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# Basic Transmissions

Introduction
Engine power is transmitted to the drive wheels or output shaft of a machine by the
power train. The Power train does four jobs:
1) Connects and disconnects power
2) Selects speed ratios
3) Provides a means of reversing
4) Equalizes power to the drive wheels for turning
To do these jobs, five components are needed:
A) Clutch-to connect and disconnect power
B) Transmission-to select speeds and direction
C) Differential-to equalize power for turning
D) Final Drives-to reduce speed and increase torque to axle
E) Drive Wheels-to propel the machine
Some components are also needed to help drive the machine, but these are the
basic power train components.
Power Transmission
Clutch
The first part of a power train is the clutch.
Its job is to disconnect the engine from the power train, allowing the engine to run
while the machine is standing still. The clutch also engages this power to start up
the machine.
Think of a clutch as two disks, each on a shaft.
As long as the disks are not touching, we can spin one as fast as we want to without
affecting the other. But if we move them together when one is spinning, the other
will begin to turn and then both shafts will turn as one unit. This is the principle of
the disk clutch as used on many machines.
In an actual disk clutch the discs are forced together by strong springs, or hydraulic
pressure and are separated by pushing down on the clutch pedal.

## Some machines have hydrodynamic or hydrostatic drives in which the clutch is

eliminated.
Hydrostatic Drives
In modern hydrostatic drives, fluid is used as a coupling for power.
We start with a disk which contains vanes. If we supply a fluid, the vanes fill as
shown.
We rotate the disk at high speed and centrifugal force causes the fluid to move out
as shown.
We place a second disk above and near the first disk. Fluid now flows into the
second disk as shown. The force of the fluid on the second disk will cause it to
rotate in the same direction as the first one, forming a fluid coupling which
transmits power.
When the disks are sealed and the fluid is under pressure, a solid coupling is
formed.
This is the basic principle of fluid drives such as the fluid coupling and torque
converter.
Reverse Idler
Transmission In Reverse Gear
Reverse gear is very much like first, giving about the same ratio and using the same
four gears. However, it also uses an extra gear called a reverse idler which causes
the drive shaft to turn in the opposite direction.
All the gears are mounted in a metal case filled with oil to lubricate the gears and
bearings.
The various speeds are selected by moving a shift lever in the driver's
compartment.
Low High Transmission
The transmission is a system of gears.
Suppose we have a small gear with 12 teeth driving a larger gear with 24 teeth.
When the first gear has made one complete revolution, it has gone around the
equivalent of 12 teeth. The second one has gone around the same distance (12
teeth) but this means only one-half a revolution for the larger gear.

As a result, the second gear and its shaft always turn at one-half the speed of the
first gear and its shaft. The point to remember is that smaller gears always turn at a
faster rate.
This is the principle of the transmission and when several combinations of gears, we
are arranged so that we can select the speed we want to use at any moment.
Transmission in a Low Gear
For low or first gear, a small gear on the input shaft drives a large gear on another
shaft.
This reduces the speed and increases the turning force.
Then a small gear on the second shaft drives a large gear on the drive shaft which
goes to the driving axle.
This reduces the speed and increases the turning still more, giving a higher gear
ratio for starting up or heavy pulling.
Transmission in a higher Gear
For second gear, we can use the same first pair of gears as in low.
However we disconnect the second pair of gears and drive through two other gears.
These gears are arranged so that the larger one drives the smaller, so there is less
overall speed reduction than in first gear.
For higher gears, the gear ratio is cut further by using other gear combinations. In
fact, high gear for a tractor is normally an overdrive so the output is faster than the
input.
Gears
The basic elements of almost all conventional power trains are gears.
Gears are simply a means of applying twisting force or torque to rotating parts.
The amount of torque you can get from a source of power is proportional to the
distance from the centre at which it is applied.
Long Fulcrum
Short lever movement but less torque as the fulcrum gets further away from the
object.
Short Fulcrum

The lever has more torque as the fulcrum gets closer to the object. But the lever
must also be rotated further to get this torque.
Torque and Gears
The same principle is used for gears in mesh.
A small gear will drive a large gear more slowly but with greater torque.
The gears in a transmission selected to give the operator a choice of speed and
torque.
Lower gear range equates to less speed but more torque.
Higher gear range equates to less torque but more speed.
The final choice of gears is a compromise to give enough of each to suit the needs
of the machine and its operator.
Gear Ratios
Gear ratio is a measure of the changes in speed and torque in the gear train.
The gear ratio between the gears shown is the ratio of the number of teeth on the
lower gear to the number of teeth on the upper gear.
Types of Gears
A variety of gear types are used to meet the demands of speed and torque.
Gears are normally used to transmit torque from one shaft to another. These shafts
may operate in line, parallel, or at an angle to each other.
Meshing gears must also have teeth of the same size and design. And at least one
pair of teeth must be engaged at all times. Some tooth designs allow for contact
between more than one pair of teeth.
Gears are normally classified by type of teeth and surface on which teeth are cut.
Straight Spur
These gears have straight teeth cut parallel to the axis of rotation. Normally, mating
gears have one to two pairs of teeth engaged at all times. These gears are noisier
and so are used mainly for slow speeds to avoid excessive vibration.
Uses: Straight spur gears are used in simple devices such as hand or powered
winches. Sliding gear transmissions also use them for speed changes because they
can be easily shifted by sliding on the shaft from one gear to another.
Herringbone

Herringbone gears are really double helical gears with teeth angles reversed on
opposite sides. This causes the thrust produced by one side to be counterbalanced
by the thrust produced by the other side. The two sets of teeth are often separated
at the centre by a narrow gap for better alignment and to prevent oil from being
trapped at the apex.
Uses: Herringbone gears are best suited for quiet, high-speed, low-thrust
applications where heavy loads are applied. Large turbines and generators
frequently use herringbone gears because of their durability.

Spiral Bevel
These gears were developed for use where higher speed and strength were required
while changing the angle of power flow. Their teeth are cut obliquely on the angular
faces of the gears. The angle is determined by the angle between the two shafts.
Uses: Farm and industrial machines use these gears in ring gear-and-pinion sets at
the drive axles. They not only change the angle of power flow, but they also reduce
speed and increase force.
Planetary
These are gear sets in which an outer ring gear has internal teeth which mate with
teeth on smaller planet gears. These gears in turn mate with a centre or sun gear.
Many changes in speed and torque are possible, depending on which parts are
braked and which are driven.
Uses: Planetary gears are widely used in transmissions because each set is capable
of more than one speed change. The gear load is spread over several gears,
reducing stress and wear on any one gear. Final drives in heavy machinery can also
use these gears.
Rack and Pinion
This set of gears convert straight-line motion into rotary motion and vice versa.
Rack and pinion gears also change the angle of power flow with some degree of
speed change. The teeth on the rack are cut straight while those on the pinion are
curved.
Uses: The rack and pinion can provide control of devices where slow speed is
involved.

## Helical Spur Gear

The teeth of a helical spur gear are cut obliquely across the perimeter of the gear
instead of straight. Engagement between two teeth starts at the tooth tip of one
gear and rolls down the teeth to the trailing edge. This angular contact tends to
cause side thrusts which the bearings must absorb. However, helical spur gears are
quieter in operation and have greater strength and durability than straight spur
gears because the contacting teeth are longer.
Uses: Helical spur gears are widely used in machine transmissions today because
they are quieter at high speeds, and are durable.
Plain Bevel
These gears permit the power flow to "turn a corner". The gear teeth are cut
straight on a line with the shaft but at some angle between perpendicular and
parallel to the shaft. The two gears are commonly called the "ring gear" (larger
driven gear) and "pinion gear" (smaller driving gear).
Uses: Like the straight spur gears, the plain bevel type is used in slow-speed
applications which are not subject to high impact forces. Handwheel controls which
must operate some remote device at an angle use straight bevel gears
Hypoid
The hypoid gear resembles the spiral bevel gear but the pinion drive gear (smaller)
is located below the centre of the ring gear (larger). Teeth and general construction
are the same as the spiral bevel gear.
Uses: The most common use for hypoid gears is in modern automobile differentials.
Here they allow for lower body styles by lowering the transmission drive shaft.
Worm
The worm gear is actually a screw (inclined plane). It is capable of high speed
reductions in a compact space. The mating gear has teeth which are curved at the
tips to permit a greater contact area. Power is supplied to the worm gear, which
drives the mating gear. Worm gears usually provide right-angle power flows.
Uses: The most common use for the worm gear is where the power source operates
at high speed and the output is slow speed with high torque. Many steering
mechanisms use a worm gear connected to the steering shaft and wheel and a
partial (sector) gear connected to the steering linkage. Small power hand tools
frequently use high-speed motor with a worm gear drive.
Planetary Gears

Planetary gears are similar to our solar system. The planet pinion gears each turn
on their own axes while rotating around the sun gear. This is much like the earth
and other planets rotating around the sun. The pinion gears in turn mesh with the
inside of the ring gear.
Notice that the sun gear, the planet pinions, and the ring gear are constantly in
mesh.
The planet pinions are mounted on shafts in the carrier, and can rotate on their own
axes to "walk around" the sun gear or the ring gear.
When power is applied to drive the sun gear or the planet pinion carrier, the entire
system will rotate as a unit unless a restraining force is applied to hold one of the
other two members of the system stationary.
When power is applied to one member of the planetary system, and a brake is
applied to restrain a second member from turning, the remaining part will become a
power output source.
Sun Gear is Driven
When the sun gear is driven and a brake is applied to the ring gear, the planet
pinions "walk around" the ring gear, forcing the planet pinion carrier to rotate in the
same direction as the sun gear, but at a slower speed.
Double Planet Pinion Set
When a second set of planet pinions is added to the simple planetary system, so
that the two sets of planet pinions are in mesh, reverse speeds can be obtained.
Now when power is applied to the planet pinion carrier and a brake is applied to the
ring gear, the planet pinions in mesh with the ring gear are forced to rotate on their
axes, driving the inner planet pinions which in turn force the sun gear to rotate in
the reverse direction from the planet pinion carrier.
The planetary system we have described will give low, high, and reverse speed
ranges.
Planet Pinion Carrier Is Driven
When the planet pinion carrier is driven and a brake is applied to the ring gear, the
planet pinions "walk around" the ring gear, forcing the sun gear to rotate in the
same direction at a higher speed.
In both cases above, one member is driven, one is braked, and ,the third member
becomes the power output.

Depending upon which member is driven and which is braked, the planetary gives
different speeds.
Backlash in Gears
Backlash is the clearance or "play" between two gears in mesh.
Too much backlash can be caused by worn gear teeth, an improper meshing of
teeth, or bearings which do not support the gears properly.
Too much backlash can result in severe impact on the gear teeth from sudden stops
or reverses of the gears. Broken gear teeth and gears bouncing under impact also
results from too much backlash.
Too little backlash causes excessive overload wear on gear teeth. This could result
in premature gear failure.
The image shows normal gear mesh and gear mesh which permits too much
backlash.
1. The normal gear mesh the clearance of the teeth at the pitch diameters is very
small.
2. On the worn gears with too much backlash, forces cause a greater movement
and a higher impact which can break the teeth or at least cause the gears to
bounce.
Gear Wear
New gear teeth have slight imperfections, but they normally disappear during
break-in as the teeth are oiled and polished. After that, the teeth should have a long
service life.
However, when lack of lubrication or other factors cause a gear to fail, we can
examine the failure and determine the cause.

Normal Wear
This is the normal polishing of gear teeth as they operate. The polished surface
should extend the full length of the tooth from near the root (or base) to the tip of
the tooth. Gears which are manufactured properly, well lubricated, and not
overloaded or improperly installed will show this condition after many hours of
service.
Scratching

This is often found on gears which handle heavy loads at slow speeds. It is caused
by particles of metal flaking off the gears which are larger than the abrasive
particles. Generally, it indicates the wrong gear design for the load. (Do not confuse
this with scoring.)
Rolling and Peening
Is the result of overload and sliding which leaves a burr on the tooth edge. Too little
bearing support or too ductile a metal results in plastic flow of the metal due to
sliding pressure. Peening is the result of backlash and the force causing a tooth to
hammer on another with tremendous impact. In these cases, lubricants are forced
out and metal bears directly on metal.
Scoring
This is caused by temperature rise and thinning or rupture of the lubricant film as
from too heavy loads. Pressure and sliding action heats the gear and permits metal
transfer from one tooth to the face of another. As the process continues, chunks of
metal loosen and gouge the teeth in the direction of the sliding motion. The
temperature rise here is slow and not as high as burning wear.
Spalling
Is a common wear condition which starts with fine surface cracks and eventually
results in large flakes or chips leaving the tooth face. Improperly case-hardened
teeth are most often subject to this kind of damage due to the brittle nature of the
metal. Spalling may occur on one or two teeth but the chips may cause other
damage to the remaining teeth.
Burning
Is usually caused by the complete failure of lubricants or a lack of lubrication.
During high stress and sliding motion, friction develops rapid heating and the
temperature limits of the metal are exceeded. Burned gear teeth are extremely
brittle and easily broken.
Ridging
These are scratches appearing near one end of a tooth, especially on a hypoid
pinion gear. This can be caused by excessive loads or lack of lubrication, or by gear
not properly heat treated during manufacture.

Cracking

## These failures tend to be caused by improper heat treating during manufacture.

Improperly machined tooth root dimensions can also result in cracking. Most heat
treat cracks are extremely fine and do not show up until a gear has been used for
some time.
Abrasive Wear
Surface injury caused by fine particles carried in the lubricant or embedded in the
tooth surfaces. The causes are metal particles from gear teeth, abrasives left in the
gear case, or sand and scale from castings.
If the contact surface is worn but smooth, the gears have been overloaded and
metal has been removed by the sliding pressure causing a depression in the length
of the teeth. Continuous use will result in backlash and severe peening which may
be misleading as to the real cause of the wear.
Rippling
This is a wavy surface or "fish scales" on the teeth at right angles to the direction of
slide. It may be caused by surface yielding due to "slipstick" friction resulting from
lack of lubrication, heavy loads, or vibrations.
Pitting
Gear teeth should not show pitting. Very minute or micro-pitting can occur and
would appear as a grey surface which may advance slowly to an actual pitted
condition. This type of condition is sometimes associated with thin oil film, possibly
due to high oil temperatures.
Corrosion
Corrosive wear results in an erosion of the tooth surfaces by acid. The acid is formed
by moisture combining with lubricant impurities and atmospheric contaminants.
Generally, the surfaces become pitted, causing an uneven surface and distribution
of stresses which lead to chipping and spalling.
Interference Wear
This type of wear can be caused by misalignment of gears which places heavy
contact on small areas. Also, mating of two gears with teeth not designed to work
together will cause interference wear. More than one wear pattern may show up, as
at teeth tips and roots.
Breakage

Broken teeth may be the result of many defects. Make a close study of the other
teeth before judging the cause. Breakage can be caused by high impact forces or
defective manufacture. To determine if breakage is due to overload or fatigue,
examine the broken area closely. If the break shows fresh metal all over the break
an Impact overload was the cause. If the break shows an area in the center of fresh
metal with the edges dark and old looking, the breakage was due to fatigue which
started with a fine surface crack.
When a gear train is operated, reaction loads from gears, etc. are transmitted to the
bearings and the used various parts deflect.
For this reason, the gear train must normally be adjusted for the proper fit between
parts.
Three kinds of adjustments are used:
Backlash-clearance or "play" between gears
Endplay-end-to-end movement in a gear shaft due to bearing clearances
Let's look at each one and then see how they all work together when adjusting an
actual gear train.
Checking Backlash In Gears
Too much backlash in gear trains is the result of :
1) Improper mesh between gears.
2) Lack of support in bearings.
The result of too much backlash can be broken gear teeth or bouncing of gears
under impact forces.
Backlash is often adjusted to a specified reading on assembled gears. Move ring
gear in toward the pinion to reduce backlash, or away from the pinion to increase
backlash.
The dial indicator is mounted so that it registers the full rotary movement of the ring
gear shown.
Checking Endplay in Gears and Shafts

## Endplay refers to a measurable axial looseness of a bearing. Endplay is measured in

To check the endplay a dial indicator is mounted against the side of a gear or the
end of a shaft. The gear or shaft is then pried in both directions and the readings
noted. The difference between the two readings is the endplay.
If the loads are heavy or the thrust too great, gear trains are often preloaded to
reduce the deflection of parts. This preload must fit the design of the bearings and
the strength of the parts.
If bearings are preloaded too tight, they will heat up and fail. If they are set too
loose, the supporting parts will deflect too much, causing them to wear rapidly.
Gear trains are preloaded by shims, thrust washers, adjusting nuts or by using
double race bearings.
Bearings
Bearings have two major jobs in a power train, to reduce friction and support a
rotating shaft.
Three main types of bearing are:
Ball
Roller
Needle
All three are constructed in a similar method and consist of:
1) Two hardened-steel rings called races.
2) Balls, rollers or needles which roll between the two races.
3) Separator cage to space the rolling elements around the bearing.
As in most needle bearings, the outer or inner race maybe omitted. The rolling
elements are then in direct contact with the shaft or other mounting.
When two races are included, one race is normally pressed or fixed on a shaft or in a
bore, while the other race is free to turn with the rolling elements. This is part of the
"anti-friction" feature of these bearings.

## Ball Bearing Types

Ball bearings support a shaft for radial forces as well as thrust forces. The shaft
must "be aligned in the bearing bore or the bearing will bind and quickly wear out.
To withstand various radial and thrust forces a wide range of ball bearings are used.
Ball bearings are also available in self-aligning types which compensate for shaft
angles in relation to the bearing mount.
A Single Row
B Double Row
D Self Aligning
E Ball Thrust
Roller Bearing Types
Roller bearings are basically the same as ball bearings with the balls replaced by
rollers. Often the outer race can be removed without the rollers falling out. Again,
the roller bearing can handle radial or thrust forces, or both.
Roller bearings can be designed to handle heavy thrust loads.
For heavy loads both radial and thrust tapered roller bearings are commonly used. A
good example of this is in front wheel bearings. Tapered bearings are also used
where high preloads are required on shafts or gears to support thrust.
A Plain Roller
B Self Aligning Spherical Roller
C Tapered Roller
D Thrust Roller
Needle Bearing
Needle bearings are much like roller bearings except that the rollers are thinner.
Also, most needle bearings have no inner race but roll directly on the shaft. The
rollers are not separated, but are tightly packed for added support of the shaft.
Needle bearings can support heavy radial loads but must not be placed under thrust
Needle bearings are used in compact locations where relatively high radial loads
must be supported. This bearing is frequently located inside a gear which must run

free on a shaft or act as an idler. The length of the rollers and their tight packing
gives the gear a good support and alignment. Planetary gears are usually supported
by needle bearings.
While servicing, if there is doubt about the condition of a needle bearing, replace
the bearing.

Synchromesh Gearbox
Introduction
In a synchromesh gearbox, gears can freely rotate or be locked to the shaft on
which they are carried. The locking mechanism for any individual gear consists of a
collar on the shaft which is able to slide sideways so that teeth on its inner surface
bridge two circular rings with teeth on their outer circumference: one attached to
the gear, one to the shaft (one collar typically serves for two gears; sliding in one
direction selects one transmission speed, in the other direction selects the other).
When the rings are bridged by the collar, that particular gear is rotationally locked
to the shaft and determines the output speed of the transmission.
The locking mechanism synchronises the speeds of the meshing gears and gives a
smooth transmission of power and eliminates gear clashing.
The animation shows a typical JCB Synchro Shuttle gearbox which consists of a
hydraulic reverser unit and integral manual 4-speed gearbox. Oil pressure is
provided by a crescent type pump A driven at engine speed by the drive lugs of the
torque converter. The oil pressure is controlled by maintenance valve B, and clutch
selection is achieved by means of an electric solenoid valve C.
The reverser unit D has a pair of hydraulically operated clutches giving forward neutral - reverse drive. Drive is transferred from the reverser unit by helical gears to
the mainshaft E, which carries the 3rd/4th synchromesh unit F, and to the layshaft
G, this carries the 1st/2nd synchromesh unit H. Synchromesh unit F is of the
'Blocking Pin' type. Synchromesh unit H features rings and cones with a sliding
sleeve and is of the 'Baulk Ring' type. Drive is transmitted finally via the output
shaft J to the rear axle. If 4 wheel drive is selected, the front wheels are also driven
via 4 wheel drive output K.
Hydraulic and Electrical Operation
Oil from the pump B is fed through an internal passage via the filter Q to the
pressure maintenance valve D, which maintains pressure to the solenoid valve E for
clutch selection. Excess oil from the maintenance valve flows back through the
casing to the torque converter S.

Oil enters the converter between the converter hub and the stator support, and
leaves between the stator and the input shaft. Pressure in the converter is
controlled by a regulating valve C which dumps oil from the converter line back to
the sump. Torque converter relief valve V acts as a safety valve should the system
pressure suddenly rise above normal, protecting the torque converter from being
damaged.
Oil from the torque converter S flows out of the transmission to the external oil
cooler Z, returning at the rear of the transmission unit to pass through the centre of
the reverser shaft for clutch lubrication.
Lubrication oil is also provided via a pump drain line to the forward/reverse front
shaft bearing A4. The drain from pressure maintenance valve D also provides
lubrication for idler gear bearing F. Pressurised oil at the solenoid valve E is used to
control the forward/reverse clutches A1 and A2.
Diagram Key
A Forward/Reverse clutch unit
A1 Forward clutch
A2 Reverse clutch
A3 Forward/Reverse front shaft
A4 Forward/Reverse front shaft bearing
B Transmission oil pump
C Torque converter pressure regulating valve
D Oil pressure maintenance valve
E Solenoid control valve
F Idler gear bearing
K Output shaft bearing
L 4wd output yoke (if fitted)
M 2/4wd clutch unit (if fitted)
N 4wd solenoid control valve (if fitted)
P Oil strainer
Q Oil filter

S Torque converter
V Torque converter relief valve
Z Oil cooler
Component Identification
The animation shows the components that make up a typical Synchromesh
transmission.
Select any item to highlight the part.
Synchroniser
Introduction
A synchroniser is required to enable smooth gear transition and eliminates the need
for double-clutching. There are two main types used within the JCB synchromesh
gearbox, they are the 'Blocking Pin' and 'Baulk Ring' type. The synchronisers
purpose is to allow frictional contact before the dog teeth make direct contact to the
chosen gear, this allows the collar and the gear to synchronise their speeds before
the teeth engage.
Blocking Pin Type
Component Identification
SYNCHRO HUB (A)
Controls the operation of the synchromesh unit and gear selection, the selector fork
fitting into the outer groove. Internal dog teeth link the selected gear to the drive
shaft. Through the synchro hub centre are two sets of holes for the blocker pins C
and the split energiser pins D, spaced alternately.
SYNCHRO RINGS (B)
Are rigidly joined by the blocker pins, with the split energiser pins held, in
counterbores, between the two synchro rings.
BLOCKER PINS (C)
Have a narrow neck in the centre, against which the synchro hub transmits radial
drive during gear changes. The edges of the blocker pin neck and their mating
synchro hub holes are designed so that, as the radial loads are reduced, the synchro
hub can slide over the shoulder of the blocker pin.
SPLIT ENERGISER PINS (D)

Takes the initial axial load of the synchro hub on the shoulder of the split energiser
pin neck. As the axial load reaches approximately 400 N (40.8 kg; 90 lb) the internal
springs allow the split energiser pin to collapse and the synchro hub to move axially.
SYNCHRO CUPS (E)
Takes the frictional drive from the synchro ring on their inner faces. The synchro
cups are splined to drive their respective gears whilst synchronisation is taking
place.

## Blocking Pin Type

Principles of Operation
The synchromesh unit is shown with third gear engaged. Synchro ring B is in contact
with synchro cup E and the synchro hub dog teeth are linking third gear to the shaft
gear. In this position the split energiser pins D are 'collapsed'.
When selecting fourth gear the synchro hub A slides along the split energiser pins
until the pin recess and the synchro hub flange are in line. At this point the split
energiser pins open and the synchro rings are moved by the synchro hub pushing
on the split energiser pin shoulder. Initial contact between the synchro ring and the
synchro cup starts to synchronise the speed of the shaft and fourth gear. The
rotational force of the synchro ring is taken by the blocker pin C against the edge of
the synchro hub hole. As the axial load on the synchro hub increases, the split
energiser pin 'collapses' and the conical faces of the blocking pin and synchro hub
hole come into contact. Further increases in the axial loads increase the frictional
grip of the synchro ring and the synchro cup, causing the shaft and gear speeds to
synchronise. As the speeds are synchronised the radial load on the blocker pin and
the synchro hub is reduced. This allows the synchro hub to slide freely along the
blocker pin and engage its dog teeth with fourth gear.
Baulk Ring Type
Principles of Operation
The synchromesh unit is shown in the first gear engaged position. The selector
sleeve A is in contact with the synchro hub B which is splined to the layshaft, cone C
and ring D. The sleeve locks the assembly together, allowing drive form the shaft to
be transmitted via the synchro ring dog teeth to the first gear.

When selecting second gear the selector sleeve A slides along the assembly
disengaging the first gear cone and ring, leaving the ring to turn freely with first
gear. As the selector sleeve moves across the assembly frictional contact between
the second gear cone and ring allows the speed of the shaft and second gear to
synchronise. Further increases in the axial load increases the frictional grip and as
the speeds are synchronised the selector sleeve locks the hub, cone and synchro
ring. This allows the drive from the hub to be transmitted via the synchro ring dog
teeth to the second gear.
Baulk Ring Type
Component Identification
A SELECTOR SLEEVE
Controls the operation of the synchromesh unit and gear selection, the selector fork
fitting into the outer groove.
B SYNCHRO HUB
Has internal dog teeth to link it to the layshaft.
C SYNCHRO CONE
Takes the frictional drive from the synchro ring on their outer faces. The synchro
cones are splined to drive their respective gears whilst synchronisation is taking
place.
D SYNCHRO RING
Takes the drive from the hub and passes the load through friction until the shaft and
gear speeds are synchronised.
E SYNCHRO DETENT ASSEMBLY
Keeps the selector sleeve in position, each assembly comprises spring, ball and
poppet.
Forward and Reverser Clutch
Introduction
The forward and reverser clutch unit transfers drive from the input shaft to either
forward or reverse gear depending on which of the two clutches is engaged, giving
forward or reverse drive. When neither clutch is engaged, neutral is selected. The
clutches are of the wet, multi plate type.
Forward and Reverser Clutch

Principles of Operation
The clutch housings and input shaft are a one piece assembly, the assembly is
permanently driven by the engine via the torque converter.
When either forward or reverse is selected, the solenoid valve diverts pressurised oil
via cross drillings inside the input shaft to the appropriate clutch in the unit. Oil is
prevented from leaking by seals on the pistons and ring seals on the input shaft.
The clutch counter plates are permanently driven via meshing teeth inside the
clutch housings and the clutch friction plates are meshed with the gear plate
carriers.
The counter plates and friction plates are pressed together by the hydraulically
actuated piston and drive is transmitted from the input shaft through the plates to
the gear. The second clutch is disengaged and pressure is vented to the sump via
the solenoid valve, no drive is transmitted.

## Forward and Reverser Clutch

Solenoid Valve Operation
Forward
When selected, solenoid E1 is energised by the forward/reverse control lever in the
cab. Pressurised oil is diverted to the forward clutch A1 and forward is selected. A
restrictor orifice in the feed to the solenoid valve modulates the pressure to the
clutch to smooth engagement. At the same time oil from reverse clutch A2 is
diverted back to the sump via solenoid valve.
Neutral
When selected, solenoids E1 and E2 are deactivated and the flow of pressurised oil
to the clutches is blocked. Springs move the pistons away from the clutch plates
and oil from both pistons is vented to the sump. No solenoids are energised and no
clutches engaged.
Reverse
When selected, electrical solenoid E2 is energised and pressurised oil is diverted to
the reverse clutch A2. At the same time oil from clutch A1 is diverted back to the
sump.

## Forward and Reverser Clutch

Component Identification
The animation shows the components that make up a typical forward/reverse clutch
assembly.
Note: Both clutch packs are identical, therefore only one has been fully exploded.
A Shaft/Clutch Housing Assembly
B Taper Roller Bearing
C Needle Bearing Spacer
D Gear
E Gear
F Piston
G Thrust Washer
H Needle Bearing
I Spring Disc
J Compression Spring
K Spring Retainer
L Internal Circlip
M External Circlip
N Oil Baffle Plate
O 'O' Ring
P Shaft Seal
Q Counter Plates
R Friction Plates
S Pressure Plate
4 Wheel Drive Clutch
Introduction

The clutch unit transfers drive from the layshaft to give 4 wheel drive output. The
clutch is of the wet, multi plate type. The clutch housing and input shaft are a one
piece assembly. The 4 wheel drive gear is permanently driven by the layshaft
transfer gear and rotates freely until the clutch pack is activated. The clutch counter
plates are driven via meshing teeth inside the clutch housing and the clutch friction
plates are meshed with the gear plate carriers.
4 Wheel Drive Clutch
Principles of Operation
When 4 wheel drive is selected, the solenoid valve diverts pressurised oil via cross
drillings inside the input shaft to the clutch unit. The clutch operates by introducing
or dumping pressurised oil behind piston. The counter plates and friction plates are
pressed together by the piston and drive is transmitted from the gear through the
plates to the output shaft. Oil is prevented from leaking by seals on the piston and
on the shaft. When the oil pressure is released the clutch is disengaged by spring
force.
2 Wheel Drive
When the switch is in the 2 wheel drive position, solenoid valve A is de-energised.
With the solenoid de-energised, the valve spool moves under the force of the spring
A2. The oil supply to the piston B is blocked (shown at port 3). At the same time oil
vents from the back of the piston to the sump via ports 1 and 2. Because there is no
pressure behind the piston, the friction/counter plates of clutch pack D now freely
rotate on the output shaft, thus disengaging drive to the front axle.

## 4 Wheel Drive Clutch

Component Identification
The animation shows the components that make up a typical 4 wheel drive clutch
assembly.
A Shaft/Clutch Housing Assembly
B Shaft Seal
C Taper Roller Bearing
D Needle Bearing
E Thrust Plate
F Spring Retainer

G Counter Plates
H Friction Plates
I Piston Seal
J Oil Baffle Plate
K Piston
L Compression Spring
M Internal Circlip
N Pressure Plate
O External Circlip
P 4 Wheel Drive Gear

Powershift Gearbox
Introduction
The JCB Powershift is an electro-hydraulic transmission unit. Gear shifting and
direction selection are controlled using multi-disc clutch packs.
Electrically operated solenoid valves divert pressurised oil (provided by pump) to
the selected clutch packs.
A combined lever/swivel switch on the steering column actuates both gear ratio and
direction solenoids.
The Powershift unit consists of a torque converter A, forward clutch assembly B,
reverse clutch assembly C, layshaft assembly E, mainshaft assembly D, 2/4 wheel
drive clutch assembly F. 6 speed gearboxes incorporate a `6 speed' shaft and clutch
assembly G.
The forward clutch assembly B is driven by the torque converter. The reverse clutch
assembly C is permanently driven via constant meshing of spur gears.
Driveshaft H is permanently driven by the engine and runs through the hollow
forward/reverse unit shaft to the back of the gearbox. The driveshaft drives the
gearbox mounted machine main hydraulic pump. A strainer and filter K are used to
prevent potential system contamination by filtering dirt particles.
Gearbox oil is cooled by an air blast cooler. The cooler is part of the front mounted
machine `cooling pack'. The gearbox incorporates an integral multiplate park brake

L. The brake is housed inside the gearbox casing and is wet (immersed in gearbox
oil). The brake is mechanically operated via a cable attached an actuator that acts
on the layshaft E.
Powershift Gearbox
Principles of Operation
Hydraulic and Electrical Operation
Oil pump J is directly driven by the engine via the torque converter. Oil from the
pump is fed through an internal passage via the filter Q to the pressure
maintenance valve H, which maintains pressure to the solenoid valve block for
clutch selection. Excess oil from the maintenance valve flows back through the
casing to the torque converter A. Pressure in the converter is controlled by a relief
valve G which dumps oil from the converter line back to the sump.
Oil from the torque converter A flows out of the gearbox at position M to the
external oil cooler 6, returning to the solenoid valve manifold block 5 at position N.
The oil then flows through internal oil ways providing lubrication for clutches and
bearings before returning to the gearbox sump.
The torque converter A is a fluid coupling bolted to a drive plate which in turn is
bolted to the engine flywheel. As the engine starts to rotate, the converter gives
smooth power take off gradually increasing the torque transmitted. This torque is
transferred from the converter assembly to the clutch/gear assemblies via input
shaft on the forward clutch assembly B.
Forward clutch assembly B contains two hydraulically operated clutches; one clutch
(T) provides a forward low ratio drive and the other (U) a forward high ratio drive.
Each clutch is controlled by a 2-position solenoid valve. When the applicable
solenoid is energised, pressurised oil is directed to either the forward low (solenoid
Ts) or forward high (solenoid Us) clutch.
The reverse clutch assembly C is similar to the forward clutch assembly. It contains
two hydraulically operated clutches; one clutch (W) provides a reverse low ratio
drive and the other (V) a reverse high ratio drive. 2-position solenoid valves when
energised, direct pressurised oil to either the reverse low (solenoid Ws), or reverse
high (solenoid Vs) clutch.
Both the mainshaft and the layshaft assemblies have a single clutch each. Solenoid
valve Zs, when energised, directs pressurised oil to the layshaft clutch Z. Solenoid
valve Ys, when energised, directs pressurised oil to the mainshaft clutch Y.
On 6 speed gearboxes, the 6 speed clutch X is controlled via solenoid valve Xs.

Note: All the clutches work on the same principle. For a full description of operation,
See Forward/Reverse Clutch , Manual Transmissions.
The 2/4 wheel drive unit F also has a single clutch S. When 4WD is selected,
pressurised oil is directed via solenoid valve Ss to the 4WD clutch. When 2WD is
selected a connection from the clutch to the transmission sump is made.
Note: For a full description of 2/4 wheel drive clutch operation, See 4 Wheel Drive
Clutch, Manual Transmissions.
When a gear is selected via the control switch in the cab, 2 clutches are always
engaged. By selecting different pairs of clutches different gear ratios are engaged.
On 4 speed - non lock up torque converter gearboxes, the solenoids are electrically
controlled using relays. On Shiftmaster gearboxes the solenoids are controlled by an
electronic control unit (ECU) mounted in the cab. Speed sensor 1 is used to enable
the gear selection to be managed automatically as required.
Example - 2nd gear forward 4WD (6 speed gearbox)
In the schematic, the gearbox is shown with 2nd gear forward engaged.
2nd gear forward requires the forward low clutch T and layshaft clutch Z to be
engaged. When the gear selection switch is moved to 2nd gear forward, the
electrical control system energises solenoid valves Ts and Zs. Pressurised oil is
diverted to the back of pistons in both clutches to engage the drive. At the same
time all other solenoids are de-energised, diverting oil from the back of the other
clutch pistons to the gearbox sump. 4WD clutch S is also energised to give 4 wheel
drive.
Diagram Key
A Torque converter
B Forward clutch assembly
C Reverse clutch assembly
D Mainshaft assembly
E Layshaft assembly
F 2/4 wheel drive clutch assembly
G Torque converter relief valve
H Oil pressure maintenance valve
J Transmission oil pump

## K 6 speed assembly (if fitted)

L 4WD output yoke
M Hose connection - to oil cooler
N Hose connection - from oil cooler
P Oil strainer
Q Oil filter
R Drive shaft (drives machines main hydraulic pump)
S 2/4WD clutch
Ss 2/4WD clutch solenoid
T Forward low ratio clutch
Ts Forward low ratio clutch solenoid
U Forward high ratio clutch
Us Forward high ratio clutch solenoid
V Reverse high ratio clutch
Vs Reverse high ratio clutch solenoid
W Reverse low ratio clutch
Ws Reverse low ratio clutch solenoid
X 6 speed clutch (6 speed gearbox only)
Xs 6 speed clutch solenoid (6 speed gearbox only)
Y Mainshaft clutch
Ys Mainshaft clutch solenoid
Z Layshaft clutch
Zs Layshaft clutch solenoid
1 Speed sensor
5 Solenoid valve manifold block
6 Gearbox oil cooler

Powershift Gearbox
Gear Operation
Forward drive
The animations show the solenoids being energised to enable the drive paths for
the forward gears.
The forward drive is shown being transmitted through the engaged clutches through
the meshing blue gears.
The 4 wheel drive transfer gear, shown yellow, is also driven and when the clutch is
activated the drive can be transmitted to the front axle.
Reverse drive
The animations show the solenoids being energised to enable the drive paths for
the reverse gears.
The reverse drive is shown being transmitted through the engaged clutches through
the meshing blue gears.
The 4 wheel drive transfer gear, shown yellow, is also driven and when the clutch is
activated the drive can be transmitted to the front axle.
Gear Selection
Clutches and solenoids engaged for each gear selection are shown as follows:
4 Speed Powershift - 4WD
Clutches engaged
Forward
1st

T,Z,S

Reverse
W,Z,S

2nd

U,Z,S

V,Z,S

3rd

T,Y,S

W,Y,S

4th

U,Y,S

V,Y,S

Solenoid energised
Forward
1st
2nd

Ts,Zs,Ss
Us,Zs,Ss

Reverse
Ws,Zs,Ss
Vs,Zs,Ss

3rd

Ts,Ys,Ss

Ws,Ys,Ss

4th

Us,Ys,Ss

Vs,Ys,Ss

## 6 Speed Powershift - 4WD

Clutches engaged
Forward

Reverse

1st X,Z,S

W,Z,S

2nd T,Z,S

V,Z,S

3rd U,Z,S

W,Y,S

4th X,Y,S

V,Y,S

5th T,Y,S

6th U,Y,S

Solenoid energised
Forward

Reverse

1st

Xs,Zs,Ss

Ws,Zs,Ss

2nd

Ts,Zs,Ss

Vs,Zs,Ss

3rd

Us,Zs,Ss

Ws,Ys,Ss

4th

Xs,Ys,Ss

Vs,Ys,Ss

5th

Ts,Ys,Ss

6th

Us,Ys,Ss

## Powershift Gear Ratios

Depending on the gears fitted within the transmission the ratio of the outputs can
be altered to suit the working conditions of the machine. Typical gear ratios are
shown for a four and six speed PS760 Series transmission.
4 Speed (XtraLow Ratio)
1st Gear - 7.97 : 1

## 2nd Gear - 4.29 : 1

3rd Gear - 1.86 : 1
4th Gear - 1.00 : 1
4 Speed (Standard Ratio)
1st Gear - 6.17 : 1
2nd Gear - 3.32 : 1
3rd Gear - 1.86 : 1
4th Gear - 1.00 : 1
6 Speed
1st Gear - 8.17 : 1
2nd Gear - 4.90 : 1
3rd Gear - 3.62 : 1
4th Gear - 2.25 : 1
5th Gear - 1.35 : 1
6th Gear - 1.00 : 1

Powershift Gearbox
Gear Operation
Reverse drive
The animations show the solenoids being energised to enable the drive paths for
the reverse gears in a six speed gearbox.
The reverse drive is shown being transmitted through the engaged clutches through
the meshing blue gears.
The 4 wheel drive transfer gear, shown yellow, is also driven and when the clutch is
activated the drive can be transmitted to the front axle.

Powershift Gearbox
Component Identification
The animation shows the components that make up a typical Powershift
transmission.
Hydrostatic Transmissions
Introduction
The Hydrostatic drive is a fluid drive which uses fluid under pressure to transmit
engine power to drive the wheels of the machine.
Mechanical power from the engine is converted to hydraulic power by a pump. A
motor then converts the hydraulic power for the drive wheels.
The hydrostatic drive can function as both a clutch and transmission. The final gear
train can then be simplified, with the hydrostatic unit supplying infinite speed and
torque as well as reverse speeds.
Hydrostatic transmissions use fluids at high pressures but relatively low speeds.
Basically, energy is transferred by the fluid itself in a closed circuit between the
pump and motor as shown. While the fluid does move through the lines, it is still
considered as being at rest or under static pressure. The rise in pressure of the fluid
(which will not compress) is what transfers the energy.
Theory
Two principles of hydraulics are required to understand a hydrostatic drive:
Liquids have no shape of their own and will not compress.
Two cylinders, each containing a piston, are connected by a line. The cylinders and
the line are filled with oil. When a force is applied to the left piston, that piston
moves against the oil. The oil will not compress, so it acts as a solid and forces out
the right piston.
This principle is used in a hydrostatic drive. Several pistons are used to transmit
power, one group in the pump sending power to another group in the motor. The
pistons are in a cylinder block and revolve around a shaft. The pistons also move in
and out of the block parallel to the shaft.
Hydrostatic Transmissions
Basic Principle

One piston for the pump and one for the motor. To provide a pumping action for the
pistons, a plate called a swashplate is located in both the pump and motor. The
pistons ride against the swashplates.
The angle of the swashplates can be varied so that the volume and pressure of oil
pumped by the pistons can be changed or the direction of oil flow reversed.
A pump or motor with a movable swashplate is called a variable-displacement unit.
A pump or motor with a fixed swashplate is called a fixed displacement unit.
Hydrostatic Transmissions
Variable displacement pump
As the pump pistons rotate, they move across the sloping face of the swash plate,
sliding in and out of their cylinder bores to pump oil out. The more the pump
swashplate is tilted, the more oil it pumps with each piston stroke and the faster it
drives the motor.
Pressure results whenever the flow of a fluid is resisted. The resistance may come
from acceleration of the machine or normal load.
The motor swashplate is at a fixed angle so that the stroke of its pistons are always
the same. Thus its speed of rotation cannot be changed except as it is driven faster
or slower by the pump oil.
The point to remember now is that a given volume of oil forced out of the pump will
cause the motor to turn at a given speed. More oil will speed up the motor; less oil
will slow it down.
The pump is driven by the machine's engine and so is linked to the speed set by the
operator. It pumps a constant stream of high-pressure oil to the motor.
Since the motor is linked to the drive wheels of the machine, it gives the machine
its travel speed.
Only three factors control the operation of a hydrostatic drive:
Rate of oil flow-gives the speed
Direction of oil flow-gives the direction
Pressure of oil-gives the power
Control of these three factors is infinite, giving endless selections of speed and
torque in a hydrostatic drive.
Hydrostatic Transmissions

## Typical Hydrostatic System

The pump-motor team is the heart of the hydrostatic drive, although the complete
hydraulic system also includes a reservoir C to supply the oil, a filter D to remove
dirt, and a cooler E to remove excess heat from the oil. The charge pump F simply
supplies the pump-motor circuit.
Basically, the pump A and motor B are joined in a closed hydraulic loop; the return
line from the motor is joined directly to the intake of the pump, rather than to the
reservoir. When the oil temperature in the circuit rises oil is directed through the
flushing valve back to the reservoir. Oil thus removed from the pump/motor circuit
must be made up by means of the charge pump and the high pressure return valves
in the transmission pump.
Types of Hydrostatic Drives
Displacement is the quantity of fluid which a pump can move (or a motor can use)
during each revolution. It is directly related to the horsepower output of the drive.
Pumps and motors can have a fixed displacement or variable displacement.
Four pump-motor combinations are possible:
1) Fixed displacement pump driving a fixed displacement motor.
This circuit is like a gear drive; it transmits power without altering the speed or
horsepower between the engine and the load. A constant input speed and torque
gives a constant output horsepower. If either the speed or torque are increased
while holding the other constant, the output horsepower will increase.
2) Variable displacement pump driving a fixed displacement motor.
Since the pump flow is variable in this circuit, output speed is variable and torque
output is constant for any given pressure. This circuit gives variable speed and
constant torque.
3) Fixed displacement pump driving a variable displacement motor.
Output speed in this circuit is varied by changing the motor displacement. For
constant power input if the motor displacement decreases, output speed increases
but output torque drops.
4) Variable displacement pump driving a variable displacement motor.
This circuit is the most flexible and expensive of all the circuits but also the most
difficult to control. It is capable of operating like any of the above combinations.
Hydrostatic Transmission
Principles of Operation

Our example is a system with an axial piston pump and motor. This type of unit is
most common in hydrostatic drives today. The motor has a fixed displacement and
the pump has a variable displacement. The pump flow is directly proportional to the
driven speed and to the swash plate angle, which may be infinitely variable from
zero to full swash angle. Increasing the swash angle causes greater displacement
and therefore greater flow.
Neutral
When the solenoid operated directional control valve A is in neutral, the oil flows
from the reservoir through the oil filter to a charge pump. This pump is a gear type
and provides a constant supply of oil to the main pump and circulation through the
motor housing. The swashplate in the pump is in neutral and the pistons to the
pump are not stroking.
Forward/Reverse
Forward/reverse control is provided by the solenoid control valve A, which acts on
the swash control piston B. This switches the swashplate in the pump from one
direction to the other.
Swivelling the swash plate over centre changes the direction of flow smoothly.
The further the swashplate is tilted, the more oil the pump receives. As the
driveshaft continues to turn the cylinder block, the pistons are forced back into the
block. As the pistons move back into the block, oil in the cylinder becomes
pressurized.
As pressurised oil moves from pump to motor, pistons in the motors cylinder block
are pushed against the fixed swashplate. The pistons slide down the inclined
surface and resulting forces cause the cylinder block to rotate which in turn rotates
the output shaft.
Oil flow to drive the transmission motor leaves via port C and returns via port D or
vice versa, depending on the direction of drive.
NOTE: The pump drive shaft and cylinder block always rotate clockwise, but the
motor drive shaft and cylinder block can rotate in either direction, depending on the
direction of oil entering from charge pump.

Bevel Box
Principles of Operation
Transfer gearboxes are used as a means of transferring the drive from the
transmission to another plane. This can be achieved through 90 degree by the use
of a bevel box. The drive is transferred through a set of bevel gears without loss of
torque.
Bevel Box
Component Identification
The animation shows the major components within a typical bevel box assembly.
Drop Box
Principles of Operation
Transfer gearboxes are used as a means of transferring the drive from the
transmission to another plane. This can be achieved laterally by the use of a drop
box.
The drop box shown, receives power from the transmission and through a set of
gears the power is transferred to the front and rear axles. The drive is transferred
through the gears without loss of torque.
Drop Box
Component Identification
The animation shows the major components within a typical bevel box assembly.
Torque Converter
Introduction
The torque converter is similar to a fluid coupling, which utilises the centrifugal
force exerted in the transmission oil to transmit power from the engine to the
gearbox. It multiplies the torque from the engine and functions as a combined
clutch and infinitely variable reduction gearbox.
Principles of Operation
The torque converter is enclosed in a casing and consists of three basic parts, the
impeller A, reaction member C, and turbine B.
Impeller A is driven by the engine.

Reaction member C does not rotate. Its hub engages with a splined tube on the
gearbox oil pump and is held stationary.
Turbine B is engaged with the splined end of the gearbox input shaft. The impeller
A, driven by the engine, forms one set of shaped blades, it can be likened to a
centrifugal pump imparting energy to the transmission oil. This energy is transferred
to another set of shaped blades, which form the turbine B The turbine is connected
to the gearbox and converts the energy back to a mechanical torque.
When the impeller A is rotating faster than the turbine B, the fixed reaction member
C causes some of the energy in the oil to be transferred back to the impeller A. This
has the effect of multiplying the torque available.
When the impeller A (input) is running much faster than the turbine B (output) there
is a substantial circulation of transmission oil around the blades. The oil circulation
is maximum when the turbine (output) is stalled, and is almost zero when the
impeller and turbine speeds are equal i.e. the ratio is near 1:1. If the turbine
(output) is stalled whilst the impeller (input) is revolving, all the power is dissipated
as heat.
Because of the absence of a direct mechanical connection between the engine and
the gearbox therefore, the flexibility of the torque converter drive greatly reduces
wear on the transmission, absorbing shocks and torsional vibration from the engine.
The engine cannot be stalled due to overload, as the fluid coupling slips.
Torque Converter
Component Identification
The animation shows the major components within a typical torque converter
assembly.
The torque converter consists of three basic parts:
A Impeller
B Turbine
C Reaction member
Lock-up Torque Converter
The lock up torque converter incorporates a clutch which, when engaged, enables a
direct mechanical connection between the engine and the gearbox. This eliminates
any slippage in the drive line and results in improved efficiency. The system is only
available on Powershift machines.
The lock up clutch assembly can only be enabled under the following conditions:

## 4th gear forward (4 speed gearbox) or

5th or 6th (6 speed gearbox) must be selected, AND the speed difference between
the engine flywheel and gearbox output drive shaft must be within pre-determined
values.
Torque Converter Unlocked
When inputs to the gearbox ECU from the gear select lever and speed sensors are
outside pre-determined values, solenoid control valve F is not energised and oil
enters the converter casing nearest the flywheel via the centre of the gearbox input
shaft. Oil then flows past the front of the clutch assembly. This causes the clutch
assembly A to move on its splined hub away from the torque converter casing C. Oil
leaves the torque converter via ports in the oil pump assembly and then passes
through the oil cooler H via the control valve solenoid F. The torque converter
operates in the normal way, see Torque Converter, Principles of Operation.
Note: Although the torque converter operates in the normal way, it should be noted
that the oil flow to and from the converter is opposite to the normal system.
Torque Converter Locked
When inputs to the gearbox ECU from the gear select lever and speed sensors are
within pre-determined values, an output from the ECU energises solenoid control
valve F. Oil enters the converter via ports in the oil pump assembly and into the
converter casing nearest the gearbox. Oil pressure forces the clutch assembly A to
move on its splined hub, engaging the clutch friction material B with the inside of
the torque converter casing C. Drive from the engine is now transmitted from the
converter casing, through clutch A and directly to the gearbox input shaft E via the
turbine D.
Small bleed holes allow a small flow of oil past the clutch assembly A through the
converter, providing oil cooling and preventing hydraulic locks. Lubrication bypass
valve G is pushed of its seat and oil flows through the cooler H and into the gearbox
lubrication system in the normal way.
Axles and Driveshafts
Introduction
Axles are an integral structural component of any wheeled vehicle. The axles
maintain the position of the wheels relative to each other and to the vehicle body.
Since for most vehicles the wheels are the only part touching the ground, the axles
must bear the weight of the vehicle, as well as acceleration and braking forces. In
addition to the structural purpose, axles may serve one or more of the following
purposes depending on the design of the vehicle.

Drive
One or more axles may be an integral part of the drivetrain. This system exerts a
rotational force on the axle, which is transferred to the wheels to accelerate the
vehicle.
Braking
Conversely a vehicle may be slowed by applying force to brake the rotation of the
axle.
Steering
The front axle of most automobiles is the steering axle. The vehicle is manoeuvred
by controlling the direction of the front wheels' rotational axis relative to the body
and rear wheels. The rear axle can also incorporate steering and 4 wheel steer and
crab steer modes, utilising the rear axle, are available within JCB machines.
Axle Front
The typical front axle within JCB would be centrally mounted, using a pivot pin to
attach the assembly to the machines chassis.
It would comprise the following main parts :
A Front Axle Casing
B Differential Housing Assembly
C Steering Knuckle Assembly
D Reduction Gear Hub
E Steering Power Track Rod Assembly
Axles and Driveshafts
Rear Axle
The typical rear axle within JCB would be pad mounted, using bolts to attach the
assembly to the machines chassis.
It would comprise the following main parts :
A Axle Arm Housing
C Differential

D Drive shaft
E Reduction Gear Hub
Driveshafts
A driveshaft is a mechanical device for transferring power from the gearbox to the
point where the drive is required.
Driveshafts can be seen in the front and rear axles and are used to deliver power
from the differential to the wheels. A pair of short driveshafts is commonly used to
send power from a central differential.
A driveshaft connecting a rear differential to a rear wheel may be called a halfshaft.
The name derives from the fact that two such shafts are required to form one rear
axle.
A driveshaft connecting the gearbox to a rear or front differential is called a
propeller shaft, or prop-shaft. A prop-shaft assembly consists of a propeller shaft
and one or more universal joints.
The universal joint allows the rod to 'bend' in any direction, and is commonly used
in shafts that transmit rotary motion. It consists of a pair of ordinary hinges located
close together, but oriented at 90 relative to each other.
Differentials
When a vehicle turns a corner, the driving wheels (the driven road wheels) rotate at
different speeds, because the inside wheel has to travel a much shorter distance
than the outside wheel. If this were not possible, the tyres would have to skid over
the ground surface tending to keep the vehicle moving straight ahead. The solution
to this problem came in 1827 when Pqueur of France invented the axle differential.
This mechanism allows the wheels to rotate at different speeds, while maintaining a
drive to both wheels. Instead of the power being fed through one continuous shaft
to both wheels, the power is fed through the differential, which drives two separate
half shafts, one to each driving wheel.
The differential is designed to drive a pair of wheels with equal force, while allowing
them to rotate at different speeds.
Principle of Operation
Power is supplied from the engine, via the gearbox, to a prop-shaft, which runs to
the drive axle. A pinion gear at the end of the propeller shaft is encased within the
differential itself, and it engages with the crownwheel. The crownwheel is attached
to a carrier, which holds a set of three small planetary gears.

The input drive rotates the pinion, which meshes with the crownwheel, and thus
changes direction of drive through 90, as well as reducing the input speed.
The crownwheel is rigidly mounted to the differential case. Therefore the differential
case must always rotate with the crownwheel. Inside the differential case are the
two differential side gears, which are connected to each halfshaft.
The side gears mesh with the pinion gears which are fixed to the differential case by
trunnion pins, which pass through the center of the differential pinions, and are
fixed to the differential case. The pinion gears can rotate on their own axis, but also
rotate bodily with the crownwheel and differential case, because they are secured to
them by the trunnion pins.
Provided the road wheel resistance is the same for each wheel the crownwheel and
differential case will be driven by the input pinion. This means that the differential
pinions are forced to exert an equal torque to each side gear and thus each half
shaft. In this situation, the pinions do not rotate on the trunnion pins.
Turning a corner
When the vehicle turns a corner, the inner road wheel will slowdown, due to the
resistance to turn, and will cause the differential gears to rotate on their own axis
around the trunnion pins, thus turning the outer side gear faster. This translates a
higher speed to the outer road wheel via the half shaft.
Locking Differentials
In the past, users and designers of off-highway and on-highway vehicles considered
locking differentials to be helpful only in muddy or icy operating conditions where
traction is almost completely lost. To solve the problem of lost traction under
adverse conditions, designers provided a variety of locks, escapements, special
gearing, clutch plates, and other devices which have proved to be relatively
ineffective and expensive; some are also hazardous in operation. Nevertheless, both
users and manufacturers of differential -equipped vehicles appreciate that locking
differentials, in addition to being useful in bad operating conditions, can also
improve the overall performance of a vehicle. This better performance is achieved
by eliminating the tire spin-out caused by soft, rough, or uneven traction
conditions, with consequent weight shifts and differences of coefficients of traction.
Differentials
MAX-TRAC
The gears are uniquely shaped to provide paths of tooth contact in the rotational
plane of the side gears. Tooth contact with one side gear occurs at the outside end

of the contact path simultaneously with contact at the inside end of the contact
path of the other side gear.
Unique in design.
Best compromise between cost and efficiency.
No extra parts compared with standard differential.
No extra parts to fail.
Two to three times longer-lasting than conventional differential.
Always engaged, fully automatic; frees driver and reduces fatigue.
Approximately 30% more traction available.
Will continue slipping wheels on full engine power, but if power is backed off and
reapplied gradually. Max trac can provide up to 30% more traction.
Differentials
Limited Slip Differential
L.S.D. will enhance traction under difficult and poor ground conditions by
transferring a higher proportion of available driving torque, across the differential,
to the gripping wheel in a wheel spin situation. Machines with L.S.D. are capable of
higher and sustained performance not just to be able to get to previously
inaccessible places but also to perform specific tasks where tyre grip has been the
limiting factor.
L.S.D. consists of the addition of friction plates either side of the differential case.
Outward forces produced by the driving torque to the gripping wheel create forces
on the differential side gears which clamp the friction plates. The friction plates then
restrict the rotation of the side gears to the crownwheel/diff case, without fully
locking up the differential. By this means, differential action is reduced, allowing the
crownwheel to transmit more tractive effort to the potentially gripping wheel.
Automatic operation.
Increased turning circle.

Extra cost to standard differential due to additional parts such as friction plates
being installed.
Use of correct oil is important (types of oil not designed to suppress noise will cause
an unnecessarily noisy differential).
Noise and vibration will be evident under certain conditions such as full lock.
Power Take-Off
Introduction
A power take-off (PTO) is a splined driveshaft that can be used to provide power to
an attachment or separate machine. It is designed to be easily connected and
disconnected. The power take-off allows implements to draw power from the
machine's engine. There are three basic types of PTO control:
Transmission
The PTO shaft is directly connected to the machine's transmission, and turns in
proportion to the forward speed.
Live (two-stage clutch)
A live PTO works with the use of a two-stage clutch. The first stage of the clutch
pedal movement engages the PTO drive, the second stage energises the drive to
the wheels.
Independent
An independent PTO means that the PTO shaft is controlled with a separate clutch.
Principles of Operation
Introduction
Most types of PTO are gear-driven from the transmission and send power through a
shaft to the PTO outlet where the driven equipment is coupled.
Once the power leaves the PTO outlet, it must be transmitted to the driven
equipment. This is the job of the PTO drive shaft.
The PTO drive shaft must be flexible for most equipment, especially if it is pulled by
the driving machine.
For these PTO drives, two major parts are needed:
1) Universal Joints
2) Drive Shaft

Universal Joints
A universal joint is necessary to join two rotating shafts in different planes.
The most common type is the Cardon or Hooke joint.
This joint consists of two U-shaped yokes fastened to the ends of the two shafts to
be connected. Inside these yokes is a cross-shaped journal which holds the yokes
together and allows each yoke to bend, or pivot, with respect to the other. This
allows one shaft to drive the other at angles up to 30 degrees out of alignment.
The Hooke universal joint gives a whipping motion as the shaft rotates. The amount
of whipping depends on how much the shafts are out of alignment.
Another type of universal joint is used to transmit a smoother torque when less
power is needed. This type of joint, sometimes called a constant velocity joint, has
four large balls to transmit the rotary force, with a small ball as a spacer.
The CV joint transmits rotary motion at a constant rate, but is more expensive and
has less strength than the Hooke type.
Solid Shaft
The solid shaft has a fixed length and a universal joint at each end. The distance
between the two joints is always fixed. This type of drive is used when power is to
be transmitted from one fixed plane to another.
telescopic shaft
The telescopic shaft has a sliding element and can have either two or three
universal joints.
The telescopic shaft with two universal joints has one at the machine end and
another at the equipment end. Telescoping occurs between these two points at the
slip joint.
The telescoping shaft with three universal joints has one solid PTO shaft (on a
mount), one telescoping shaft, and three universal joints. This gives the flexibility of
the two-joint type, yet allows for the change in hitch angle when equipment is
converted to transport position.