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5.

0 PLANNING OF RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION


Stages of Action

Figure 5: Stephen Kemmis & Mctaggart model 1988

The figure above shows Kemmis & Mctaggart model 1988. I will explain the process of
carrying action research based on these four stages as shown in next page:

Planning Stage
During this stage, I made a plan by first identifying the main problem faced by the
pupils and looking for variety of sources to find out the suitable technique to deal
with the problem faced by pupils. Then I prepared the lesson plan, the teaching
aids such as laptop, flash cards and projector to be used during implementation of
HSC technique in the lesson later.

Action Stage
During this stage, I started to implement HSC technique during four weeks of
lesson. However, I only carried out the implementation of HSC technique during
writing lesson which means only one day per week. Pre-writing test was being
carried out before implementation of HSC technique and post-writing test was
carried out after going through all four weeks of implementing HSC technique in
the lesson.

Observation Stage
During this stage, I observed the pupils during implementation of HSC technique in
the lesson. Moreover, I also analysed and interpreted the pre-writing test and postwriting test to identify whether there is any improvement among the pupils after
going through four weeks of implementation of HSC technique in the lesson.

Reflection Stage
During this stage, I write reflection in reflective journal at the end of each week of
the implementation of HSC technique in the lesson.

Figure 6: Flow chart of the four stages of action research model

Planning stage
This was the stage that I planned all the tasks or activities included in the whole
process of carrying action research until I finished my action research. First of all, I
identified the main problem faced by the pupils in the classroom through the reflection
of the problems during third phase of practicum. Next, I did more research on the
problem (using of subject-verb agreement in constructing the sentences) through
variety of resources such as books, the internet, journal articles and others. The
purpose of doing this was to explore more on the research being done on the problem
which involved techniques to improve the construction of sentences with correct
subject-verb agreement. Furthermore, I also planned to find out the reasons of the
pupils who had the problems of using correct subject-verb agreement in constructing
the sentences. I also prepared the instruments for data collection methods such as
reflective journal for writing reflection and pupils work for document analysis. Moreover,
I prepared lesson plans for four weeks of the implementation of HSC technique so that I
was able to carry out the intervention within the time planned in lesson plan. As a result,
HSC technique can be implemented in the lesson accordingly and orderly.

Action stage
During this stage, I started to implement HSC technique during four weeks of
lesson. However, I only carried out the implementation during writing lesson which
mean only one day per week. First of all, pre-writing test was carried out to identify the
amount of pupils who were able to use correct subject-verb agreements in constructing
the sentences. The pupils were required to construct five simple sentences based on
the pictures and words given. Then, I marked the sentences and checked whether they

were able to construct the sentences with correct subject-verb agreement. The postwriting test was carried out after going through four weeks of implementation of HSC
technique in the lesson. The questions in post-writing test are same as the questions in
pre-writing test. The purpose of carrying out this test was to compare the results
between pre-writing test and post-writing test in order to identify whether there was any
improvement shown between these two tests among the pupils. The improvement
among the pupils showed that HSC technique was effective in overcoming the problem
of constructing sentences with correct SVA. However, the condition was vice versa if
there was no any improvement among the pupils regarding to the comparison of their
results of both tests.

HSC technique was consisted of hand and shape coding technique. For the first
implementation, I used hands to teach SVA to the pupils. This kind of technique was
used in every week to remind the pupils which personal pronouns are singular or plural
so that they are able to use correct SVA in constructing the sentences. I taught the
pupils regarding to the technique of shape coding in the sentences through PowerPoint
slides. First of all, I taught the pupils on how to differentiate the subject and verb in the
sentences by using two different types of shape According to Richards & Rodgers
(2001), visual feature possessed by the shape helped the pupils to easily differentiate
the subject and verb in the sentences. From this technique, I used two different shapes
to represent subject and verb in the sentence (circle shape for subject and triangle
shape for verb). At the end of the lesson, the pupils are provided with worksheets for
them to do. In the worksheets, the pupils were required to identify the subjects and
verbs in the sentences (Refer to Appendix B). The reflective journal was used to record
the experience of teaching during the intervention in the lesson.

For the second implementation, the technique used still remained the same.
Firstly, I used hands to remind the pupils on the personal pronouns as the subjects to
the singular or plural form of verbs in the sentences. I explained the use of correct
subject-verb agreement in constructing the sentences through technique of shape
coding. Since I had taught the pupils on how to differentiate the subject (circle) and verb
(triangle) by using two different shapes during first implementation, I taught them on
how to put correct verbs behind the subjects in the sentences during this
implementation through the technique of shape coding. The pupils should put plural
form of verb behind plural form of subject with more than one circle such as more than
one people and plural form of personal pronouns (I, we, they and you). At the end of
this implementation, the pupils were required to fill in the correct verbs which agree with
the subjects in the sentences in the worksheets (Refer to Appendix C). Besides that, the
teaching and learning experiences in the lesson were jotted down in reflective journal
for further analysis for its strengths and weaknesses and designing solutions to
overcome the weaknesses.

For the third intervention, the technique used was still the same and I designed
and created two big hand puppets with the personal pronouns written on the puppets
for the pupils to wear them in the lesson. The purpose of designing the hand puppets
was to attract the attention of the pupils and always reminded the pupils on different
types of personal pronouns which follow by either singular form of verbs or plural form
of verbs in the sentences. Moreover, the puppets were very beautiful with different
types of colour and big in sizes with bigger size of words so that the pupils could easily
remember the personal pronouns. During this week of implementation, technique of
shape coding was still being used to teach the pupils. However, the size of words

especially subjects and verbs became larger than the previous words for all the pupils
to see clearly since there were 39 pupils in the classroom. A few of sentence cards
written with the examples of sentences with circle shapes and triangle shapes
surrounding the subjects and verbs were pasted surrounding the classroom so that the
pupils always remembered when to put correct form of verbs behind the subjects in the
sentences through technique of shape coding. At the end of this lesson, the pupils were
required to construct five simple sentences based on the words (verbs were provided)
and pictures given (Refer to Appendix D). Reflection was jotted down in reflective
journal regarding to the strengths and weaknesses of implementation of HSC technique
during the lesson.

For the last intervention, I still use hand puppets to remind the pupils regarding
to the singular form or plural form of verbs to be put behind different types of personal
pronouns in order to construct sentences with correct SVA. A group activity was set up
by requiring each group of pupils to construct five simple sentences with correct SVA
based on the words and pictures given. The purposes of carrying out this group activity
were to promote cooperative learning among the pupils and in the same time assessing
the understanding of pupils in constructing the sentences with correct SVA. The final
worksheets were distributed to the pupils to do regarding to the construction of simple
sentences with correct SVA based on the words and pictures given at the end of the
lesson (Refer to Appendix E). The reflection was made and jolted down in reflective
journal at the end of the lesson.

After all the interventions finished, I carried out post-intervention test which
contained same questions as the questions set in pre-intervention test. The purpose of
carrying out this test was to check on the research participants progress whether there
was any improvement on the construction of sentences with correct SVA after
undergoing the four interventions.

Observation stage
This stage was carried out during pre-writing test, post-writing test and during
the implementation of HSC technique in the lesson. During pre-writing test and postwriting test, I observed the pupils on whether they were able to construct the sentences
before implementation of HSC technique was carried out for four weeks. During the
activities were being carried out, I observed the behaviours of the pupils in the
classroom to identify whether the pupils were interested in participating the activities
and in the same time I observed the pupils whether there was some improvement in the
problems faced by the pupils. I prepared observation notes in order to record the
behaviours of pupils during the process to find out whether they were interested in the
activities during the process or they were able to do the test during pre-intervention test
and post-intervention test. Besides, I also provided scaffolding to the pupils to guide
them during the activities.

Reflection stage
After post-intervention test, I wrote full reflection on the pupils performance and
behaviours on whether there was any improvement in construction of sentences with
correct SVA after the lesson. This stage was important as it helped me to reflect on
whether HSC technique was suitable to help the pupils to use correct subject-verb
agreement in constructing the sentences by analysing and interpreting the reflection
made during the four lessons.

Data Collection Methods


In my action research, I used three different types of data collection methods to collect
the data. They were pupils works, reflective journal as well as pre-writing test and postwriting test.

Pupils work
Rating of pupils works can be defined as the rating or evaluations being made
for the pupils works such as worksheets during the teaching and learning process in
the classroom to show strong evidences for the improvement regarding to the research
topic (Goh, 2012). I provided worksheets for the pupils to do after each process of
implementation of HSC technique at the end of the lesson. The level of the questions in
the worksheets was ranging from easy to difficult level. For example, for the easy level,
the pupils are required to fill in the sentences with correct subject-verb agreements
during the first and second interventions. Then, the pupils were required to construct a

few of simple sentences with correct subject-verb agreement for the second and third
implementation. The examples of the worksheets could be referred to the Appendix B,
Appendix C, Appendix D and Appendix E.

Reflective journal
According to Goh (2012), reflective journal becomes one of the important elements of
the action research. Reflective journal can be defined as recalling of the teachers
learning and teaching experiences that happened in the classroom which help the
teachers to understand what they have done through techniques of questioning and
investigation (Ortlipp, 2008). Goh (2012) also stated that reflective journal is valuable
written evidence which help the teachers to improve their teaching and learning
practices during the lesson and in the same time improve the pupils learning. Reflective
journal also acted as one of the important triangulation data which further validates the
other data such as observation and interview (Ortlipp, 2008). In my action research, I
prepared reflective journal (Refer to Appendix G) to record my reflection for each
implementation at the end of each lesson.

Pre-writing test and Post-writing test


According to Goh (2012), pre-writing test and post-writing test play important role in
data collection methods as both tests were carried out to to identify whether there was
any improvement among the pupils in overcoming the problem they faced. Pre-writing
test was carried out before the implementation was being carried out during lesson
whereas post-writing test was carried out after going through all the process of

implementation of HSC technique. For my action research, I set the same questions for
both of the tests which required the pupils to construct five simple sentences with
correct SVA based on the words and pictures given (Refer to Appendix A). The level of
words were on par with the level of English proficiency of Year 4 pupils. The pupils were
given 15 minutes to finish both tests. Both test papers of all the pupils were marked and
further analysed and interpreted to show whether there was any improvement among
the pupils and to testify the effectiveness of the HSC technique in overcoming the
problem of the pupils.

Data Analysis Method


Pre-writing test and Post-writing test
The marks of pre-writing test and post-writing test for each pupil were being calculated
and then the mean and standard deviation were calculated to show if there was any
improvement between pre-writing test and post-writing test and to testify whether HSC
technique was effective in overcoming the problem faced by the pupils. The table of the
mean and standard deviation of pre-writing test and post-writing test is shown below.

Table 1:

The Results of Pre-writing Test and Post-writing Test


Pupils

Marks (100%)
Pre-writing test

Post-writing test

RP1

60

100

RP2

40

100

RP3

60

80

RP4

60

80

RP5

60

100

RP6

40

100

RP7

60

100

RP8

60

100

RP9

20

80

RP10

60

100

Total

560

960

Mean

56

96

Standard

13.3

9.1

Deviation

Based on table 1, all the pupils showed improvement in constructing the


sentences with correct SVA as the mean of pre-writing test increased from 56% to 96%
marks of the post-writing test. For example, RP9 and RP5 showed the greatest
improvement in the mark between both tests. This was because RP5 and RP9 were

able to use correct SVA in constructing the sentences through HSC technique. They
were able to put singular form of verb behind two or more than two subjects (people,
animals and things) or plural form of verb behind only one subject in the sentences.
Before this, they kept making mistake by adding singular form of verb behind singular
subject. This also indirectly showed the effectiveness of HSC technique in helping these
pupils to overcome their problem. HSC technique had helped them to identify the
subject and verb in the sentence through using of two different shapes (circle and
triangle). Moreover, they were able to put correct form of verbs behind the subjects as
they knew

that one subject (one circle) should follow with singular form of verb

whereas more than one subject (more than one circle) should follow with plural form of
verb in the sentence. Although RP3 and RP4 showed slight improvement in the mark
between both tests, they were able to correct their former mistake by putting correct
form of verb behind different types of personal pronouns. For example, they were able
to put singular form of verb behind personal pronoun I in the sentence as I is special
personal pronoun which requires singular form of verb to be followed behind it. This
showed the effectiveness of using hands (a part of HSC technique) to remind the pupils
on the type of forms to be followed after different types of personal pronouns.

Results of Pre-writing Test and Post-writing Test


120
100
80
Mark (%)

Pre-writing test
Post-writing test

60
40
20
0

Pre-writing test

Post-writing test

Figure 5: The results of pre-writing test and post-writing test

Based on figure 5, the means of pre-writing test had increased from 56% to 96% marks
the post-writing test. This mean there was improvement among the pupils over the use
of correct SVA in constructing the sentences. The pupils were able to put the correct
form of verb after the singular subject or plural subjects as well as different types of
personal pronouns.

Results of Pre-writing test and Post-writing test among the Pupils


120
100
80
Marks (%)

Pre-writing test

60

Post-writing test

40
20
0

RP1 RP2 RP3 RP4 RP5 RP6 RP7 RP8 RP9 RP10
Participants

Figure 6: The results of pre-writing test and post-writing test among the pupils

Based on figure 6, the bars of post-writing test were higher than the bars of pre-writing
test for all of the pupils. This showed that there was improvement among the pupils
over the marks between both tests. For example, the mark of pre-writing test of RP2
was 40%. It was raised to 100% for post-writing test. The same went to RP1, RP5,
RP6, RP7, RP8 and RP10 who scored 100% in the post-writing test.

Pupils works
The data collected from the pupils work were first analysed quantitatively and
qualitatively. Marks are given to the pupils works as the ratings or evaluations
(Quantitative way of analysis) (Creswell, 2008). For example, the marks 100% were
given to the pupils performance for the worksheets of the pupils. However, I
emphasised more on the 10 participants who had serious problems of the use of correct
SVA in constructing the sentences. I analysed the mistakes done by the participants
who scored low mark regarding to the use of subject-verb agreements in constructing
the sentences. The marks depended on the numbers of the question and types of the
question. For example, for the questions that required the pupils to construct the simple
sentences with correct SVA, I marked the sentences based on the correct SVA used in
the sentence even though there were other grammatical mistakes such as prepositions.
This mean that the marks were given to the correct use of SVA only. Table 2 showed the
mean scores of the pupils works.

Table 2:

Results of the Pupils Works


Pupils

Worksheets
Worksheet 1

Worksheet 2

Worksheet 3

Worksheet 4

Marks (100%)
RP1

40

60

80

100

RP2

40

60

80

100

RP3

40

60

60

80

RP4

40

60

80

80

RP5

40

60

60

100

RP6

40

40

80

100

RP7

40

60

60

80

RP8

40

60

80

100

RP9

40

40

60

80

RP10

40

40

60

80

Mean

40

54

70

90

Based on Table 2, the mean score from worksheet 1 had increased from 40% to
90% (worksheet 4). This showed that there was improvement among the pupils over
the use of correct SVA in constructing the sentences. The level of questions was
increased slightly from Worksheet 1 to Worksheet 4. For example, the marks of RP6,
RP9 and RP10 from Worksheet 1 had increased slightly to Worksheet 4 although there

were two marks remained unchanged (Worksheet 1 and Worksheet 2). However, for
Worksheet 3 and Worksheet 4, the marks had slightly increased from 60% of
Worksheet 3 until 80% of Worksheet 4. This was because they were getting interested
with technique HSC with the use of interesting and attractive hand puppets and the use
of two different shapes in teaching pupils to put correct form of verbs after subjects in
the construction of sentences. It was because the use of one circle shape surrounding
the subject indicated that the singular form of verb should be put after this subject and
the condition is vice versa if more than one circle shapes were drew around the subject
in the sentence besides the visual feature of the shapes easily attracted the attention of
pupils. Moreover, the use of hand puppets helped them easily to remember how to put
correct form of verb after singular form or plural form of personal pronouns by
remembering that left hand (he, she and it) was singular subjects whereas right hand (I,
we, you and they) was plural subjects. As a result, they were able to do well by
constructing three simple sentences with correct SVA in Worksheet 3 and constructing 4
simple sentences out of 5 with correct SVA in Worksheet 4. This showed that they were
able to know how to put singular form or plural form of verb after the singular subjects
or plural subjects through the use of HSC technique. They were also able to
differentiate the subject and verb in the sentence now after going through four weeks of
implementation since they scored low mark for worksheet which required them to
differentiate subjects and verbs in the sentences provided. In a nutshell, HSC technique
worked effectively in helping the pupils to overcome the use of correct SVA in
constructing sentences based on the results of four worksheets in four weeks of
implementation.

Reflective journal

Reflective journal was prepared to record the teaching and learning process at
the end of each lesson. The journal was analysed qualitatively. In the reflection, I
recorded what had happened during the intervention in the lesson. I analysed the
strengths and weaknesses of the implementation of HSC technique and made
necessary adjustments to the techniques to overcome the weaknesses. Moreover, I
also analysed on whether there was any improvement in the pupils who had the
problems through the data collection from pre-writing test and post-writing test as well
as pupils works. This aimed to testify whether the techniques used are able to help the
pupils to overcome their problems.

Based on the four weeks of reflection in reflective journal, the data collection
from reflection in reflective journal (Refer to Appendix ) was extracted by using method
of coding. The reflection was analysed in terms of themes by examining the words,
phrases and sentences used in the written reflective journal. The emerging themes that
I noticed through all four weeks of reflection were the pupils attention, cooperative
learning, teaching practices and pupils participation.

Firstly, the pupils participation could be encourage by the use of HSC technique
in the lesson. It showed that the pupils were likely to engage in the activities in the
classroom and such activities were able to arouse their interest in learning of
construction of sentences with correct SVA and thus created passionate involvement
among the pupils. The use of hands in first two weeks of lesson and then upgraded to
colourful and attractive hand puppets arouse the interest of pupils to be more actively
participating in the lesson. Moreover, the use of shape coding technique by using two

different shapes (circle and triangle) to surround the subjects and verbs in the
sentences also arouse the interest of pupils in learning to construct the sentences with
correct SVA.

The second emerging theme was pupils attention. The use of hand puppets and
shapes in the sentences were able to grab their attention in the lesson. According to
Richards and Rodgers (2011), the visual feature possessed by the shapes easily
attracted the attention of pupils who had stronger visual ability and this indirectly caused
them to identify the subjects, verbs and predicates in the sentences easily. Moreover,
the shapes could be place along the words in the sentences to show the hierarchical
structures of the sentences (Ebbels, 2007). This indirectly attracted the attention of
pupils as they were able to identify the subjects and verbs in the sentences easily.
Besides that, the use of hands in first two weeks of lesson was being upgraded to hand
puppets which could easily attract the attention of pupils by increasing their attention
span due to its attractiveness and colourful features. As a result, they were able to stay
focused in the lesson much longer as their attention span had been increased to avoid
them to make noise during the lesson.

The third emerging theme in this journal was the cooperative learning. The use
of HSC technique affected their social skills because it promoted social interaction
among the pupils as they were asked to work in groups. Thus, cooperative learning was
instilled among the pupils as each pupil in the group interacted with each other during
group activity. Some of the pupils were still eager to participate in the activity although

they were not happy as they had lost at the end of the activity. Apart from that, the
pupils were also assessed on their understanding of the learning of construction of
sentences with correct SVA through HSC technique in this activity. The technique of
HSC proved its effectiveness as most of the group of pupils were able to show the
sentences with correct SVA.

Last but not least, teaching practices was the last emerging theme in this
journal. The use of HSC technique was able to improve my teaching practices
throughout the four weeks of implementation of HSC technique in the lesson. Based on
the analysis of reflection in the journal, HSC technique was able to improve my time
management in carrying out the implementation of HSC technique during the lesson. As
HSC technique was implemented during the writing lesson, I needed to make lesson
plan for both the implementation and writing lesson could be carried out in the same
time within one hour. Hence, I was able to teach HSC technique within time given
including the time to explain shape coding, time to teach pupils to remember personal
pronouns through hands and time to do Worksheet 2 at the end of the lesson.
Moreover, in terms of teaching strategies, I was also able to increase the pupils
attention in the implementation of HSC technique in the lesson by upgrading the use of
hands to hand puppet as it was colourful and attractive. In addition to that, I also
enlarged the size of the words in the sentences especially subjects and verbs so that
every pupils in the classroom could see them clearly. As a result, the pupils who had
short attention span and strong visual ability were able to pay more focused in the
lesson of implementation of HSC technique rather than making noise in the classroom.

Data Triangulation Method

Pre-writing test and


Post-writing test

Reflective journal

Rating of pupils work

Figure 7: Data triangulation methods

According to Goh (2012), data triangulation can be defined as a type of practice


that involves various types of data resources which help to prove the validity and
credibility of the research findings. Denzin stated that data triangulation can increase
the confidence among the researchers as it helps them to reduce the researchs
biasness and indirectly verify the research findings (as cited in Goh, 2012). As stated in
the figure above, I used reflective journal, pre-writing test and post-writing test as well
as pupils work in data of triangulation. The question was how did these three different
types of data resources triangulate with each another?

Firstly, I carried out pre-writing test before implementation of HSC technique is


and post-writing test after implementation. The purpose of carrying out both tests was to
testify whether there was any improvement in the construction of sentences with correct
SVA among the pupils after going through four weeks of implementation. Based on the
data analysis, the mean score of post-writing test was higher than the mean score of

pre-writing test. This showed that technique HSC worked effective in improving the
pupils in constructing the sentences with correct SVA. However, in order to verify
credibility and validity of the data in both tests, I used another data resource, the rating
of pupils work. I provided the worksheets for all the pupils to do at the end of the
lesson. Then, I analysed their work to see whether the pupils were improving in using
correct SVA in constructing the sentences. Based on the data analysis, data in prewriting test and post-writing test were proved validity and credibility by pupils works
which show rising of the marks of worksheet from Worksheet 1 to Worksheet 4 during
four weeks of implementation. This also proved that the pupils showed improvement in
using correct SVA in constructing sentences through effective HSC technique. Both
data collection methods above were proved further for their credibility and validity by
reflective journal. This was because based on the analysis and interpretation of the
strengths and weaknesses of each weeks implementation during lesson, the
weaknesses of each weeks implementation show declining from first week until final
week. This proved that HSC technique was effective in helping the pupils to overcome
their problem.

In conclusion, all the three data resources had been verified for their credibility
and validity by complementing with each other. These provided strong support for the
effectiveness of HSC technique in improving the use of correct SVA in constructing the
sentences.