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ME 530 Designing for Production

Chp 5 - Manufacturing Processes in Design

Mechanical Engineering
University of Gaziantep

Dr. A
D
A. T
Tolga
l B
Bozdana
d
Assistant Professor

Classification of Manufacturing Processes


The common methods of material processing are as follows:
1 Solidification (casting) processes: molten metal
1.
metal, plastic or glass casting
2. Deformation processes: forging, rolling, extrusion, etc.
3. Material removal or cutting (machining) processes: turning, milling, drilling, etc.
4 Polymer
4.
P l
processing:
i
i j ti molding,
injection
ldi
th
thermoforming,
f
i
etc.
t
5. Powder processing: sintering, compaction, and so on.
6. Joining processes: welding, soldering, riveting, bolting, etc.
7. Heat and surface treatment processes: carburizing, nitriding, electroplating, etc.
8. Advanced processes: EDM, ECM, waterjet, laser machining/ablation, etc.
9. Assembly processes: subassembly of finished products.

Some Terminology
Final products made by the industries can be divided into two major classes:
Consumer goods: products purchased directly by consumers (e.g. TV, car, tires etc.)
Capital goods: purchased by other companies to produce goods and supply services
(e.g. aircraft, machine tools, construction equipment etc.)

Production rate: refers to the number of


products produced per unit time (), e.g.
part/hour.

Production variety: refers to


different product designs/types
produced in the p
plant.
that are p

Production q
quantity:
y refers to the number
of products produced annually (n):
low production: n < 102
medium production: 102 < n < 104
high production: 104 < n
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Break-Even Analysis
This analysis is conducted to determine break-even point for a product where its production
cost (i.e. total cost) is equal to its revenue (i.e. money earned by sales).
Total
T t l costt off a product
d t involves
i
l
fi d and
fixed
d variable
i bl costs:
t
Fixed Costs: costs that are not directly related to level of production (e.g. .rents and rates,
research & development,
development marketing,
marketing machinery,
machinery administration,
administration etc.)
etc )

Saales&Co
osts

Variable Costs: vary directly with level of production (e.g. raw materials, labour, tooling, etc.)

PROFIT
BreakEven
Point

Variable
V
i bl
Costs

LOSS

Fixed
Costs
ProductionQuantity

Factors in Process Selection


1. Cost of manufacture
The most important factor in the selection of
manufacturing process and material.
Consider the life cycle cost of a product
allowing for maintenance and disposal.
part ((C)) depends
p
upon
p
The unit cost of a p
the material, tooling and labour costs.

CC C L
C CM
~
n
n
CM : material cost per unit
CC : capital
p cost of machineryy and toolingg
CL : labour cost per unit time
n : production quantity
: production rate

2. Quantity of parts (Production Volume)


It refers to the minimum number of parts to justify the use of manufacturing process.
process
The concept of economical lot size: the break-even volume (i.e. the optimum
production quantity for a product at desired level of production with profits).
The concept of flexibility in manufacturing: related with the production variety
(e.g. a process can be adapted to produce different products and/or variations of
the same product).
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Factors in Process Selection


3. Complexity
The complexity of a part refers to its shape, size and type/number of features on it.
Most mechanical parts have 3D shape although sheet-metal parts are simply 2D.
y
or nonsymmetrical.
y
Parts can also be symmetrical
Many processes will not allow the manufacture of parts with undercuts.
Thus,
Thus candidate processes are defined based on the complexity of part geometry.
geometry
4 Materials
4.
Functional requirements (properties of materials) play an important role.
Melting point, level of deformation, strength and ductility are usually the chief factors.
For instance, the melting point of material determines applicable casting processes.
Also, some materials may be too brittle for shaping by deformation processes while
others may be too reactive to have good weldability.
The next slide shows Prima selection matrix for material and process selection.
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Prima Selection Matrix

Courtesy of: Process Selection: From Design to Manufacture, K.J. Swift & J.D. Booker, 2003

Factors in Process Selection


5. Required quality of the part
The quality of the part is defined by three aspects:
1. Freedom from internal defects (voids, porosity, micro cracks, segregation) and
external or surface defects (surface cracks, extreme roughness, discoloration).
2. Improved surface finish (i.e. lower surface roughness) of a part determines its
appearance, affects the assembly with other parts, and increases its resistance to
corrosion, fatigue and wear.
3. Good dimensional accuracy
y and meeting
g tolerances in order to jjustify
y the use of
selected material and process for the manufacture of part for achieving required
functionality without incurring extra costs.

Concluding
g Remarks:
The achievement of good quality in above aspects is influenced by producibility of
parts as well as the assembly
y of p
parts together.
g
individual p
For this purpose, the design methodologies (DFM / DFA) should be incorporated.
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DFM and DFA Guidelines


Design for Manufacturing (DFM)
1. Minimise total number of parts (without making other parts too heavy or complex)
2. Standardise the components (to reduce costs and to enhance quality)
3. Use common parts across product lines (use same materials, parts and subassemblies)
4 Design
4.
D i multifunctional
ltif
ti
l parts
t (e.g.
(
a partt may serve as a structural
t t l member
b and
d a spring)
i )
5. Design parts for the ease of fabrication (affects material selection)
6 Avoid
6.
A id too
t
tight
ti ht tolerances
t l
(t reduce
(to
d
costs
t without
ith t d
deteriorating
t i ti th
the ffunctionality)
ti
lit )
7. Avoid or minimise the secondary operations (unless required for special/aesthetic purpose)
8 Utilise the special characteristics of processes (care about built
8.
built-in
in causes or side effects)
Design for Assembly (DFA)
1. Minimise the total number of parts (part not need to be assembled is not required in design)
2. Minimise the assembly surfaces (fewer surfaces need to be prepared for assembly)
3. Avoid separate fasteners (snap fits must be preferred wherever possible instead of screws)
4. Minimise assembly direction (design parts to be assembled from one direction)
5. Maximise compliance in assembly (adjust assembly forces required for non-identical parts)
6. Minimise handling in assembly (design parts so that assembly positions are easy to achieve)

DFM Casting Guidelines

DFM Casting Guidelines

Prevent shrinkage cavity.

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DFM Sheet Forming Guidelines

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DFM Sheet Forming Guidelines

12

DFM Injection Moulding Guidelines

13

DFM Machining Guidelines

14

DFM Machining Guidelines

15

DFA General Guidelines

16

DFA Handling Guidelines

17

DFA Joining Guidelines

18

DFA Insertion Guidelines

19

DFA System Guidelines

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