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Classical Mechanics

Michael Cohen

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:


) (





+ :
+ :
hindawi@hindawi.org :
http://www.hindawi.org :
: .



.
Arabic Language Translation Copyright 2014 Hindawi
Foundation for Education and Culture.
Classical Mechanics
All rights reserved.

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9
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(
) (
.

: . )
(

.
)


.

.
12

)
(.

.


)(.

13


.
.
) (1

) (
):


( .
x
.
x

x
x .
. x

) : ( . x .
x t ).x(t

t t:
)(1-1

)x (t ) x (t
,
t t

= vavg

. x

) (1-1 ] [x(t ) x(t)]/[t t


t


.t

t
t

:1-1 .

)
( . t t t
] [x(t ) x(t)]/[t t )
x t
( x t
)) .(t, x(t
:t t
.t :
)(1-2

)x (t ) x (t
.
t
t t

v (t) = lim

16


x t .dx/dt
.v(t) = dx/dt

)x (ft

100

)t (sec

:2-1 .

) x(t ) v(t
) (1-2
)
d/dt(t n ) = nt n1 :
) (1-2 ) x(t ( .
) v(t ) x(t

.
) x(t .2-1 ) v(t
x t . ) t = 0
/
17


t=1

( .t = 1
t = 2 ) . v
v (. 3-1
).v(t

200
)v (ft/sec

)t (sec

:3-1 .

) v(t
) .x(t ) x(t )v(t

v(t) = 9t 3 = )x(t
.
(9/4)t 4 + c c ) dx/dt
) v(t( . c ) x(t

18

.
x .t = 0
x(t) = (9/4)t 4 + c .x(0) = c

) v(t .4-1
) v(t .
v

t t +

:4-1

t+

.t

) v(t ) (x
t ) .t +
) v(t t t +
v (. t1 t2

.5-1
) x(t2 ) x(t1 .
19


v t t1 t2
) x(t2 ) x(t1 .

t2

t1

:5-1

t2

.t1

v
v . :
t2

)(1-3

v (t) dt.
t1

= ) x (t2 ) x (t1

) (1-3 ) v(t t t1 t2
5-1
.
20

)v (ft/sec

50

20

18

16

12

)t (sec

:6-1 .

) -1 ( . 6-1
. .t = 6, 12, 16, 18 sec
t = 4 sec t = 15 sec t = 0
.t = 18 sec
x(6) = 40 + 40 = 80 = x(12) = 40 + 80 + 140

.
260 x(16) = 260 + 4(50 + 16.67)/2 = 393.3 = x(18) = 260 + 150
x(15) x(4) = 332.5 .410 t = 4 t = 15
30.23 ft/sec t = 0 t = 18 .22.78 ft/sec
] :

[.
.-1


.
.
21

)(

50 = 60/T .T = 1.2
. T
.30/40 = .75 :

:
.1.2 .75 = .45
:
.30/.45 = 66.67 mph

) (2 )(
. t
t :
)(1-4

)v (t ) v (t
,
t t

= aavg

) v(t ) v(t t .t
:
)(1-5

)v (t ) v (t
.
t
t t

a (t) = lim

= )a(t

v(t) = dx/dt ) (
.d2 x/dt 2 ].a(t) = d/dt[dx/dt
) a(t) v(t
) (1-5) (1-2
) v(t) .x(t ) v(t
) .a(t ) a(t


t1 t2
) .v(t2 ) v(t1 ) (1-3:
t2

)(1-6

a (t) dt.
t1

= ) v (t2 ) v (t1

22

:
a

:7-1 .

) -1 ( .
) v(t .6-1

)a(t

) (3

.

.
.
) .(7-1
t .a t .v(t) v(0) = at
) v(t v0
v
).v(0
:
)(1-7

v = v0 + at.

23

v ) t (8-1 .a
) x(t )(1-3

8-1 t = 0 .t ) (9-1
8-1 t = 0 t t
) .1/2(v0 + v0 + at ) .x(t) x0 = 1/2(2v0 t + at 2 :
)(1-8

1
(v + v0 ) t.
2

x = x0 +

) : ) ((1-3:
)(1-9

(
)
1
v0 + at dt = v0 t + at 2
2

t
0

= )x (t) x (0
t

)
t(.
) (1-8 ) ) ((1-1

.
.
x
.t
) (1-7 t t = (v v0 )/a : ) (1-8
:
)(1-10

v 2 v02 = 2a (x x0 ) .


.
)(1-11a

)(1-11b

v = v0 + at,
1
(v + v0 ) t,
2

24

= x x0

:
v

:8-1 .

)(1-11c

)(1-11d

1 2
at ,
2

x = x0 + v0 t +

v 2 = v02 + 2a (x x0 ) .

.


.
) -1 ( . ) (
] .500 ft [60 mph = 88 ft/sec :

60 mph

) ( .
) (
) (
30 mph
25

:9-1 v .t

) ( 90 mph



. .500 ft = D 88 ft/s = v0
).0 = v02 + 2aD a = 7.74 ft/s2 (
) = T ( ) D = 1/2v0 T T = 11.36 s

).((1-11a
) = D ( ) ( :
)
,
)(1-12

v2
where a = 0
2D

)2
+ 2aD

v02

1
v0
2

3
D
=
= D = 375 ft.
thus
D
4
)D /D = (90/60)2 D =(1-11d

) = D ( ) .(
.1125 ft ) (1-11a .(3/2)11.36 = 17.04 sec
26

) -1 ( .
. ) ( 60 ft/s
) ( .150 ft/s

) ( )(
) (
) ( 500 ft
) (
. = T v2 = 150 v1 = 60 : = D .
)(
.105 ft/s
)(

.a = (v2 v1 )/T T /2 = v = v1 +aT /2 = (v1 +v2 )/2


= v3 v32 = v12 +2aD/2 = .a = (v22 v12 )/2D D/2

.v3 = 114.24 ft/s (v12 + v22 )/2


) = D ( ) v12 = 2aD D = .(
.v12 D/(v22 v12 ) = 95.2 ft

) (4
)
(

t ) .z(t) y(t) x(t

) x (y .

.
.
t )) (x(t), y(t), z(t t )) (x(t ), y(t ), z(t
x t t vx,av = [x(t )x(t)]/[t
27

] .t vy,av vz,av . x y
:
)(1-13

dx
)x (t ) x (t
=
,

t
tt
dt

vx (t) lim

. ] ax,avg = [vx (t ) vx (t)]/[t t


ay,avg .az,avg x :
)(1-14

)vx (t ) vx (t
d2 x
=
t
t t
dt 2

ax (t) lim

) ay (t).az (t
.
.
:


.
)( .

.
r ) (x, y, z
. r x y x
.
)(
) .
(.
:
)(1-15

)r (t ) r (t
d
r
=
,
t
t t
dt

)(1-16

(t ) v
) (t

v
dv
d2 r
=
=
.
t
t t
dt
dt 2

(t) = lim
v

(t) = lim
a

28

]
)( [.
) ( .
) (

) a(t .

. : .
) (1-4 :
) ) v(t

v = v(t

) .(1-16 t = t + t 10-1
t .t + t

. ) r(t + t) r(t r
v(t
) + t
) v(t v .
v
r
v r
. t vt
) r(t + t) r(t .(vt)/r

)v(t
v/t .t 0

) v(t + t v
) v(t ) + t

) v(t .(11-1 11-1



t 0 .
v v r
)

(.
:
)(1-17



v


a

= lim
.
t 0 t

29


t
)
t+
(v

)t

(v

t
t+
(r

)t

(r

:10-1 .

11-1 12-1
| . ) r(t) r(t + t
r |/r
2
| .vt = v t/r
|.|v
| r
v 2 /r
:

|v|/v
=

)(1-18

) ()
r
v2
=
rb,
r
r

v2
r

=
a

rb .
.
.a v

.dv/dt
) (2-4 :
ib) jb (13-1
b
] r = r [cos ib + sin j r
30

)t

(v

)
t
+

(v
t

:11-1 .

t
v
)
t
(r
t+

)t

(r

:12-1 .

.
dr /dt = 0) d/dt = constant( .:
)(1-19

[
]
d
r
d b
d b
=
v
= r sin
i + cos
j .
dt
dt
dt

] d/dt(cos ) = [d/d(cos )][d/dt.


v .
.
2
2
2
2
.v = (r d/dt) (sin + cos ) = (r d/dt)2 :
)(1-20

(
)
]

v2
dv
[ d 2
=
cos ib sin jb =
a
=r
rb
dt
dt
r

.
31

:13-1 .

) (5


.
g 32 ft/sec2 9.8 meters/sec2
.

.


. .

( .


) (
.

.
. y
) ( . x
. x 0
v t = 0
32

:
y

v0

:14-1 .

.x -y
)) ((1-11d)(1-11a:

= g

)(1-21a

vy = v0,y gt,

)(1-21b

(
)
2
vy2 = v0,y
2g y y0 ,

)(1-21c

)
(1
vy + v0,y t,
2

)(1-21d

1 2
gt ,
2

y = y0 +

y = y0 + v0,y t

)(1-21e

vx = constant = v0,x ,

)(1-21f

x = x0 + v0,x t,

)(1-21g

.ax = az = 0 ay

z = constant = z0 .

vz = constant = 0,

33

z0 = 0
.x -y
x0 = y0 = 0 .
) y (x
) (1-21f t ) .(1-21d :
)(1-22

v0,y
1 (x x0 )2
.
(x x0 ) g
2
v0,x
2
v0,x

= y y0

.
v0
) x v0x = v0 cos (v0y = v0 sin
:
)(1-23

1
gx 2
(
).
2 v 2 cos 2

y = x tan

R
. y = 0
) (1-23 :
]
)(1-24

1
gx
0 = x tan
2
2 v0 cos 2

x = 0 ).x = (2v02 /g) sin cos = (v02 /g) sin (2



:
)(1-25

v02
sin (2) .
g

=R

v0
) sin (2 . = 45
34

:
y

i
v0

:15-1 .


) (1-21b .vy = 0 .ymax y0 = (v02 /g)sin 2

dy/dx = 0 x = R/2
. y .x = R/2
) -1 ( .
)( 20 ft/sec
.200 ft
40 ft/sec


.
) (1-21g)(1-21a .

35

)(1-26

)
1
= h = 200 (See (1-21d)) - h = v0,y t gt 2
2

2
v0,y v0,y
+ 2gh
=t
.
g

) (4.215 sec .
t = 0
.20 ft/sec ) (1-21a
) vy = 20 32(4.215) = 114.88 114.88 ft/sec( .

) (t ).(1-21b
.x = 40(4.215) = 168.6 ft
) -1 ( .
.4 ft 20
.
) (
20 ft 350 ft
.
) (

. ) (1-23
. tan 20 = 0.3640 .cos 2 20 = 0.8830 :
)2
=
)(1-27

350
v0

(
16 = 127.4 18.120

v0 = 141.2 ft/sec.

36

:
y = 4

v0 ) (1-23
x .411.0 ft
) ( .
2
x y = 0 ) x = (v0 /g) sin 40 = 400.3 ft
( .
.4/ tan 20 = 10.99 ft x = 411.3 ft
3.5.

) (6
) (1-6
.-1 16-1
. :

)( t = 0 .t = 40 sec
)( t = 40 .t = 60 sec
)( t = 0 .t = 60 sec
.

.-1
.101 km/h
.88 km/h
)( .50 m

)( 20 sec
.
.

37


35
30
25

15

)(m\sec

20

10
5
60

50

40

20

30

10

)(sec

:16-1 .-1

.-1 .3 m
0.400 sec .:
)( .
)( .
.-1 .A

v0 .
.
.-1 .200 m

) (2 m/s
. .200 m
.
7 m/s .
6 m/s )
( . .
38

)(
)(
.
.
) (2-6
.-1 :
)(1-28

([
)
]
2t 2 7t ib t 2 jb m.

= r

:
)( .t = 2 sec
)( .t = 5 sec
)( t = 1 sec.t = 3 sec
10.0

.-1
. 6.00 m .
15.0 .
( .
) 30.0 m/s
.

6.00 m
1 = 10.0

2 = 15.0

:17-1 .-1

39

:18-1 .-1

.-1 .1 km

g/5
.-1 )
( .300 km/h
0.05 g
] [
.-1
) 1.21 m/s .(19-1 1.20 m
20.0 .

:19-1 .-1
40

.
] . .

[.

.


. ) (
.
) (1 :

:

1 .
)(
.

.

.

:
)(
)( )



(.
)( )( .


.


.


.
. )


.

.



. )
(
) ( .

.
.
.

42

) .
.


(.

.

) (
.
.

) .


. (.

.

.



.

.
.

.



) ( .
43



.
) (
.

.





) .



: .
(.
) (2
:
:


.
.
XY Z
X Y Z XY Z X Y Z

.

XY Z
.X Y Z

.
44

.
.

.
.

.

.

.

.

.


.
)
(
./
)
(
. .
) (




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45


)
( .


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.
) (3

.

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) .



(.

.
.
.
46




/ .
)
) .
!((

.

.
.

) (N1
N1

) .(N2
N2

1 + N
2
N
| |N1 + N2 N1 + N2
.

) )(] . [(.

)

(
.
.
.

.





.
47

)(

)(

:1-2 ) )( (.
N1 N1
N2 .N2
) )((
N1 + N2 N1 + N2
)(.

)

.

.
(. .

.

.
.

) (

.
48

) (4
) -2 ( .
.
.

.
:
.
. .
)
(
.
) (

.
) (

.

.W W
.
.

:
.
) , (

.

] .
,
.
) (
:
49

:2-2 W .
N .
.

[.
.N
. .

. ) (1-2
.
.
) -2 ( .
.
.
.


.
) (3-2 ) .(4-2

.

50

:
N

y
x

.
:3-2

F
F

y
W

:4-2 )-2( . .

.
.

)(
.

W .
N F
.
51

.
F . F .N
:
)(2-1

+W
= 0.
F + N

x
y
.
x y x
y . x y )(2-1
:
)(2-2a

F W sin = 0,

)(2-2b

N W cos = 0.

F = W sin .N = W cos x
y x y ) (2-1
F cos N sin = 0 F sin + N cos W = 0
F = W sin .N = W cos
)( ) F (
) .(2-4 x
y F + N + W = 0
F N sin = 0N cos W = 0 N = W / cos .F = W tan
N

F .90

52

:
T1

T2

:5-2 .-2

) -2 ( .
)
.(5-2 W .
T1 T2
. T1 T2
.T x y
T1 + T2 + W = 0:
T cos T cos = 0,
)(2-3
2T sin W = 0.


.
).T = W /(2 sin
T ) T
.( 0

.

.
53


T1

1
2

T2

:6-2 .-2

) -2 ( .
) 1 2 .(6-2
) .
(.1 = 2 T1 T2
:
T1 cos 1 T2 cos 2 = 0,
)(2-4
T1 sin 1 + T2 sin 2 W = 0.

)(2-5

W
,
sin 1 + cos 1 tan 2

= T1

W
= T2
.
sin 2 + cos 2 tan 1

1 = 2 .
) (5

.
54

.
:

.
.
:

.

) (

:
A B B .A
.

. ) -2 ( .
) W : ( ) N
( . W
. W
W
N .
.

N
)( .N
W N .
) A
B B .(A W N
)( .
55


:
. W N
.

:
.


.
.
:


.
.
) ( W N
.N = W

.W + N 0

. :


.
) .
.
(.
) (
.
) (
56

:
N1
N2
P

W2

)(

)(

W1

)(

:7-2 .-2
. )( .

)( . .

.

.
) -2 ( .

.-2

) ( ) (
.
P
) (7-2 W 2
N2 F
. F
. ) W 1 (N1
.
.F
P . P
.
.F
57

:
)(2-6a

2 + W
2 = 0
F + N

:
)(2-6b

1 + W
1 = 0.
P F + N

) (2-6a) (2-6b
:
F W2 sin = 0,
N2 W2 cos = 0,
P F W1 sin = 0,
N1 W1 cos = 0.

.N2 N1 F P :
)(2-6c

F = W2 sin ,

)(2-6d

P = (W1 + W2 ) sin ,

)(2-6e

N1 = W1 cos ,

)(2-6f

N2 = W2 cos .

)
.(F
.
58

F N2
) (2-2b
.-2 ) (2-6d P
) (2-2a .W1 + W2
) (2-2b
.N = (W1 + W2 ) cos
)(2-2a

)
(

.

.

)

(.
)
( . .i = 1, 2, . . . , N
)
(.
Fi i Fi = 0
i:
)(2-7

Fi = 0.

i=1

59

Fi :
)(2-8

fji ,

Fi = Fi,ext +

j=1//j i

Fi,ext ) i
i ( fji
j ) .i
.

(. i Fi = 0:
)(2-9

fji = 0.
j

Fi,ext +



f21 f12 .
) .
( :
)(2-10

Fi,ext = 0.
i


.

-2 .
.
.

.

) Fi = 0 Fi = 0
.(i
60

:
F

:8-2
. .

. ) (8-2
) ( F .

.
.
F

) (6 :

) (

.
. A : B
)
!( B T ) A (9-2
A T .B
T )( A
.B .
) ( .
B A A
61

:9-2 . B T


A A T .B
.

) B B (A B ) A
B .(A
) ( .
) T (T
.
. ) .(-2


A A B
B B .A
62

) -2 ( . W
) w .(10-2
P x .
.P
: W + wx
P T .P
.T = W + wx
.
) (w = 0 .



.
.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
) (

.



.
) -2 ( . )11-2(
.
B A
.W :

63

:10-2 W w .
P .P

.F
)11-2( .
F
T .
.T = F
F )11-2(.
) )11-2((
) (
U .
.2T W = 0 T = F .F = W /2



.
. W
.W

.
: .
64

TT

T
F

F
A

)(

A
W

)(

)(

)(

) :11-2( ) .-2(
F
) .( F ) .(
)11-2(.


) .(12-2
) -2 ( . )13-2( )

) ((n ) (.


T
.F TA = TB = TC = T
)13-2( .
kb .
TA + TB + TC = 3T kb
65

:12-2 .

T kb .C B A
.(1602 N) kb :
)(2-11

b (1602 N) = 0 = T = 534 N.
3T k


. .N kb N
)

( .
) )13-2(( F kb
N kb (712 n)kb .
.F kb + N kb (712 n)kb = 0

.
F = 534 n N = 178 n
T =F

66

:
TATB TC
A BC

Wtotal

)(

)(

TC
A B C

Wpainter

)(
TA TB
A B C

Wscaffold

)(
) :13-2( ) .-2(
) .( ) .(
.

.



)
67

U )13-2(( .
(890 n)k b
2T k b
b
N k
b Nk
b = 0 2T k
. )b (890 n
k

.
.N = 2T 890 n = 178 n

. Wpainter
.Wscaffold
3T kb (Wpainter + Wscaffold ) kb = 0 .T = (Wpainter + Wscaffold )/3
F kb + N kb Wpainter kb = 0
.N = Wpainter F F = T .N = (2Wpainter Wscaffold )/3
.N kb N
. N

. Wscaffold )
( .N = 0
.Wscaffold = 2Wpainter

) (7


.
.

.
.
)
68

(
.


.

.

.

.

.


.

.


.
.
) ( .
.
) -2 ( .
) .(14-2
W
) ( ) N ( .
+W
= 0
.N F
. )
( F .

F .
69

:14-2 .-2

.f
) .F + f = 0
N + W + F + f = 0 N W F f
N + W = 0 (.F + f = 0
) (
) .(15-2

.
-2 f
F . f
.
: F



.
70

:15-2 .
.


)( .

. ) (

.
A
) N ( ) f ( B
N f .A
B
N
) (N N ) f (f .f N -2
W f F . N
. Fmax N F
. Fmax /N .N
.s


Fmax /N
) . Fmax /N
A Fmax /N N .A
(. F = f
71

Fmax = fmax fmax


) (.
:
) (

s
:
)(2-12

f
s .
N

) (2-12 .
. s N f

F
.
-2 f /N s
.
) -2 ( . ) (n
.30
.s = 0.6
.
.16-2
f (100 n) sin 30 = 0
.N (100 n) cos 30 = 0 f = 50 n.N = 86.6 n
s . s :

f /N
f /N = tan 30 = 0.577 ) (2-12
.0.577 < 0.6 W
f = W sin
.N = W cos f /n = tan
.tan s
72

:
N
0n
10

30
100 n

:16-2 .-2


) .max = tan 1 (0.6) = 31
.

.
. )
( )
( (.
) -2 ( .
) (n .30
.s = 0.4 W
) )17-2(( . W
.

W = 0 tan 30 > 0.4


. ) W = Wmin (
f
.f = s N = 0.4(100 n) cos 30 = 34.6 n
T + f (100 n) sin 30 = 0 T
. .T = (100 n) sin 30 (34.6 n) = 15.4 n
73


N
f

0n
10

30

100 n

)(
N
T

0n
10
f

100 n

30

)(
) :17-2( W
) .( W
.

= W


.Wmin = 15.4 n
W ,
f . W = (100 n)sin 30 = 50 n
f . W
f . W = Wmax
)17-2( f .s N = 34.6 n
74

T f (100 n) sin 30 = 0
.Wmax = T = f + (100 n) sin 30 = 84.6 n
) -2 ( .
.
.s = 0.8
)( F 37
F

)( F 37
F

)( )( 53 .

)( .
) . 37 53
3-4-5 sin 37 = cos 53 = 0.6
(.cos 37 = sin 53 = 0.8

)( F
. ) (19-2
F cos 37 f = 0F sin 37 +N (100 n) = 0 = f = F cos 37
0.8F .N = (100 n) F sin 37 = (100 n) 0.6F
N
. .f /N < 0.8 f /N
) F (19-2 f /N
F f /N F , .
F N . F .
F f /N = 0.8

0.8F /(100 0.6F ) = 0.8 .F = 62.5 n


)( .
) .(20-2
75


F
F

100 n

37

37
100 n

)(

)(
F
53

100 n

)(
) :18-2( )-2() .( )-2(.
)( )-2(.

30

F
25
37

20

2
3

f/N

15

166

10

100 n

5
0
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
)F (n

:19-2 )-2(.

F cos 37 f = 0 .N F sin 37 (100 n) = 0


) .f /N = 0.8F /(100 + 0.6F

fN

76

:
N

4/3
1
0.8
f/N

0.6

f
37

0.4
F
0.2

100 n

0
1000

800

600

400

200

)F (n

:20-2 )-2(.

f /N ) F .(20-2 f /N
F ) (f /N 4/3 .F
f /N = 0.8 .0.8F /(100 + 0.6F ) = 0.8
F .F = 250 n
)( f = F cos 53 = 0.6F= N
(100 n) + F sin 53 = 100 + 0.8F :
)(2-13

f
0.6F
=
.
N
100 + 0.8F

f /N ) F (21-2
f /N F ., f /N
, .F
53 .
N
.F
77


3/4

N
0.6
0.5
0.4
f/N

0.3

f
53

0.2
F
0.1

100 n

0
1000

800

600

400

200

)F (n

:21-2 f /N F )-2(.

) f /N ) ((2-13 0.8
F .F = 2000 n F

53
. !
)( F 53
.F = 64.5 n F = 2000 n
. 21-2

. F
F F )(
)(.

78

) (8

.
. A B
A v ) B (22-2
B A .v

.
A
A .B
A B .v


f

.


f .
f .N

: A
B
v :
B A

)(2-14

f = k N,

N
.
k .

f = k N
.f s N
N .f
.k s
79

W
B

:22-2 A B
B A
.

) .s W .
F .s W
k W
. k > s
. k W
.
k (.s
)
(
.



.
) -2 ( .
.
) )23-2(( .
0.6

.0.5 F

)(n

80

:
T

f1
100 n
F

100 n
N1

)(

W1

)(
N1

f1
f2
T
N2

W2

)(
) :23-2( ) .-2( .
)( .

)
( .
.
)23-2(
)23-2( . :
) ( .
) ( ) (N1
.
) ( ) (T .
) ( ) (f1
.
81

N1 = 100 n .T = f1
f1 = 0.6(100 n) = 60 n
.T = 60 n
:
) ( .
) ( ) (N2
.
) ( ) (T .
) ( ) (f1
.
) ( ) (f2
.
) ( F .
N2 N1 (200 n) = 0 .F T f1 f2 = 0
N1 = 100 n .N2 = 300 n f2 = 0.5 N2 .f2 = 150 n
T = 60 n f1 = 60 n ) .F = 60 + 60 + 150 = 270 n

F
F
!

(.

. )

( .

82

W1

:24-2 .-2

) (9
.-2 W1 = 100 n
W2 = 30

.24-2
:
)(

)( = 0.400
W2
W2

.s

W1
.-2 W1

W2
.F
.
.-2
.20.0 .,
) v /(

83

1
W1

W2

:25-2 .-2

0.148 v 2 n
vf . .

2D

D
2D
3D

:26-2 .-2

.-2 ) (W
1 2 .
.
84

.-2 ) (3D
D W1
.2D
2D W2 .
] . [.

85

) (1



.
.
.
:

1 .
.

:
)(3-1

F = ma.

) (3-1
a :
F .
) (m


. ) (3-1
.

a = kF k
k .
k .m = 1/k
)(
: )(

)( .

. ) (3-1 m
. ) ( )


.(ft/sec2
.lb-sec2 /ft 1 ft/sec2
.
0.5 ft/sec2 .
) (3-1 W .

) (g
32.174 ft/sec2 ) (3-1 .W = mg m
W:
)(3-2

W
.
g

=m


W g
m .


.
,
)(
: )(

)( .
) (
.
/ .

, .

88

.
M1 a1 = M2 a2
M1 = 1 .M2 = a1 /a2

)
) .
( .

. )
(
.
.
.
) ( g
2
. .
W = mg
.

(.
F = 0 ) (3-1 a = 0 v.
.

.


.
.
89

) -3 ( . m
. .
: mg
N . x y
F = ma :
)(3-3a

Fx = max ,

)(3-3b

Fy = may .

x
y ) )1-3(( x
.ay = 0 ax = a .x
mg sin x mg cos .y
):(3-3a
)(3-4

mg sin = ma

):(3-3b
)(3-5

N mg cos = 0.

a = g sin .N = mg cos


) N
( .
N = mg cos
.
N mg cos
.
90

:
y

mg

)(

)(

:1-3 )( )( .-3

) -3 ( . -3
) (
)( .

( .
)
A
. A
.
-3 mg

N .
A )



(.
x y
) .(2-3 x y
F = ma N sin = mA
N cos mg = 0 N = mg/ cos .A = g tan
-3
x y
x A cos y A sin x
y F = ma mg sin = mA cos .N mg cos = mA sin
A N A = g tan N = mg/ cos .
91


N
y

mg

)(

)(

:2-3 )( )( .-3


N .-3
-3 .
) -3 ( .
.
kb .
Akb A
A
.
) :(3-3 ) mg kb
(W = mg N kb .
Akb mg kb + N kb = mAkb
) .N = m(A + g
.N A ) (
mg .


N .
) A = g ( N = 0
. mg kb
m

92


.
A

N
y

mg

)(

)(

:3-3 )( )( .-3

b
(g + A)k

.g kb

. )(.
) -3 ( . m .
.k
v0

93


N
y

f
x

mg

)(

)(

:4-3 )( )( .-3

.


.
) (F = ma

.
x y
)3-3( .
a x ax = aay = 0

) a( . ) (3-3 :
N f .

Fx = max Fy = may f = ma .N mg = 0
f = k N f = k mg .a = f /m = k g
D ) (1-11d
) .D = v02 /(2k g T
) (1-11a .T = v0 /k g
) )5-3((
) m1 (m2 )(
94

m1 g

m2 g

m2
m1

)(

)(

:5-3 )( )( .-3

) )5-3(( .

) .
.

.


) ( .
.

.
) ((.
) -3 ( . kb
. m2 b
) ak a m2
95

( .
m1 .akb

T ) ( m2:
b m2 g k
b = m2 a k
b
Tk

)(3-6

m1:
)(3-7

b m1 g k
b = m1 ak.
b
Tk

T m2 g = m2 a .T m1 g = m1 a T :
)(3-8

m1 m2
.
m1 + m2

a=g

:
)(3-9

m1 m2
.
m1 + m2

T = 2g

m1 m2
. m1 ) (m1 g kb
) .(T kb m2 m1 T
m2 g .m1 T
m1 g .m2



.

.

a = 0 m1 = m2 a > 0

.m1 > m2 a < 0 .m1 < m2 ) (3-8 .

T = m1 g
m1 = m2
96

.m1 = m2

) (3-9

m1 .m2
m1 .a = g
) (3-8 ) m1 m2 m2

(
( .m2 m1
) a = g
m2 g m1 m2
m2 m2 g
2m2 g
.m1 m2 ) (3-9 ) m1 /(m1 + m2
.m1 m2
) -3 ( . -3
: N )

(

N . m1 m2
.

) ( .
Fi = mi ai ) i

( . i Fi = i mi ai Fi

:

)(3-10

i ,
mi a

= Fext

Fext ) (
.
97

a ) (3-10:
)(3-11

Fext = M a,

M .
) (3-10
) ( . ) (3-11

).(3-10

. ) (3-10 :
)(3-12

b m2 g k
b + Nk
b = m2 a k
b m1 a k
b
m1 g k

.N = (m2 m1 )a + (m1 + m2 )g
a :
)(3-13

m1 m2
.
m1 + m2

)(3-8

N = 4g



) .(3-13
m1 = m2

.
) (3-13 N = 2m1 g
m1 m2 ) (3-13 .N < m1 g + m2 g
!
N ) (3-10

N .
T
.N N = 2T )(3-9
T ).(3-13


) -3 ( .

. B A
)6-3( .
98

. ) (-2 m1 = (1/2)m2
. m1 m2
T .

m2
m2
m1

)(

)(

) :6-3( ) .-3(
.

m2 .m1

. m1
.m2 kb
m2 akb m1 .2akb
m1 b
).T kb m1 g kb = m1 (2ak
) m2
)6-3(( .2T kb m2 g kb = m2 akb
99

a T :
2m1 m2
,
4m1 + m2

)(3-14

a=g

m1 m2
T = 3g
.
4m1 + m2

m1 = (1/2)m2 .
a T m1 m2
.m2 m1
T

mg

)(

)(

:7-3 )( . )( .-3

) -3 ( . m
) .(7-3 .
.



. ! m

. ) x y
100

( ax = a .ay = 0 )7-3(

m . x y F = ma:
)(3-15a

T sin = ma,

)(3-15b

T cos mg = 0.

T tan = a/g .a = g tan



)(F = 0 m
.



.
)7-3(
) ma .(ma
) (3-15a) (3-15b

.m

.
) -3 ( . ) (n


.8-3
s = 0.2 .k = 0.1
.A = 0.65 m/s2
.
.A = 2.5 m/s2
.
A
101

f
A

mg

)(

)(

:8-3 )( )( .-3


.A
.
) )8-3(( )
( . A
A0

) ( .
) ) ((2-14
) .(A


.A0 A < A0
A f = mA f
m .
N mg = 0 .f /N = A/g
.f /N S
A .A0 = s g g = 9.8 m/s2
) A0 = .2(9.8) = 1.96 m/s2 A0 (
102

A = 0.65 m/s2
.A = 2.5 m/s2
A = 0.65 m/s2 0.65 m/s2
:
)(3-16

(
)
200 n
2

0.65
m/s
= 13 n.
9.8 m/s2

= f = mA

A > A0 .f = k N = k mg
a f = ma .a = k g
A = 2.5 m/s2 = ) a = (0.1)(9.8 m/s2

( . :
) 0.98 m/s2
)(3-17

f = k mg = (0.1) (200 n) = 20 n.

A > A0
.A
) -3 ( .


)9-3( m1
m1 m2 s = 0.2 .k = 0.1 m3 m1
m2 m1 .m2


.-3
m1 m2
m3 m3
) (m2 .

) m3 g ( m3 g
m3 .
ib kb
m1 A1 ib m2 .A2 ib
m3 .A1 kb
.
103

N1
m2
N2

m1

N2

f
m3

m1 g
m1g

)(

)(

m2g

)(

:9-3 )( -3
) m2( ) m3(.

m3g

)(
m1

)(

)9-3() () ( N2 .
f
N1 .
m1 m2 ) )9-3((
N2 = m2 g) )9-3(( .N1 = (m1 + m2 )g
:
)(3-18a

f = m2 A2 ,

)(3-18b

T f = m1 A1 ,

)(3-18c

T m3 g = m3 A1 .


m1 m2 ) .(A1 = A2
) (3-18a) (3-18b ) T = (m1 + m2 )A1

(.
104

T
:

)(3-18c

)(3-19

gm2 m3
.
m1 + m2 + m3

) = gm3 /(m1 + m2 + m3

.A1

= f

N2 = m2 g :
)(3-20

f
m3
=
.
N2
m1 + m2 + m3

.f /N2 s
s = 0.2 m3 f /N2 = 0.2
f /N2 0.2 ) .m3 0.25(m1 + m2
) (3-20
s 1 m2 m1
.m3 s < 1 m3 ) (f /N2 = s
) m3 = s (m1 + m2 )/(1 s
.s = 0.2
) m3 > 0.25(m1 + m2 m2 .m1
f ) f = 0.1(m2 g )(3-18a
.A2 = 0.1g ) (3-18b ) (3-18c
A1 T :
)(3-21

m3 .1m2
,
m1 + m3

A1 = g

m1 + .1m2
T = m3 g
.
m1 + m3


m2
m1 .m1
) -3 ( .


.
105


m
r .v .
N

m
mg

)(

)(

:10-3 )( )( .-3



) (1.17 v 2 /r .
) )10-3((

. .T = mv 2 /r

.
)(
.

m :
. :
.
.

mv 2 /r
)10-3( .
106


m .

m .
.




.
.


.

mg

)(

)(

:11-3 )( )( .-3

) -3 ( . m
.L
107

. v
.
L sin
) v 2 /(L sin .
) )11-3((.

F = ma T cos mg = 0= T sin
) .mv 2 /(L sin T .v 2 = gL sin 2 / cos
) (t
:
L cos
.
g

)(3-22

L sin
t = 2
= 2
v

mg

)(

mg

)(

)(

mg

)(

) .(-3
) :12-3(

)( ) (-3 ) .(

) . (-3

)(
.v0

108

) -3 ( .
.
.

v 2 /R R ) )12-3((

.mv 2 /R


.

f )
)12-3(( .
.
)

( f
.
F = ma f = mv 2 /R
.N mg = 0 .f /N s
.v 2 /gR s
R = 100 m) s = 1
( 3 v
31 m/s
.
s
.



.
v0 ) )12-3((.

. .
)
( .v02 /R
F = ma N sin = mv02 /R .N cos mg = 0 N
.v02 = gR tan
109

) = tan 1 (v02 /gR v0



v0
.
= 36 R = 100 m.v0 = 60 mi/hr

v0
) (s = 0
v > v0
.v < v0
: v
R
s )12-3(

) v > v0 v0 .( gR tan
f
) v < v0 ( .
F = ma:
)(3-23

mv 2
,
R

= N sin + f cos

N cos f sin mg = 0.

f N :
)(3-24a

mv 2
cos mg sin ,
R

= f

)(3-24b

mv 2
sin + mg cos .
R

=N


) (3-24a)(3-24b

.
110


.
) (3-24a :
(v 2 /R) cos

(
)
m
cos v 2 v02
R

)(3-25

(v 2 /R) sin

= f


f ) (
v > v0 f v < v0
.
cot

f/N

v2
v20

:13-3
.v0


) (3-24a) (3-24b :
)(3-26

f /N

( 2
)
v /gR cot 1
f
(
)
=
.
N
v 2 /gR + cot

13-3 ) (3-26 .v > v0


f /N cot .v s > cot
111

f /N s .
s < cot f /N = s :
)(3-27

v2
cot + 1
= s
gR
cot s


.
v < v0
) |f |/N f ( . |f |/N
v < v0 .14-3 |f |/N
v = 0 tan s > tan
. s < tan
|f |/N = s :
)(3-27

)(3-28

v2
1 s cot
=
.
gR
s + cot

) (3-28
.
s tan cot
. ) cot
( .
s = 1.2 . = 45 R = 100 m 45

:
)(3-29

gR tan = 31 m/s = 70 mi/hr.


.
.
112

:
tan

|f |/N

v2
2
v0

:14-3 .v0

) (2


)(
) .3/2
. t = 0

T
.
(.
)( .
113

)( .
)(
.
)(
) .3/2

(.
) ( )( )( )(
.
)(
. )
] [( . )(
.

)( )(


) ( .
m R v v 2 /R

:

)(3-30

mv 2
R

=F





.
:
)(3-31

2 R
.
v

= T

114

) (3-30 :
)(3-32

4 2 mR
.
T2

=F

) )(( :
T R 3/2
)(3-33

T 2 = kR 3 .

)( k
k .m
) (3-33 ) (3-32 :
)(3-34

m
kR 2

F = 4 2

:
m

m/R2 .

.
M/R2 M .
) (
) Mm
4 2 /k ) (3-34 (M
) (M ) (m R :
)(3-35

mM
,
R2

F =G

G ) ( m .M

) (3-35

)( .

115

.

.


.

:
4

.
Me m
R GmMe /R2 m
) GMe /R2 (m
amoon g
(Re /Rm )2 Re
) Re ( Rm .
Re /Rm = 1/60 = (Re /Rm )2
.0.0002777 v 2 /Rm v 2 Rm /T T
. T = 27.3 Rm = 3.844 108
5 v = 1023.97 m/s v 2 /Rm = 0.002728 m/s
.amoon /g = 0.002728/9.8 = 0.0002783

.




) (
.



. ) (
:
)(3-36

mM
r2

F =G

.
.
116

mM

:
) (

) (3-36 r .
) (3-36

)

( r .
) (3-36

)
)((3-36 .

) (
.
.

.

.
.M M
m GmM/r 2 r Mm
M .m m
m ) M
( . )

(
.
) (

.


.
117


.
) (
.
)( .
.

)
( .
) (F = ma
.
.




.
.
G ) (3-36

. G
6 .
7
.G = 6.67384 1011 m3 kg1 s2 = 6.67384 1011 N m2 /kg2
g
:
)(3-37

Me
Re2

g=G


.Me = 5.97 1024 kg



G
Me

118

G Re

)
8 .(. Re
Me .G .
!
) -3 ( .
.R T .
)(
(.
)( R .

.
T

R = 1.05Re

.GmMe /R2
v 2 /R . .GmMe /R2 = mv 2 /R
v = 2 R/T :
R3
.
GMe

)(3-38

T 2 = 4 2

G Me
) .(3-37 ) (3-38 :
) ( )
R 3

.
Re

)(3-39

4 2 Re
g

)(3-38

(
2

= T

Re = 6.3781 106 m g = 9.81 m/s2 :


)3/2
)(3-40

R
Re

(
)T = (84.44 minutes

R/Re = 1.05 T = 91 .
T = 23.9 ) 9
119

( (R/Re )3/2 = 16.97 R/Re = 6.60


) (
.
) (3
.-3 m1 = 5.00 kg m2 = 2.00 kg
.15-3
F0 = 100 n .:
)( .
)( .
100 n

m1

m2

:15-3 .-3

.-3 A
v0 .
.
120


.-3 30.0 kg .
0.200 0.100 .
50.0 kg a .

)( a
)( 4.00 m/s2

.-3 )( ) (M
D . .
m
:
)(
)( ) (.
.-3
. m .
)( .

)( .
)
(.
.-3 .


. .
121

.-3
) ( .

.
n
.-3 -5
.
) ( -5
.

)
( . )
(
. .
.R


) (
. .
R ) (R
R v 2 /R g
.
v0 vf
) R ( .vf = v0 e


] .
R v 2 /R [.dv/dt
.-3
D .V
. v0
. . .
122

:16-3 .-3

v0 .
= 0.200 D = 3.00 m.V = 6.00 m/s
:
.

:17-3 .-3

.-3 M
) .(
m .
) (.
123

.-3 m .v
.
M

.18-3

.
:
M + m
.
M m

)(3-41

m
v

:18-3 .-3

124

) (1
.
.
.
:


.
m v ) (p
:
)(4-1

= mv.


:
)(4-2

i .
mi v

= i
p

= P

) ) ((3-10 :
)(4-3

d
dP
= i
= i
mi a
mi v
,
dt
dt
i

= Fext

Fext .
) (4-3
.
Fext = 0 :
dP
= 0 = P = constant
dt

)(4-4

.
) -4 ( . 1 kg
2 kg . 3 m/s
) 45 ( .
.3 kg .3 kg
x y
z . .
x ) y
) ( .
z


:
.

)(4-5

)
final

i
mi v

)
initial

i
mi v

) (4-5 :
)(4-6a

)
final

mi vi,x

)
initial

126

mi vi,x

)(4-6b

)(4-6c

final

mi vi,y

)
final

mi vi,z

(
(

initial

initial

mi vi,y

mi vi,z

(
(

) (4-5 :
)(4-7

)
final

mi v i

)
initial

mi vi

vi .vi ) (4-5
.
) (4-6c .0 = 0

V Vx Vy )(4-6a
) (4-6b :
2 (5) (.707) + 0 = 3Vx ,
)(4-8
2 (5) (.707) + 1 (3) = 3Vy .

Vx = 2.36 m/s .Vy = 3.36 m/s

3 kg .V = Vx2 + Vy2 = 4.10 m/s V 55


) .(tan 1 Vy /Vx = 55
) -4 ( .
.
2 kg 4 m/s 30 .
.1 kg
V ) (4-6a) (4-6b:
2 (5) (.707) + 0 = 2 (4) (.500) + 1Vx ,
)(4-9
2 (5) (.707) + 1 (3) = 2 (4) (.866) + 1Vy

Vx = 3.07 m/s.Vy = 3.14 m/s


127

3 kg
y

m
/s
5

3 m/s
1 kg

2 kg

:1-4 .

)
( .

.
.
x -y

) (x

.
x y ) )(4-6a
) ((4-6b .

) ( .

)
( )
(.



.
50 m/s 75 m/s .
.

100 m/s

128

) (

.


.

) (4-3 t1 t2

t1 t2 :
t2

)(4-10

dP
dt = P (t2 ) P (t1 ) .
t1 dt

= Fext dt

t2

t1

t1 t2 .

Fext = Mg kb M kb
. ) (4-10 ) b 2 t1
.Mg k(t

.t2 t1 0 ) (4-10

.
) -4 ( .

. ib
:
)(4-11

(
)
(
)
(
)
b = M 50 k
b + M 75 ib + M V
,
M 100 k
3
3
3

V .V = 350 kb 75 ib
) :

)
( ) ( .
129

.
(.
) -4 ( . 30 kg
45 kg ) ( .
30 m
30 m .

(.
.
:
)(4-12

2 = constant,
1 + m2 v
m1 v

m1 , m2 , v1 , v2 .
:
)(4-13

v 2
1
v

)
( d
m1 r1 + m2 r2 = 0,
dt

r1 r2 .
) r1 (0) r2 (0 R:
)(4-14

= m1 r1 (0) + m2 r2 (0) .
(m1 + m2 ) R

) (
r1 (0) = 0:
)(4-15

m2
) r2 (0
m1 + m2

=
R

D
(m2 /m1 + m2 )D
. 18 m
.
130

) (2

.

i ri
Rcm :
)(4-16

m r
cm = i i .
R
mi


.
Xcm , Ycm , Zcm
) (4-16 :
)(4-17a

mi xi
,
= Xcm
mi

)(4-17b

mi yi
= Ycm
,
mi

)(4-17c

mi zi
.
= Zcm
mi

) (4-16 M Rcm = mi ri
:
)(4-18

i ,
mi v

mi

= cm
MV

.Vcm = dRcm /dt


:
where
)(4-19

i ,
mi a

= cm
MA

cm
cm
dV
d2 R
=
=
.
dt
dt 2

131

cm
A

) (3-10 :

)(4-20

cm
Fext = M A

) M
( ) Fext Fext



(
) (CM ) (
.
-4 Acm = 0 = Vcm.
Vcm = 0 Vcm = 0 Rcm .

.
)
( . )
( .
.
) (4-17a) (4-17b) (4-17c .
CM . x y
.
z .Xcm = Ycm = 0 Zcm
) (4-17c


.z z

a2 z2 a
z z + dz (a2 z2 )dz
M

132

(a2 z2 )dz ) ( .
) (4-17c :
3
a.
8

)(4-21

( 2
)
a
2
0 dz z a z
a
) 0 dz (a2 z2

= zcm



. .dV = r 2 sin dr d d
z = r cos :
)(4-22

3
a
8

/2 2
a
3
0 dr 0 d 0 dr cos sin
a /2 2
0 dr 0 d 0 dr 2 sin

= zcm

. zcm < a/2


.z = a/2
z

.
. .

.
133

) ) ((4-16 ) -4
(

.


.


) (
. M1 M2
R1 .R2 ) (4-16
. M1 1
R M2
R2
.
) (4-20
.
.
v 2 /R v
R . n
) n( v = 2 Rn .v 2 /R = 4 2 n2 R
M ) (4-20 4 2 n2 RM
.
.

. 145 kg
) (n = 100 , )/
(
. R = 0
.
.
134


.
) (2-4 AB
. .90
AB A.B

) ( .
A B

.
.

:2-4 .

) (3



)
( .


135

)f(t

favg

:3-4 .

.
) f (t .t ) f (t:
t2

)(4-23

f (t) dt.
t1

1
t2 t1

= favg

t1 t2 favg
t1 t2
. 3-4
.
favg . favg

.
) F(t F
:
)(4-24

F (t) dt.

t2
t1

1
t2 t1

136

= Favg


y.z

Favg

) Fx (t

:4-4 .


.

.

.
T T
) (4-3 :
T

)(4-25

dP
= Pfinal Pinitial ,
0 dt

= Fext dt

Pfinal T Pinitial
.0

.Pfinal = 0
) v v ib i
( . nT n
Pinitial = nT mv ib
m .
. ) (4-24 Favg = nmv ib

.nmv ib

137

v ib Pfinal = nT mv ib
.


.
) -4 ( . .
) W
.(W
) (
) d
(.
) (4-20
.
.
z z = 0 .
) +( :
)(4-26

mi z i ,

= MZcm

M
:
)(
)(
)(
)(

.
.
.
.

) ( m(t)d ) m(t .t
) ( z = 0 () .
() . .
138

MZcm = m(t)d + constant


dm/dt = MdZcm /dt = d Md2 Zcm /dt 2 = 0
. ) (4-20
. Mg kb + F kb Mg kb
F kb F = Mg = W

) .
(.
F Mg
. :
.F

.
. t
d .gt
v
v )
nm ( . v = gt
) .

(.
) -4 ( .


.
:

.
.

Favg
t = 0 t = T
139

Favg = [P(T ) P(0)]/T ) P(T) P(0

(
. )
) P(T)P(0


. T
.Favg = 0 N
W
.


.



.

.
.

)
) -4 ( .
( .
.M0 u
.
.

M )
.
(.

. M v ib
ib . )
140

:5-4 .

(
.
) M + dM dM (
.(v + dv)ib
dM (v u)ib
.



. :
)(4-27

b
Mv ib = (M + dM) (v + dv) ib dM (v u) i.

dM
dM dv
) .dv
(v u)ib
(.(v + dv u)ib ib .M dv + u dM = 0
:
)(4-28

dM
dv
+
=0
M
u

d(ln M + v/u) = 0 .ln M + v/u = constant


141

) (M = M0
ln M0 ) .v = u ln (M0 /M
v0 :
)(4-29

)
M0
.
M

(
v = v0 + u ln


] .M0 /M = exp [(v v0 )/u ) M1
( v v0 .w
M0 ) .M0 /M1 = exp (w/u
u M0 /M1 = 100
M0 /M1 = 10 .

) (4
.-4


.
.-4 .
L .M . :
)(
.
)( .

.-4

:
142

:6-4 .-4



.:
)( .
)( .
) .-4
y (.
3.00 kg .350 m/s
: 900 m/s 20.0


v2 40.0 . ) v2
(.
x

.-4 V ) 2.800.000 kg:


(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V_for_the_numbers
.
.
) ( 2300000 kg
.131000 kg 150 sec
.34020000 n ) (
.
http://

143

7-4
.-4

. . .M
m V .


:
)(4-30

M +m
tan .
M

= tan

:7-4 .-4

144


.
.
) (1
.
F r
)
)( (.:
)(5-1



r cos ,
Work = F
r = F

.
F r
) .cos = cos (360

0 90 90 180


) = 90 (

:1-5 .

) ) ((5-1
F .

F ) )((5-1
) . F (
:


ro .rf


.
rn
) .(2-5 Fn
.
rn
Fn
rn
ro rf :
)(5-2

Fn
rn ,
n

W = lim

lim
.

:
)(5-3

F d
r

rf
ro

146


rf

r0

:2-5 .

F ro .rf :
)(5-4

F d
r.

rf

ro

= W

) (5-2
)(5-4
) (5-2 . F
) (5-4
ro .rf F
)
(:
)(5-5

(
)
Fn
rn = F rf ro .

W = lim

) -5 ( .
ro .rf ro
rf
.Fgrav = mg kb
r0 = x0 ib+ y0 jb+ z0 kb .rf
) (5-5 kb ib = 0, kb jb = 0, kb kb = 1 :
)(5-6

(
)
Wgrav = mg z0 zf .

147


.


) .
) .((5-6 z0 zf


) (5-6


) (
.

) (2
m r0 v0 t0
tf rf .vf W
r0 .rf :
)(5-7

1
1
mvf2 mv02 .
2
2

= W

(1/2)mv 2
:
.

(.
)
F = ma
v :
)(5-8

= ma
v.

F v

dB/dt

=A

dA/dt
)) d/dt(A B )(( :
+B

)(5-9

dv
( d
v
= 2v

a.

v
= 2v
dt
dt

148

:
)

)(5-10

1
mv 2 .
2

1
d
v
=
mv
2
dt

d
dt

v
=
ma

) (5-8 t :
)(5-11

)
1
mv 2 t.
2

d
dt

F vt
=


vt r
=
r
t ) (5-11 W
t ) (5-11
(1/2)mv 2 t
.
t0 tf

).(5-7

:
)(5-12

(
)
1
1
mvf2 mv02 = mg z0 zf .
2
2

) vx vy
vz (

) (5-12
.

.
.

.
.
: mg kb N .
149

r0

mgk

rf

:3-5 .


.
N r
r = 0

) (5-12.

E
A
D

:4-5 A
.E

B CD

) (5-12
f:
)(5-13

v 2 = v02 + 2g (z0 z) .

150

) (5-13
) v0 (z0 .
)(5-13
v 2 .z > z0


:5-5
.-5

) -5 ( . ) (m
) (R )
( .


z = R cos )(5-13
) .v 2 = 2g(R R cos
) .(F = ma :
) ( mg .
) ( N .
.

151

mgk

:6-5 .-5

v 2 /R
dv/dt ) ( . F = ma
:
)(5-14a

mv 2
R

= mg cos N

:
)(5-14b

mv 2
.
R

N = mg cos

v 2 :
)(5-15

N = mg cos 2mg (1 cos ) = mg (3 cos 2) .

(5-15)N : = 0 N = mg
] .N : ) (5-14b
) .(5-14a
mv 2 /R .
ma [.
) (
.
152

.
) (5-15 N = 0 N > 0 = cos 1 (2/3) = 48
N < 0 < 48 . > 48 N
.
) .N = 0 ( = 48

)( . > 48

.

.
) -5 ( . m
.L
. ) max
.(max


)(
.
)( max ) , (
)( .
) (.


t r

) (5-13

max ) (v0 = 0

153

:7-5 .

f
v ):(5-13
)(5-16

v 2 = 2g (L cos max + L cos ) .

) (5-16
.z = L cos :
)(5-17

(
)
2gL (cos cos max ).

=v

) (5-17 .

.
F = ma:
)(5-18

mv 2
,
L

= T mg cos

T . T ) (5-16
)(5-19

T = mg (3 cos 2 cos max ) .

154

T = 0
. = max max
T mg .
) (5-17 .
+ d .Ld
:
)(5-20

L
d

.
2g cos cos max

d
=
dt = L
v

) (5-20 = 0 . = max
:
)(5-21

d
.
cos cos max

max

L
2g

=
4

(
)
1
. )
( cos = 1 2 /2! + 4 /4!
) ) cos cos max = (1/2)(2max 2
max < 0.1 (
) (5-21:
max

)(5-22

d
2

2max

max
0


L
g

=
4

x = /max :
)(5-23

dx
.
1 x2


) max .(max 1
155

)
( max
. .

.x = sin = dx

cos d 1 x 2 = cos :
)(5-24

/2

= d

dx

=
0 1 x2

:
L
.
g

)(5-25

= 2


.t t = 0
t
:
d
( ) .
0v

)(5-26

t=L

.
max :
)(5-27

d
2max 2


L
=t
g

= max sin :
)(5-28

(
)
L

sin 1
.
g
max

= d

156

sin 1 / max
0


L
=t
g

:
]
)(5-29a

g
t
L

[
= max sin

. t = 0
= max ) (5-29b ) (5-29a :
)(5-29b

]
g
t .
L

[
= max cos

) -5 ( .
D1 D2
.
k D1 D2] .
[ .
.

) .(-3
F = ma
) (.

0
f
v0 = vf = 0 Wgrav + Wfric = 0
) Wgrav Wfric ( .
) (5-6 .Wgrav = mgD1 sin
k mg cos
157

D1

D2

:8-5 .

k D1 mg cos
k mgD2 :
mgD1 sin k mgD1 cos k mgD2 = 0 -
)(5-30

D1 sin
.
D1 cos + D2

= k

) (3



) (
) (5-12 . :
)(5-31

1
1
mv02 + mgz0 = mvf2 + mgzf .
2
2

0 f
:
)(5-32

1
mv 2 + mgz = constant.
2

158

(1/2)mv 2 + mgz

) (5-32 ) (5-12
. (1/2)mv 2 .
) (5-32 mgz
) (
) ( .mgz mgz )(
) (5-32 :
)(5-33

Kinetic energy + Potential energy = constant.

)(
) (5-33 ) .
.
(.
)) (5-12 -5
( .
.

rf

F
r
m

r0

:9-5 .

159

)
( :
)(5-34

F d
r,

rf
r0

F = ma

1
1
= mvf2 mv02
2
2

r0 .rf
m
) M ( . :
)(5-35

Mm
rb,
r2

F = G

r M m rb M .m
r0 rf F
r0 .rf m


. r
r
F
rb . r
rb .
r

) (M r
) (r , , ).(r + r , + , +
(r )rb :
r
)(5-36

[
]
[
]
GMm
GMm
b
F
r =
r
(r ) rb =
r
2
r
r2

.rb rb = 1
r 0 :
)(5-37

GMm
GMm GMm
= dr

.
r2
rf
r0

160

rf
r0

F d
r =

rf
r0


)
( . ) (5-37 ) (5-34 :
1
1
GMm GMm
= mvf2 mv02

2
2
rf
r0

)(5-38

:
)(5-39

1
GMm
mv 2
= constant.
2
r

GMm/r
.
) (
= Me ) Me ( )

(.

g
:
)(5-40

GMe
,
R2

=g


R .
GMe m/r
) r m ( .mgz
r = z + R z .
z R 2:
)(5-41

(
)
GMe m
1
z
GMe m
GMe m
2 =
+ mgz.
z+R
R
R
R

)(
.z )(
.
161

)

( :
. F
.
: F
F
.




)
(

.

C
P

:10-5 P .



)
162

( .

. 10-5
P AB
AC) ACDB DB .(P
AC DB .
P AB
.CD P
AB CD
AB .ACDB

)
.
(
)(

.
rf
r0

:11-5 ).(5-43

F F
( .W
r0 rf r0 rf . ) r0 , rf
163

( W r0 .rf
) r0 , rf

) R ( :
(
)
) (
,
V r = W r, R

)(5-42

( V F r .
) r

( W r0 R
) r0 , rf
+ W (R,
R rf ) rf

( .W
( r0 , rf ) = W
)r0 , R
R
W (R,
( rf ) + W
= W (R,
) R
=0
R
)rf , R
:
)(5-43

(
)
) (
) (
W r0 , rf = V r0 V rf .



:
)(5-44

) (
) (
1
1
mvf2 mv02 = V r0 V rf
2
2

:
)(5-45

) (
1
mv 2 + V r = constant.
2

( V ) (5-45 .
) r

) ( V
) (
) K.E. P.E. (:
)(5-46

K.E.f + P.E.f = K.E.0 + P.E.0 + W ,

W r0
.rf
.W < 0
164



R
) !( . ) (5-44
V
.
) (5-42 = 0
)V (R
( V
|r ) = GMm/
| r

R .M
( .V
|r ) = GMm/
r | + GMm/R
mgz .

) -5 ( .
)( )
(.
ve v
)
.(R ) (5-45:
)(5-47

m
1
1
2
.
mve2 GMe
= mv
2
R
2

ve .

v = 0 .ve = 2GMe /R = 2gR )

( . ve = 2vo vo
) (
vo = 18000 mi/hr .ve = 25000 mi/hr


.

165

) (4 ) (

.
.
.

) (.

:
)
)( ( .

. .

) (
W


.


.

.

.


.

) (1/2)MV 2 M V (
.
) +(
) +(
166

.
.
)(
)( .


.



.
) (



)( .
) (
.
) (5
.

.
m1 v1 m2 .
V = (m1 /m1 + m2 )v1
:
)(5-48

1
1 m12 v12
.
= (m1 + m2 ) V 2
2
) 2 (m1 + m2

(1/2)m1 v12 :
)(5-49

m1
K.E.final
=
.
K.E.initial
m1 + m2

167

m1 = m2


.
.

)( )( .
.

.
.
) ( .



.
) (
.

.
) ( .

.
.
P 2 /2M P
M .

.

.

168


)(
.
m2
v2f

m2

m1

v1i

m1

v1f

:12-5 .

.

.
.x ) v1f .(v2f




.
m2 m1 .v1i
:
m1 v1i = m1 v1f + m2 v2f

)(5-50

:
)(5-51

1
1
1
2
2
2
m1 v1i
= m1 v1f
+ m2 v2f
.
2
2
2

) (5-50 v1f:
)(5-52

m2
v2f
m1

v1f = v1i

) (5-52 ) (5-51 :
)(5-53

[
]
1
1
m2 2
m2
1
2
2
2
m1 v1i = m1 v1i +
v 2
v1i v2f + m2 v2f
2
2
m1 2f
m1
2

169

.v2f :
)(5-54

)
]
m2
1+
v2f 2v1i
m1

([
0 = v2f

v2f = 0) .v2f = 2v1i /(1 + m2 /m1


v2f = 0 ) (5-52 .v1f = v1i


) m1 m2
(.
:
)(5-55

2v1i
1 + m2 /m1

= v2f

) ) ((5-52 :
)(5-56

1 m2 /m1
1 + m2 /m1

v1f = v1i

.
) (5-55) (5-56
.
:
) ( ) m2 /m1 1

)
( .

(
v2f = 0 v1f = v1i ) (5-55)(5-56
.m2 /m1 1
) ( m1 = m2 ) (5-55) (5-56
v2f = v1iv1f = 0 .

170

. (1/2)v1i

(1/2)v1i

.(1/2)v1i

(1/2)v1i
.(1/2)v1i ) (1/2)v1i
( v1f = 0 .v2f = v1i
) ( ) m2 /m1 1 (.
v1f = v1i
) .(5-56
.vcm = v1i
v1i ) ( v1i
v2f = 2v1i ).(5-55
.
) (m2 /m1
.
)
( .
) (1-5
) (
.
A .
] [ . A
) (A A
A ) (.
171

u1

u2

v1

v2

:13-5 .


) (5-55) (5-56 ) :(v2 = 0
)(5-57

v1
m2
1+
= v1 v2 .
1 + m2 /m1
m1

= u2 u1

u2 u1 = u2 u1 ) v2 v1 = v2 v1 v u
(A :
)(5-58

u1 u2 = (v2 v1 ) .


.
.
) (2-5

.
) x y v1f v2f ( .
x y

172

.
v1f v1f .v2f )
(
m2

. )15-5( )(

. )(
)( )(
.
. ) b (15-5

v 1i
v 2f
. 1f
v
.
) v2f (
.
.

v1f

v1i

v2i

v2f

:14-5 .

173


v1i

m2

m1

)(

v1i
b

m1

)(
:15-5 .

) (6
)( )( . -
) .(ft-lb -
.joule .1 joule = .738 ft-lb
.



.
) (
.

.

)()/(
)()/( .
.1 ft-lb/sec
.550 ft-lb/sec


- .

11 ft/sec

174

5.5 ft/sec .

/ . 0.738 ft-lb/sec
= = , .
)()/(
= 1 kwh = (1000 joules/sec) (3600 sec) = 3.6 106 joules


) .2.66 106 ft-lb

(.
.


.3085.96003 ft-lbs )(
.
.
) (
.(3000 4184) joules/(24 3600 sec) = 145 watts
.

.
) (
. 60 kg
)

( = (60 kg) (9.8 m/s2 ) (300 m)/3600 sec


.49 watts = 0.066 hp
.



( .

/
.
.
175

t
F r
F
.F
r /t = F v
r
m F

F = m dv/dt F

) = d/dt((1/2)mv 2
).m(dv/dt
v
) -5 ( . 2 kg x
t x = 4t + 4t 2 t 3 x t .
t = 1.t = 2
2
b

= (dx/dt) ib = i(4+8t3t
dv/dt
v = (86t)ib
)


) m(dv/dt t = 1 t = 2
v
t = 1 - .t = 2 t = 2
.

) (7
.-5 ) (
uracket .uball
.-5 m M h
.16-5 .

:
)(5-59

2m2 gh cos 2
(
).
(M + m) M + m sin 2

v
u
u
t

] [.

.-5 ) (80.0 kg

.
.
176

:16-5 .-5

50.0 m 50.0 + x
) kx ( .k = 200 N/m
)(
)( .
)(
)( .
)( .
.-5
) (k . ) ( K
L
.k = K/L
L
) (


) .L
(.
.-5
A
) .A
A V A
(.v = v V
177

.-5

.
.-5 17-5
.
.k = 120 N/m
.

60 cm

:17-5 .-5

.-5 M .D
( u
. ) r
.r
R1 R2 :
)(5-60

) (
GM
GM

.
u r =




R1 r
R2 r

178

.
:

)(

.
)( .
. D/4
D/3 . m
v . v

u

179

. )
.(-5 ) (
.

.


.


.
) (1

.

.1-6
L .L + x

x . x
x .

L+x

:1-6 .

.x
ib
F ib :
)(6-1

F = kx,

k . ) (6-1
x )( )(.
) (
x

. x
. d2 x/dt 2 ib
:
)(6-2

d2 x
= kx.
dt 2


)
) (6-2

x dx/dt (t = 0 .
182

) x(t )) (6-2 (

x dx/dt .t = 0

) -6 ( . ) (6-2
x dx/dt ) x(t
) (6-2 . ) (
v dx/dt a .d2 x/dt 2 ) x(0) v(0
) x() v( x() = x(0) + v(0)v() = v(0) + a(0)
) (6-2 ) a(0 ) .x(0 ) x()v(
) ) .a() ((6-2 ) x(2) v(2)a(2
x(2) = x() + v()v(2) = v() + a()
.

)
.

) (2
.
) (6-2 :
d2 x
= 2 x,
dt 2

)(6-3

) = k/m ( .
) ( ) (6-3
) .(6-3
x .t
.sin t d/dt(sin t) = cos t d/dt(cos t) = sin t

d2 /dt 2 (sin t) = sin t sin t )(6-3


.2 .sin t
183

d/dt(sin t) = cos t) d/dt(cos t) = sin (t


d2 /dt 2 (sin t) = 2 sin t x(t) = sin t
) .(6-3 x(t) = cos t
) .(6-3
cos t sin t
) .cos t = sin (t + /2
:
)(6-4

x (t) = A sin t + B cos t

) (6-3 .
A B x dx/dt

.t = 0 x x0 dx/dt
v0 ) t = 0 x0 v0
( . t = 0 ) (6-4
.B = x0 ) (6-4 :
)(6-5

dx
= A cos t B sin t.
dt

A B B = x0A = v0 /
:
)(6-6

v0
sin t + x0 cos t.

= )x (t

x0 = 0 ) x(t sin t
v0 = 0 ) cos t
) .((-5 x0 0 v0 0
) x(t
. ) (6-4 :
)(6-7

[
]

A
B
x (t) = A2 + B 2
sin t +
cos t ,
A2 + B 2
A2 + B 2

184

.
A B < :
)(6-8

B
,
+ B2

)(6-9

A
.
A2 + B 2

A2

= cos

= sin

) (6-8) (6-9
.sin 2 = 1 cos sin :

cos 2 +

A > 0 B > 0 .0 < < /2


A > 0 B < 0 . /2 < <
A < 0 B > 0 . /2 < < 0
A < 0 B < 0 . < < /2
) (6-8) (6-9 ) (6-7 :

]x (t) = A2 + B 2 [sin t sin + cos t cos


)(6-10

= A2 + B 2 cos (t ) ,
)
(

2
2
x (t) = A + B cos t
.

t = t / x .cos t
t t / t = 0
.t = / / ) x(t
) ) (6-10 +1 (t = /
x
. ) (6-7
) (6-10 ) x(t T = 2 / )x(t + 2 /) = x(t
x /

185


y
1.6

)sin (

1.2

)cos(

0.8

0.4

x
3.2

2.4

1.6

0.8

3.2 2.4 1.6 0.8

0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6

:2-6 .

/ 4 / / 2 / . )(
.f = 1/T = /2
.
x = 0 dx/dt
) (
. )cos x = sin (x + /2
) (6-10 :
)(6-11

(
)

/2
.
x (t) = A2 + B 2 sin t

x = 0 dx/dt > 0:
)(6-12

/2 2

/2
,

and so forth.

=t

/2 4

186

x . A B :
)(6-13

+ x02 .

)2

v0

(
= xmax

) -6 .(1-6 .
.k = 4.00 N/m t = 0 0.800 m
0.700 m/s . )( .
)( ) .( ) .(
) .(
) () .(
1.10 m .

. . = k/m = 6.33 s1
.0.993 s ) .(6-13 x0 = 0.200 m
0.200 m = xmax

. (.700/6.33)2 + (.200)2 = .229 m


.1.00 + .229 = 1.23 m .1.0 .229 = 0.771 m
) A = .1107 m(6-6B = .200 m = sin
.483 ) .(6-9 A < 0 B < 0
< < /2 = 2.638 radians/ = 0.4168 s
) radians ( .
)(6-10
)(6-14

= T = 2 /

x (t) = .229 cos [6.325 (t + .4167)] .

x
6.325(t+.4167) = , 3 , 4
.t = /6.325 .4167 = 0.080 s

.t = 0.080 + .993/2 = .577 s )(6-14
187

)( )( . 3-6

x = .229 cos ) . = 6.325(t + .4167 = 2.6356 radians
.t = 0
) (6-14

:
.
a .t = 0
b .c d
1.10 m ) (x = 0.1 m d
.cos = 0.1/.229 = .4367 .cos 1 (0.4367) = 1.119 rad
) cos (x) = cos (x .cos (1.119) = cos (1.119) = .4367

.cos (x + 2 ) = cos (x) d
1.5 2 . = 1.119 + 2 = 5.1642 d
6.325(t + .4167) = 5.1642 ) t = .400 s )((.
e 1.10 m
. 2 2.5
= 1.119 + 2 = 7.4022 rad) t = .754 s )(( .
) t(c )t(d
) t(e .
) (3

) ) ((6-2
.
ax
) d2 x/dt 2 x
( . x
:
)(6-15

k
.
m

= where 2

188

ax = 2 x,

0.3

c
0.229
0.2
e

0.1

0
7

0.1
a
b

0.2
0.229
0.3

:3-6 1-6
.-6


v :
)(6-16

v2
v2
rb = 2 r,
r
r

=
a

r rb = r/r
.r x-y r = x ib+ y jb
) (6-16:
)(6-17

( )2
v
ax =
x.
r

v r v/r )(6-15
) (6-17 ) .(6-15 v/r
) (
.
189

P

x x .Q Q x
ax Q ) .(6-15
) .

) (6-16
(.
.

v
P
r

:4-6 .

P
Q .
x P r cos r ) x .(4-6
t = 0 ) ( P
= t :
)(6-18

x = r cos (t ) .

190

P .v = r x
P Q ) :(4-6
)(6-19

vx = v sin = r sin (t ) .

) (6-19
) (6-18
.
t = 0 ) (6-18) (6-19 x0 = r cos
) v0 = r sin cos () = cos )(sin () = sin ( x0
v0 :
)2
)(6-20

= r2

)(6-13
:

=r

v0

(
x02 +

xmax .

x0
x0
=
,
2
r
x0 + (v0 /)2
)(6-21

)(v0 /
x02 + (v0 /)2

= cos

= sin


.
x vx ax
t P .
) (6-18) .(6-19 t = 0 x = xmax
. = 0 x = xmax
.x = 0
)(6-8

) .(6-9

191

) (4
F = kx ib
x0 xf ) :(dx ib
)(6-22

1
1
x dx = kxf2 + kx02
2
2

xf
x0

W = k

)
x0 xf (.
:
)(6-23

1
1
1
1
; mvf2 mv02 = kxf2 + kx02
2
2
2
2

:
)(6-24

1
1
mv 2 + kx 2 = constant = E.
2
2

) (6-24
. )x = xmax cos (t
) .v = xmax sin (t 2 = k/msin 2 + cos 2 = 1
:
)(6-25

1
1
1
2
.
mv 2 + kx 2 = kxmax
2
2
2

2
(1/2)mvmax
vmax = xmax
2
2
(1/2)kxmax
.(1/2)kxmax
) .(x = 0
x = 0
x = xmax .

) (6-2 dx/dt = ) d/dt((1/2)mv 2 +(1/2)kx 2
0 ) .(6-24 x0 v0
) (6-24 v .x ) dt = dx/v(x

192

) t(x ) .x(t )
( ) (-5 .
) (5
) (-5
.t
) max(
.

:5-6 .

L
m T .mg
.T mg F = ma .md2 x/dt 2 = T sin
sin = x/L T mg :
)(6-26

(
)
d2 x
mg
=

x.
dt 2
L

193

) (6-26 ) (6-2 mg/L k


= g/L T = 2 / = 2 L/g )
( .
.m

O
L

L+z

:6-6 m .-6

) -6 ( . OA
L .k O m
.A
.
. L + z eb .
kzeb .mg eb
d2 z/dt 2 eb :
)(6-27

d2 z
= kz + mg.
dt 2

194

) u = z mg/k u
u ( :
)(6-28

d2 u
= ku.
dt 2

) (6-28 = k/m

f = (1/2 ) k/m
.

:7-6 M .-6

) -6 ( . )(M = 0.100 kg
) 1 = m
.(k = 4.00 N/m .

0.700 m . ) 0.100 kg
(
1 m .
.
)( 0.200 kg .
)( 1.200 m

.0.200 kg
)( )( )
( k
195


2
(1/2)kxmax
) .( E 0.100 kg
. x = 0
. v 0.100 kg
. 0.200 kg ) v/2
( .
0.200 kg .(1/2)(2M)(v/2)2 = (1/4)Mv 2 = E/2

xmax 1/ 2
xmax = 0.3/1.414 = 0.212 m
.1.0 .212 = .788 m
M = 0.100 kg .k
)( )
k (M
.
)( k .M x0
x M = 0.100 kg ) .(x0 = 0.300 m x1
x ) .(x1 = 0.200 m M
.(1/2)kx02 M
.(1/2)kx02 (1/2)kx12 Xmax x .
2
(1/2)kXmax
2M
2
.(1/2)kXmax
2M (1/2)kx12


)
)(
(. :

)(6-29

]
1
1
kx02 kx12 .
2
2

1
1
1
2
kXmax
= kx12
2
2
2

196

)(:
[

)(6-30

] ( )2
x1
1
=
1+
.
2
x0

)2

Xmax
x0

Xmax = 0.255 m
.1.0 0.255 = 0.745 m M k.
) ( )( )(

:
) .(6-30
k .M
.
. )( ) :(
)()/( . k ) :( )( .
Xmax /x0 . Xmax /x0
.x0 , x1 , k, M
.x0 /x1 k M )

( .
.
) -6 ( . OA 8-6
L1 O .k1 A AB
L2 .K2 B L1 + L2 + x
B

k2

k1
O

:8-6 .-6

197

. ib . F ib B B
F ib AB .L2 + F /k2
AB OA F ib AB
OA L1 + F /k1 :
)
1
1
+
.
k1
k2

)(6-31


:
)(6-32

F = keq x

keq

(
x=F

1
1
1
=
+
=
keq
k1
k2
k1 k2
.
=
k1 + k2

keq

k1 = k2 .keq = (1/2)k1

) (6
) .-6 .(-3

a ) (
.tan = a/g
) (.
.-6 R
.9-6

.
.-6

.10-6
198

:9-6 .-6

M R
m

. .

. r

.

:10-6 .-6

199

.-6 11-6 m = 1.00 kg M = 5.00 kg


.k = 20.0 N/m M
.
A = 0.400 m

:11-6 .-6

200

]
)([.
)(
.
) (4-20 ) (
.
)
( .
1-7
. 1-7
.
.
.



.

:1-7 .

) (1

) (


. O r O
F r F
F .O
r .
F

r
O

:2-7 .

) ( :
)(7-1

= r F.

202

)
r F
)(( r F
.3-7 F r sin

F r r F r r F F F
) r .(3-7
F

F
r

:3-7 F .r

) (2
) ( )
( . .i
.
)(7-2

Fi = 0.

O ) (7-2
) ri O (i :
)(7-3

ri Fi = 0.

) (7-2 i

:
)(7-4

Fext = 0,

203

Fext .


1
2

i
ri
3

O
4


(:
)(7-5

Fi

: )

fji ,

Fi = Fi,ext +

fji i .j
) ) ((7-3 :
)(7-6

ri fji = 0.

ri Fi,ext +

ij

.

) (i = 1, j = 2) (i = 2, j = 1:
)(7-7

r1 f21 + r2 f12

(.
) (f21 = f12 r1 r2 ) f21
f21
.r1 r2 r1 r2


204

.
)
( .

.
.

.

) (
:
)(7-8

ext = 0,
ri Fi,ext =
i

ext .

CM
R
O

Mgk

:4-7 .O


.
r .O

) .



(.
205

.
) . 4-7
b
) grav = R (Mg k R
M kb (.
:
)(7-9

mi ri .

=
MR

:
)(7-10

(
)
(
)

b .
b = mi ri g k
= ri mi g k
i

grav

b
) (Mg k
grav = R

) (7-9 ) (7-10
. .

) -7 ( .
3/4L
. .
W

jb

. kb : ib
.5-7 b
F1 k
F2 kb 3/4L
W kb .
:
)(7-11

F1 + F2 W = 0.

206

.
F1 kb :
)(7-12

( )
( )
( )
)
Lb
b + 3L ib F2 k
b = 0.
i W k
2
4

(
=

:
Lb 3
j F2 Ljb = 0
2
4

)(7-13

.F2 = 2/3W ) (7-11 .F1 = 1/3W




.
:
)(7-14

( )
( )
(
( )
)
3L
b + L ib W k
b =0
ib F1 k
4
4

F1 = W /3
.

k
i
F2 k
F1 k
Wk

:5-7 .


.
O O a O .O
207

~
ri
ri

6-7

Fext = i Fi,ext = 0 : O:

O,ext = i ri Fi,ext = 0 ri O

.i O O ,ext = i ri Fi,ext ri
O .i 6-7 ri = a + ri

O ,ext = i (a + ri ) Fi,ext = a Fext + O,ext Fext O,ext


O ,ext
.

.
.

.


.7-7
.

.
)
(.
208

7-7

) (.
)
(-7 jb .jb jb
jb

.
5-7 F2 kb
. W kb . 5-7
F2 kb
W kb
.

F1 kb F2 kb W kb
.
.
) -7 ( . AB W

A
CB .
.
. 9-7 V . H
A
. V
209

:8-7 .

V
T
H

:9-7 .-7


H .
) (V , H, T
) ( .
:
H T cos = 0,
)(7-15
V + T sin W = 0.

A :
)(7-16

L
T L sin = 0,
2

210

L ) .T = W /(2 sin
) (7-15 H = (W /2)cot .V = W /2 V
.B
) -7 ( .


.
.
AB -7 W CB
W A B C .
A C
.B
. .

.
) AB
CB ABC (
] . .

[.
10-7 ) ABC
.(ABC A
H V .
C .ABC
11-7 ) AB
CB .(AB 12-7
CB
.
V AB
B = L) V L W L/2 = 0 (AB .V = W /2
211


~+W
~ V
W

H
C

~
W

B
H
W

:10-7 ABC .-7

WV
V

B
H

H
W

:11-7 AB .-7

H ABC
) A (10-7 W L/2 + W L/2 HL tan = 0
.H = (1/2)(W + W )cot
H .V H V 10-7 12-7
.
CB
.CB
212


~+W
~ V
W
C

~
W

B
H

~ V
W

:12-7 CB .-7

CB ) (
CB B
CB B W
) W = 0
CB .(CB


.

) 13-7 .(15-7


) ( .
) (15-7
.
W

213

) (
.

:13-7 .

:14-7 .

.

.

.
214

:15-7 W .

:16-7 .


) (16-7
.
.

) ( .

17-7 I II
. 17-7
II I

. II I
O

215

O
II

17-7

II I .
O

17-7 .
II )( I .

.
) -7 ( .
)
.(s .

.
. 19-7 .
H .

216

:18-7 .-7
H

V
W

:19-7 .

H .W
:
)(7-17

L
cos = 0,
2

HL sin W

L .H = (W /2)cot
H/W s (1/2)cot s ) .min = cot1 (2s
217

~
W

~
W

~
~+W
W

:20-7 .-7

) -7 ( . 20-7
D L W .60.0
W = 222 newtons .L = 6.10 meters
.s
)( s = 0.600
. .s = 0.500
)( s = 0.500
) (5W
. 20-7 )

D ( . :
HL sin W L/2 cos W D cos = 0 .H = (W /2+W D/L)cot
H/(W + W ) s :
)(7-18

(1/2 + W D/W L) cot


s .
) (1 + W /W

218

) (7-18 D
) (7-18 D = L
D < L
:
)(7-19

(1/2 + W /W ) cot
s .
) (1 + W /W

21-7 ) (1/2 + W /W )/(1 + W /W


.W /W W /W

cot s )
.W /W
( .
= 60cot = .577 s = 0.6
. s = 0.5
) (7-19 .,
W /W = ( s 1/2cot )/(cot s ) = 2.73 W = 606 newtons

. W = 1110 newtons

. ) (7-18 ,
W /W = 5 (1/2 + 5D/L)(.577)/6 = .5
D/L = .940 = D ,
.


.

.
)( .
) (
) (.
219


1.2

0.8

0.6
0.5
0.4

0.2

0
10

W /W

:21-7 ) (1/2 + W /W )/(1 + W /W W /W .-7

)( .
) (.
)( )
.(22-7 ) ( .
.

.
.
.

220

:22-7 .

) (3
.-7 A
.
W1 W2 .
.

W1

W2

:23-7 .-7

221

.() -7 ) ( .
. .
) ( 10.0 cm ) ( .6.00 cm
. = 0
.
)( c .
)( h w .c
) .-7 (-2 ) AB W
) BC
(L .A
W (L AB .B F
BC ) .(C
.
.-7 ) ( ) M1 ( L1
) .(A M3
.
) ( ) M2 ( .
)( ) (B
A C
. .
A B
] .C
[.
.-7 M ) M
( .

222

M1

#1
A

M2
#2
B

M3

:24-7 .-7

. 20 . ABBC
A B C
.
M
M

20

:25-7 .-7

223

)(

.
.

.
.
m O

= d
v = d2 r/dt 2
r r /dt
.a = dv/dt
F = ma r :
)(8-1

r F = m
r a,

F . ) (8-1
) (O .

L O:
)(8-2

= m

L
r v.

) )(( :
)(8-3

dL
v
+ m

= mv
r a.
dt

v v = 0 ) (8-1) (8-3 :
)(8-4

dL
.
dt

: )
(.
) (1
) (8-4
. O
r F )
( dL/dt = 0 L .
L
:
)(
.
)( )

( .
)( O .L
) (8-2 r L r .
0
) L = m r0 v0 (
r0 v
L r0 .v0
226

v0
O

r0

:1-8 .L

)( .L
L:



L = mr v sin = mr vtan ,

)(8-5

r v vsin = vtan )
.(r 2-8
r .t
t A = (1/2)r vtan t
.dA/dt = (1/2)r vtan = L/2m L dA/dt.
) t

r (t +

t
O
)r (t

:2-8 .

227

:3-8
.-8

) -8 ( . m
) .(3-8
v1 .r1
.r2:
)( .v2
)( ) T2 /T1 T1 T2 (.
)( .
.
v1 r1 = v2 r2 ) .v2 = v1 (r1 /r2
T = mv 2 /r :
)3
)(8-6

r1
r2

(
=


:
]
)(8-7

1 .

)2

r1
r2

([

r1
r2

( )2

v2
v1

T2
=
T1

1
1
1
W = mv22 mv12 = mv12
2
2
2

228


) W = F d
r

( . ) ( r
) ) T = (mv12 /r1 )(r1 /r )3 ((8-6 F = T rb
rb .
r ) r + dr dr (
rbdr :
r2

dr
3
r1 r

] )3
]
[
2 2
rb rbdr = mv1 r1
]

)(8-8

1
1
2
r22
r1

()

r1
r
[)

mv12
r1

)( 1

)2

( [

r2

r1
r2

= W

r1

mv12 r12
([

1
= mv12
2

).(8-7

r r + dr v
v + dv (mv 2 /r )dr = (1/2)m(v + dv)2 (1/2)mv 2
dv/v = dr /r d(ln v + ln r ) = 0
ln v + ln r = const = vr .
.

) (2
) i
( . )(8-4 :
)(8-9

[
]
i = mi ri v
= ri Fi , L
i .

229

i
dL
dt

= i

) (8-9
.
:
)(8-10

i
mi ri v

=
L

:
)(8-11

dL
,
dt

= ext

ext .
) (8-11 ri i
v i
. ) (8-11

) ( )
)( (.
) ( .
) [Fext = M ACM ] (4-20 ) (8-11

) .


. )((.

.t
t + t
) (4-8 t t + t

) (t
.


) (t + t
230

:4-8 .

:
)(8-12

.
t

= lim

t 0

O
.(O
.O L
O ) O (5-8 O
. O ri
vi | vi = |ri .ri 5-8

i
v
) (
. :
)(8-13

2
b
i = ri j,
ri v

jb .
231

ri

vi

:5-8 .

L O:
)(8-14

b
= Ij,
L

:
)(8-15

mi ri2 .

=I

) (O

O ) (8-14) (8-15 jb
) ) ri ((8-15 ri
.mi
b
I j
.O I . I
M
.
] [ ext = ext jb
) . ext = Id/dt(8-11 = d/dt
:
)(8-16

ext = I.

) (8-16

232

O
R

:6-8 M .R

)
(.
) (8-16
:
)( ) m (R ) .(6-8
O :

2
I = mi ri = mi R 2 = MR 2 .

)(8-17

)( ) M (R .
.
) (7-8
r r + dr 2 r dr (2 r dr )
. :
)(8-18

R4
.
2

2 r 3 dr =

R
0

= (2 r dr ) r

233

=I

M = R2 .I = (1/2)MR2 ) (8-18
)(8-17
.R

M
r + dr
O
r
R

:7-8 R .M

)( ) M (L .
dx ) (M/L)dx .(8-8
x :
)(8-19

1
ML2 .
3

= x 2 dx

M
L

=I

:
)(8-20

1
ML2 .
12

= x 2 dx

L/2
L/2

M
=I
L

)( )
) (8-16
( . .
)( )(.

234


L
dM

dx

:8-8 L .M

) (3
I0 O ICM
I0 = ICM + Ma2 M
a O .
)( .
2MR2 3/2MR2 .
.
) -8 ( .
.


:
)( .
)( .
.

. F
)
( . ) F R
= R ( . ) F R = (1/2)MR2 :(8-16
= 2F /MR n0
.0 = 2 n0
235

:9-8 .



) .(x , v , a
. :
)(8-21

1 2
t ,
2

= 0 + 0 t +

)(8-22

= 0 + t,

)(8-23

2 = 20 + 2 ( 0 ) ,

)(8-24

1
(0 + ) t.
2

= 0


.
T )(8-22 = 0
) .T = 0 / = MR0 /(2F
) (8-24 . = (1/2)0 T = (1/4)MR20 /F

236


./2
T = 157 s 0 = 40.0 rad/s = 0.800 rad/s2 =
.

M
R

:10-8 M .m

) -8 ( . 10-8
M R ) ( .
)( .
. ) a
abe eb ( .
a . .
:
)(8-25

1
MR 2 ,
2

= TR

T . :
)(8-26

mg T = ma.

237

) T = mg .
( . ) (8-25) (8-26 a
.T a
. )
( R
x :
)(8-27

x = R.

) (8-27 t
)(8-28

t :

dx
d
=R
= R
dt
dt

) (8-28 t :
)(8-29

d2 x
= R.
dt 2

=a

) (8-29 ) (8-25
) (8-26:
)(8-30

g
= R.
1 + M/2m

= (1/2)Ma

=a

.(11-8
. ) T ( ) M g
( F . F T Mg = 0:
)(8-31

3 + M/m
.
2 + M/m

F = T + Mg = Mg


F ) [Fext = i mi ai ] (3-10 )
+ +( .F (M + m)g = ma
F .

238


F
M
T
x

T
Mg
m

mg

:11-8 .-8

) -8 ( . L
M .

.:
)( F .
)( .
)( F .
. )( .
.F L MgL/2 = 0 F = Mg/2

Mg/2 .
)
( . ) (
MgL/2 = 1/3ML2 . = 3/2g/L
L )(
L .3/2g ) (13-8
239

:12-8 .

.g




.


.

] [Fext = M ACM . (1/2)L
3/4g . ) Mg ( F
. ) F Mg = M(3g/4
.F = Mg/4 ) Mg/2 (Mg/4
.

F
) ) (8-11
(
) (8-2
240

)(

)(
:13-8 .

ICM .
CM
F F L/2
. CM:
)(8-32

L
1
=
ML2 .
2
12

= 3/2g/L F = 1/4Mg .


.
.
241

:14-8 . .g
.-8


) ( . :
)(8-33

d
dt

CM = ICM

= = 0
]
[ . = 0
.
.
) -8 ( . )


M (L
. .
. .
)
( .
242

:15-8 .

) = (MgL/2) sin
( . :
)(8-34

L
1
d2
sin = ML2 2 .
2
3
dt

Mg

.
sin :
)(8-35

1
d2
1
ML2 2 = MgL.
3
dt
2

.
:
)(8-36

(t) = max cos (t + ) ,

.2 = (MgL/2)/(ML2 /3) = 3/2g/L :


)(8-37

2L
.
3g

2
= 2
= T

O
:
)(8-38

d2
,
dt 2

Mgh sin = I

243

CM

:16-8
.-8

h O CM I .O

sin

2 = Mgh/I : .T = 2 I/Mgh

) (4

.

) (.


.
) (
) (
) ( .

244

)
(.

2R
R
vCM

vCM

vCM

R
3

:17-8 R

.vCM = R

v = 2R

v = 2R

vCM = R

:18-8 R
.
.


)
( . d
245

) d (
.
18-8
) ( .
d R v = R
. 2R


120 mph 0 mph
. )(
] 19-8 ![ v = R
] a = R [.

:19-8
.



) .
.



(. R .
20-8 .
20-8
) R (
.
.v = 2R
246

.
v R
v .20-8
) .(-8

.

.

:20-8
.

) -8 ( .
M
m
.R
. F . .
. : ) ACM ( = Fext
)
247

:21-8 .

(
) +( F
M + 4m
F
.
)

(.
) (22-8
)
( .
.

.

)

( f
) .(22-8 :
)(8-39

1
1
a
mR 2 = mR 2 ,
2
2
R

= fR

a )
CM ( . a f
. ) +( :
)(8-40

F 4f = (M + 4m) a.

248

mg

:22-8 F .
N .

f a
) .f = (mF /2)/(M + 6m
CM . F
.F f = ma fa
) .F = (3/2)(mF )/(M + 6m
F 4F . :
)a = F /(M + 6m

F 4F = Ma.

)(8-41

)(8-41


.

.
) ( ) (.




249


.



) = jb
.(
) (8-4 L .
O L ) (


.
) )(( L O:
)(8-42

2
mi ri

= = Ijb where I
L

ri i .O

2
ri ) .I = i mi (xi2 + zi2
x z = xi2 + zi2

)
O CM

(O ) ) .((8-4 L
jb ) ( ext = ext jb :
)(8-43

= I
dt

ext = I

) (8-16 .I
) (8-42
O .
.

.
:
I = .MR2
I =
250

.2MR2

d
R

:23-8 .

I = .(1/2)MR2
I = .(3/2)MR2

) .(23-8
R sin

d ) .(2 R sin )(Rd
) (
:
)(8-44

8
R4 .
3

= (2 R sin ) (Rd) (R sin )2

=I

M = 4 R2 :
)(8-45

2
MR 2
3

=I

) (]
) (8-45
251

2
i mi zi

2
i mi yi

2
i mi xi


[.
+
.MR 2 = (2/3)MR 2

) )(( :
) zi2

)(8-46

= ) + yi2 + zi2

2
i mi (xi

2
i mi (xi

5
2
MR 2 + MR 2 = MR 2 .
3
3

=I


. .
. ) I = (2/5)MR2
( ) I (
I . :
)(8-47

2
7
MR 2 + MR 2 = MR 2 .
5
5

.
) -8 ( . )
M (R )
( . .


.
f

. .25-8
.
.f R = ICM f ) (
) ( . )
F = ma ( Mg sin f = Ma a
) ( . .a = R
f a :
)(8-48

Mg sin
.
1 + MR 2 /ICM

g sin
,
1 + ICM /MR 2

= f

252

=a

:24-8 .

f
N

Mg

:25-8 .

ICM /MR2 2/5 2/3 1/2 1




) (.
a
.

253

.
g M R M R
.

a
. )
( .
I ) I = ICM + MR2 (
.MgR sin
I .a
L I
L )
( .
.

) . .(s
) -8 ( .
.
.v1 .k

.
.
.
F t1
:

)(8-49

F dt

=I

) ( .
) ( .f R = Icm d/dt f
254


M, R

:26-8
.-8


t1
.
v1 .
k Mg . = f R/ICM = (5/2)k g/R
k g .

) (
.
)
( .
a t
.v = v1 k gt
)) = t = 5/2(k gt/R = a/R
) d/dt(v = R v = R
( .
.vbot = v R = v1 (7/2)k gt T
vbot = 0 ) .T = (2/7)(v1 /k g
.D = v1 T (1/2)k gT 2 = (12/49)v12 /uk g T
255

.v(T ) = v1 k gT = 5/7v1
k !g

.
: f
f )
(
f f = 0 .a = 0 .


.
) (5
.

)
:(27-8 O
F P .
.P P
F r
r
) r r O (P
O r
) OP .( > 0
F W = F r sin = FOP
F r sin :
)(8-50

dW
= lim
= .
t 0 t
dt

) mi (28-8 O ri .ri

)) .(1/2) i mi ri2 2 = (1/2)I2 :(KE

mi .ri
) (8-51
256

(.
= Id/dt :
d
dW
=
(KE) .
dt
dt

)(8-51

) (8-51 t t0
tf :
)(8-52

1
1
I2f I20 ,
2
2

= W = (KE)f (KE)0

W t0 tf .
F

P
r
O

:27-8 F
O .


:

.
. )(
.
257

r
P
r

:28-8 P r
.OP

-8
. tf ) (8-52 t t0
. x ) x
( . ) (8-52 :
)(8-53

)
1
MR 2 2 ,
2

1
2

= W

W
.t W mgx
.mg .W :

t0 t

)(8-54

1
mv 2 ,
2

= Wgrav + W

Wgrav W )
(t v .t
.W = W

T x .
T x
x

) (8-53) (8-54 W W .

t0

258

M
R
x

:29-8 M m x .

.
Wgrav = mgx ) = v/r
(
:
)(8-55

)
1
1
2gx
= m + M v 2 - v 2
.
2
4
1 + M/2m

(
= mgx


v 2 x .
) (8-55 .t
d(v 2 )/dt = 2vdv/dt = 2va dx/dt = v :
)(8-56

g
,
1 + M/2m

=a

.-8
) (8-55 . )
+ +( (1/2m + 1/4M)v 2
] mgx [
) (8-55 ) + (
t ) ( .t0
259


) -8 (30-8 .

:30-8 M L
.

) -8 .(
30-8
.) :( .
)( .
.
) (0 ) (f
) Mg(z0 zf M z0 zf
. )(8-52
:
)(8-57

(
)
(
)
L
1 1
Mg
= sin
ML2 2 .
2
2 3

260

) = /2
( ] .2 = 3g/L :
[.
:
)
MgL
cos .
2

)(8-58

1
= ML2
3

) (8-57 ) (8-58

. = d2 /dt 2
) (8-58 d/dt :
)
MgL
d
cos
.
2
dt

)(8-59

(
=

d2
dt 2

()

d
dt

()

1
ML2
3

) d/dt[(d/dt)2 ] = 2(d/dt)(d2 /dt 2

= )d/dt(sin

cos d/dt ) (8-59 :


)(8-60

]
(
)2
MgL
1
2 d

ML
sin = 0.
6
dt
2

d
dt


.d/dt d/dt =
).(8-57

) ).Fext = M ACM ((4-20
H V
. H = Md2 X/dt 2 V Mg = d2 Z/dt 2
) X (= L/2 cos ) Z(= L/2 sin .
261

dX/dt = L/2 sin d/dtd2 X/dt 2 = L/2 sin d2 /dt 2

.L/2 cos (d/dt)2 ) (8-57 ) (8-58 :

)(8-61

d2
3g
=
cos ,
dt 2
2L
(
)
d 2
3g
sin .
=
dt
L

.H = 9/4Mg sin cos = 9/8Mg sin 2


. ) !(
).V = Mg/4(1 + 9sin 2
)
(
.
.
) ( .
) = 0 ( -8
.MgL/2 sin
+
. )(8-57
:
+ = .

. -8

) .(24-8
Mgx sin x
.
262

.

F v F
v )

( .
v = 0 .F v = 0
(1/2)Ip 2 Ip
) (.

Ip = ICM + MR2

ICM = (2/5, 2/3, 1/2, 1)MR2
. +
= V /R . V
:
)(8-62

(
)
1
ICM
1+
MV 2 + Mgx sin = const.
2
MR 2

) (8-62 t dx/dt = VdV /dt = a

.


)( .
: S )
b k
( b
i,b j,
O O CM S
ib , jb , kb O
b k
b
] .i,b j, O ibjb kb
[ . O O RCM = X ib + Y jb + Z kb
Oibjb kb:
)(8-63

dX
dY
b dZ .
CM = ib
V
+ jb
+k
dt
dt
dt

263

) (Oibjb kb
b n /dt + jdy
b n /dt + kdz
rn = ix b n /dt
b n + jy
b n + kz
b n
vn = idx
.(O ib jb kb ) CM S Oibjb kb
LO O ib jb kb .LCM
S Oibjb kb KEO O ib jb kb
.KECM M .S
)(8-64

)(8-65

O = M R
CM V
CM + L
; CM
L
1
2
MVCM
+ KECM .
2

= KEO

Theorem:

Theorem:

.
) -8 ( . ) M (L
) .(31-8 m
v ) .(A
b ib
jb = kb ib k, )31-8( V ib v ib jb
.
V v

)( ) )31-8(( .
) A (.

)( ) )31-8(( . V v )
= (.

. ) +(
) ( .
:
)(8-66

mv = mv + MV .

264

v A

k
i

M, L

M, L

)(

)(

M, L

)(

:31-8 M L m .-8

) (O
.A ibjb kb
.
.
. ) (8-64
O :
)(8-67

( )
)
(
) ( 1
Lb
2
b
b
ML j.
k MV i +
2
12

:
)(8-68

MV L
1
+
ML2 .
2
12

0=

) .(v , V , )(
:
)(8-69

1
L.
2

v = V +

265

)( ) (8-65:
)(8-70

1
1
1
1
mv 2 = mv 2 + MV 2 +
ML2 2 .
2
2
2
24

) (8-68 .V = L/6
v = 4V ) (8-66 )( :
v
,
4 + M/m
)(8-71

v
,
1 + M/4m
)(6v/L
.
4 + M/m

)(8-69

= V
= v
=

) (8-66 m(v v ) = MV ) (8-68 . = 6V /L


) (8-70 v 2 v 2 ) .(v v )(v + v
)( .MV (v + v ) = 4MV 2 V = 0


v = v . = 0

. V 0 V
.v + v = 4V v v = (M/m)V )( :
v
,
2 + M/2m
)(8-72

= V

)v (1 M/4m
,
1 + M/4m
3v/L
.
1 + M/4m

= v

M m v = v M m
v = v .

266

) (6
.-8


:
)(
.
.
)( ) (
. .
.-8 R m
.
.M ) (
. . .a
.-8 m
.
)( .
)( .
.
.-8 .

. .
.-8 R .r
.v
) ( .

(.
)
267

:32-8 .-8

:33-8 .-8

.-8 .
R v0
] .
[ . v0 vc

. v0 < vc )
268

(
)( .c
c .
)( .vc
)( v0 < vc .c
)( ) v0 = 0 v0 (
c.
)( v0 = 0 )
( ] [.

v0

c
v

:34-8 .-8

) -8 ( . ) L
(B
P p A .(L/2) + s
p

)(
A ] .(L/2) y[0 < s, y < L/2 :
)( y s p
. p

s . y
269

z
L

d
CM

:35-8 .-8

s . y = 0.400L s )

(.
)( ) ( .
Ma2
) = M ( . z
x

d CM
) ( .
P y d ) CM
( .

.d d = a2

270

.-8 ) M (L
. m v
.
)( max .
)(
.
) ( .

271


) (




. .

.
.
.

.


.
.

) (1

] [


.
g

.
.
w

FG

:1-9 .
m . .w

) -9 .(g 1-9 m
. m
. w

.FG = GmME /RE2
274

) (

.

. m aR
FG
)(9-1

FG w = maR .

FG w = mg

)(9-2

GME
aR .
RE2

=g

.g = GME /RE2 aR

.

:
)(9-3

4 2 RE
,
T2

= aR = 2 RE

T .8.64 104 s
6.37 106 m aR = 0.0337 g
.9.8 m/s2 g

.
= RE

) -9 .(g
g
.
.

. g .
.
275

GmME
=
r2
)(9-4

GmME
= dr
r3

=F

dF = 2

dF
dr
= 2
.
F
r



.
) (.
= F = mg = dF = mdg
)(9-5

dg
dr
104 m
dF
=
= 2
= 2
,
F
g
r
6.37 106 m
dg
= 0.31%.
g

.

) (2
) (
. ]
[ vtan
.
276

) (

] [

.

.



1/r 2 .




. .

.


:





) ! (.
) .(2-9
.
.
.

.
.10 m/s2


) ( .


277

.


) ( .


!

A
F

:2-9
.

2-9

.
.

) .(3-9
278

) (

:3-9 .


.
.
] [
. r

279

x y

r . r
m M :
)(9-6

Fgrav
d2 r
GM
= r 2
= 2 .
2
dt
m
r

=a


d2 r /dt 2 2 r .
) (9-6

L L = mr 2 :
)(9-7

(
)2
d2 r
L
GM
GM
L2
=

+
r
=

+
.
dt 2
r2
mr 2
r2
m2 r 3


u 1/r :
. :
)(9-8

d
Lu2
m d
=
=
2
u dt
dt
m

= L = mr 2

:
)(9-9

d d
Lu2 d
d
=
=
.
dt
dt d
m d

)(9-10

1 du
L du
=
=
2
u dt
m d

)
=

1
u

d2 r
L2 u2 d2 u
=

.
dt 2
m2 d 2

) (9-7 :
)(9-11

GMm2
.
L2

=+u

280

d2 u
d 2

dr
d
=
dt
dt

) (

:
)(9-12

1
GMm2
=
+ C cos ,
r
L2

=u

C ) r
.2
.(F = kr
:
)(9-13

= 1 + cos ,
r

2 .
) (9-13 a
) (r = 0
. :
)(9-14

(
)
a 1 2
= 1 + cos .
r

) (9-13) (9-14
a .
. :
)(9-15

L2
= = a
.
GMm2
1 2

:
)(9-16

2EL2
G 2 M 2 m3

1+

E .
) -9 ( .

. )
281

r2

r1

a
b

:4-9
:C a b
.f r1 r2 .f

(
. .,
.

.


) r1 r2 ( )
(
:
r1 = a (1 ) ,
)(9-17
r2 = a (1 + ) ,

a :
r1 + r2
,
2

b = r1 r2

=a

)(9-18

282

) (

b .
]
[

.
] [

A
:
)(9-19

dA
1 d
L
= r2
=
,
dt
2
dt
2m

L .
:
)(9-20

dA
L
=T
= ab
dt
2m

ab .
= 0 :
)(9-21

)(9-12

1
1
r1 + r2
2GMm2
+
=
=
r1
r2
r1 r2
L2

:
)(9-22

2a
1
GM
1
GM
=
=
b2
2 (dA/dt)2
2 ( ab/T )2

:
)(9-23

4 2 a3
.
GM

= T2

.
a .
283

. , )

107 s/y(.
4 2 a3
=
GM
[
]1/3
GMT 2
=a
4 2

= T2

(
()
()
)21/3
11
2
2
30
7
6.6710
Nm
/kg
1.9910
kg
76
y
10
s/y

=
4 2
= a = 2.68 1012 m
rmin = a (1 ) = 2.68 1012 m (1 0.967) = 8.84 1010 m
rmax = a (1 + ) = 2.68 1012 m (1 + 0.967) = 5.27 1012 m.
)(9-24

) (3
.-9 ) (
. ) (


.
.-9 ) (


)( )(
/ .
)
( .
284

) (

) (
.
) (

) ( ) (

285

) (1 )(
) (1-1
)
( . .
) (
) = v (.
) (F = ma
m ) (1/m
.
.
x y z F = ma
) (Fx = max , Fy = may , Fz = maz Fx x ax
x .

) (.

) (


.
.

) (
.
) (


)= ( .

.

P1 P2
) ( P1 .P2
P2 > . P1 .

) (
) (A
P1 .P2 P1 P2
P1 .P2 ) (1
P1 P3


P3 P4 P4 P2 A
A
. ) (
| |A A
) ( P1 .P2
) ( .

) (
A
.
A

A

| .|A A
A
) (
||A 1.7A

A ) 1.7 . (A

.
288


P2

P1

:1 A P1 .P2

P4
P3

P2

P1

:2 P1 .P2


) ( .

.

. .

.
A B A + B
) ( A .B
289

P2

A+
P1

:3 A.B

) (3 A B
B A A + B A .B A + B
B
.A
) ORP Q (4 AB

O P A B
B .A )
( A + B .3
A + B = B + A . A B

B
A
) .A B = A + (B 4
P R
P .R Q
P A P R B Q R
B
=A

).A + (B
2 B C D P1 P3 P3
+D
P4 P4 .P2
B P1 P4
+C
) (B + C
+D
C P3 P2
P1 .P2
) B + (C + D
+D
) + D
=B
+ (C
P1 P2
)(B + C
. P1 , P2 , P3 , P4
.
.
290

:4 A.B


+ B
= A

).(A + B

) (

. .
) (x, y, z O

x
.

( .
.
y .z
5 . )
( x
) ( x
x x .x

291

:5 ).(x, y, z

A
) .(Ax , Ay , Az : x
A x x .Ax
cos
|Ax = |A A x .
Ay .Az Ax x .A
x y z A + B
Ax + Bx Ay + By .Az + Bz x A + B + C Ax + Bx + Cx
.
y
y

x
O

:6 A .
292


) (:
| |A A
A2x + A2y + A2z .

)(A-1

) (x, y, z ) (x , y , z
A .A2x + A2y + A2z = A2x + A2y + A2z
.
z z x
A :
Az = Az ,
Ax = Ax cos + Ay sin ,

)(A-2

Ay = Ay cos Ax sin ,

.A2x + A2y + A2z = A2x + A2y + A2z



.
B

:7 .


.
) ( :
)(A-3

Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz

.

A B

293

= cos

:8 .

) :(8
)(A-4

C 2 = A2 + B 2 2AB cos

) 8
C B sin .(A B cos C
A B Ax Bx
) C 2 = (Ax Bx )2 + = A2 + B 2 2(Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz
) (A-4 ) .(A-3 ) cos = cos (360
.7

| B

B cos
A
|||A A
B .A B ) (A-3:
)(A-5



B

=
cos = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz .
A
B
A


] [ . ) (
. )(A-5
B
) B
B

= (A
A
=B
A
) .(A
=A
B
C
= (B
A
B ) (Bx + Cx , . . .

+A
) + C
+C
).A (B + C
A Ax Ay Az

| |A
| A
.
| A/
294

. .
b

| A

| A/ eb eb .A
ib jb kb ) (
bk
x y z . b = 1
ib ib = jb jb = k
.ib jb = ib kb = jb kb = 0 A ) (Ax , Ay , Az
.A = Ax ib + Ay jb + Az kb
.
.

) (A
) (B C :
) ( C
.C
) C ( A B .

.
) (A B :
) (
A B ) (
A .B eb
eb
. .eb = be
) ( A .B

) . ( + = 360
) (
)(A-6





B

=
sin eb = A
B sin eb .
A
B
A

295

:9 .

:10 .

eb sin = eb sin . eb = be .sin (360 ) = sin


A B .


.
eb
) ( eb )
( .
).(A-6
) (A-6
.
A B

L

296

A .B .
A L A .B:
)(A-7



B

=
A
B
sin u,
b
A

A ub L
.
) (A-7 ).(A-6
A B ) A
( .B A
A B B
. ) (A-6:
)(A-8

= A
B.
A

B
P

:11 .A


.sin (0 ) = sin (180 ) = 0
) (A-6 ) a (
B
) B
) (aB
= a(A
=A

).(aA
:
)(A-9

(
)
B
B
B
1 + B
2 = A
1 + A
2
A

297

.
A
) (A-9 A B
B
B .P

B
] . B
P B P [.P

| | = |B
B 0 180sin 0 sin
A
|B
B

|A B = A B = |A B )
(A B
.90
B1 B2 B1 B1
A
.90 .B2 B1 + B2 B1 P
B2 B1 P B2
B
1 + B
B ) 2
B 2
A 1
B 2
1
(B
.B1 + B2 B1 + B2
90 (B1 + B2 )
B1 B2 ) 90 B1 (B2
B1 + B2 (B1 + B2 ) = B1 + B2
B

| A B = |A ) .(A-9 A B = B A

:
)(A-10

)
=B
+B

1 + B
2 A
1 A
2 A.
B

ib jb kb
A b
b y j+A
b
b
= Ax i+A
B = Bx i+
x y z z k
.A B
.ib ib = jb jb = kb kb = 0 ) (12
) ib jb = kb jb kb = ib] .(kb ib = jb
298

:12 .

) (j b
) (i b
b
) (k
[. :
(
)
)
(
b
B
= Ay Bz Az By ib + (Az Bx Ax Bz ) jb + Ax By Ay Bx k.
A
)(A-11

. r
d
r /dt

) A(t
.
)f (t :
)(A-12

(t + t) A
) (t
dA
A
= lim
.
t 0
dt
t

bk
A b
b
= Ax ib + Ay jb + Az k
i,b j, :

)(A-13

dAy
dA
dAx
b dAz .
= ib
+ jb
+k
dt
dt
dt
dt

299


) ( ) .(A-12 :
)(A-14

)(A-5

[
]

(
)
A
+
)t

B
+
)t

B
(t
(t
)(t
)(t
d
= lim
AB
.
t 0
dt
t

) + t) B(t
) + t) B(t

(A(t
A(t
)
) (A-14 :

[
(
( )
)
]
(t + t) B
(t + t) A
(t) B
(t + t) B
(t) + A
) (t
A
t

)(A-15

t :
)

( d
dB + dA B

=A
AB
dt
dt
dt

)(A-16

.a b = b a
)
(
a b = b a :
)
)(A-17

B.

dA
dt

(
+

dB
dt

)
( d

=A
AB
dt

) (2 )(
) (1-2
) (CM :

)(B-1

mi .

= M

mi ri

300

= CM
MR


)(B-2

mi ri = 0

CM .
where ri = ri R

) (B-2 :
)(B-3

d
ri
CM .
i V
=v
dt

= i
where v

i = 0
mi v

) Oibjb kb O
( ) O ib jb kb O
ib jb kb
( . ) (KE
Oibjbkb:
)(B-4

1
mi vi2 .
2 i

= KEO

O ib jb kb:
)(B-5

1
mi vi2 .
2 i

= KECM

2
.KEO = KECM + (1/2)MVCM
.
2

) vi = (vi + VCM ) (vi + VCM

. mi vi = 0
Oibjb kb:

)(B-6

i .
mi ri v

= O
L

ri VCM + vi
RCM + ri
.vi

LO ] RCM mi vi = 0 .[ mi ri VCM = 0:
)(B-7

i
mi ri v

301

= CM
L

:
)(B-8

O = L
CM + M R
CM V
CM .
L

Theorem:


. 0,ext = dL0 /dt
)(B-9

ri Fi,ext

= 0,ext

Fext .i ri = ri + RCM
:
)(B-10

CM Fext ,
0,ext =
CM,ext + R

CM,ext ) (
. ) (B-8:
)(B-11

Fext

0
CM
dL
dL
CM .
CM V
CM + R
CM M A
=
+ MV
dt
dt

) (B-11 .RCM Fext


:
)(B-12

CM
dL
.
dt

= CM,ext

Theorem:

) (

CM ) .(CM
L
.L
: I
L I L
302

L CM I = I + Ma2
L L M .

. O L eb ) (
.L ri O .mi:
)(B-13

(
] )2
.
mi ri ri eb ri

=I

O CM ri O mi

2
ri ri (b
] ) e ri
[ .I = mi R O O .ri = R + ri

I 2R mi ri 2be mi ri

. mi ri = 0 :
)(B-14

[
(
] )2
R
eb R

I = I + M R
= I + Ma2 .


jb

.jb LO = ri mi vi O
.vi = d ri = xi ib + yi jb + zi kb
ri O mi ri /dt
b k
b
i,b j, . xi , yi , zi
b
ibb
di/dt
k . =
.dk/dt b + zi ib
b
jb ib = kb = ib
b
i = xi k
v
= jb k
:
)(B-15

([
)
]

b .
mi xi2 + zi2 jb xi yi ib yi zi k

O =
L

) (B-15
jb .O
:

) (x, y
y

) (x, y )

y = 0
(
) (x, y) (x, y
303

. L = Ijb

.

) ) (8-50) .((8-51


.


.



.
) (
.rj + i j
ri + rj
ri rj ri
rij = rj ri .rij rij
)
.
= rij
rj
rij ri
( rij = 0
i j ) fij j i (fij
fij
fij j i ri
i j rj
.fij
rij
fij rij .
) (
.

]

[.
:
.

304

) (3 )(
) (1-3
.
F = ma F a .
F
)( . n
n ) 1-2
( . x y 90

n n cos : x n sin
y
.
0 90 .

) (n1 , n2 x .y
n1 /n2



n .


n1 n2
.n
n1 n2 x
y n .

:
)(C-1

.
2

(
n2 = nf

n1 = nf () ,

n1 n2 n
.
305

)(

)(

:13 ) )( (.
N1 N1


N2 .N2

) )((

N1 + N2 N1 + N2


n1 .n2
.
) f ( .
) x (y ) x (y

) ( )
.(14 n ) n1 = nf (
x) n2 = nf ( /2 y
) n1 = nf ( + x ) n2 = nf ( /2
.y
) ( . ) nf (
) nf ()f ( x ) nf ()f ( /2
.y ) nf ( /2 y
) nf ( /2 )f ( /2 + x ) nf ( /2 )f (
n

306

.y x

)(C-2

( )
)

f
+ .
2
2

(
f ( + ) = f () f () + f

y .

y
y

:14 .

.f ( /2) = 0 f () : f (0) = 1
n
n )f () = f (
).f ( /2 ) = f ( /2 +
) (C-2 .
) ( . )f ( /2 ) = f ( /2 +
f ( /2) = 0 :
)(C-3

f () = f (0) f () .

307

.
) f (0) > 0 (f (0) = a2
) (C-3 ) .f () = A exp (a) + B exp (a )f () = f (
A = B f (0) = 1 .A = B = 1/2
.f ( /2) = 0
f (0) < 0 .f (0) = b2
) (C-3 .f () = A cos b + B sin b = )f (
) f ( f (0) = 1 A = 1 .B = 0 f ( /2) = 0
.b = 1, 3, 5, . . .
) !( f () 0 .0 /2
f () = cos .
) (

.
) (4 )(
) (1-4 )(

.
. ibjb kb
)( ib jb kb
)( A
a a + A
.
)F = m(a + A F
. F = ma
F F .mA

.
308

) (5 )(
) (1-5 : )(
: = =
: .



.

:
.
)
( : .
) ( .
F = ma )

() a (

.
.
.
:
.
: .

.



309

.

.


/ .
.

.
) ( .
.
: .
: .

310

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2002.

: :
(1) Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica, edited, with commentary
by Stephen Hawking, Google Books reference, available at http://books
.google.com/books.

: :
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by Stephen Hawking, Google Books reference, available at http://books
.google.com/books.
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and beyond, Addison-Wesley, Rutgers University Press, Piscataway, NJ,
2001.


(3) Randall K. Noon, Forensic engineering investigation, CRC Press
LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd, Boca Raton, FL 33431, 2001.
(4) Paul Valry, Regards sur le monde actuel et autres essais, Paris:
Gallimard, 5, rue Gaston-Gallimard, 75328 Paris cedex 07, 1945.
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figures, Retrieved 2012-09-29.
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newton, bouguer and cavendish, American Book Company, PO Box 2638,
Woodstock, GA 20188-1383, 1900.
(7)

P. J. Mohr, B. N. Taylor, and D. B. Newell, The 2010 codata

recommended values of the fundamental physical constants, National Insitute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899.
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2002.
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of mathematical functions, Cambridge University Press, UPH, Shaftesbury
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of mathematical functions, Cambridge University Press, UPH, Shaftesbury
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312