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authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
Published by:
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Copyright:
2014 MFF, Mangroves for the Future, Pakistan.
Citation is encouraged. Reproduction and/or translation of this publication for
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Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is
prohibited without prior written permission from MFF Pakistan.
Citation:
MFF Pakistan (2014). Coastal Erosion in Pakistan: A National Assessment Report.
MFF Pakistan, Pakistan. 52 pp.
Compilation:
WWF Pakistan
Editor:
Mahvash Haider Ali
Technical Editor:
Ghulam Qadir Shah, National Coordinator, MFF Pakistan
ISBN:
978-969-643-016-2
Design:
Azhar Saeed, IUCN Pakistan
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WWF Pakistan, Nadeem Mirbahar
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www.mangrovesforthefuture.org

Table of Contents
Abbreviations and Acronyms

Executive Summary

Introduction

1.1 Background

1.2 Geographical Background

1.3 Policy/Administrative/ Governance Background Relevant to


Addressing Coastal Erosion

11

Coastal Erosion - Situation Analysis

12
18

2.4 Chapter Summary: Assessment of Issue on Coastal Erosion

30

Policies and Legal/Institutional Mechanisms dealing with


Coastal Erosion

31

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Past Policies and Legal/ Institutional Mechanisms

3.3 Present Policies and Legal/ Institutional Mechanisms

3.4 Planned/Future Policies and Legal/ Institutional Mechanisms

31

31

34

35

3.5 Chapter Summary

35

37

4.1 Introduction

4.3 Current Interventions and Development Contribute (and Hinder)

4.4 Planned/Future Interventions and Development Support

4.5 Chapter Summary

37

37

38

39

40

Assessment of Gaps and Needs

41

5.1 Introduction:

41

5.2 Policies, Legal and Institutional Arrangements

5.3 Building Capacities

5.4 Knowledge and Education

5.5 Finances

27

Current and Planned Interventions


4.2 Past Interventions and Development Brief Survey

13

2.2 Factors Influencing Coastal Erosion: Assessment

2.3 Focus on Sea-Level Rise (SLR) Highlight Climate Change/ SLR


on Coastal Erosion

1.4 Relevance of MFF/YEOSU Regional Initiative and other related


Initiatives/Programmes in addressing Coastal Erosion
2.1 Present Status of Erosion: Overview of Coastal Erosion Problem

41

42

42

43

5.6 Chapter Summary

43

Menu of Recommended Pilot Interventions

44

6.1 Introduction: Identification of Hotspots and Types of Intervention

6.2 Identification of Locations of Hotspots

6.3 Recommended Pilot Interventions

6.4 Work Plan of Pilot Intervention

44

44

46

46

6.5 Chapter Summary

47

Conclusion

48

References

49

Abbreviations and Acronyms


BCDA

Balochistan Coastal Development Authority

CCAP

Climate Change Adaptation Plans

COBSEA

Coordinating Body on the Seas of East Asia

CRI

Global Climate Risk Index

DCO

District Coordination Officer

DG

Director General

DHA

Defence Housing Authority

DPO

District Police Officer

EEZ

Exclusive Economic Zone

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

GIS

Geographical Information System

GO

Government Organisation

ICZM

Integrated Coastal Zone Management

IUCN

International Union for the Conservation of Nature & Natural


Resources

KDA

Karachi Development Authority

KPOD

Kadhan Pateji Outfall Drain

KPT

Karachi Port Trust

LAPA

Local Adaptation Plans of Actions

LBOD

Left Bank Outfall Drain

LGO

Local Government Ordinance

LP

LEAD Pakistan

LPG

Liquid Petroleum Gas

MFF

Mangroves For the Future

MSA

Maritime Security Agency

NAR

National Assessment Report

NDMA

National Disaster Management Authority

NEQS

National Environment Quality Standards

NGOs

Non-Governmental Organisations

NIO

National Institute of Oceanography

NOC

No Objection Certificate

PEPA

Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency

RCC

Reinforced Concrete Cement

SCDA

Sindh Coastal Development Authority

SEPA

Sindh Environmental Protection Agency

SIDA

Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority

SLR

Sea Level Rise

SST

Sea Surface Temperature

TMA

Taluka Municipal Administration

UC

Union Council

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural


Organization

WWF

World Wide Fund for Nature

YEOSU Project South Korean programme for strengthening capabilities of


developing countries to meet the challenges related to the
oceans and the environment.

Executive Summary
Pakistan borders the Arabian Sea with a coastline stretching up to 990 km
spread along the Sindh and Balochistan provinces. Out of 990 km, 230 km of
the coast lies within the province of Sindh and the rest along the province of
Balochistan. The sensitive ecology of the land along the coast of Pakistan is
under environmental pressures due to a number of activities. These include
developmental activities, harbour- and port-related activities such as
dredging, land reclamation, disposal of solid waste and sewage. These
activities have made the coast vulnerable to erosion or accretion.
The National Assessment Report (NAR) on the vulnerabilities of coastal
erosion in Pakistan is prepared to ascertain the level of changes to the
coastline resulting from erosion and identifies potential pilot interventions. It
discusses the environmental and geographical setting of the coastal zone of
Pakistan. It also presents the administrative and governance context in terms
of laws and legislations that deal with coastal disasters. It presents an
assessment of the status of erosion in the coastal zone of Pakistan and
factors that are responsible for the erosion. The report covers the institutional
mechanism and governing laws. It indicates that in the past there was no
policy for combating coastal erosion and taking mitigation measures due to
the fact that it was not considered a threatening problem for the coastal land.
It assesses gaps in the management regime in mitigating coastal erosion
resulting from the lack of interaction and cooperation amongst different
stakeholders involved in the development work in the coastal zone.
The coastal area of Pakistan is under the direct influence of oceanic forces that
have severe bearings on the coast. One of the major forces is the monsoon
weather system that develops due to a differential heating regime. Meanwhile
an increasing number of development related interventions have been initiated
on the coast for different real estate purposes. The anthropogenic changes are
causing huge loss of property of the public and private owners through the
reshaping of the coastline by erosion and accretion at important sites.
Although erosion is a natural phenomenon but, because of the coastal
movement in its position season to season, it is largely evident in populated
areas along the coast due to human interventions. The main hotspots,
identified and discussed with root cause of the problem, are the Indus Delta,
Damb, Pasni, Gwadar and Jiwani, which require immediate attention.
The most important functions of the coastal land and waters are harbours,
industry and tourism, therefore the responsibility for the protection of such areas
is binding on all the permanent users, but mainly on the government agencies
that manage and steer the usage of the coastal areas. Additionally, there are
relevant policies and practices of non-coastal sectors, including the private
sector that can exacerbate coastal erosion. The use of the coast for berthing
the ships/boats continues without any consolidated mechanism. The Karachi
Harbour is the only institution which has been using the coast for the last 125
years and engaging in port related development. In the recent past, the Port

5
Qasim Authority (PQA) has also been amongst the
institutions using coastal areas. The situation in
Balochistan is more serious due to the lack of
resources. The ship re-cycling industry has been
active for a long time now, and has been blocking
longshore movement of seawater and sediment
that increases erosion. Similarly, different
government departments, such as GDA, BCDA
and Fisheries Department are either constructing
or have constructed fishing jetties.
The interventions in the coastal areas of Pakistan
have exacerbated the erosion in the Indus Delta
due to the impact of the LBOD system. The
development of unplanned Water Front Projects
at Karachi and port facilities for fish landing at
Damb, Pasni, Gwadar, Pishukan and Jiwani have
also exacerbated erosion. As a result of failure of
the development work along the coastal belt of
Pakistan, it is learned that there is a lack of
coordination amongst various stakeholders
involved in developmental activities in the coastal
areas.
Pakistan is required to respond to erosion by using
various means to control shoreline erosion. These
means can be to include constructing hard erosion
control devices such as seawalls, groins and jetties,
and soft stabilization of beaches using beach
nourishment. This will all have to be conducted
after due consideration of sediment transport
pattern and soil bearing capacity of the area.
Further to this, at national/sub-national and local
levels, it will be beneficial to build the capacity of
all relevant stakeholders, CBOs and local
communities on basic assessment of coastal
habitats, beach monitoring methods, mapping
techniques and coastal erosion mitigation
planning. It is required that they are brought
under a coordinating body to streamline the
efforts. All the universities, like University of
Lasbela at Uthal, University of Karachi,
engineering universities in Karachi, as well as
university campuses in Thatta and Badin districts
established in the coastal cities and towns in
Pakistan, should be engaged in data collection
and dissemination of information to combat the
erosion issue with the technical assistance of the
National Institute of Oceanography.

The hotspots of coastal erosion in Pakistan as


identified suggest relevant interventions with the
basis of selection. The interventions were
suggested by a number of participants from
government, civil society, academia, CBOs and
local communities during a consultative workshop
held for the development of this report.
After the December 2004 tsunami in Indonesia
and the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, the
Government of Pakistan established disaster
management systems at the federal, provincial
and district levels. However, at present they are
not dealing with the activities that exacerbate
coastal erosion. The entire responsibility is left to
the provincial departments in general and land
departments of cities in particular.
Further to this, the existing institutional mandates
and policies of coastal agencies do not give
adequate attention to coastal erosion processes
and issues. At present the responsibility for
planning of coastal protection schemes is usually
located at a provincial level. There are many gaps
in implementing the protection polices in the
provinces.
A detailed review of the policies being finalised
has revealed that there is no coordinated policy
to address the erosion problem in the two
provinces and at the national levels. At different
forums, however, there have been calls for a
mechanism that should be developed to address
this issue and adopt appropriate institutional and
policy measures to deal with it.
While discussing the issue of erosion with the
relevant stakeholders including policy makers,
technical experts and representatives of local
communities, it was transpired to formulate a
National Coastal Erosion Management Plan. It
was also agreed that pilot interventions may be
immediately undertaken to cope with the erosion
problems being faced by the coastal areas of
Sindh and Balochistan. These interventions may
include flood protection wall at Keti Bundar,
re-designing and repair of Tidal Link drain,
re-designing of fish harbours and protection
walls at Damb, Gaddani, Pasni and Jiwani.

INTRODUCTION OF
EROSION ASSESSMENT

This document is a National Assessment Report (NAR) on the vulnerabilities of


the Pakistani coast to erosion as a consequence of both human intervention
and natural phenomenon. On the basis of the assessments presented in this
report, recommendations on mitigation measures, including pilot interventions
to be adopted, have been made to address the coastal erosion issue in
Pakistan. This report is part of UNEP-COBSEA's project Strengthening the
Resilience of Coastal Communities, Ecosystems, and Economies to Sea-Level
Rise and Coastal Erosion financed by the Mangroves for the Future (MFF)
Programme.

1.1 Background
Pakistan is bordered by the Arabian Sea with a coastline of 990 km stretching
along the Sindh and Balochistan provinces. Out of 990 km, 230 km of the
coast lies within the province of Sindh and the rest along the province of
Balochistan. In both the coastal provinces of Pakistan, the coastal areas are
under environmental stress due to developmental activities such as
construction of harbours, dredging, land reclamation, disposal of solid waste
and sewage. Furthermore, development activities in the areas have put the
coast in a vulnerable state due to the impact of erosion and/or accretion.
Considering the impacts of coastal zone erosion on the coastal communities
and economy, the UNEP is conducting a two-year project, Strengthening the
Resilience of Coastal Communities, Ecosystems, and Economies to Sea-Level
Rise and Coastal Erosion with the financial collaboration of the MFF
Programme. The aims of the project are to strengthen the resilience of coastal
ecosystems, communities and local and national economies to more
effectively manage the adverse impacts of sea-level rise and coastal erosion
in two MFF countries: Pakistan and Thailand. In addition to addressing
coastal erosion, the initiative will consolidate and share existing knowledge
and best practices in coastal resource management, along with conducting
research on mangrove conservation, community resilience, and governance in
small coastal communities.

1.2 Geographical Background


The coastline of Pakistan is 990 kilometres long. (Figure 1) The submerged
Indus Canyon is the northern most boundary of the Arabian Sea which also

Figure 1 - Location of Pakistan on the border of Arabian Sea along with its surroundings and
natural features on land and on adjoining Arabian Sea

constitutes as the northern part of Indian Ocean.


The Arabian Sea is bound in the north by the
Asian continent making it distinguishable from
other world oceans which stretch to the northern
polar area. This unique geographical location of
the Arabian Sea has significant consequences for
the climate and the physiography of the
surrounding areas, especially in the case of
Pakistan.
Bordering the Arabian Sea, the coastal area of
Pakistan is under the direct influence of oceanic
forces that have severe bearings on the coast.
One of the major forces is the monsoon weather
system that develops due to a differential heating
regime. The differential heating between the
Arabian Sea and the surrounding land masses, as
a result of the seasonal movement of the sun,
causes a north-south pressure gradient that
drives the seasonally reversing (monsoon) winds
over the North Indian Ocean (NIO). Rainfall during
the Southwest (SW) monsoon is the major source
of freshwater in the coastal regions of the Sindh

province along the Arabian Sea. However, the


coastal areas of Pakistan, particularly Lasbella
and Gwadar districts of Balochistan, also receive
rain of a lesser intensity in winter (Figure 2).
The coast of Pakistan extends from the Sir Creek
in District Badin near the Pak-India border to
Dasht River at the extreme west of District
Gwadar near the Pak-Iran border. As a
combination of atmospheric forcing, oceanic
forcing and tectonic activities, the coast has been
categorised into three broad geomorphic
divisions: rocky cliffs (some geologists refer to
these as raised terraces), wide sandy beaches,
and low, flat delta plains. A detailed description of
the coastline of Balochistan and Sindh is
provided as follows:

1.2.1

Coastline along Balochistan

The coastline of Balochistan (Figure 2) extends


from Hub River, west of Karachi, to the Iranian
border, encompassing uplifted mountains and
platforms separated by scalloped bays, wide

8
sandy plains, salt marshes and lagoons, and
relatively small deltas. It is divided into Lasbela
plains (extending between Hub River and Ras
Malan) and Makran (extending between Ras
Malan and the Iranian border). Several of the
raised platforms or elevated areas along the
coast represent terraces and fault blocks - for
example, Ormara and Ras Malan. The tectonic
movements and erosion processes are highly
active in the area as evidenced by the more than
fifty earthquakes that have occurred in recent
history.
The raised terraces on the Makran coast are wavecut platforms covered with beach and near-shore
sediment, which are now elevated above the level
of present wave action through either elevation of
the land or lowering of the sea. Intensive wave
action during the summer monsoon season erodes

the cliffs from weaker areas in Gaddani, Ras


Malan, Ormara Headland, Pasni, Ras Shaheed,
Gwadar Headland and Jiwani.
Shoreline deposits are poorly represented
because progressive folding, uplift and erosion
have permanently removed the northern edges of
the sedimentary prisms. Two kinds of shoreline
deposits exist - one is sandy which shows typical
coarsening-upward cycles of lower shore face,
surf-zone, and beach faces developed on wave
dominated protruding shorelines (Harms et al.,
1975). The other is more calcareous and contains
abundant remains of coral, robust clams, and
other forms that thrive in shallow wave-agitated
water where detrital supply does not smother
their growth. These two types presumably
represent reaches of shoreline that were either at
or near the stream mouths or between streams

Figure 2 - Delineation of areas of Balochistan and Sindh which receive rain in different
seasons (modified from Snead, 1993)

9
where long shore supply of mud or sand was
limited (Haq and Milliman, 1984).
Surf-zone deposits of trough cross-stratified,
medium to fine grained sand show orientations
indicating strong westward drift, commonly
observed on the modern shoreline under the
attack of large Indian Ocean waves approaching
at an oblique angle. Well-sorted beach beds cap
these surf-zone sandstone deposits, showing
delicate lamination dipping at low angles seaward
in cusp-shaped sets. The shoreline beaches
include Hub river mouth, and its coastal vicinity
towards Gaddani, Miani Hor lagoon and the
surroundings along the lagoon inlet, low-lying
areas near Ormara, the coastal zone of Pasni in
between river and Ras Koh, Kalmat Khor, alluvial
plains of Gwadar town, and Jiwani including
Dasht river mouth.

1.2.2 Sindh Coastal Zone


The coastal zone of Sindh (Figure 2)
encompasses modern Indus delta and extends
from an area between Cape Monz (Ras Muari)
Karachi and the Rann of Kutch in India with
variable geological settings in between and
erosional activities having different causes.
1.2.2.1 Karachi Coast

The Karachi coastline has a series of raised


beaches and marine terraces along the coast
west of the Karachi harbour. These are 6 m >15
m above sea level and are matched by river
terraces of roughly similar height inland. With
areas having an elevation of 6 7 m above sea
level, the Karachi coastline is backed by old sea
cliffs that are partly rock. Some uplift may have
occurred there since 325 BC (Stein, 1943). On the
lower Indus plain there is some indication that
even since the Arab period there may have been
uplift of 3 4 m. The 4 m high, wave-cut bench
of Cape Monz may correspond with this uplift.
1.2.2.2 Deltaic Coast of Districts Thatta, Sujawal
and Badin

From inland extending towards the sea, the Indus


delta spreads in Districts Thatta, Sujawal and
Badin and is comprised of deltaic floodplain
deposits with an intervening meander belt of

deposits from the distributaries, an arcuate zone


of older tidal deltaic deposits, followed by more
recent deposits of the tidal delta and coastal
sand dunes (Kazmi, 1984). The delta itself is thus
a product of energetic interaction between fluvial
and marine processes (Wells and Coleman,
1984). Historically the delta formed in an arid
climate with a high river discharge, moderate tidal
range, extremely high wave energy, and strong
monsoon winds from the southwest in summer
and northeast in winter. The resulting barren,
sandy delta is dissected by numerous tidal
channels and has protruded seaward during the
last 5000 years at 30 m yr. Delta morphology is
midway between that of fluvial dominated
(elongate, protruding distributaries) and high
energy, wave dominated (beach, beach ridge and
long shore drift deposits) estuary.
Recently, due to man-made changes, specially
diversion and damming of water in the upland or
near the delta, combined with climate variability,
severe erosion occurs not only within the deltaic
creeks but also at the confluence of coastal zone
area that is directly facing the wave energy.

1.3 Policy/Administrative/Governance
Background Relevant to Addressing
Coastal Erosion
Coastal erosion is a slow process that is
influenced strongly by wave energy. As soon as
there is abnormal variation in the sea level, water
takes advantage of the eroded area and
inundates the land. The sea level variation
enhanced by the passage of cyclone or wave
action that was either generated within the area
or at some far flung area, can be forecasted well
in advance so that safety measures could be
adopted before the encroachment of seawater.
In the past, the coastal areas, being sparsely
populated in Balochistan and parts of the Sindh
province, had received little attention as far as
policy and institutional measures are concerned.
There was no exclusive policy in Pakistan for
combating coastal erosion and taking mitigation
measures due to the fact that it was not
considered a threatening problem for the coastal

10
land. There has been no or little realisation of the
negative impacts of coastal infrastructure
developments leading to coastal erosion.
However, with new information about particular
disasters in the coastal areas, ad-hoc measures
like shifting of communities to safer places were
adopted with the assistance of Federal and
Provincial governments at the request of local
communities and district administration.

Even at present, there is no stand-alone policy in


Pakistan to deal directly with issues pertaining
to coastal erosion. However, there are many
indirect plans and policies that partly deal with
this issue.
For the future, National Maritime Policy 2002 is
being revised in 2014 and will cover various
maritime aspects within a wider scope. Also a

Table 1: Policies and Institutions Addressing the Issue of Coastal Erosion


Federal
l

l
l

National Maritime Policy 2002


National Maritime Strategy
National Climate Change Policy 2012
National Fisheries Policy
National Environmental Policy 2005
Territorial Waters & Maritime Zone Act 1976
Statutory Notification of 29 August 1996 that specifies the Baseline, the Contiguous Zone,
the Continental Shelf and the EEZ of Pakistan
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997
KPT (Amendment) Ordinance 2000
Exclusive Fishery Zone Act 1975
P Q Authority Act 1973
National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) Act
Pakistan Territorial Water and Maritime Zone Network
Pakistan Maritime Security Agency

Provincial

Balochistan Province
Balochistan Coastal Development Authority Act 1998
l
Balochistan Sea Fisheries Ordinance 1971
l
Pasni Fish Harbour Authority Ordinance
l
Balochistan Environmental Protection Act 2012
l
Gwadar Development Authority Act 2003
l
Balochistan Wildlife Act 1974
l
Balochistan Forest Regulation 1890
l

Sindh Province
Coastal Development Authority Act 1994
l
Sindh Sea Fisheries Ordinance 1980
l
Karachi Fish Harbour Authority Ordinance 1984
l
Sindh Forest Act 1970
l
Local
l

Karachi Development Authority (CDGK)


Lyari Development Authority (LDA)
Zulfikarabad Development Authority (ZDA)

Private/NGO
DHA Karachi
l
IUCN
l
WWF
l

11
National Maritime Strategy is under the process
of finalisation with inputs from the relevant
stakeholders. The Maritime Strategy covers in
greater detail the relevant approaches and
targets, i.e. coastal zone management, marine
research, shipping, coastal development
infrastructure and also climatic aspects.

1.4
Relevance of MFF/YEOSU
Regional Initiative and Other Related
Initiatives/ Programmes in Addressing
Coastal Erosion
Mangroves for the Future (MFF) Programme is a
unique partner-led initiative to promote
investment in conservation and sustainable
management of coastal ecosystem to ensure
food security and mitigation of climate change. It
provides a collaborative platform among different
agencies, sectors and countries which are
addressing challenges to coastal ecosystem and
livelihood issues, to work towards a common
goal. MFF builds on a history of coastal
management interventions before and after the
December 2004 tsunami, especially the call to
continue the momentum and partnerships
generated by the immediate post-tsunami
response. In the aftermath of the tsunami of
2004, in Indonesia, coastal mangroves were
regarded as having provided a partial buffer
which countered the force of the tsunami wave
and thereby saved lives (UNEP, 2005).
The MFF Charter mandates it to:
1. Improve the social science and natural science
knowledge base for effective and informed
coastal planning, policy and management;
2. Support science-based and ecologically
sound coastal ecosystem rehabilitation;
3. Support the reef-to-ridge approach to
management;
4. Increase knowledge and awareness of the
economic value of coastal ecosystems;
5. Share lessons learned through regular
evaluation of progress and impacts of coastal
management interventions;
6. Strengthen the awareness and participation
of civil society in understanding and acting on

7.
8.

9.
10.
11.
12.

13.

14.
15.

the role of ecosystems as development


infrastructure;
Contribute to the development of a cadre of
professional coastal managers in the region;
Support coastal livelihood activities that are
both sustainable and help to maintain natural
ecosystems;
Improve the resilience of coastal communities
to disasters;
Develop sustainable financial mechanisms for
coastal ecosystem and livelihood activities;
Establish effective, participatory national
integrated coastal management programmes;
Support land use planning which recognises
both ecosystem and community needs, and
is based on the effective enforcement of
environmental regulations.
Establish national systems of effectively
managed coastal and marine protected areas
that contribute to a regional network;
Use ecological and socioeconomic impact
assessment and adaptive management;
Promote environmentally sustainable
business practices.

The Republic of Korea has initiated a project


"Addressing the Challenge of Sea-Level Rise and
Coastal Erosion in the East Asian Seas as an
Initial Implementation of the COBSEA Regional
Strategy" under YEOSU initiatives. The main
objective and purpose of this project is to facilitate
and guide the effective management of coastal
erosion in these countries, with a view to improving
coastal resilience and thereby reducing the impacts
on ecosystems, the economy and the safety,
health, quality of life and livelihoods of the peoples
of the region. This will be done in an ecosystembased and sustainable manner, within an Integrated
Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) framework.
The interventions suggested on the basis of
assessment of erosion problem in Pakistan are
well in line with the charter of MFF, because the
resilience of coastal communities as well as the
ecosystem will be enhanced through MFF
participation and adaptive management. The
interventions to be suggested by the YEOSU
project are to be finalised.

12

SITUATION ANALYSIS

Coastal erosion is primarily a natural phenomenon, which has always existed


and contributed throughout history to shaping coastal landscapes. In
Pakistan, coastal erosion, as well as soil erosion in water catchments of
Indus, and other small rivers that empty at the coast, is the main process
which provides terrestrial sediment to the coastal systems including beaches,
dunes, mud flats, and marshes. In turn, coastal systems provide a wide range
of functions including absorption of wave energies, nesting and hatching of
fauna, protection of freshwater, or as sites for recreation. However, greater
migration of human population towards the coast, together with the ever
increasing human interference in the coastal land and waters has now
contributed to a growing intensity in erosion of our coastal lands.
The 990-km coastline of Pakistan is rich in biodiversity. Most of the economic
activity is concentrated in Karachi due to the presence of development and
communication facilities. Communities living along the rest of the coast of
Pakistan as depicted in Figure 3 are coastal settlements engaged in fishing
and allied activities, with a small percentage of them engaged in agriculture.
Available data indicates that the vast majority of coastal population lives
below the poverty line.
An increasing number of development related interventions have been
initiated on the coast for different real estate purposes. The anthropogenic
changes that are not in agreement with the natural processes of erosion and
accretion are causing huge loss of property of the public and/or private
Figure 3 - Location of coastal towns of Pakistan where majority of population lives with
development work in the coastal area

13
owners through the reshaping of the coastline by
erosion and accretion at important sites. This
chapter analyses the erosion situation along the
coastal belt in Pakistan.

2.1
Present Status of Erosion:
Overview of Coastal Erosion Problem

Table 2: Locations of Coastal Erosion


with the Intensity of Erosion

Province

Balochistan

2.1.1 National Level: Areas and Severity


(Including Identification of Hotspots)
The coastline of Balochistan is administered by
two districts, Gwadar and Lasbela. The Sindh
coastline is administered by four districts,
Karachi, Thatta, Sujawal and Badin. If there were
no human obstruction to the longshore sediment
transport, the natural erosion along the coastal
belt of Balochistan and Sindh would have been
due to a process of weathering away of sediment
from land, removal of beach dune by the action
of wave, tide and tidal currents. In the beaches
along the coast of Balochistan and Sindh where
there is no population and hence no artificial
structures, the natural phenomenon of erosion
and accretion is on a seasonal basis and on
average there is no loss or gain of land and these
can be termed as stable beaches that regain the
lost material in the next season.
The anthropogenic changes have occurred at the
coastal towns marked in Figure 3. These changes
in the coastal configuration are causing severe
erosion and costing the coastal communities
heavy losses to the property.

Sindh

Gadani
Sonmiani
Ormara
Pasni
Gwadar
Jiwani

Intensity of
Erosion
Moderate
Severe
Low
Severe
Moderate
Severe

Karachi
Thatta
Sujawal
Badin

Low
Moderate
Moderate
Severe

Location

In Sindh, while there has been considerable


coastal development, the coastal erosion in the
districts of Thatta and Sujawal is mostly
moderate; however, some areas are subject to
severe erosion. Whereas, in the Badin district,
severe erosion has been induced by the
construction of the Left Bank Outfall Drain
(LBOD). In Balochistans Gaddani and Gwadar
areas erosion is moderate while some places like
Sonmiani, Pasni and Jiwani are facing severe
erosion. The erosion at Ormara is at a low level.

2.1.2

Sub National Level: Areas


and Severity

2.1.2.1 Status of Erosion, Areas and Severity along


Balochistan Coast

Figure 4 - Location of raised platforms along the coast


of Balochistan and Karachi. Circled areas face severe
erosion in Balochistan

The coastline of Balochistan that


consists of raised terraces
(mountains), alluvial plains and low
line areas faces low to severe
erosion. The high wave energy
acting continuously in the area
erodes the areas to facilitate
seawater inundation. Figure 4
clearly indicates the areas of raised
terraces and low lying depressions
that are under the threat of erosion.
The graphical representation as
given in Figure 4 is summarised in
table 3.

14

Table 3: Types of Beaches along the Balochistan Coast with Intensity of Erosion
District

Lasbella

Gwadar

Location

Type of Coast

Erosion Intensity

Hub
Gadani
Sonmiani
Miani Hor
Damb
Ras Malan

Estuarine
Raised and flat
Raised
Lagoon
Sand dune
Raised

Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Very Severe
Low

Ormara
Ras Shaheed
Ras Jaddi
Ras Zarin
Pasni
Shadi Kor
Kalmat Khor
Gwadar East Bay
Gwadar Headland
Gwadar West Bay
Pishukan
Jiwani

Raised
Raised
Raised
Raised
Raised and
Estuarine
Lagoon
Raised and
Raised
Raised and
Raised and
Raised and

Low
Severe
Medium
Medium
Severe
Very Severe
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Low
Very Severe

flat

flat
flat
flat
flat

The types of coast along Balochistan are clearly depicted in Figures 5 and 6 below.

Figure 5 - Selected high raised terraces along Balochistan coast. Left: Rocky outcrops at
Gaddani Right: The Gwadar headland

15

Figure 6 - Flat beach at Gaddani, suitable for beaching the ship


for recycling

community. Although the


fish harbour could not be
completed due to erosion
around the village and
accretion within the
harbour basin, the
abandoned structure is still
causing a severe loss of
sediments from the
populated area of Damb
village.
Erosion at Pasni and its
Vicinity (Shadi Khor)

Erosion at Hub Estuary and its Vicinity

At the mouth of the Hub River at Kund, an


electricity generating power house (HUBCO) was
developed in the early 90s. The coolant water is
being discharged within the river near its mouth
which has been eroding the sand from the mouth
of the river removing the natural barriers. In the
Gaddani coastal area, a ship-breaking industry
has been in existence, beaching various types
and sizes of ships perpendicular to the coast
(Figure 6). The beaching of s ship hinders the
sediment transport and causes erosion to the
area for as long as the ship is being dismantled.
Erosion at Gadani and its Vicinity

As a result of the development of a fish harbour


at Gadani, the water circulation dynamics have
changed causing a subsequent change in the
beach behaviour - from a stabilised to an eroding
beach. The erosion in the area is so severe that
seawater frequently inundates the coastal
community settlements causing losses to
property.
Erosion at Damb and its Vicinity in Miani Hor
Lagoon

Damb is located on the bank of Miani Hor lagoon


where a fish harbour was constructed. The
construction has resulted in massive erosion
causing huge losses to the property of the fishing

As a consequence of
development activities,
coastal erosion has taken
place at Pasni where a fish
harbour was constructed in
1988 that resulted in an obstruction to the
longshore current. The stoppage of sediment
movement towards Shadi Khor has caused
erosion in Pasni near Shadi Khor and seawater
frequently floods Pasni town.
Erosion at Gwadar and its Vicinity

Erosion to the east and west of the Gwadar


headland has been evident due to the unplanned
construction of a fish harbour at Pishukan that is
creating hindrance in the sediment movement
towards Gwadars east bay, causing deficiency of
sediment. The main road along the east bay
coast is being eroded at many places along the
coast, and is in need of continuous repair.
Erosion at Jiwani and its Vicinity

The situation of an unplanned construction in the


coastal area of Jiwani is not any different from the
other coastal areas in Pakistan. The construction
of the breakwater to provide protection to the
fishing boats to land their catch at Jiwani without
considering the hydrodynamics of circulation of
seawater in detail is causing massive erosion in
the eastern part of Jiwani town. The breakwater
that was constructed to provide a sheltered area
has in fact created refracted waves from the
breakwater wall. The pictorial presentation of the
erosion at different locations in Balochistan
coastal zone is given in Figures 7 and 8.

16

Figure 7 - Erosion at Gwadar East Bay as a result of human changes in the area

Figure 8 - Constructed breakwater wall at Jiwani and resultant erosion along the coast

2.1.2.2 Status of Erosion, Areas and Severity along Sindh Coast

The hotspots where erosion activity is taking place are listed as follows

Table 4: Types of Beaches along the Balochistan Coast with Intensity of Erosion
Location

Type of Coast

Erosion Intensity

Phitti Creek
Gizri Creek
DHA Phase VIII
Clifton
Hawksbay
Ras Muari

Creek and mudflat


Creek and mudflat
Creek and plain area
Beach
Raised
Raised

Medium
Medium
Medium
Low
Medium
Low

Mirpursakro
Ghorabari
Keti Bundar
Kharo Chann

Creek and mudflat


Creek and mudflat
Estuarine mudflat
Estuarine mudflat

Medium
Medium
Medium
Severe

Sujjawal

Jati
Shah Bundar

Creek and mudflat


Creek and mudflat

Severe
Severe

Badin

Shaheed Fazil Rahu


Badin

Creek and mudflat


Creek and mudflat

Severe
Severe

District

Karachi

Thatta

17
Erosion at Karachi and its Vicinity

The coast of Karachi continues to change its face


with the rapid increase in population. Areas that
were in the low-lying intertidal zone 20 years ago
have now been turned into expensive residential
areas by the DHA. Hence, Gizri Creek and
Korangi Creek have both been narrowed down
after reclamation for real estate development
purposes. Even the area which faced the open
sea has now been encroached upon by the
construction of dykes for reclaiming the land.
Since this development is relatively new, no
significant erosion has been witnessed, but there
are areas that are facing erosion problems. The
Bundal Island of the Karachi coast has been
subject to severe erosion and the displaced
sediments move towards Korangi creek channel
to fill it up. Before the initiation of the Karachi
Container Terminal Port there was severe erosion
along the coast off Shireen Jinah Colony. Erosion

to the west of the Karachi harbour at Kakapir has


also been observed.
Erosion at Indus Delta and its Vicinity

Large amounts of sediments were brought down


from the Himalayas by the Indus River in Sindh
since geological times and deposited along the
lower stretches to form one of the biggest deltas
in the world. The Indus Delta has now been
reduced due to upstream engineering works.
Damming of the water upstream has reduced
river discharge and owing to ingress of high
energy waves, erosion activities are amplified
manifold resulting in seawater inundation during
storm surges or cyclonic activities in the area.
The erosion in the delta is so massive that in
some places, local communities either have had
to migrate from the area or take some mitigation
measures. The localities that are facing erosion in
the Indus Delta are Shah Bundar, Jati, Kharo

Figure 9 - Comparison of charts of 1930 and 2010 by M/S Louis Berger Group Inc (Left) and by
WWF-Pakistan (Right) depicting the inundation of seawater in upland delta

Figure 10 - Erosion at Keti Bundar and Kharo Chaan Thatta

18
Chann in District Sujjawal and Keti Bundar,
Ghorabari in District Thatta. Massive levels of
erosion are also taking place in District Badin as
a result of Tidal Link Drain linking the LBOD with
Indus Delta Creek for draining the water. The
comparison of old charts as shown in Figure 9
with present situation in the delta was made by
M/S Louis Berger Group Inc and Indus
Associated Consultants Ltd, whereas, a
comparative study over 54 years, conducted by
WWF-Pakistan, explains the erosional activity
with seawater inundation that has taken place.
Erosion at different locations in the Indus is
shown in Figure 10.

2.2
Factors Influencing Coastal
Erosion: Assessment

low seismic velocities and high pore fluid


pressures. Such sediments have the potential to
fail and cause large underwater tsunami genic
slides. The generation of tsunamic waves in the
past (1945) have created 5 - 8 m high waves
along the coast from Pasni to the Indus Delta
causing flooding of populated areas and while
receding, they eroded huge sediments from
flooded areas. In future, there is a potential threat
of tsunamic wave generation due to tectonic
activities in the coastal belt. Very recently, due to
earthquake activities, there was an eruption of
gas in the shallow water off the Balochistan
coast, specifically off Gwadar, that developed a
small island. The appearance of the island was
caused by tsunamic waves but due to the low
water level, it could not be noticed.
The present tidal channels and creeks of the
Indus Delta are representative of the old Indus
River channels. The Indus Delta has shifted
gradually eastward over time. The tectonic
activities in the region have played a major role in
the shifting of the river courses. During the
shifting of the Indus river course, from west to

The unique geography of the coast of Pakistan


makes it vulnerable to natural and human
hazards. The natural hazards that influence
erosion include geological hazards (earthquakes)
that create coastal erosion and climate-related
hazards, i.e. heavy rainfall upstream of the Indus
River flooding the delta,
Figure 11 - Location of earthquake epicenters and tectonic activities
sea level rise and changes
along
the coastal belt of Pakistan shown by circles on the map
in monsoon pattern, etc.
Whereas, human
influenced factors that
cause erosion include the
development works along
the coast or in the river
system.

2.2.1

Physical Factors

Erosion due to Tectonic


Activities

The tectonic activity in the


vicinity of the coastal zone
of Pakistan is well
documented due to
frequent movement of the
tectonic plates in the area
(Figure 11). The
Balochistan coast has one
of the largest accretionary
wedges on earth that have

19

Figure 12 - Time series imagery of Ras Shaheed showing erosion of softer rocks in 2003 (left)
2006 (center) and 2012 (right)

east, the coastline geomorphology and


hydrodynamics also changed dramatically
resulting in the development and modification of
the existing coastal features.
Erosion due to Wind, Tide, Waves and Cyclonic
Activities

Waves that are generated by storms or wind are


one of the main causes of coastal erosion that
instigate long-term losses of sediment from the
area. The erosion of sediments as a consequence
of waves during cyclonic movement usually
results in permanent loss of sediment to the sea.
The normal wave action along the coast of
Pakistan during the summer monsoon has been
considered one of the major causes of erosion
because these waves create abrasion. Abrasion
commonly happens in areas where there are
strong winds, loose sand, and soft rocks. The
blowing of millions of sharp sand grains creates
sandblasting effects. This effect helps to erode,
smooth and polish rocks. The summer waves
along the coast of Pakistan are 2.5 m high with a
6 sec period.

Return Period
1 year
5 years
10 years
100 years

Wave Height
3.93 m
4.11 m
4.23 m
4.33 m

On the coast of Balochistan, rock formations


provide varying resistance to erosion, whereas,
softer areas erode much faster than those with
hard rocks, which typically result in the formation
of landforms. Ras Shaheed near Gwadar East Bay
is the area which is continuously being eroded
due to wave energy reaching the coast from the
deep sea. In Figure 12 the time series satellite
pictures of Ras Shaheed depict the erosion of
hard and soft rocks due to wave activity.

Wave-generated currents produced during the


summer monsoon season along the coast of
Pakistan tend to dominate water movements in
the near-shore zone of the Indus Delta and
facilitate the movement of sediments. As a
consequence of reduced river flow from the
Indus, sediments are taken from the banks of
creeks with high wave energy and transported
either out of the delta into the deep water
creating the Indus fan, or deposited at
economically important sites like navigational
channels causing siltation.

The tides, which are generated by the


gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon,
also play an active role in coastal erosion along
Pakistans coast. The water level variation due to
rising and receding tides creates movement in
seawater that causes erosion in the coastal area.
The maximum tidal height along the coast of
Balochistan is 2.9 m at the equinoxial tide
(ranging between 0.60 m and 2.97 m). The tides
are mixed semi diurnal with a strong diurnal
component. The mean tidal levels as already
established and published for Karachi are given in
Figure 13. The tidal variation along the
Balochistan coast causes strong tidal currents in
the intertidal zones. The erosion effect as a result
of tidal current is more prominent at Damb
Lasbela. The tidal levels along the Sindh coast
are on the higher side due to shallow water
effect.

The return period (time for a particular wave


height to repeat itself) is given as under;

The area on the left bank of the River Indus has a


higher tidal level than the levels in other coastal

20

Figure 13 - Mean Tidal Levels at different locations mentioned through arrows along the
Pakistan coast

areas of Pakistan. The tidal level in the Badin


Creek is 5 m. The strong tidal movements
along the coast of Sindh have already eroded
many coastal settlements in the deltaic zone.
The tropical cyclones that affect the Pakistan
coastal areas develop preferentially over the
southern quadrant of the Arabian Sea and
move in a west to northwest direction towards
Arabia. However, sometimes they re-curve to
the north or northeast towards northwestern
India and Pakistan (Figure 14). About one
storm in three passes over the western part of
the Arabian Sea and strikes the coast of the
Arabian Peninsula. In the past hundred years
there were twelve severe cyclonic storms that
formed in the month of October, four in April,
three in September and two in December. No
severe cyclonic storm has been reported in the
months of January, February and March. The
average annual number of severe cyclonic
storms is about 0.68 while the annual number
of severe cyclonic storms is about 69
amounting to about 31% of the annual number
of cyclonic disturbances. Most of the tropical
cyclones that formed over the Arabian Sea

Figure 14 - Tracks of cyclones that landed on the


coastline of Pakistan or its vicinity and caused
losses to property and lives

21

Figure 15 - One of the abandoned ruined shrimp farms in Ghorabari Thatta (Left) and
reconstruction of fish landing facility at Shah Bundar after the destruction by cyclone

land at the coastal areas of Pakistan inundating


coastal areas in the Indus Delta and causing
erosion in the Thatta and Badin districts. Cyclone
2A occurring in May 1999 was the severest
cyclone that caused huge losses to the property
and lives of the coastal communities of Thatta
and Badin districts (Figure 15). Thus, owing to its
particular configuration the coastline of Pakistan
is also vulnerable to cyclone related erosion.

Figure 16 - Satellite imagery showing the


flooded areas in Sindh that created erosion
in the deltaic area through LBOD system

Erosion due to Floods, Rainfall and Freshwater


Flows

Floods in the Indus River and linked canals


create random deposition of silt. Historically the
delta has experienced repeated floods which
have destroyed cities, taken toll of human lives
and damaged crops, cattle, etc. In order to
mitigate the flood hazards, the Government of
Pakistan has built embankments on both sides of
the Indus River. However, during the peak flood
season (August, September) which coincides
with the SW monsoon season, all the control
gates of the canal/drainage system in the deltaic
areas are kept open, for free flow of the flood
waters. The runoff due to rainfall increases the
suspended material in the creeks. As such, the
mixing of tide and freshwater creates
bathymetric and topographic changes from
siltation and erosion.

2.2.2

Human Factors

Erosion due to Damming of River

A reduction of freshwater downstream of Kotri


has brought about changes in the characteristics

Figure 17 - Time series plot of freshwater


and sediment discharge downstream of
Kotri depicting the reduction due to
upstream damming (Inam et al, 2007)

of the Indus Delta from fluvial-dominated to


wave-dominated estuaries. Instead of freshwater
flowing out in the seaward direction, seawater

22
surges inland giving rise to
Figure 19 - Sea encroachment hindering sediment movement along
the coast and eroding intertidal zone of Clifton beach (2005)
tidal creeks by eroding the
agricultural land. As a
result of reduced river
discharge and sediment
load (Figure 17) due to
damming of the river for
agriculture and other usage
and ingress of high energy
waves, erosion activities
are amplified manifold
resulting in seawater
inundation during storm
surges or cyclonic activities
in the area. Historically,
many storm surges have
taken place that have
damaged the property and
Erosion due to Development Work in the Coastal
inflicted heavy losses to the economy of the
Zone
already poverty stricken communities.
A major development work, the Waterfront
Development
Project, was undertaken in the
Erosion due to LBOD System
Karachi coastal area by the Defence Housing
The recently built Left Bank Outfall Drain (LBOD)
Authority
(DHA). In this project, the DHA intruded
system has become a source of erosion and
300 m seaward into deep water and about 7 km
seawater intrusion far inland, particularly the Tidal
along
Clifton beach as shown in Figure 19. The
Link (the channel joining Left Bank Outfall
reclamation hindered the littoral transport along
Drainage with sea). It has caused devastating
the
coast and deposition of sediment during the
effects on the surrounding environment and badly
summer monsoon. Consequently, Clifton beach
disrupted the ecosystem of the area with loss of
has
turned into a dangerous beach due to
infrastructure due to erosion which can be seen
erosion of the intertidal zone, causing human
in Figure 17. The system has also badly damaged
casualties
every year.
local agriculture due to the backflow of hyper
saline water in the drains and in the agricultural
land causing its subsequent erosion.
Figure 18 - The erosion of Tidal Link Drain banks around tidal observatory

23

Figure 20 - Erosion at Damb caused by the development of the fish jetty

Erosion due to Construction of Jetties without


Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Due to the construction of a fish harbour at


Damb, erosion of the area has started causing
huge losses to the property of the poor fishing
community (Figure 20). Tidal currents generated
because of the unplanned construction of the
harbour have resulted in massive erosion from a
nearby populated area of 0.32 km2 (Figure 21) at
Damb which itself has been eroding during the
last six years, causing huge loss of property.
Pasni Fish Harbour was constructed in 1988 with
two breakwater walls to protect the harbour basin
from high energy waves. However, the
construction of the harbour impeded the
sediment movement downward creating accretion

on the west of the harbour and erosion of 1.5


km2 areas on the eastern side of the harbour
(Figure 22). The erosion was so severe that in the
late 90s, due to a storm surge, Pasni town was
inundated by seawater from the eroded land
resulting in heavy damage to property.
A fish harbour and a deep water cargo port have
also been constructed at Gwadar East Bay.
Although Gwadar has been naturally protected
from the high energy waves by the tombolo, the
area east to the fish harbour is facing erosion as
a result of refraction of waves from the tombolo
and as a consequence of development work in
the deep water port. In addition, the construction
of a fish harbour at Pishukan has exacerbated the

24

Figure 21 - Extent of erosion at Damb due to development of the fish jetty

Figure 22 - The harbour at Pasni created hindrance in sediment movement that eroded
downward area

25

Figure 23 - Erosion at the Gwadar East Bay due to human changes

erosion at Gwadar. The severity of erosion is


depicted in Figures 23 and 24.
The construction of a fish harbour at Jiwani was
started near the town with the provision of a
breakwater wall for providing safe berthing
facilities. The construction of an unplanned

(without any backing of scientific study for the


suitability of location and design) protection wall
resulted in damaging sediment movement and
refraction currents. As a result of this, sediment
accretion started on both sides of the protection
wall and erosion at the eastern side of Jiwani
town took place resulting in heavy loss of

Figure 24 - Erosion of coastal road along Gwadar West Bay due to the construction of a fish
harbour at Pishukan

26

Figure 25 - Sequential maps showing erosion due to the development of a breakwater wall for
Jiwani Fish Harbour

27

Figure 26 - Massive erosion due to construction of breakwater wall at Jiwani

Figure 27 - Comparison of erosion and accretion areas along the coast of Jiwani

property in the area. The erosional process is


shown in Figures 25 - 27 of satellite imagery as a
time series.

2.3
Focus on Sea-Level Rise (SLR)
Highlight Climate Change/SLR on
Coastal Erosion
2.3.1

Observed Trends in Coastal Erosion

Pakistan is one of the countries most vulnerable


to the impact of a rising sea level. The long-term
tidal level data as shown in Figure 28 indicates
the increasing pattern in sea level of 1.1mm/year
at the Karachi Harbour (Khan et al). At present

Figure 28 - Yearly variation of Mean Sea Level


recorded at Karachi Tidal Observatory is
plotted as time series plot and regression line
showing the observed trend of sea level rise

28

Figure 29 - Comparison of shoreline profiles taken in two different periods showing the
landward retreat of shoreline

there is no observatory in
Pakistan mandated to
observe and record the
coastal erosion on a longterm basis. Different studies
conducted by scientists
suggest that the shoreline in
the Indus Delta has moved
inland since 1978 as shown in
Figure 29.

Figure 30 - The chart of Indus Delta showing the land gradient


with 5 ft contour. (Source: WAPDA)

2.3.2 Projected Erosion


Trends from Climate
Change Assessment
It is believed that if the
present trend of sea level rise
(SLR) along the Pakistan
coast continues for the next
50 years, the sea level will rise
50 mm (5 cm) from the
present level. If such sea level
rise is experienced in the next
fifty years due to a very small
gradient in the Indus Delta as
shown in Figure 30, seawater
will frequently inundate the
upland areas causing
massive erosion as shown in
Figure 31.

Figure 31 - Based on the present trend of SLR the sea water


inundation and area under erosion (Competitive Support Fund 2011)

On the Balochistan coast, the areas that are


known as alluvial plain and estuarine mouth are
most vulnerable to the present trends of SLR. The

most probable threatened areas are shown in


Figure 32, marked as circled areas.
The local communities that were settled along the
coast based on their Traditional Ecological

29

Figure 29 - Comparison of shoreline profiles taken in two different periods showing the
landward retreat of shoreline

Knowledge (TEK) have been forced to move their


settlements back to safer places. The settlements
that have moved back or are still resisting the
seawater inundation are listed below:
l

Ahmed Raju, Zero Point in Badin, Jati, Shah


Bundar, Kharo Chann in Sujjawal, Sajjan Wari,
Jangi Sar, Keti Bundar, Ghorabari in Thatta
along the Sindh province;
Khalifa Point, Gaddani, Damb in Lasbella,
Pasni, and Jiwani in Gwadar along the
Balochistan province

2.3.3 Coastal Erosion in Coastal Risk


Management
Pakistan has been rated as at extreme risk by
a Climate Change Vulnerability Index, published
by Maplecroft in 2010. The index has placed
Pakistan at 16th in the ranking of most
vulnerable countries of the world over the time
horizon of the next 30 years. This index
classifies the majority of the land area of
Pakistan to be at extreme to high risk and other
areas mostly in the medium risk category.
However, the Global Climate Risk Index
developed by German Watch 2014 has placed

Pakistan at No. 3 in 2012 and termed it as a


warning sign of being at risk either from
frequent events or rare, but extraordinary
catastrophes.
The report of the Planning Commissions Task
Force on Climate Change (TFCC, 2010) and
subsequently National Climate Change Policy
2012 has identified the following most important
climate change threats to Pakistan:
l Increased upstream intrusion of saline water
in the Indus Delta, adversely affecting coastal
agriculture, mangroves and breeding grounds
of fish; and
l Threat to coastal areas including the city of
Karachi due to sea level rise and increased
cyclonic activity due to higher sea surface
temperatures.
It is an urgent requirement for the coastal areas of
Pakistan to begin the process of adapting to sea
level rise not because there is an impending
catastrophe, but because there are opportunities
to avoid adverse impacts by acting now
opportunities that may be lost if the process is
delayed. This is also consistent with good coastal

30
zone management practice irrespective of
whether climate change occurs or not.

2.4
Chapter Summary: Assessment
of Issue on Coastal Erosion
Shoreline changes occur due to natural forces
that act on the shoreline and its response to the
conditions driven by meteorological ocean
conditions of wind, waves, tides and currents. In

Pakistan, erosion is a natural phenomenon as the


coast changes its position from season to
season. However, due to human interventions,
coastal erosion in populated areas has been
happening. The main hotspots are Ahmed Raju,
Zero Point in Badin, Jati, Shah Bundar, Kharo
Chann in Sujjawal, Sajjan Wari, Jangi Sar, Keti
Bundar, Ghorabari in Indus Delta, Damb, Pasni,
Gwadar and Jiwani in Balochistan that require
immediate attention.

31

3.1

POLICIES AND LEGAL/INSTITUTIONAL


MECHANISMS DEALING WITH
COASTAL EROSION
Introduction

The use of coastal areas in Pakistan is diversified due to the comprehensive


coastal typology. The most important functions of the coastal land and waters
are harbours, industry and tourism. Therefore the responsibility for the
protection of such areas is on all the permanent users, but mainly on the
government agencies that manage and steer the usage of the coastal areas.
Additionally, there are relevant policies and practices of non-coastal sectors,
including the private sector that can exacerbate coastal erosion.
The erosion of coastal areas of Sindh including the Indus Delta has occurred
due to a loss of freshwater / estuarine ecosystem and over exploitation. The
main cause of erosion from non-coastal actors is intrusion of seawater from
the tidal link of LBOD system developed to drain saline and water logged
agricultural lands of Sindh. In this section, a review of polices with respect to
erosion is carried out to see the importance being given to the coastal areas.

3.2

Past Policies and Legal/Institutional Mechanisms

In Pakistan, the use of the coast for berthing the ships/boats continues
without any consolidated mechanism. The Karachi Harbour is the only
institution which has been using the coast for the last 125 years and engaging
in port related development. In the recent past, the Port Qasim Authority
(PQA) has also been amongst the institutions using coastal areas. In addition,
the DHA has been undertaking reclamation work around its Phase VIII without
considering the consequences on the coastal morphology and possible
adverse impacts on the sensitive ecology of the area. The detailed polices
and relevant institutions are given in Table 5.

32

Table 5: Past Policies and Institutions Involved in Coastal Management


Federal
l

l
l

Territorial Waters & Maritime Zone Act 1976


Statutory Notification of 29 August 1996 (Specifying the Baseline, the Contiguous Zone, the
Continental Shelf and the EEZ of Pakistan)
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997
KPT (Amendment) Ordinance 2000
Exclusive Fishery Zone Act 1975
P Q Authority Act 1973
National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) Act 2005
Pakistan Territorial Water and Maritime Zone Network
Pakistan Maritime Security Agency

Provincial

Balochistan Province
l

l
l

Balochistan Coastal Development Authority Act 1998


Balochistan Sea Fisheries Ordinance 1971
Pasni Fish Harbour Authority Ordinance
Balochistan Environmental Protection Act 2012
Gwadar Development Authority Act 2003 (covers large coastal areas from Sur Bandar),
Gwadar East & West Bays and Gwadar Master Plan (Area up to Pishukan under GDA
Regulations 2004)
Balochistan Forest Regulation 1890
Balochistan Wildlife Act 1974
Sindh Province
Coastal Development Authority Act 1994
Sindh CDA is mandated for coastal development of districts Thatta and Badin
Sindh Sea Fisheries Ordinance 1980
Karachi Fish Harbour Authority Ordinance 1984
Sindh Forest Act 1970
Sindh Wildlife Act

Local Agencies
l

Karachi Development Authority (CDGK)


Lyari Development Authority (LDA)
Zulfikarabad Development Authority (ZDA)

Private Organizations/NGOs
l

Bahria Development Area


IUCN
WWF

The private organizations/NGOs perform the function of coastal development and management
including coastal erosion within their jurisdiction by providing;
l

Shore Protection
Breakwater
Mangroves Plantations

33

3.2.1 Assessment/Discussion on
Highlights including Identification
of Conflicting Policies/Mechanisms

Figure 33 - Impact of dredging for reclamation was


removal of buffer between coast and wave

There are a number of agencies which are


engaged in the development of coastal
infrastructure. These include district
governments, fishing communities and
provincial and federal authorities.
However, none of them have ever
considered the impacts of coastal erosion
as a result of their development activities.
The impact of their No Action policy can
be viewed from the fact that in the mid1990s, the KPT planned to reclaim the
area near Shireen Jinnah Colony for real
estate purpose and sediments were used
to dredge in the intertidal zone off the
area adjacent to the National Institute of
Oceanography as shown in Figure 33.
The area was reclaimed successfully at
that time but the following year, as a
result of deepening of the intertidal zone,
waves with high energy started attacking
the shore protection wall and inundation
of seawater occurred frequently causing
damage to the newly built coastal road as
shown in Figures 34 and 35. No
mitigation measures were taken by the
KPT; neither was any claim filed by
municipal authorities for the erosion of the
road.

Figure 34 - Reclamation work

On the other hand, the Port Qasim


Authority (PQA) has been dredging its
approach channel since 1970s to keep
the navigational channel open for ship
movement. There is no legal policy to
protect the nearby areas from erosion as
a consequence of the maintenance of
this channel. Bundal and other small
islands are being eroded due to the
absence of any protection mechanism
devised for this ongoing activity.
The DHA also not only started reclaiming
the area of Phase VIII allotted to them for
real estate purposes, but they also
intruded into the intertidal zone of Clifton

Figure 35 - Severe loss of land and damage to the road


in the vicinity of reclaimed area

34
beach for Water Front Development. All this
clearly indicates that there is no institution,
authority or legislation to check on activities that
are fraught with risk of coastal erosion.
Even in Thatta and Badin districts the LBOD system
caused huge losses to the lower Indus deltaic
agricultural land and inland fishing industry because
of a loss of fresh water resources to the sea.
The situation in Balochistan is more serious due
to the lack of resources. The ship re-cycling
industry has been active for a long time now, and
has been blocking longshore movement of
seawater and sediment that increases erosion.
Similarly, different government departments, such
as GDA, BCDA and Fisheries Department are
either constructing or have constructed fishing
jetties. Scant attention has been given to
scientific knowledge required for these types of
development activities resulting in erosion of
costly community land.

3.3
Present Policies and
Legal/Institutional Mechanisms
At the moment there is no stand-alone policy to
deal with issues exclusively pertaining to coastal
erosion. However, at present there are three

authorities which are dealing with Coastal Zone


Management: Balochistan Coastal Development
Authority established in 1998, Sindh Coastal
Development Authority established in 1992 for
the coastal area of Sindh excluding Karachi; and
Karachi Development Authority. Almost all coastal
areas of Pakistan are governed and managed by
these authorities but none of them is dealing with
the erosion control issues in their respective
jurisdiction.
After the December 2004 tsunami in Indonesia and
the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, the Government of
Pakistan established disaster management systems
at the federal, provincial and district levels. The
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is
the focal agency for coordinating and facilitating
the implementation of strategies and programmes
on disaster risk reduction, response and recovery.
However, at present it is not dealing with the
activities that exacerbate coastal erosion. The entire
responsibility is left to the provincial departments in
general and land departments of cities in particular.
There are provincial and federal laws and
regulations governing coastal development and
related infrastructures but none of them directly
address issues of coastal erosion. Such laws and
institutions are listed in Table 6:

Table 6: Provincial and Federal Laws Governing Coastal Development


#

Laws and Regulations

Federal Laws
National Calamities (Prevention and Relief Act) 1958
1
Emergency Services Ordinance 2002
2
Territorial Waters and Maritime Zones Act, 1976
3
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997
4
Provincial Laws
Coastal Development Authority Act of Sindh, 1994
1
Coastal Development Authority Act of Balochistan, 1998
2
Karachi Building Control Authority Act of 2002
3
Karachi Fisheries Harbour Authority Ordinance, 1984
4
Korangi Fisheries Harbour Authority Ordinance, 1984
5
The Sindh Fisheries (Amendment Act 1976)
6
Balochistan Sea Fisheries Ordinance, 1971
7
Forest (Amendment) Ordinance, 2001 Forest Act (Sindh Amendment) Act, 1994
8
Balochistan Forest Regulation (Amendment) Act, 1974
9

35

3.3.1 Assessment with Discussion on


Highlights including Identification of
Conflicting Policies/Mechanisms

3.4
Planned/Future Policies and
Legal/Institutional Mechanisms

Due to the lack of knowledge and awareness of


ocean forces, most coastal agencies start
development activities in the coastal zone risking
not only their own project but also the nearby
areas that are left at the mercy of the erosion and
accretion problem. While a brief review of all the
above is done, none of these statutes or
legislations are able to serve the desired purpose.
There are several federal and provincial laws
related to coastal areas and coastal resources;
however, provisions related coastal erosion are
missing in these laws.

3.4.1

A comprehensive study of environmental laws


also reveals that all of these cannot serve the
purpose in their present form. Sindh Building
Control Authority regulates the beach
development and issues the guidelines in Article
32, but it is silent on erosion as a result of
development in the coastal area. No provision
exists in the Sindh Coastal Development
Authority Act, 1994 or (Amendment) Act, 2006 as
far as coastal erosion or its mitigation or control
is concerned.
There is no conflict with the policies for coastal
zone management in Balochistan and Sindh
because of clear demarcation between the two
provinces. However, due to a lack of
coordination, the conflicting mandates pursued
by different agencies may have an impact on
each others jurisdiction. For example, the coastal
land and waters of Karachi city fall under the
jurisdiction of different agencies, the KDA,
Cantonments and DHA, etc. It is therefore
imperative that before embarking on a coastal
area development work, a No Objection
Certificate (NOC) be issued, after conducting
prior impact assessment studies of sediment
transport, by the relevant civic
authorities/Provincial Environmental Protection
Agencies (EPA) so that well-informed decisions
could be taken to adapt mitigation measures that
prevent damage to coastal infrastructure,
communities and ecology.

Agencies

There are many government and non-government


agencies including private organisations that have
either planned or are in the process of planning
the required policies as indicated in Table 7.

3.4.2 Assessment with Discussion on


Objectives to be Achieved
A detailed review of the policies being finalised
has revealed that there is no coordinated policy
to address the erosion problem in the two
provinces and at the national level. The National
Maritime policy is proposed to include the erosion
problem in the future while the National Maritime
strategy will cover all matters related to maritime
development and maritime research. Therefore
coastal zone management will be its main goal.

3.5

Chapter Summary

In the past there was no policy for combating


erosion and for taking mitigation measures
because erosion was not considered a
threatening problem for the structures and
settlements of the coastal communities and
ecology. The stakeholders were not bothered
about the impact of their structures such as
ports, berthing facilities, piers and breakwaters
being built in nearby areas.
Also, at present there is no standalone policy to
deal with issues pertaining to coastal erosion,
although there is now greater awareness of the
concept of erosion and its detrimental impacts. At
present there are three main authorities who are
dealing with coastal zone management:
Balochistan Coastal Development Authority
established in 1998 for the coastal area of
Balochistan excluding Gwadar and industrial
development estates, Sindh Coastal Development
Authority established in 1992 for the coastal area
of Sindh excluding Karachi and Karachi
Development Authority responsible for
development within Karachi Districts. After the
December 2004 tsunami in Indonesia and the

36

Table 7: Institutions involved in Coastal Development and Management


#

Agency/Institution

Plans

National Maritime Policy 2002 being revised which shall be


ready for approval by competent forum in 2014.
1

Pakistan Navy

Climate Change Division

National Climate Change Policy 2012

BCDA

Has planned to relocate or redesign the existing fish


harbours that were planned for Damb, Gaddani and Jiwani

SCDA

Has prepared a 20-year perspective plan for the coastal


areas of Thatta and Badin in which special attention is paid
to the erosion activities within the area. They are in the
process of obtaining control/authority for any legal action
that may be taken against projects that could potentially
cause erosion in the coastal zones.

Sindh Irrigation and


Drainage Authority

Is redesigning the LBOD system so that devastation caused


by LBOD could be stopped and managed properly.

Sindh Fisheries Department

Has constructed nine floating jetties in the Sindh creek area

Pasni Fish Harbour Authority

Government of Balochistan

National Maritime Strategy with inputs from stakeholders is


being finalised. It covers more detailed approach/targets, i.e.
CZM, marine research, shipping, coastal development
infrastructure including climate change

Pasni Fish Harbour Authority has a plan to improve the


functioning of Pasni Fish Harbour which involves extension
of the breakwater and removal of silted matter from the
harbour basin. The project does not cater for the massive
erosion that has taken place in the Shadi Khor and adjacent
area because of the construction of Pasni Harbour.
The Government of Balochistan with assistance from the
International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) plans
to establish a few jetties along the Balochistan coast;
however, the location for these jetties has not been finalised.

2005 earthquake in Kashmir, the Government of


Pakistan established disaster management
systems, at the federal, provincial and district
levels, which may play a role if any erosion
related disaster occurs, despite having no
specific provision for it.

At various forums it is being voiced that for the


future, a mechanism should be developed by
government agencies and concerned authorities
to address the issue of erosion by undertaking
proper assessment studies of future development
to regulate and mitigate erosion related negative
impacts of such development activities.

37

4
4.1

CURRENT AND PLANNED


INTERVENTIONS
Introduction

The coastal areas of Pakistan have been damaged either by the erosion of the
coast or by the depositing of the sand arising from government supported
development work. The more specific development work is the removal of
sediment from approach channels to the port harbours in Karachi without
taking into consideration specific guidelines on the management of coastal
erosion. The unplanned reclamation work has also aggravated the situation
especially at Clifton beach and adjacent areas. Apart from that, developments
in the Indus Delta and associated creek system for oil, coal, LPG and general
cargo jetties have threatened the area, especially the mangrove forest in it,
which itself is considered a natural protection against coastal erosion. The
deforestation of mangroves in the coastal areas has caused the delta to erode
and shrink drastically.

4.2

Past Interventions and Development Brief Survey

The upstream damming of the Indus River has drastically reduced the
sediment load downstream of Kotri which has stopped the sediment
enrichment process in the lower reaches of the River Indus. This has resulted
in sea intrusion leading to the erosion of deltaic islands and creek beds.
Further exacerbating the erosion in the Indus Delta, the construction of the
LBOD system has not only contributed to the erosion process but has also
led to seawater intrusion into the brackish water lakes of lower Sindh. The
development of unplanned Water Front Development Project at Karachi and
the construction of harbours for fish landing at Damb, Pasni, Gwadar,
Pishukan and Jiwani have contributed to coastal erosion. This is because no
proper hydraulic studies were either carried out for these projects or
implemented in cases where such studies were carried out.

4.2.1 Lessons for Current and Planned/Future Interventions and


Development at National, Sub-National, and Local Levels
The development work in the coastal areas of Pakistan and its impact in
terms of erosion of the coast has generated the following lessons that must
be considered seriously prior to any planned or future interventions:
l Human influence, particularly urbanisation and other related economic
activities, in the coastal areas has turned coastal erosion into a problem
of growing intensity.

38
l

Coastal erosion results from a combination of


various factors both natural and human
induced development work undertaken
without proper analysis.
Uncertainties still remain about the
interactions of the forcing agents, as well as
about the significance of external causes of
erosion.
Past measures to manage coastal erosion
have generally been designed from a local
perspective. These measures have ignored
the influence of non-local forcing agents and
have disregarded the disruption of sediment
transport processes within the larger coastal
system. As a consequence, they have
aggravated local coastal erosion problems,
and have triggered new erosion problems in
other places. They still influence the design of
present measures.
Multi-functional technical designs, i.e. those
that fulfill social and economic functions in
addition to coastal protection, are more easily
accepted by the local population.

l
l

4.3
Current Interventions and
Development Contribute (and Hinder)
4.3.1 National Level: Policy, CapacityBuilding, Knowledge, Community-Level
The NDMA has the jurisdiction to lead the work of
controlling disasters in the coastal areas of
Pakistan and has prepared a ten-year plan with
the provision to build a culture of safety and
resilience at all levels utilising knowledge,
innovation and education by;
l Involving various organisations to implement
the capacity building activities of stakeholder
groups with proper coordination;

Table 8: List of Interventions along the Coast


#

Intervention

Past Interventions
1.
Historical/Archaeological Sites
2.
Ports Development (Karachi and Port Qasim)
3.
Oil and Coal Jetties/Terminals
4.
Fish Harbours (Karachi, Jiwani, Gwadar, Pasni)
5.
Clifton Beach/DHA Reclamation Work
6.
Mangroves Plantations
7.
Coastal Highway (Sindh and Balochistan)
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

There is a lack of coordination amongst


various stakeholders involved in
developmental activities in the coastal areas.
The existing institutional mandates and
policies of coastal agencies do not give
adequate attention to coastal erosion
processes and issues.

Naval Base
KANUPP Nuclear Power Plant
Beach Development Projects
Left Bank Outfall Drainage (LBOD)
Development of Water Breakers
Dams and Barrages

Future/Planned Interventions
1.
Gadani Coal Power Corridor (Power Park)
2.
China Assisted Nuclear Power Projects
3.
Oil and Gas Explorations (Off shore)
4.
Island Developments
5.
Development of New Coastal Cities (Zulfiqarabad)
6.
New Dams Development

Impact
(Positive/Negative)
Not Known
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Positive
Balochistan Positive
and Sindh Negative
Positive
Negative
Positive
Negative
Negative
Negative

Not Known
Not Known
Negative
Positive and Negative
Not Known
Negative

39
l
l
l

Emphasising on capacity building of main


stakeholders groups;
Developing a system of accumulation and
sharing of research results and lessons learnt
in the field of disaster management; and
Functionalising the NDMA at a national level
as a focal organisation for human resource
development in the field of disaster
management.

Similarly Pakistan Maritime Security, IUCN, MFF


and WWF Pakistan are also active in
implementing measures to reduce risks of
disasters through the training of local
communities.

4.3.2 Sub-National Level: Policy,


Capacity-Building, Knowledge,
Community-Level
Provincial Disaster Management Authorities have
also devised their action plans along the same
lines as NDMA. The provincial DMAs have
ensured the inclusion of disaster reduction with a
strong gender balanced approach at all levels of
education, effective public awareness and
information campaigns. Also, media involvement
in advocacy and dissemination, training of the
communities at risk, and targeted research are
the ingredients to support the knowledge base for
effective disaster risk management.

4.3.3 Local Level: Policy, CapacityBuilding, Knowledge, Community-Level


Under the SCDA project National Rural Support
Programme, IUCN and district authorities have
implemented several capacity building and
awareness raising activities on disaster risks and
natural resources management in the coastal
districts of Sindh.

4.4
Planned/Future Interventions
and Development Support
4.4.1 National Level: Policy, CapacityBuilding, Knowledge, Community-Level
The national agencies and the private
organisations that have strong stakes in the
coastal areas have plans to develop the maritime

zone in an effective and economic manner to


achieve the goals of their organisations.
Presently, the following government and nongovernment organisations are stakeholders in
maritime affairs;
l Federal Environmental Protection Agency
(Pak-EPA)
l Federal Ministry of Environment (MOE)
l IUCN-Pakistan
l WWF-Pakistan
l Marine Fisheries Department
l Maritime Security Agency
l Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock
(MinFAL)
l Ministry of Ports and Shipping
l National Institute of Oceanography (NIO)
l NGOs
l Pakistan Coast Guards
l Pakistan Navy
l Private Sector (e.g. Petroleum exploration,
agro business and general trading sectors)
l Zoological Survey Department (ZSD)
The Climate Change Division, Government of
Pakistan has developed Climate Change Action
Plan 2013-2030 which entails actions to control
erosion and other measures to mitigate disaster
risks. Similarly, NDMA that has produced a policy
document on Vision 2025 by preparing a
management plan for educating the disaster
managers, communities.

4.4.2 Sub-National Level: Policy,


Capacity-Building, Knowledge,
Community-Level
SCDA has prepared a perspective plan for the
coastal areas of Thatta and Badin districts with
special attention to the mitigation measures
required for stopping erosion activities within the
area. SCDA has also planned to educate the
coastal communities by organising them in CBOs
and conducting seminars, training workshops at
their localities with the assistance of NRSP
(National Rural Support Programme).
Similar activities are being conducted by the MFF
Programme in Pakistan by programmes under its
grant and capacity building initiatives. Local

40
Adaptation Plans of Actions (LAPAs) have also
been envisioned by LEAD Pakistan (LP) for the
coastal communities of Thatta by the
development of crop calendars for five major
crops based on shifting cultivation and harvest
timings and training of farmers on new calendars,
multiple cropping and distribution of seed on cost
sharing basis.
Similarly, WWF-Pakistan, under its 5 year Climate
Change Adaptation Project (CCAP), has launched
2 union council level adaptation plans for Keti
Bunder and Kharo Chan, district Thatta. These
adaptation plans have been endorsed by the
Deputy Commissioner (DC) of the district in
February 2014. The activities/interventions
mentioned in the adaptation plans emerge from
WWF-Pakistans past enterprise audit reports and
its 2012 delta-wide vulnerability assessment
conducted under the same project, and from
CCAPs consultative capacity building trainings
convened by LEAD Pakistan, as well as one-onone interviews with district, provincial and federal
government officials. The proposed
activities/interventions in the adaptation plans
focus on; 1) changes in temperature; 2) changes
in precipitation; 3) sea-level rise; 4) rise in sea

surface temperature; and, 5) awareness and


capacity building.

4.4.3 Local Level: Policy, CapacityBuilding, Knowledge, Community-Level


The under mentioned organisations have plans to
carry out development at local level. However, the
approaches adopted by them are nonparticipatory with minimal engagement of the
local communities.
l Gwadar Port Authority
l Karachi Port Trust (KPT)
l Port Qasim Authority (PQA)

4.5

Chapter Summary

This chapter discusses the interventions that


have been adopted and shows that the
exacerbation of the erosion in Indus Delta is due
to the impact of certain ill-planned human
interventions, such as, construction of the LBOD
system. In addition, the development of
unplanned Water Front Projects at Karachi and
port facilities for fish landing at Damb, Pasni,
Gwadar, Pishukan and Jiwani have also
contributed to coastal erosion.

41

5
5.1

ASSESSMENT OF GAPS AND NEEDS


Introduction:

At present the responsibility for planning of coastal protection schemes is


usually located at a provincial level. There are many gaps in implementing the
protection polices in the provinces. A few are listed below:
l Coastal erosion is happening all along the coast of Pakistan but no efforts
are taken to address this threat either at the national level or at the local
level.
l Institutional mechanisms are not properly and effectively utilised to
address coastal erosion. More than a handful of agencies, as well as the
local government like BCDA, SCDA, KDA, KMC, DHA, Clifton
Cantonment, SIDA and district authorities are already involved in coastal
and foreshore management. However, mandated programmes are either
overlapping or conflicting, leading to slow implementation and, in truly
extreme cases, inaction.
l It is required that provincial EPA rules for EIA for coastal areas projects be
revised. At present, current standards do not reflect the importance of
highly variable nature of the coast. It is therefore, required to bring in
coastal landforms and processes, which may vary from place to place
across the entire coastline of Sindh and Balochistan.
l Information such as historical erosion rates and potential trends due to
climate-related exposure factors (e.g., sea-level rise) must also be
considered when determining thresholds.

5.2

Policies, Legal and Institutional Arrangements

5.2.1 Assessment of Needs and Types of Arrangements


Required to Address Coastal Erosion
The natural beaches of Pakistan are falling victim to erosion as a result of
haphazard development work in the coastal areas without taking into account
hydrodynamic studies for ascertaining the sediment transport pattern in the
area. However, like other coastal countries, Pakistan is also required to
respond to erosion by using various means to control shoreline erosion. These
means can be to include constructing hard erosion control devices such as
seawalls, groins and jetties, and soft stabilisation of beaches using beach
nourishment. All this will have to be conducted after due consideration of
sediment transport pattern and soil bearing capacity of the area.

42
As for long-term initiatives, there is a need to
draft a separate legislation to manage coastal
erosion and mitigate its causes and effects;
resolving ambiguous, overlapping, and conflicting
policies, and designating an office to solely
pursue coastal erosion concerns. Meanwhile,
more immediate action may involve convergence
meetings that should aim to initiate the
delineation of roles and responsibilities of various
entities involved in the development and
management of the coastal zone and foreshore.
These activities are intended to facilitate better
coordination and complementary action among
responsible agencies.

be tailored for local conditions based on the fact


that the forces that derive the sediment transport
mechanism are universal.

5.2.2 Actions Required at Sub-National


Levels

5.4.1

The formulation of a Coastal Erosion


Management Plan is significant in terms of
adopting an integrated approach in coastal zone
management. There is a need for professionals
from various disciplines to work together towards
the common objective of planning for sustainable
development. The successful implementation of
this policy, however, requires sincerity and
commitment from all the concerned parties at the
federal, state and local levels, including the
participation of the local communities.

5.3

Building Capacities

5.3.1 Assessment of Needs and Types of


Capacity Building Required to Address
Coastal Erosion
Considering the serious shortage of trained
manpower in dealing with coastal erosion related
issues, there is an immediate need to develop a
programme to train personnel from coastal
development authorities and other stakeholders
in shore protection, erosion control and hydraulic
modeling. The relevant authorities personnel
should be properly informed about the practices
of advanced countries for controlling the erosion
of coastlines.
The practices being applied in Europe and other
developed countries to cope with erosion,
although not directly applicable for Pakistan, can

5.3.2 Actions Required at Sub-National


Levels
At national/sub-national and local levels, it will be
beneficial to build capacity of all relevant
stakeholders, CBOs and local communities on
basic assessment of coastal habitats, beach
monitoring methods, mapping techniques and
coastal erosion mitigation planning.

5.4

Knowledge and Education


Database

The following institutions which are directly or


indirectly involved in data assemblage and
imparting basic knowledge in the fields are
beneficial for the local coastal communities;
l Academic and research institutions
(Universities in coastal areas)
l IUCN-Pakistan
l WWF-Pakistan
l Local communities
l Maritime Security Agency
l National Institute of Oceanography (NIO)
l NGOs
l Provincial Coastal Development Authorities
(Sindh & Balochistan)
l Provincial Fisheries Departments (Sindh &
Balochistan)
l Provincial Forest and Wildlife Departments
(Sindh & Balochistan)
l Private sector (e.g. Petroleum exploration,
agro business and general trading sectors)
l Tourism departments of Sindh and
Balochistan
It is required that they be brought under a
coordinating body to streamline the efforts. All the
universities like Lasbela University for Agriculture,
Water and Marine Sciences at Uthal, University of
Karachi, University of Turbat (KECH), engineering
universities in Karachi, as well as university
campuses in Thatta and Badin districts
established in the coastal cities and towns in
Pakistan should be engaged in data collection

43

Table 9: Recommended Interventions and Estimated Costs


S. No.

Interventions

Formulation of a coastal erosion management plan


(details given in Table 13)

Awareness raising activities for all relevant stakeholders and


local coastal communities for implementation of management plan.
(Two provincial and one national level awareness activity)

Networking with universities to establish a comprehensive


knowledge base. (Three universities: Karachi University,
NED University and Lasbela University for Agriculture,
Water and Marine Sciences at Uthal.

Total PKR

and dissemination of information to combat the


erosion issue with the technical assistance of the
National Institute of Oceanography.

5.5

Finances

5.5.1 Financial Breakdown for Various


Actions including Sub-National Levels
Table 9 presents a preliminary financial
breakdown to implement selected actions
identified in this section. Particularly, these relate
to resolving issues in current institutional
mechanisms, building knowledge and capacity to
address coastal erosion.

Cost in PKR
(million)

10 million

5.6

Chapter Summary

The chapter identifies the gaps and needs to


address the coastal erosion in the coastal zone of
Pakistan. It discusses the gaps in three areas i.e.
policy/institutional arrangements, capacity
building and awareness raising and, knowledge
and education. To address these gaps, it is
recommended that a coastal erosion
management plan be developed, capacity
building of all relevant stakeholders and local
communities be carried out and networking with
academic institutions like universities be
developed to establish a comprehensive
knowledge base.

44

MENU OF RECOMMENDED
PILOT INTERVENTIONS

6.1
Introduction: Identification of Hotspots and Types of
Interventions
A coastal zone is one of the most important national assets of a country
where socio-economic activities are highly concentrated. The concentration of
industries in the coastal zone makes it vulnerable to natural disasters. The
importance of the coastal zone increases if it is in the deltaic environment.
The deltaic morphology is fragile and is a function of numerous processes
involved in the equilibrium and stabilization of the delta. Therefore, any action
taken within the Indus Delta without proper investigation will produce negative
impact on the stability of the delta. Similarly, other coastal areas along Makran
are also to be properly investigated before developing any infrastructure that
may hinder the sediment transport and erode the coastal area. The hotspots
in the coastal zones which are vulnerable to erosion are discussed herein:

6.2

Identification of Locations of Hotspots

In the analysis of Assessment Report the sites identified as already eroded or


under the threat of erosion are as follows:
l Keti Bunder;
l Coastal areas of Badin;
l Damb;
l Pasni, and;
l Jiwani.

6.2.1
l

Basis of Selection: Priority

The erosion of Keti Bunder at Hajamiro Creek as a result of nonavailability of freshwater from Indus River has put the area under threat of
erosion. Historically Keti Bunder used to be a port but due to man-made
activities it is now confined only to fishing. If proper protection work is not
adopted then the community living at the banks of Hajamiro Creek will be
forced to migrate to some safer place.
Badin is also important for protection from erosion as a result of LBOD
system that has resulted in intrusion of seawater in agricultural lands and
turned freshwater lakes into brackish water due to erosion of banks of the
Tidal Link.
Damb at Miani Hor is also threatened by severe erosion and therefore
requires proper protection.

45

Table 10: Recommended Locations and Actions

S. No.

Location

Action Required

Basis of Selection

Keti Bundar

Flood protection wall

Settlement of sizeable
community

Badin

Re-designing of Tidal Link drain

Saving the mega project

Damb

Re-designing of fish harbour and protection wall

Major fishing village

Pasni

Maintenance of fish harbour and sand bypassing

Protection of Pasni

Jiwani

Re-designing of wall

Protection of settlement

Pasni town has been under continuous


seawater inundation attacks as a result of
erosion that has happened due to the
hindrance in sediment transport downward to
Shadi Khor.

Jiwani town has also come under severe


erosion due to an ill planned breakwater
constructed for the proposed fish harbour at
Jiwani.

Table 11: Recommended Interventions for Coastal Erosion Prevention


Meso Interventions

Micro Interventions

One coordinating body at national level for


strict implementation of coastal regulations

District level bodies to work in


consultation with national authority

Awareness raising
activities for communities

National and provincial policy regarding


coastline management

Integrating coastal erosion concerns


into district level disaster
management plans

Coastal forests and


mangrove plantation
(suitable species)

Integrated Coastal Zone Management


document should be notified and
implemented at provincial level

Erosion management plan to be


formulated

Development projects to
address soil erosion
concern

Macro Interventions

Formulation of Coastal Erosion


Management Plan

Development of monitoring and enforcement


mechanism
Demonstration of pilot
project addressing sea
intrusion

Coastal development authorities should be


strengthened. (Task forces to be established)
Guidelines for erosion management be
developed and incorporated in EIA and IEE
of projects
Formation and management of coastal
protected areas network
Transformation of authorities into
departments
Amendments in the act be made for dealing
with coastal erosion

District level coastal erosion


regulations be formulated
Large scale mangrove plantations at
Balochistan/ Sindh coast be ensured
for effective coastal protection

46

6.2.2 Recommended List of Locations


and Actions
Some areas have been identified with
recommended mitigation measures which can be
adopted to ensure the safety of the local
communities and their property. Details are given
in Tables 10 and 11.

6.3
Recommended Pilot
Interventions
Through a consultative meeting with relevant
stakeholders including representatives of local
communities, the following interventions were
discussed in detail and Formulation of Coastal
Erosion Management Plan was prioritised and
recommended as the pilot intervention to cope

with the erosion problems being faced by the


coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan.

6.3.1

Basis of Interventions

The interventions were suggested by a number of


participants from government, civil society,
academia, CBOs and local communities during a
consultative workshop held for the development
of this report. The recommended interventions
are mainly based on the gaps and needs
identified by different stakeholders.

6.4

Work Plan of Pilot Intervention

6.4.1

Budget (Sources & Means)

Funding for the implementation of proposed


interventions will be requested and sourced from

Table 12: Work Plan

S. No.

Activities

Timelines in months
M1

Hiring of Consultant

Field Visits to Coastal Erosion Hotspots

Preparation of Draft Management Plan

District Level Consultative Workshops

Provincial Level Consultative Workshops

National Level Consultative Workshop

Stakeholders Capacity Building Workshops


and Awareness Raising

Dissemination of Management Plan

M2

M3

M4

Table 13: Formulation of a Coastal Erosion Management Plan

M6

M71

S. No.

Item

Hiring of Consultant

1.0

Field Visits to Coastal Erosion Hotspots

0.3

District Level Consultative Workshops

1.0

Provincial Level Consultative Workshops

1.0

National Level Consultative Workshop

1.0

Stakeholders Capacity Building Workshops

0.5

Dissemination of Management Plan

Lump sum

0.2

Total

Quantity

M5

M8

M9

Budget in PKR (million)

5 Million

47
concerned agencies that had made the project at
the wrong site or with the wrong design.

6.5

Chapter Summary

This chapter identifies the locations of hotspots


of coastal erosion in Pakistan and suggests

relevant interventions to deal with the erosion


problem. It also provides a list of recommended
interventions at macro, meso and micro level.
Finally, a prioritised intervention is recommended
for piloting in the field.

48

CONCLUSION

Coastal erosion along the Balochistan and Sindh coast is prevalent due to
mismanagement of development work undertaken at the coast. Pakistan has
a variety of coastal features that include deltas, raised terraces and raised
beaches and has been under direct attack of storm surges and Arabian Sea
cyclones. If the coastal zone is managed in a scientific manner by conducting
hydrodynamic surveys before embarking upon any coastal project or a project
which has influence on the coast then it will become a coastal area with
socio-economic value.
Most of the beaches are economically important as they can serve as prime
tourist destinations if protected accordingly. The projected acceleration of sea
level rise and increase in the frequency and intensity of storms and cyclones
have made the task more challenging. Despite the common occurrence and
severity in many cases, coastal erosion is not yet fully recognised as a threat
to coastal communities at the national level. As such, there are currently no
national or local policies directly addressing coastal erosion. Several
government agencies at different administrative levels are involved in the
management of the coastal areas; they are not committed to directly deal with
coastal erosion.
It is very necessary to re-think the present mode by which the coastal areas
of Sindh and Balochistan are being managed. Acceleration of the nationwide
mapping of coastal erosion and pushing for understanding of the hazard are
urgently needed. Understanding of coastal dynamics, including identification
of sediment sources and their movement directions are critically important for
addressing the erosion issue. To deal with all these factors, a coastal erosion
management plan should be developed for defining the scope of work to
address the coastal erosion in Pakistan.
It has been observed that the areas which receive freshwater on regular or
intermediate basis, especially in the lower delta have dense mangrove forests.
Therefore, the areas of the delta receiving continuous or seasonal river flows
may be planted with mangrove or other suitable species after determining
their suitability based on site characteristics.

49

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