type 0 (=Bi-Phase); both
shell and solid elements are covered, and extension to woven materials are included.

34

17

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Calibration strategy
First assign and check the elastic data:
1. Fiber direction (x) - tension
2. Fiber direction (x) - compression
directions
4. Transverse direction (y)

## Second assign and check the failure data:

1. Fibre direction (x) - tension fiber failure
2. Optional fibre direction (x) - compression fiber failure
4. Fibre direction tension fiber and shear failure
5. Transverse direction (y)

35

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

36

18

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Ply Mechanical data: Elastic Case 1

no failure
Ply identification no.

## E = slope = that given

by the law of mixtures

Density.

Ply type.
Cross plot of aux4
(ordinate) versus
aux1 (absisca)
Example of tension x (in the fibre direction
(no failure case)

## Fibre data tension.

Matrix data compression

37

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Shear Case 3

## Example of shear xy (Case

3) with failure.
Crossplot of aux6 (stress12)
ordinate versus aux3
(strain12) absisca

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage
Intermediate
Initial

Gi = di*Go
G=stress/12 where 12= 212
IMPORTANT: Input and output
are tensor shear strain 12
NOT engineering shear strain 12
Final

## Matrix failure (shear)

Matrix failure (hydrostatic)
Fibre failure.

tension
Data for element under
hydrostatic compression

38

19

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Ply Failure data:

Transverse tension
Case 2

## Example of tension y in the

transverse direction (with
failure data).

## Crossplot of aux5 (stress2)

versus aux2 (strain2)

Intermediate
strain

Initial
strain

Ei = di*Eo
E = slope = E22 : Note
for the transverse
direction the input (not
the law of mixtures) is
used.

Final
strain

Note:

The model does not allow control of failure for transverse tension (Case 2 loading).

For example, the above curve is obtained for transverse tension using the previous
slide (Case 3) data: The failure observed is actually due to shear shear input data.

39

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Material cards
Number of plies in
the laminate

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## This line repeats NOPLY times:

Ply cards
Thickness of ply
Angle of fibres w.r.t the
reference axis (see PARTS
cards)

## Special auxilary outputs for the composite plies:

Number of ply in the stack
The reference number if the required auxilary variable
40

20

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Ply cards

Connected material

## Type of fibre axis definition

and the vector direction for
the fibres

ANGPL

Vector
41

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Take the single element test case (loaded
in the fibre direction) and make sure the
elastic and failure data is complete.
In Visual-Crash open the materials cards
and convert this to a laminate having 4
plies. Each ply is 0.25mm thick; use a
layup of 0/45/45/0.
Add a section force so that the boundary
reactions can be stored/monitored. Option
Crash > OutPut > Section Force;
select the type Support and add the
two reaction nodes to the nodal selection
list.
Store the dataset under a suitable name
and run it using PAM-CRASH.

0 plies break

## Start Visual-Viewer and load the .THP

file. For the reaction support (force
magnitude) you should get the adjacent
42 plot.

21

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Finite Elements: Composites damage and failure

with Shell and Solid elements
Outline of lecture:

## Brief discussion on differences between shell and solid elements for

stress and failure analysis

Tutorial examples:
o

## Shell element - Example composites damage and failure

analysis of a plate with a hole

## Solid element - Example composites damage analysis of a

plate with a hole

43

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Comparing solids and shell elements for FE failure analysis

Essentially:
Shell elements:

Through thickness strains are assumed to be a function of the in plane strains only

There is no stress in the thickness direction (plane stress is assumed for thin shells)

Therefore proper tri-axial stress prediction is not possible (even with a fine mesh)

The element is best for analysis of thin walled problems that are essentially determined

Solid elements:

## A fine 3D solid mesh will predict accurate tri-axial stress distributions

This element type should therefore be used in problems having complex 3D stress
distributions

Or for problems where in planar loadings cause complex 3D stresses; e.g. around
notches.
These differences should be borne in mind during this exercise; the
following few slides illustrate some of these points.

44

22

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Solid elements: Typical applications

3D solid elements are needed for problems requiring (accurate) 3D stress distributions
The number of elements (and CPU costs) increase rapidly with the number of elements
Usually shells are used for thin sheets, but solids may be needed if necking and failure
has to be modeled (in these cases high tri-axial stresses occur)

Instability point

## Void growth (in the

constrained center

Void nucleation

## Central fracture and

edge shear band failure
(in ductile metals)

45

Damage and
failure

## Only a solid 3D model can properly analyse

3D stresses through the thickness and
around the notch. Prediction of these
stresses in a specialised failure law like
Gurson can properly simulate metal failure.
Assumes plasticity strain softening due to void growth

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Example using 3D solid elements: Analysis of a tufted composite laminate

bonded to Aluminium

46

23

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Shell elements

True
stress

Engineering
stress

Instability
point

x
y
Conventional shell and similar 2D elements:
Assume zero stress in the thickness direction
Strain is approximated using a constant volume assumption

z = -(x + y)

A shell element cannot predict proper stress tri-axiality and therefore cannot predict
failure (very) accurately:
1. For metals the Forming Limit Diagram can be reasonably used with shell elements
to estimate failure (at least to the instability point).
2. For composites a damage law or classical failure criteria (e.g. Max stress, TsaiWu) can similarly be used.
47

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A new development in this field: Adaptive shell-solid remeshing to take

advantages of shells (CPU fast) and solids (expensive but accurate)

Test

48

Shells only

24

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Exercise 1
Converting the metal hole-in-a-plate
example to a composites problem
having damage and failure:
1. For shell elements (damage and failure)
2. For solid elements (damage and failure)
3. For shell elements (classical failure criteria only)
Note:
These damage and failure analyses are all to be done with the Explicit FE method.
Handling progressive damage with an Implicit code requires a non-linear solution since [K]
changes continuously with damage. It could be done, but would be difficult and CPU expensive.
49

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Getting started: Converting the metal 'Hole in a Plate' problem to

composites
1. Use the full model of the elastic (Aluminium) plate with the hole problem
HoleInPlate_FullModel_Elastic.pc
http://www.ifb.unistuttgart.de/FEM/TutorialsAndMaterialCalibration.htm

## 2. Make a copy and re-name it, e.g.

e.g. HoleInPlate_FullModel_ExplicitComposite131.pc
3. The only things to be changed (see next slides) are:

## 131 is the material

model UD ply

Replace the existing Aluminium part and material cards with a composite
elastic-damage model.

Some controls and loading to make it run faster (mainly for teaching purposes)

50

25

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Part, Material and Ply data: Additional ply cards are needed
Metals

Composites
Parts
Geometric data: e.g. thickness

Parts
Geometric data: e.g. thickness

## ALSO the reference fibre direction

Materials
Mechanical data: This is mainly given in
the ply cards see below

Materials
Mechanical data: e.g.modulus,
yield, strain rate.

## The laminate stacking sequence

Ply data
Mechanical data: e.g.modulus, damage and
failure data in Tension and Compression
New see next slides

51

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Some basics: The compliance law and input for mechanical data:

## The Bi-phase composites models is used in PAM-CRASH for this study:

1. For elastic analysis:

The above data must be given for shells (selected) or solids (all)

## Modulus reduction (damage) is strain controlled and requires

52

26

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Some basics: The damage law and input parameters

(i) fracturing damage function :

e- ei
d1
e1 - e i
e- e1
du- d1 + d1
eu- e1
1- (1- du) eu/e

d(e)
1
du
d1
ei

e1

eu

## (ii) modulus damage :

E(e)

e = equivalent strai n
ei = initial threshold strai n
e1 = intermediate
d1 = intermediate damage

range
ei < e < e 1
e 1 < e < eu
eu < e <

## E 0 = initial elastic modulus

s u = resi dual constant stress level
eu = ulti mate strain
du = ulti mate damage

modulus damage

Eo

E(e) = 1- d(e) E 0

E1
Eu
ei

e1

eu

range

## stress-strain relations (e)

s (e)
s
1
s

E(e)

E 0 e 1-

ei

e1

eu

ei < e < e1

d -d
E 0 e 1- d1 u 1 (e- ei )
eu- e1
s u = E 0 eu 1- du = const

const

su

d1
(e- ei )
e1- ei

e1 < e < eu
eu < e <

## (iv) equivalent scalar strain measures (e = strain tensor ; s = unit tensor) :

volume damage

e = ev = I1 = tr (e)

53

shear damage

e = es =

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

(tr = trace)

J2 = 1/2 tr (e - 1/3 ev d) 2

1/2

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Compression

Tension

## 1. Add a new composites ply

and define the data

54

## e.g. Matrix part

mechanical data
e.g. Fibre mechanical data
(NB uses law of mixtures to
combine Fibre and matrix)
Eo

(1-di)Eo

(1-du)Eo

i 1 u

27

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Failure data used for study

See data sets in directory: Example_CalibrationElementM131_BiPhase/Failure

## Shear failure data (hyd.tension)

Fibre failure data (tension)

## Shear failure data (hyd. compression)

Fibre failure data (compression)

Run: TensionY_TransvFailure
Crossplot: Aux2 v. Aux5

Run: ShearXY_MatrixShearFailure
Crossplot: Aux3 v. Aux6

Run: TensionX_FibreFailure
Crossplot: Aux1 v. Aux4

55

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Getting started: Converting the metal 'Hole in a Plate' problem to

composites
1. Use the full model of the elastic (Aluminium) plate with the hole problem
HoleInPlate_FullModel_Elastic.pc
http://www.ifb.unistuttgart.de/FEM/TutorialsAndMaterialCalibration.htm

## 2. Make a copy and re-name it, e.g.

e.g. HoleInPlate_FullModel_ExplicitComposite131.pc
3. The only things to be changed (see next slides) are:

## 131 is the material

model UD ply

Replace the existing Aluminium part and material cards with a composite
elastic-damage model.

Some controls and loading to make it run faster (mainly for teaching purposes)

56

28

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## e.g. set to 4 for a four ply laminate

This opens set the ply number,
thickness and fibre angles for the 4 plies

Plies are
referred
to here
57

IFB

These are outputs selected I have output auxs 1-6 = strain 11,22,12
and stress 11,22,12 respectively in the fibre frame for the first ply only

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## 3. Parts: Make sure this is linked to the new material

3
4

YL
1
YG
XG
Global frame
Options here are:
=0 for a reference vector in the global frame

Local frame
this is w.r.t
the element
nodes (e.g.
xL lies along
nodes 1-2)

58

29

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Getting started: Converting the metal 'Hole in a Plate' problem to

composites
1. Use the full model of the elastic (Aluminium) plate with the hole problem
HoleInPlate_FullModel_Elastic.pc
http://www.ifb.unistuttgart.de/FEM/TutorialsAndMaterialCalibration.htm

## 2. Make a copy and re-name it, e.g.

e.g. HoleInPlate_FullModel_ExplicitComposite131.pc

model UD ply

## 3. The only things to be changed (see next slides) are:

Replace the existing Aluminium part and material cards with a composite
elastic-damage model.

Some controls and loading to make it run faster (mainly for teaching purposes)

59

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

4. Some other changes to make the analysis suitable for explicit loading
a. Place all the lower nodes in an OUTPUT > SECTION FORCE type support this will give
a time-history of the reaction force at the base in the results file, so we can see the
value of maximum load at failure.

## b. Make sure the analysis type is EXPLICIT and the

Solver is CRASH
c. Set a suitable termination time (RUNEND) to 1 msec

60

## d. In option OCTRL select

suitable time history (x-y)
and deformed plot output
intervals

30

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## 5. Final step before running

Finally, give the top
nodes a velocity
type VELBC. Give
the velocity in the ydirection increasing
from 01msec at
10mm/msec and
then held constant.
limits dynamic
inertial effects.

## Note that for 1msec

of simulation this
gives an end
displacement of
5mm.
61

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

6a. Example results: Damage and other contour plotting (from the .DSY)
file)
Example plot of total damage at the final
state (T=0.6msec). This is approximately
the final damage at full section failure.

## Example plot of AUX 1 (fibre

stress 11) at time = 0.6msec.
This is just after the point of
breaking (see next slide).
62

31

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

IFB

6b. Example results: Reaction force time history (from the .THP file)
Below is a plot of reaction force (SECTION direction y) from the .THP file. The coupon
breaks at about 100kN and dynamically oscillates about 10-20kN (this is a typical dynamic
mass effect). Slower imposed loading over a longer duration would reduce this post failure
oscillation.

63

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Studies with the shell model: Varying the layup

It is a simple exercise to try different laminate lay-ups: We shall try to compare failure for
laminates having layups:
1.
2.
3.
4.

[0,0,0,0]
DONE
[45,45,45,45]
[90,90,90,90]
[45,-45,-45,45]

## Copy the previous dataset to: Name_45deg.pc, Name_90deg.pc, Name_45S.pc

For each (either with an editor in the .pc file, or with Visual-PAM):
1.
2.
3.

## Edit the layup to have the required sequence (variation 2, 3 or 4 above)

Change RUNEND (e.g. increase to 1.5 msec) to make sure of failure
Modify the title (TITLE /- card in the controls) to reflect the model; e.g name_45deg.

Then run each model and compare results with the previous study [0,0,0,0]

## Note there is a simple way to overlay results as shown:

1. Generate the first required plot in the format you would like
2. Click on the curve (left mouse key) and it will show black
3. Click the right mouse key and select Tools > Chase curve(s)
4. Finally, find the .THP file of the next plot you want; select it,
and the curve will be automatically plotted.
64

32

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Results: Reaction force time histories

0
Definition used for
the 0 direction

Do not worry about the oscillations in the post- failure phase. Its is due to mass (inertia)
effects caused by the rapid loading used here to reduce CPU time.
65

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Results: Damage contour plots

Results from similar models may be compared in one window (as shown below):
1. Open the first model (.DSY
file)
2. In Window > Page
Layout select the layout
option for 4 plots.
3. Then click on each new
empty window (it will show
green and open a new
results (.DSY) file
4. The 4 windows can be
synchronised using
Results > Syncronise;
Each will then have the
same time state
5. Activate in contours the
shell Total Damage option
for each window.

66

33

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Mesh dependancy

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Damage type problems can be very mesh

dependent.
A fine mesh computes greater stresses around
the notch and damages quicker at a lower load.
One work-around is to calibrate using a certain
mesh size and use this in structural problems.

See directory:
Example_HoleInPlate_MeshDependency
67

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Consistent results: Dont always expect explicit codes to give exactly the same results!
Small differences can occur depending on precission (single/double),
version, machine, operating system
2008

2007

2006

2008
2007
2006
68

34

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

2008

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

2007

2006

2008
2007
2006

69

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Converting the shell model to an equivalent solid model

The shell mesh can be used to develop a 4 layered solid model (1 layer of solids is needed
per ply); that is, four layers of solids will be needed to have the same representation as the
previous multi-layered shell model.

This requires more CPU due to four times more elements; also, there is a much smaller
simulation timestep associated with the small solid element size in the thickness direction.
Briefly the steps to follow are:
1. Make a copy of the previous composites shell model:
e.g. HoleInPlate_FullModel_SolidComposite30.pc

30 is the solid
material model
for a UD ply

## 2. Start Visual Mesh and load in the dataset

3. The following 2 slides show generation and modification of the shell mesh to get
the equivalent solid model mesh.

70

35

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Build the solid mesh from the shell mesh

1. Use the option 3D > layer mesh. Specify a distance of 2.0mm (representing the
laminate thickness), select all the shell elements (faces) and then update faces and
press mesh to open the second panel.
2. Use 4 for the number of layers. Then press Mesh and Apply.

## Save the dataset.

Perform the next steps
using Visual Crash for
PAM for all the entities
conditions...), materials,
etc.

71

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Delete unwanted parts

(e.g. the old shells) and convert each layer of solids to
have its own PID number. This is needed here so that
each part (PID) can have a different fibre direction
Open the Parts in the explorer panel; press the part to
be deleted (e.g. old shells) and open the new panel with
the right mouse key. Press delete to remove it.

## 1. Select the second layers of solids (drag a box over

the elements with the left mouse key) then with
the right mouse key open the panel to change
PID, e.g:

72

36

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Material cards:
Assigning the
material model, ply
mechanical data
and output
(auxiliary)
information
In the material
editor set material
type to 30 (= solid
UD composite) and
the other data as
shown in rings.
Save this (Apply
and close).
The selected output for contour and time history plotting are chosen via auxiliary reference
numbers (e.g. the forth auxiliary is set to 9 for output of total damage dt)

73

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Parts cards: These link to the material/ply cards and also set the fibre directions

In this case each part represents one layer. Link the material model
(IMAT) and set the fibre directions, e.g.:
+45 ply x_local = 1,1,0 and y_local = 1,-1,0
-45 ply x_local=1,-1,0 and y_local = 1, 1,0
Note: Solid elements need 2 vectors to be defined; representing the main fiber and the
transverse directions. The third direction is computed as the cross product
74

37

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Other things to be defined:

1. Redefine all the base nodes to have a suitable boundary condition (either fully fixed,
or free with fixed only in the loading direction). Similarly, the top nodes could be
constrained from out-of-plane movements.
2. Load the nodes at the top using imposed velocities in the y-direction (VEL3D). The
3. Put all the base nodes in a section force time history so we can get the reaction force
time history.
4. The control data should be the same as for the shell model (actually it should already
exist from the previous shell model that has been adapted).
5. Save the dataset and run it.
6. Results (shown on the next slides) are visualised with Visual-Viewer.

75

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

76

38

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

77

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Further Exercise:
Using a classical composites failure criteria
(e.g. Maximum Stress)
1. Use the previous shell model and copy the input dataset to a new
file having an appropriate name.
2. Open this new file using Visual Crash for PAM.
3. Make the following changes; run the model and examine the
results.

78

39

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

## Typical composites failure criteria

criteria e.g. Tsai-Wu

2
F2T
F1C
F1T 1

Safe design
stress space

Maximum stress
F2C
Maximum strain

## Select a criteria (most codes have several)

The safe area is stress/strain states inside the envelope, failure is stress/strain states
on or outside the chosen criteria (envelope).
The complete material is assumed to fail once the failure criteria is reached.
79

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Ply card modifications:

This parameter opens
options to activate
classical composites
failure criteria

## Set all damages to

zero (making them
inactive)

## New data for maximum

stress criteria. This data is
similar to the previous
Biphase damage model

80

## Flag for element elimination

(=1) or visualisation only (=0)

= 5 Max stress

40

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Material card
modifications:

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## The IFAIL parameter allows

choice of the criteria for
element elimination:
first ply,
ratio of plies,
all plies
Mostly new auxiliary
variables are set for the
chosen failure criteria
(see table below
extracted from the PAMmanual)

81

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Maximum stress criteria

Biphase criteria

82

41

IFB

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

at 0.6msec

Biphase: Damage
at 0.6msec

## Beware: These comparisons look good,

but a damage based criteria is better!

## Separate damage modes are properly

treated, rather than simple element
elimination once a criteria is reached.

83

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

Some questions:

1. Can the shell model capture and model the effect of delamination ?
2. Can the solid model capture and model the effect of delamination ?

84

42

IFB

## A.K. Pickett, 2013-2014

Institut fr Flugzeugbau, University of Stuttgart

Composites modelling:
FE composites and failure/damage

## Methods for delamination

Solid: Thin resin only layers of solids could be added between the fibre plies
(computationally expensive)
CPU expensive (small timestep and
high number of elements), but
potentially good accuracy.

Stacked Shell: A rather new approach of modelling shells for each ply and
delamination interfaces to tie the plies. These are sometimes
called cohesive zone elements, or interface elements
Stacked shells (for ply failure) with special
tied interfaces (for delamination failure).
In this case solid elements are used to
model the core in this sandwich composites.
CPU costs are reasonable even for large
structures.
85

43