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Android eye detection and tracking with OpenCV

ANDROID / OPENCV

28 LED, 2013

140

This tutorial is for older samples, if you are starting with the new ones (2.4.6) please
look at this updated tutorial. Method and principles of matching are the same for both.
Finally I found some time to write promised tutorial of eye detection and template
matching on Android. Since OpenCV for Android is getting better and better, some code
snippets can be old and not the best possible way to solve the problem. If you found
some improvements, please comment or contact me, I will edit this post and share it to
others.
We take standard OpenCV example for face detections and extends it a little.
Android OpenCV SDK can be found here
If you arentn familiar with Eclipse and OpenCV yet, please read basic setup of
opencv4android first.
Import Face detection sample to Eclipse and clean/build the project to be sure is
correctly imported and working.
As you can se on the video, there are some differences in GUI against the pure sample.
There is a slider to easily change the matching method and button to recreate the eye

template.
So at first we add those elements to the GUI.
1.

Open FdActivity.java and change content of LoaderCallbackInterface method


with snippet below. Code is pretty straightforward instead of putting instance
FdView as content view, we programmatically create new layout, add button and
verticalseekbar (this class is included in downloadable project at the end of page) to
layout and pass the whole layout as content view.

// Create and set View

mView = new FdView(mAppContext);

mView.setDetectorType(mDetectorType);

mView.setMinFaceSize(0.2f);

VerticalSeekBar VerticalseekBar = new VerticalSeekBar(

getApplicationContext());

VerticalseekBar.setMax(5);

VerticalseekBar.setPadding(20, 20, 20, 20);

RelativeLayout.LayoutParams vsek = new RelativeLayout.LayoutParams(

RelativeLayout.LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT, 400);

vsek.addRule(RelativeLayout.ALIGN_PARENT_RIGHT);

// Dont forget to set the id, or aligment will not work

VerticalseekBar.setId(1);

VerticalseekBar

.setOnSeekBarChangeListener(new
OnSeekBarChangeListener() {

public void onProgressChanged(SeekBar


seekBar,

int progress,
boolean fromUser) {

method = progress;

switch (method) {

case 0:

matching_method.setText("TM_SQDIFF");

break;

case 1:

matching_method.setText("TM_SQDIFF_NORMED");

break;

case 2:

matching_method.setText("TM_CCOEFF");

break;

case 3:

matching_method.setText("TM_CCOEFF_NORMED");

break;

case 4:

matching_method.setText("TM_CCORR");

break;

case 5:

matching_method.setText("TM_CCORR_NORMED");

break;

public void
onStartTrackingTouch(SeekBar seekBar) {

public void
onStopTrackingTouch(SeekBar seekBar) {

});

matching_method = new TextView(getApplicationContext());

matching_method.setText("TM_SQDIFF");

matching_method.setTextColor(Color.YELLOW);

RelativeLayout.LayoutParams matching_method_param = new


RelativeLayout.LayoutParams(

RelativeLayout.LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT,

RelativeLayout.LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT);

matching_method_param

.addRule(RelativeLayout.ALIGN_PARENT_RIGHT);

matching_method_param.addRule(RelativeLayout.BELOW,

VerticalseekBar.getId());

Button btn = new Button(getApplicationContext());

btn.setText("Create template");

RelativeLayout.LayoutParams btnp = new RelativeLayout.LayoutParams(

RelativeLayout.LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT,

RelativeLayout.LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT);

btnp.addRule(RelativeLayout.ALIGN_PARENT_LEFT);

btn.setId(2);

// Listen for click

btn.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {

public void onClick(View v) {

mView.resetLearFramesCount();

});

RelativeLayout frameLayout = new RelativeLayout(

getApplicationContext());

frameLayout.addView(mView, 0);

frameLayout.addView(btn, btnp);

frameLayout.addView(VerticalseekBar, vsek);

frameLayout.addView(matching_method, matching_method_param);

setContentView(frameLayout);

2.

For testing purposes, edit SampleCvViewBase.java line 35 as shown below.


This will change video source to the front camera

mCamera = new VideoCapture(Highgui.CV_CAP_ANDROID+1);

3.

Now we are ready to do the main part. Open FdView.java


Add some Mats variables for zooming, templates and computations, Classificators for
right and left eye

class FdView extends SampleCvViewBase {

private static final String

TAG = "Sample::FdView";

private Mat

mRgba;

private Mat

mGray;

// Mats for zoom

private Mat

mZoomCorner;

private Mat

mZoomWindow;

private Mat

mZoomWindow2;

// Helper Mat

private Mat

mResult;

// Mat for templates

private Mat

teplateR;

private Mat

teplateL;

private File

mCascadeFile;

private CascadeClassifier

mJavaDetector;

// Classifiers for left-right eyes

private CascadeClassifier

mCascadeER;

private CascadeClassifier

mCascadeEL;

private DetectionBasedTracker mNativeDetector;

private static final Scalar

FACE_RECT_COLOR = new Scalar(0, 255, 0, 255);

public static final int

JAVA_DETECTOR

= 0;

public static final int

NATIVE_DETECTOR

= 1;

// Matching methods

private static final int TM_SQDIFF

= 0;

private static final int TM_SQDIFF_NORMED

= 1;

private static final int TM_CCOEFF

= 2;

private static final int TM_CCOEFF_NORMED

= 3;

private static final int TM_CCORR

= 4;

private static final int TM_CCORR_NORMED

= 5;

private int

mDetectorType

= JAVA_DETECTOR;

private float

mRelativeFaceSize = 0;

private int

mAbsoluteFaceSize = 0;

// counter of learning frames

private int

learn_frames = 0;

// match value

private double

match_value;

// rectangle used to extract eye region - ROI

private Rect

eyearea = new Rect();

Now we need to load cascade classifier files for left and right eye
haarcascade_lefteye_2splits.xml distributed with OpenCV package (data folder) I
used the same classifier for both eyes, because for right eye,
haarcascade_lefteye_2splits.xml gives me better results, than
haarcascade_righteye_2splits.xml . But you can try it with both simply rewrite the
filename.

Dont forget to copy haarcascade_lefteye_2splits.xml to /raw directory in your


Android project (if is not present, simply create it)

public FdView(Context context) {

super(context);

try {

InputStream is = context.getResources().openRawResource(R.raw.lbpcascade_frontalface);

File cascadeDir = context.getDir("cascade", Context.MODE_PRIVATE);

mCascadeFile = new File(cascadeDir, "lbpcascade_frontalface.xml");

FileOutputStream os = new FileOutputStream(mCascadeFile);

byte[] buffer = new byte[4096];

int bytesRead;

while ((bytesRead = is.read(buffer)) != -1) {

os.write(buffer, 0, bytesRead);

is.close();

os.close();

// --------------------------------- load left eye classificator -----------------------------------

InputStream iser = context.getResources().openRawResource(R.raw.haarcascade_lefteye_2splits);

File cascadeDirER = context.getDir("cascadeER", Context.MODE_PRIVATE);

File cascadeFileER = new File(cascadeDirER, "haarcascade_eye_right.xml");

FileOutputStream oser = new FileOutputStream(cascadeFileER);

byte[] bufferER = new byte[4096];

int bytesReadER;

while ((bytesReadER = iser.read(bufferER)) != -1) {

oser.write(bufferER, 0, bytesReadER);

iser.close();

oser.close();

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// --------------------------------- load right eye classificator ------------------------------------

InputStream isel = context.getResources().openRawResource(R.raw.haarcascade_lefteye_2splits);

File cascadeDirEL = context.getDir("cascadeEL", Context.MODE_PRIVATE);

File cascadeFileEL = new File(cascadeDirEL, "haarcascade_eye_left.xml");

FileOutputStream osel = new FileOutputStream(cascadeFileEL);

byte[] bufferEL = new byte[4096];

int bytesReadEL;

while ((bytesReadEL = isel.read(bufferEL)) != -1) {

osel.write(bufferEL, 0, bytesReadEL);

isel.close();

osel.close();

// ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

mJavaDetector = new CascadeClassifier(mCascadeFile.getAbsolutePath());

mCascadeER = new CascadeClassifier(cascadeFileER.getAbsolutePath());

mCascadeEL = new CascadeClassifier(cascadeFileER.getAbsolutePath());

if (mJavaDetector.empty()|| mCascadeER.empty() || mCascadeEL.empty()) {

Log.e(TAG, "Failed to load cascade classifier");

mJavaDetector = null;

mCascadeER=null;

mCascadeEL=null;

} else

Log.i(TAG, "Loaded cascade classifier from " + mCascadeFile.getAbsolutePath());

mNativeDetector = new DetectionBasedTracker(mCascadeFile.getAbsolutePath(), 0);

cascadeDir.delete();

cascadeFileER.delete();

cascadeDirER.delete();

cascadeFileEL.delete();

cascadeDirEL.delete();

} catch (IOException e) {

e.printStackTrace();

Log.e(TAG, "Failed to load cascade. Exception thrown: " + e);

Now edit the image processing:

@Override

protected Bitmap processFrame(VideoCapture capture) {

...

MatOfRect faces = new MatOfRect();

if (mDetectorType == JAVA_DETECTOR)

if (mJavaDetector != null)

mJavaDetector.detectMultiScale(mGray, faces, 1.1, 2, 2 // TODO: objdetect.CV_HAAR_SCALE_IMAGE

, new Size(mAbsoluteFaceSize, mAbsoluteFaceSize), new Size());

// Prepare zoom mats

if (mZoomCorner == null || mZoomWindow == null)

CreateAuxiliaryMats();

Rect[] facesArray = faces.toArray();

// Iterate through all detected faces

for (int i = 0; i < facesArray.length; i++){ Rect r = facesArray[i]; Core.rectangle(mGray, r.tl(), r.br(), new
Scalar(0, 255, 0, 255), 3); // Draw rectangle around the face Core.rectangle(mRgba, r.tl(), r.br(), new Scalar(0,
255, 0, 255), 3);

Now we detect face, right, nothing new, its face detection sample:) What about
eyes? As face is found, it reduces our ROI (region of interest where we will finding
eyes) to face rectangle only. From face anatomy we can exclude the bottom part of
face with mouth and some top part with forehead and hair. I could be computed
relatively to the face size. See picture below original image -> detected face -> eye
area -> area splitted area for right, left eye. It saves computing power.

// compute the eye area

eyearea = new Rect(r.x +r.width/8,(int)(r.y + (r.height/4.5)),r.width - 2*r.width/8,(int)( r.height/3.0));

// split it

Rect eyearea_right = new Rect(r.x +r.width/16,(int)(r.y + (r.height/4.5)),(r.width - 2*r.width/16)/2,(int)


( r.height/3.0));

Rect eyearea_left = new Rect(r.x +r.width/16 +(r.width - 2*r.width/16)/2,(int)(r.y + (r.height/4.5)),(r.width 2*r.width/16)/2,(int)( r.height/3.0));

// draw the area - mGray is working grayscale mat, if you want to see area in rgb preview, change mGray to mRgba

Core.rectangle(mGray,eyearea_left.tl(),eyearea_left.br() , new Scalar(255,0, 0, 255), 2);

Core.rectangle(mGray,eyearea_right.tl(),eyearea_right.br() , new Scalar(255, 0, 0, 255), 2);

Count 5 first frames for learning get_template function get classifier, area to
detect, and desired size of new template.

if(learn_frames<5){

teplateR = get_template(mCascadeER,eyearea_right,24);

teplateL = get_template(mCascadeEL,eyearea_left,24);

learn_frames++;

}else{

// Learning finished, use the new templates for template matching

match_value = match_eye(eyearea_right,teplateR,FdActivity.method); //Or hardcode method you needs eg


TM_SQDIFF_NORMED

match_value = match_eye(eyearea_left,teplateL,FdActivity.method); //Or hardcode method you needs eg


TM_SQDIFF_NORMED

// cut eye areas and put them to zoom windows

Imgproc.resize(mRgba.submat(eyearea_left), mZoomWindow2, mZoomWindow2.size());

Imgproc.resize(mRgba.submat(eyearea_right), mZoomWindow, mZoomWindow.size());

...

Zoom method:

private void CreateAuxiliaryMats() {

if (mGray.empty())

return;

int rows = mGray.rows();

int cols = mGray.cols();

if (mZoomWindow == null){

mZoomWindow = mRgba.submat(rows / 2 + rows / 10 ,rows , cols / 2 + cols / 10, cols );

mZoomWindow2 = mRgba.submat(0, rows / 2 - rows / 10 , cols / 2 + cols / 10, cols );

Matching the template


area region of interest
mTemplate template of eye, created by get_template
type type of matching method
returns matching score of template and desired area

private double

match_eye(Rect area, Mat mTemplate,int type){

Point matchLoc;

Mat mROI = mGray.submat(area);

int result_cols =

mROI.cols() - mTemplate.cols() + 1;

int result_rows = mROI.rows() - mTemplate.rows() + 1;

//Check for bad template size

if(mTemplate.cols()==0 ||mTemplate.rows()==0){

return 0.0;

mResult = new Mat(result_cols, result_rows, CvType.CV_8U);

switch (type){

case TM_SQDIFF:

Imgproc.matchTemplate(mROI, mTemplate, mResult, Imgproc.TM_SQDIFF) ;

break;

case TM_SQDIFF_NORMED:

Imgproc.matchTemplate(mROI, mTemplate, mResult, Imgproc.TM_SQDIFF_NORMED) ;

break;

case TM_CCOEFF:

Imgproc.matchTemplate(mROI, mTemplate, mResult, Imgproc.TM_CCOEFF) ;

break;

case TM_CCOEFF_NORMED:

Imgproc.matchTemplate(mROI, mTemplate, mResult, Imgproc.TM_CCOEFF_NORMED) ;

break;

case TM_CCORR:

Imgproc.matchTemplate(mROI, mTemplate, mResult, Imgproc.TM_CCORR) ;

break;

case TM_CCORR_NORMED:

Imgproc.matchTemplate(mROI, mTemplate, mResult, Imgproc.TM_CCORR_NORMED) ;

break;

Core.MinMaxLocResult mmres =

Core.minMaxLoc(mResult);

// there is difference in matching methods - best match is max/min value

if(type == TM_SQDIFF || type == TM_SQDIFF_NORMED)

{ matchLoc = mmres.minLoc; }

else

{ matchLoc = mmres.maxLoc; }

Point

matchLoc_tx = new Point(matchLoc.x+area.x,matchLoc.y+area.y);

Point

matchLoc_ty = new Point(matchLoc.x + mTemplate.cols() + area.x , matchLoc.y + mTemplate.rows()+area.y );

Core.rectangle(mRgba, matchLoc_tx,matchLoc_ty, new Scalar(255, 255, 0, 255));

if(type == TM_SQDIFF || type == TM_SQDIFF_NORMED)

{ return mmres.maxVal; }

else

{ return mmres.minVal; }

On following picture you can see all ROI areas and matching in progress yellow
rectangles.

Get template find eye in desired roi by haar classifier, if eye is found, reduce roi
to the eye only and search for the darkness point pupil. Create rectangle of desired
size, centered in pupil our new eye template.

private Mat

get_template(CascadeClassifier clasificator, Rect area,int size){

Mat template = new Mat();

Mat mROI = mGray.submat(area);

MatOfRect eyes = new MatOfRect();

Point iris = new Point();

Rect eye_template = new Rect();

clasificator.detectMultiScale(mROI, eyes, 1.15, 2,Objdetect.CASCADE_FIND_BIGGEST_OBJECT|


Objdetect.CASCADE_SCALE_IMAGE, new Size(30,30),new Size());

Rect[] eyesArray = eyes.toArray();

for (int i = 0; i < eyesArray.length; i++){

Rect e = eyesArray[i];

e.x = area.x + e.x;

e.y = area.y + e.y;

Rect eye_only_rectangle = new Rect((int)e.tl().x,(int)( e.tl().y + e.height*0.4),(int)e.width,(int)(e.height*0.6));

// reduce ROI

mROI = mGray.submat(eye_only_rectangle);

Mat vyrez = mRgba.submat(eye_only_rectangle);

// find the darkness point

Core.MinMaxLocResult mmG = Core.minMaxLoc(mROI);

// draw point to visualise pupil

Core.circle(vyrez, mmG.minLoc,2, new Scalar(255, 255, 255, 255),2);

iris.x = mmG.minLoc.x + eye_only_rectangle.x;

iris.y = mmG.minLoc.y + eye_only_rectangle.y;

eye_template = new Rect((int)iris.x-size/2,(int)iris.y-size/2 ,size,size);

Core.rectangle(mRgba,eye_template.tl(),eye_template.br(),new Scalar(255, 0, 0, 255), 2);

// copy area to template

template = (mGray.submat(eye_template)).clone();

return template;

return template;

Red rectangles are templates and white dots are pupils.