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ME3122 Solutions to Tutorial Set 3

  • 1. Using the energy integral equation determine an expression for the heat transfer coefficient by assuming the following velocity and temperature profiles:

t

u

u



constant

d

dx

and

(

T

T

W

) /(

T

0

t

u T

T

dy

y

T

)

/

Wt

 

 T  y
 T
 y

y 0

T

T

W

y

T

1

.(

T



T

)

TT

Wt

,

TT

T

T

y

t

W

TT

W

W

TT

1

y

 

Wt

1

 

u

T

T

W

d

dx

0

t

   y

t

1    dy

 

T

T

k

u

 

W

C

p

 

ud

2

dx

(

t

)

k

C

1

 

p

t

d (

2

t

)

4 k

 

dx

C u

 

2

4

kx

p

t

4 kx  Cu p 
4
kx
Cu
p
 

;

t

Cu

p

(

hT

T

k

T

y



hT

w

(

T

w q coduction = q convection

)(



kT

T

)

1

)

w

w

t

h

k



t

k

4

kx

Cu

p

1/2

Cuk

p

4

x

is the thermal boundary layer thickness.

into energy integral equation, we get

1

 

t

1/2

where

Solution:

Energy Integral Equation:

Given

Therefore,

Substituting the above and u

Integrating

or

Now:

2.

Glycerine at 30C flows past a 30cm square flat plate at a velocity of 1.5 m/s. The drag

force is measured as 10.98 N (for both sides of the plate). Calculate the heat transfer

coefficient for such a flow system. At 30C, properties of glycerine are:

3 2   1258 kg / m ; C 2.455 kJ / kgK ; v
3
2
 
1258
kg
/
m
;
C
2.455
kJ
/
kgK
;
v
0.00050
m
/
s
;
p
k
0.268
W
/
mK
;
Pr
5380
Solution:
C
h
2/3
f
St
Pr
=
x
x
Reynolds Analogy:
;
where
St
x
x
2
 C
u 
p
For one side of the plate:
F
10.98
2

 61
N
/
m
w
2
2
A
2
0.3
2
61
w
C

 0.0431
f
x
1
2
2
u
1258
1.52
2
Substituting:
0.5
0.0431
 5
St

7.015
10
x
2/3
5380
Therefore:
 5
h
7.015 10

Cu
x
p
 5
7.015

10
1258
2445
1.5
2
 323.68
W
/
mK
  • 3. Atmospheric air at 25C flows over a plate at a velocity of 60 m/s. The plate of width 1m and length 0.75m is maintained at a uniform temperature of 230C by independently- controlled, electrical strip heaters, each of which is 50mm long in the direction of the airflow.

    • a) Determine at which heater does the flow undergo a transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

    • b) Determine at which heater is the heat input a maximum

    • c) Determine the value of this heat input

    • d) Determine the heat input for the first heater

    • e) Determine the heat input for the first three heaters

    • f) Determine the heat input for the entire plate

Solution:

Air u ∞ = 60 m/s T ∞ = 25C x
Air u ∞ = 60 m/s
T ∞ = 25C
x
1 2 3 Heaters
1
2
3
Heaters
x = L x c Turbulent b.l Laminar b.l -0.2 h x h x ~ x
x = L
x
c
Turbulent b.l
Laminar b.l
-0.2
h x
h x ~ x
-0.5
h x ~ x
x
c
x
Given:
T
25
CT
;
230
C
;
w

1
mL
;
0.75
m
w
u
60
ms
/
;
Heater length
0.05
m
T

(
TT
) / 2
127.5
C
400
K
f
w
Rogers and Mayhew tables air
(
)
gives
 5
c
1.0135
kJ
/
kgK
;

2.286
10
kg
/
m s
.
;
p
 2
3
k

3.365
10
W
/
mK
;
0.8824
kg
/
m
; Pr
0.688
5
a)
Re
 
5
10
u x 
/
Substituting gives x c =0.216m
c
c
.

Since each heater is 0.05m, therefore transition to turbulent flow occurs at heater No.5

  • b) h x at 6 th heater (turbulent flow) is highest, because at 5 th heater h x is the average of the

laminar and turbulent flow values ---as shown in graph.

  • c) To find h x over the 6 th heater, find the h x at its midpoint, i.e. at x=0.275m.

local Nu

x

h

x

.

x

k

0.0296Re

0.8

x

Pr

1/3

for turbulent b l flow

.

h

x

k



x

0.0296

u

x

0.8

0.688

1/3

@

x

0.275

h

x

140.6

W

/

2

mK



Qhl

x

.1(230

25)

1441

W

  • d) Over first heater --- laminar flow

average Nu

x

h

x

.

x

k

0.664Re

1/2

x

Pr

1/3

for

x

L

0.05 for laminar b.l. flow

Substituting

:

h

x

134.1

W

/

2

m K

Q



134.1

(0.05

1)(205)

1375

W

  • e) Over first 3 heaters--- laminar flow

Nu

L

h

L

.

x



k

0.664 Re

1/2

Pr

1/3

2

Nu

xx x

L

for x

 

L

3

0.05

0.15

m

:

h

L

77.5

W

/

2

mK

Q

77.5



(0.15

1)(205)

2383

W

  • f) Over the entire plate flow is laminar-turbulent

Average Nu

L

h

L .

L



k

(0.037 Re

0.8

L

871) Pr

1/3

for (mixed) laminar-turbulent b.l. flow

 

k

h  L
h
L

L

 

0.8

1/3

 

(0.037 Re

L

 

871) Pr

;

   

for

x

L

0.75

m

:

Re

0.8

L

98139

;

h

L

109.3

 

Q

h

L

.(230

25)



16.81

kW

 

L

.

Note: for Part c, to be precise, apply

Nu

L

equation for L= 5 x 0.05 and for L= 6 x 0.05 to get

h

L

for each case.

Determine Q 1 for L = 0 to L = 0.25, and

Q 2 for L = 0 to L = 0.30.

Then get Q 2 – Q 1 .

 

The difference between this and our more convenient method is small.

4.

A light breeze at 4.47 m/s blows across a metal building. The height of the building is

3.7m and the width is 6.1m. A net energy flux of 347 W/m 2 from the sun is absorbed in

the wall and subsequently dissipated to the surroundings by convection. Assuming that

the air is at 27C and 1 atmosphere, estimate the average temperature that the wall will

attain under equilibrium conditions.

Solution:

Air u = 4.47m/s

T = 27C,

x q w ” =347 W/m 2  T  27 C  300 K ;
x
q w ” =347 W/m 2
T
27
C
300
K
;
L
6.1
m
(
area

6.1
3.70)
2
u
4.47
ms
/
;
Constant
q
347
Wm
/
wall temperature T
and
film temperature T
(
T
T
) / 2
w
fw

T w =?

are unknown and to be determined.

Approach:

/

Approximation assumption is reqd

.

i

First assume T

T

300

   

)

f

Properties of air at 300K:

5

K or any reasonable value

2

 

1.846



10

kg

/

m s

.

;

k

2.264



10

W

 

/

mK

;

1.177

kg

/

m

3

; Pr

0.707

 
 

u

L

1.177

4.47

6.1

 

6

5

Re

 

 

1.74

 

10

5

10

L

 

10

5

 

1. 846

 

laminar - turbulent flow over flat wall

average Nu

L

h

L .

L



k

(0.037 Re

0.8

L

871) Pr

1/3

above expression is valid for isothermal wall but is assumed

also valid for constant heat flux wall

h

L

10.68

W

/

2

mK

qA

.



347

(

A

)

h

L

A

.(

T

w

27)

T

w

59.5

C

ii ) To improve accuracy, we may repeat calculations with

T f
T
f



(

TT

w

) / 2

(27



59.5) / 2

43.25

C

316.25

K

  • 5. Engine oil at the rate of 0.02 kg/s flows through a 3-mm diameter tube, 30m long. The oil has an inlet temperature of 60C, while the tube wall temperature is maintained at 100C by a stream condensing on its outer surface.

    • a) Estimate the average heat transfer coefficient for the internal flow of oil.

    • b) Determine the outlet temperature of the oil.

Take the properties of engine oil to be: c p = 2131 J/kgK, = 852 kg/m 3 , = 0.375x10 -4

m 2 /s, k = 0.138 W/mK, Pr = 490.

Solution:

T w =100C=const Engine oil d=0.003m =0.02 kg/s L=30m 1 2 T b1 =60 0 C
T w =100C=const
Engine oil
d=0.003m
=0.02 kg/s
L=30m
1
2
T b1 =60 0 C
T b2 =?
T w =const T b2 =? T b1 =60C
T w =const
T b2 =?
T b1 =60C

Tube flow, constant T w case (neglect entrance effects)

Properties of engine oil are given as : c p = 2131 J/kgK, = 852 kg/m 3 , = 0.375x10 -4 m 2 /s, k

= 0.138 W/mK, Pr = 490.

Re

u

d

4

m



d

 

4

0.02

10

7

 

0.374

852

 

3

the flow is laminar

 
 

hd

Nu

3.66

(const T

 

d

k

w

h

3.66

0.138

168.4

W

/

2

mK

 

0.003

 

q

mC

p

dL

(

T

b

2

T

b

1

)



hA

T

exp

mC

p

. h

 

0.003

30

168.4

 

exp

86.9

 

C

0.02

2131

 

LMTD

256.6 <2000

case)

From equation (8.23) in lecture notes:

 

T

0

T

i

100 T

b

2

 

100

60

T

b

2

Lecture notes

  • 6. Water at 25C enters a tube of diameter 0.02 m at mass flow rate of 0.01 kg/s and is to be heated to a temperature of 65C. The outside of the tube is wrapped with an electric heating element that produces a uniform heat flux of 20 kW/m 2 over its entire length. Determine the length of the tube required and the inner surface temperature of the tube at the outlet. Determine the length of the tube required and the inner surface temperature of the tube at the outlet if the flow rate of water is increased to 0.08kg/s. Comment on the use of your equation to determine h.

Water q"=20 kW/m 2 T T ∞ = 25 C T b1 T b2
Water
q"=20 kW/m 2
T
T ∞ = 25 C
T b1
T b2
q"=const T w T b1 =25 C
q"=const
T w
T b1 =25 C

T b2 =65 C

x

Solution:

d  0.02 m , m   0.01 kg / s   T 
d
0.02
m
,
m
 
0.01
kg
/
s
T
25
CT
;
65
C
b
b
1
2
T
(1/ 2)(25

65)
45
C
b
At
45
C
: from the tables for water
 6
c
4181
J
/
kg C
;

594
10
kg
/
ms
p
k
0.638
W
/
mK
, Pr
3.89
ud
4
m 
4
0.01
Re

d
 6

d

594
10
0.02
1071.6
2000
 the fl ow is laminar
hd
Nu
 4.36
for constant q
d
w
k
2
h

4.36
0.638 / 0.02
139
W
/
mK
"
i
)
q

dL
mC
()
T
T
pb
b 1
2
20000

0.02

L
0.01
4181
40
L
 1.331
m
ii
)
Q
hA T
(
T
);
w
b
(
T
T
)
constant for constant q" tube flow
w
b
Q
q "
20000


(
T
T
)
143.8
w
b
hA
h
139.08
T
143.8

65
208.8
C
w
2
iii
)
m
 
0.08
kg
/
s

8
0.01
kg
/
s
Re

8
1071.6
8572.8
2000
d
flow is turbulent, Nu number eqn is
hd
0.8
0.4
Nu
0.023Re
Pr
d
d
k
--Dittus & Boelter eqn for turbulent tube flow
0.638
0.8
0.4
 
h
(8572.8)
(3.89)
0.023
0.02
2
h
 1770
W
/
mK
L
'
 
8
L
10 .64 m
for the same entry and exit bulk temperatures
'
'
Q
hA T
(
T
)
w
b
Q
'
'

q
"
20000
1770(
TT
)
w
b
A
T
'
11.3

65
76.3
C
w
2

Much lower surface temp of the tube.

i.e. turbulent flow has higher “h and hence higher convective heat transfer rate.