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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION
The workplace is a challenging job assignment followed by
moderate doses of competitive spirit, constructive effort and
zeal to get ahead of others and ways in which an individual
copes or deals with stress at work is called organizational stress
management.
Employers should provide a stress-free work environment,
recognize where stress is becoming a problem for staff, and take
action to reduce stress. Stress in the workplace reduces
productivity, increases management pressures, and makes
people ill in many ways, evidence of which is still increasing.
Workplace stress affects the performance of the brain, including
functions of work performance; memory, concentration, and
learning. Stress at work also provides a serious risk of litigation
for all employers and organizations, carrying significant
liabilities for damages, bad publicity and loss of reputation.
Dealing with stress-related claims also consumes vast amounts
of management time. So, there are clearly strong economic and
financial reasons for organizations to manage and reduce stress
at work, aside from the obvious humanitarian and ethical
considerations.
Human Resource Management is an art of managing people at
work in such a manner that they give their best to the
organization. In simple word human resource management
refers to the quantitative aspects of employees working in an
organization.
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Human Resource Management is also a management function


concerned with hiring, motivating, and maintains people in an
organization. It focuses on people in organization.
Organizations are not mere bricks, mortar, machineries or
inventories. They are people. HRM involves the application of
management functions and principles. The functions and
principles are applied to acquisitioning, developing, maintain,
and remunerating employees in organizations.

Decisions relating to employees must be integrated. Decision


on different aspect of employees must be consistent with other
human resource decisions. Decision made must influence the
effectiveness of organization. Effectiveness of an organization
must result in betterment of services to customers in the form of
high-quality product supplied at reasonable costs
HRM function is not confined to business establishment only.
They are applicable to non-business organizations, too such as
education, health care, recreation etc. The scope of HRM is
indeed vast. All major activities in the working life of his or her
entry into an organization until he or she leaves-come under the
previews of HRM specifically, the activities included are HR
planning, job analysis and be sign, recruitment and selection,
orientation

and

placement,

training

and

development,

performance appraisal and job evaluation, employee and


executive

remuneration,

motivation

and

communication,

welfare, safety and health, industrial relations and the like.


HRM is a broad concept Personnel management and human
resource development is a part of HRM. Before we define
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Human Resource Management, it seems good to first


define heterogeneous in the sense that they differ in
personality, perception, emotions, values, attitudes, motives,
and modes of thoughts.
Human resource management plays an important role in
the development process of modern economy. In fact it is
said that all the development comes from the human mind.
Human Resource Management is a process of producing
development, maintaining and controlling human resources
for effective achievement of organization goals.
A lot of research has been conducted into stress over the last
hundred years. Some of the theories behind it are now settled
and accepted; others are still being researched and debated.
During this time, there seems to have been something
approaching open warfare between competing theories and
definitions: Views have been passionately held and aggressively
defended.
Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external
environment and us, leading to emotional and physical pressure.
In our fast paced world, it is impossible to live without stress,
whether you are a student or a working adult. There is both
positive and negative stress, depending on each individuals
unique perception of the tension between the two forces.
Stress management is the need of the hour. However hard we
try to go beyond a stress situation, life seems to find new ways
of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks.
Moreover, be it our anxiety, mind-body exhaustion or our erring
4

attitudes, we tend to overlook causes of stress and the


conditions triggered by those. In such unsettling moments we
often forget that stressors, if not escapable, are fairly
manageable and treatable.

CHAPTER II

THE CONCEPT

2. CONCEPT
DEFINING STRESS AT WORK
Change in working practices, such as the introduction of new
technology or the alternation of new technology or the
alternative of targets, my cause stress, or stress may be built
into an organizations structure. Organizational stress can be
measured by absenteeism and quality or work.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS:Stress affects as well as the individual within them. An


organization with a high level of absenteeism, rapid staff
turnover, deteriorating industrial and customer relations, a

worsening safety record, or poor quality control is suffering


from organizational stress.
The issue of organizational stress turns out to be particularly
salient for anyone involved in delivering human services.
Organizations, like individuals, can be traumatized, and the
result of traumatic experience can be as devastating for
organizations as it is for individuals. The outcome of a
traumatic experience will be in part determined by the pretraumatic level of organizational health and integrity. Distress is
a prevalent and costly problem in todays workplace. About
one-third of employees report high levels of stress. One-quarter
of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their
lives. Evidence also suggests that distress is the major cause of
turnover in organizations. With continued distress at the
workplace,

workers

will

develop

psychological

and

physiological dysfunctions and decreased motivation in


excelling in their position. Increased levels of job stress are
determined by the awareness of having little control but lots of
demands in the work area.

FOLLOWING THE PAT OF STRESS THROUGH IN


ORGANIZATION:The below chart shows one example of the structure of a
department in an organization, indicating typical causes of
stress that may affect stress at certain levels in the structure, and
particular.
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Causes that are affecting individuals. Stress is contagious;


anyone who is not performing well due to increases the amount
of pressure on their colleagues, superiors, and subordinates.
The cause may range from unclear or overlapping job
descriptions, to lack of communication, to poor working
conditions, including sick building syndrome.

Definition:

Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research.


His view in 1956 was that stress is not necessarily something
bad it all depends on how you take it. The stress of
exhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that
of failure, humiliation or infection is detrimental.
Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be
experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive
or negative.
Since then, a great deal of further research has been conducted,
and ideas have moved on. Stress is now viewed as a "bad
thing", with a range of harmful biochemical and long-term
effects. These effects have rarely been observed in positive
situations.
The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly
attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or
feeling experienced when a person perceives that demands
exceed the personal and social resources the individual is
able to mobilize. In short, it's what we feel when we think
we've lost control of events.
The types of stress are as follows:
Mechanical

Stress (physics), the average amount of force exerted


per unit area.

Yield stress, the stress at which a material begins to


deform plastically.

Compressive stress, the stress applied to materials


resulting in their compaction.

Biological

Stress (biological), physiological or psychological


stress; some types include:
o Chronic stress, persistent stress which can lead
to illness and mental disorder
o Eustress, positive stress that can lead to
improved long-term functioning
o Workplace stress, stress caused by employment

Music

Accent (music).

Stress (band), an early '80s melodic rock band from San


Diego.

Stress (punk band), an early '80s punk rock band from


Athens.

Stress (Neo-Psychedelic band), from the late 1980's.

Stress, a song by the French band Justice on their debut


album

10

Other

Stress (game), card game

Stress (linguistics), phonological use of prominence in


language

Stress (physics), the average amount of force exerted per


unit area.
Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted
per unit area. It is a measure of the intensity of the total
internal forces acting within a body across imaginary
internal surfaces, as a reaction to external applied forces and
body forces. It was introduced into the theory of elasticity
by Cauchy around 1822. Stress is a concept that is based on
the concept of continuum. In general, stress is expressed as

Where
Is the average stress, also called engineering or
nominal stress, and
Is the force acting over the area .
Chronic Stress
Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs
frequently. Chronic stress is potentially damaging.
Symptoms of chronic stress can be:
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upset stomach

headache

backache

insomnia

anxiety

depression

anger

In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic


disorder.
There are a variety of methods to control chronic stress,
including exercise, healthy diet, stress management, relaxation
techniques, adequate rest, and relaxing hobbies.
Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control
or eliminate stress, in those individuals with lower levels of
magnesium or those who have a magnesium deficiency.
Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency, which
can be a factor in continued chronic stress, and a whole host of
other negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium
deficiency.

12

It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the


number of people who suffer from this condition. A very large
number of these new cases suffer from insomnia.
In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship
between stress and disease, the authors found that stress plays a
role in triggering or worsening depression and cardiovascular
disease.

POTENTIAL SOURCES OF STRESS:


There are three categories of potential stressors:
Environmental factor
Organization factor
Individual factors

Environmental factors:
Just as environmental uncertainty influences the design of an
organization. Changes in business cycle create economic
uncertainties.

Political uncertainties:
If the political system in a country is implemented in an orderly
manner, there would not be any type of stress.
13

Technological uncertainties:
New innovations can make an employees skills and
experiences obsolete in a very short period of time.
Technological uncertainty therefore is a third type of
environmental factor that can cause stress. Computers, robotics,
automation and other forms of technological innovations are
threat to many people and cause them stress.

Organization factors:
There are no storages of factors within the organization that can
cause stress; pressures to avoid error or complete tasks in a
limited time period, work overload are few examples.
Task demands are factors related to a persons job. They include
the design of the individuals job working conditions, and the
physical work layout.
Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a
function of the particular role he or she plays in the
organization. Role overhead is experienced when the employees
is expected to do more than time permits.
Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly
understood and employee is not sure what he / she is to do.
14

Interpersonal

demands

are

pressures

created

by other

employees. Lack of social support from colleagues and poor.


Interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress,
especially among employed with a high social need.
Organizational structure defines the level of differentiation in
the organization, the degree of rules and regulations, and where
decisions are made. Excessive rules and lack of participation in
decision that affect an employee are examples of structural
variables that might be potential sources of stress.

Individual factors:
The typical individual only works about 40 hrs a week. The
experience and problems that people encounter in those other
128 non-work hrs each week can spell over to the job.

Family problems:
National surveys consistently show that people hold family and
discipline, troubles with children are examples of relationship
problems that create stress for employee and that arent at the
front door when they arrive at work.

Economic problems:
Economic problems created by individuals overextending their
financial resources are another set of personal troubles that can
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create stress for employees and distract their attention from


their work.

Potential sources
Consequences

Organizational leadership represents the managerial style of the


organizations senior executive. Some executive officers create a
culture characterized by tension, fear, and anxiety. They
establish unrealistic pressures to perform in the short-run

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impose excessively tight controls and routinely fire employees


who dont measure up. This creates a fear in their hearts, which
lead to stress.

Causes of Stress
The factors leading to stress among individual are called as
stressors. Some of the factors/stressors acting on employees
are1. Organizational factors- With the growth in
organizational stress and complexity, there is increase in
organizational factors also which cause stress among
employees. Some of such factors area. Discrimination in pay/salary structure
b. Strict rules and regulations
c. Ineffective communication
d. Peer pressure
e. Goals conflicts/goals ambiguity
f. More of centralized and formal organization
structure
g. Less promotional opportunities
h. Lack of employees participation in decisionmaking
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i. Excessive control over the employees by the


managers
Organizational Factors: An organization is a grouping of assets,
goals, strategies, and policies. In order to create groups to work,
organizations

generate

structure,

process

and

working

conditions. In modern organizations, number of factors


generates an environment of stress. The altering environmental
dynamics,

globalization,

organizational

adjustments

like

mergers and acquisitions directs towards stress. A number of inhouse organizational factors cause worker a stress. Some of the
factors are deprived of good working conditions, strained labor
management relations, disputed resource allocations, coemployee

behavior, organizational

design

and policies,

unpleasant leadership styles of the boss, misunderstandings in


organizational communication, bureaucratic controls, improper
motivation,

job

dissatisfaction,

and

less

attention to merit and seniority. Some of the organizational


stressors

in

are:

i) Working Conditions: Working situation and stress are


inversely connected to each other. People working in meager
working conditions are subject to greater stress. The factors that
lead to additional stress are occupied work areas, dust, heat,
noise, polluted air, strong odor due to toxic chemicals,
radiation, poor ventilation, unsafe and dangerous conditions,
lack

of

privacy

etc.

ii) Organizational Tasks: Organizational tasks are planned to


assemble the objectives and goals. Badly designed tasks lead to
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bigger stress. Task independence, task inter-dependency, task


demands, task overload are some of the possible reasons for
stress in organizations. Greater the assignment interdependence,
greater is the organization required. This needs the workers to
adjust themselves with the co workers, superiors, and
subordinates, irrespective of their eagerness. They are likely to
communicate, coordinate, exchange views, with other people
irrespective of caste, creed, gender, religion and political
differences. The main reason for the degree of stress is
adjustment

and

poor

tolerance.

iii) Administrative Policies and Strategies: Workers stress is


linked with definite administrative strategies followed by the
organizations. Downsizing, competing pressure, unfair pay
structures, rigidity in rules, job rotation and ambiguous policies
are some of the reasons for stress in organizations.

iv) Organizational Structure and Design: Organizational


structure is planned to smooth the progress of persons
communication in the realization of organizational goals. Some
of the aspects of design are specialization, centralization, line
and staff relationships, span of control, and organizational
communication can relentlessly create stress in organizations.
For example, wider span of management compels the executive
to manage large number of subordinates. This can lead to bigger
stress. Likewise, frequent line and staff conflict lead to
obstacles in the work performance. Thus incapability to resolve
the

conflicts

leads

19

to

stress.

v)

Organization

Process

and

Styles: A number

of

organizational processes are planned to successfully meet the


organizational goals. Communication process, control process,
decision making process, promotion process, performance
appraisal process, etc. are designed for realizing organizational
objectives. All these processes bound the scope of functioning
of employees. Inappropriate design of various organizational
processes leads to stressed relationships among the workers.
They can cause de-motivation and job dissatisfaction. As a
result, workers feel strained in adjusting to the method.
vi)

Organizational

Leaderships:

Top

management

is

accountable for the formation of sound organization climate and


culture by suitable administrative approach. The climate should
be tension free, fearless, and with no worry. Demanding
leadership style forms a dictating environment in which
employees are under pressure to reach the target. They work
under unfriendly relations and stiff controls. This generates
bigger work stress to workers. On the other hand, a climate of
affectionate and sociability, scope for participation in decision
making, non financial motivation and flexibility are encouraged
under democratic leadership style. This reduces the stress of the
workers.

Hence,

employees

working

under

demanding

leadership styles experience stress than employees working


under

independent

leadership

style.

vii) Organizational Life Cycle: Each organization goes


through four stages of organizational life cycle; they are birth,
growth, maturity and decline. In every stage the structure and
the design of organization experience frequent modifications. In
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addition, human beings are subject to transformation to adjust


to the stages in the life cycle. In this procedure, workers are
focused

to

job

stress.

viii) Group Dynamics: Groups are there in every organization.


Groups occur out of intrinsic desire of human beings and
impulsive reactions of people. In organizations both formal
groups and informal groups live. A formal group survives in the
form of committees, informal group exit among different levels
of organization. Groups have a number of functional and
dysfunctional results. They provide social support and
fulfillment, which is accommodating to give relief to the stress.
Simultaneously, they turn out to be the basis of stress also. Lack
of cohesiveness, lack of social support, lack of recognition by
the group and irreconcilable goals leads to stress.
2. Job concerning factors- Certain factors related to job
which cause stress among employees are as followsa. Monotonous nature of job
b. Unsafe and unhealthy working conditions
c. Lack of confidentiality
d. Crowding

3.

Extra-organizational factors-There are certain issues


outside the organization which lead to stress among
employees. In todays modern and technology savvy world,
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stress has increased. Inflation, technological change, social


responsibilities and rapid social changes are other extraorganizational factors causing stress.

4. Intra-organizational factor
1) Stress is a psychological state and body uneasiness. Stress is
a general experience. Every person experiences stress at
various situations. Workers faces stress in the procedure of
congregating the targets and working for extended hours.
When an individual experiences a control inhibiting the
achievement of wishes and order for achievement, it leads
to

possible

stress.

2) There are various intra organizational factors of stress they


are:

1. Individual Factors: There are some individual factors,


which are the basis of stress such as personality and individual
differences, family problems, economic problems, life styles
and

role

demands.

Personality and individual differences: Persons basic nature is


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the main reason for potential stress. Introversion, extroversion,


masculinity,

rigidity,

locus

of

control,

personal

life,

demographic differences such as age, health, education and


occupation are some of the reasons causing stress in
individuals. Persons age, health problem, education, nature of
occupation and the level of satisfaction are also some of the
main

determinants

of

individual

stress

factors.

2. Family Problems: Family matter influences the individuals


life a lot. Healthy marital relations, marital regulation, early,
hale and hearty children may lead to cheerful life. They have
the benefit of enjoying the life and grown to be positive in their
attitudes. As a result they do not have much stress. On the other
hand, meager marital relationships, irritating wife, family
separations, extra marital relationships, disturbing children,
poor settlement of family members, aging parents, dual working
couple, death of spouse or other close family member are some
of the reasons for greater stress in the personal life of a person..

3. Economic Problems: economic complexities are the main


reason
Mis-management

of
of

stress.

individual

finances,

heavy

family

expenditure, and constant demand for money, poor incoming


earning capacity and slow financial growth in the job are some
of the economic cause for stress.
For example, an increasing family expenditure, increased
expenditure on children education and health create heavy
demand for income. This creates greater stress in the persons
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life.
4. Life Styles: Life Styles of individuals may be one of the
causes of stress. It can be due to sedentary life style, persons
facing exceptional situations may be forced to change their
attitude, emotions and behavior. These are the life disturbances
which are usually the causes of potential stress of a person.
5. Role Demands: Persons play numerous roles in their private
life and organizations. In their personal life, they have the roles
of family head, husband, father, brother and son. In social life
they play the roles of club members, informal community group
members, members of recreation groups, religious groups and a
number of other social groups. In the same way in
organizations, employees play the role of superior, subordinate,
co-worker, union leader, informal group leaders etc. By the
way, all these roles are performed concurrently. Therefore, they
become the basis of anxiety and emotion. Another possible
reason is role conflict. It arises due to the role sensitivity, role
ambiguity, role overload and role overlapping. Role ambiguity
and stress are absolutely associated to each other.

Stress Management in Work Place:

There is no doubt that stress is one on of the leading factors in


illness and absenteeism among employees. Besides lowering a
person's immune response, stress makes us want to avoid
whatever is causing it. If there is stress at work, workers who
feel mildly off will feel even worse and resist coming to work.
This costs many hours of productivity, especially when key
24

personnel or production workers are absent-in fact, it's


estimated that $300 billion is lost on stress-caused illnesses and
absenteeism.

A workplace that supports stress management through


workplace wellness programs not only helps their employees to
handle pressure better and stay healthier during times of stress,
it also sends a message that their company cares about them.
This provides emotional support as well as physical support for
fighting the effects of stress.

How a Workplace Wellness Program Can helps when your


employees are stressed, very likely there is one primary cause
and several secondary causes. For instance, a worker may suffer
stress due to poor interpersonal relationships with other workers
and problems communicating. Addressing stress will help the
worker feel better and regain connections to other workers,
thereby reducing the stress in those areas. Although a
workplace wellness program can't de-stress everything a worker
faces-like layoffs, cutbacks, firings, etc.-it can help with the
physical effects of stress and help the worker cope when getting
the pink slip.

A healthy employee will have enough energy to move on and


find another job but the unhealthy employee may suffer even
more physical maladies from stress and plunge into depression.
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An employee who is watching others get fired or laid off will


always be thinking, "When am I going to get the axe?" There
are several steps you can take to reduce job stress.
Get a clear job description to avoid miscommunications that
cause stress, and to make sure you are doing tasks within your
sphere of responsibility only. Get a new job. While this is not
always an ideal solution, sometimes it's the only one-a
workplace wellness program will help with the stress of this
change. Find supportive agencies and programs to help you
either deal with the stress-such as the workplace wellness
program-or find a new position. Isolation is destructive.

Change positions within the company. Perhaps your training is


not in the field where you are working, or you are being asked
by a supervisor to do things far outside work hours and
described responsibilities. If you like the company you work for
but

hate

you

job,

this

may

be

the

answer.

See if your company has an employee assistance program,


which is sometimes part of a workplace wellness program, if
there are layoffs and firings going on around you. If so, use
these services even if you have been told you will remain at the
company-things change daily in the business world.

Need of Stress Management:

26

In the past decade, the news headlines have definitely made it


clear that the need for stress management should be one of the
top agendas in modern day society. The rages alone such as
Road Rage and the trends of violent acts in life today prove a
lot of it well.
Living today is a lot tougher than it was even in the days of the
great depression. It's been coming out in many ways such as all
time occurrences of stomach and intestinal ulcers. Others find
sleep disorders and wind up zombies during their busy days.
Insomnia is growing in leaps and bounds.
Today stress management is important in everyone's lives. It's
necessary for long happy lives with less trouble that will come
about. There are many ways to deal with stress ranging from the
dealing with the causes of stress to simply burning off its
effects.

MACRO-LEVEL

ORGANIZATIONAL

STRESSORS:
POLICIES

Unfair, arbitrary performance reviews.

Rotating works shifts.

Inflexible rules.

Unrealistic job descriptions.

STRUCTURES
27

Centralization

Little opportunity for advancement.

A great amount of formalization.

Interdependence of depart

Line-Staff conflicts.

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

Crowding & lack of privacy.

Air pollution.

Safety hazards.

Inadequate lighting.

Excessive, heat or cold.

PROCESS

Poor communication.

Poor / inadequate feedback about performance.

Inaccurate / ambiguous measurement of performance.

Unfair control systems.

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JOB
STRESS

Inadequate information.

GROUP STRESSORS:
The group can also be a potential source of stress.
Group stressors can be categorized into three areas.
1. Lack of groups cohesiveness:Cohesiveness or togetherness is a very important to
employees, especially at the lower levels of the
organizations. If the employee is denied the opportunity
for this cohesiveness because of the task design, because
the supervisor does things to prohibit or limit it, or
because the other members of the group shut the person
out, this can be very stress producing.
2. Lack of social support:Employees are greatly affected by the support of one or
more member of a cohesive group. By sharing their
problems & joys with others, they are much better off. It
this type of social support is lacking for an individual, it
can be very stressful.
3. Intra-Individual, interpersonal & inter-group conflict:Conflict is very closely conceptually or hostile acts
between associated with in compatible or hostile acts
between intra-individual dimensions, such as personal

29

goals

or

motivational

needs

values,

between

individuals within a group, & between groups.

INDIVIDUAL STRESSORS:
In a sense, the other stressors (Extra organizational,
organizational, & Group stressors) all eventually get down to
the individual level. For example, role conflict, ambiguity, selfefficacy & psychological hardiness may all affect the level of
stress someone experiences.

CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS
The effect of stress is closely linked to individual personality.
The same level of stress affects different people in different
ways & each person has different ways of coping. Recognizing
these personality types means that more focused help can be
given.
Stress shows itself number of ways. For instance, individual
who is experiencing high level of stress may develop high
blood pressure, ulcers, irritability, difficulty in making routine
decisions, loss of appetite, accident proneness, and the like.
These can be subsumed under three categories:

Individual consequences
Organizational consequence

30

Burnout

Individual consequences:
Individual consequences of stress are those, which affect the
individual directly. Due to this the organization may suffer
directly or indirectly, but it is the individual who has to pays for
it. Individual consequences of stress are broadly divided into
behavioral, psychological and medical.

Behavioral consequences of stress are responses that may


harm the person under stress or others. Behaviorally related
stress symptoms include changes in productivity, turnover,
as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or
consumption of alcohol, paid speech, and sleep disorders.

Psychological consequences of stress replace to an


individual mental health and well-being from or felling
depressed. Job related stress could cause dissatisfaction; in
fact it has most psychological effect on the individual and
lead to tension, anxiety irritability, and boredom.

Medical consequences of stress affect a persons well being.


According to a research conducted, it revealed that stress

31

could create changes in metabolism, increase heart and


breathing rates, increases blood pressure bring out
headaches and induce heart attacks.

Organizational consequences:
Organizational consequences of stress have direct affect
on the organizations. These include decline in performance,
withdrawal and negative changes in attitude.

Decline in performance can translate into poor quality


work or a drop in productivity. Promotions and other
organizational benefits get affected due to this.

Withdrawal behavior also can result from stress.


Significant form of withdrawal behavior is absenteeism.

One main affect of employee stress is directly related to


attitudes. Job satisfaction, morale and organizational
commitment can all suffer, along with motivation to
perform at higher levels.

Burnout:-

32

A final consequence of stress has implementation for


both people and organizations. Burnout is a general feeling of
exhaustion that develops when an individual simultaneously
experiences too much pressure and few sources of satisfaction.

FACTS ABOUT STRESS

Number Reason of Stress

Percentage

Lack of job security

90%

Overworked

86%

Financial problem

84%

Salary not match with responsibility

80%

Unreasonable demand for performance

72%

Conflict between job and family responsibilities

70%

Long hours

50%

Change in family

42%

Office policies and conflicts

20%

33

10

No participation in decision

MANAGING STRESS
Management may consider being a positive stimulus that
keeps the adrenaline running is very likely to be seen as
excessive pressure by the employee.
There are two approaches towards managing stress:1)

Individual Approaches

2)

Organization Approaches

1) Individual Approaches: An employee can take personal responsibility for reducing his
or her stress level. Individual strategies that have proven
effective include implementing time management techniques,
increasing physical exercise, relaxation training, and expanding
the social support network.

(a) Time management Techniques: It includes some time management principles. Principles are:-

34

15%

(1) Making daily lists of activities to be accomplished.


(2) Prioritizing activities by importance and urgency.
(3) Scheduling activities according to the priorities set.
(4) Knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding
part of job.

(b) Physical Exercise: Such as aerobics, walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a
bicycle have long been recommended by physicians as a way to
deal with excessive stress levels. These forms of physical
exercise increase heart capacity, lower the at-rest heart rate,
provide a mental diversion from work pressures, and offer a
means to let off steam.

(c) Relaxation Techniques: Such as meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback. The objective is
to reach a state of deep relaxation, in which one feels physically
relaxed, somewhat detached from the immediate environment,
and detached from body sensations. Deep relaxation for 15 or
20 minutes a day releases tension and provides a person with a
pronounced sense of peacefulness. Importantly, significant
changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological
factors result from achieving the condition of deep relaxation.

(d) Social Support Network:It includes friends, family, or work colleagues. Expanding your
social support network therefore can be means for tension
35

reduction. It provides you with someone to hear your problems


and to offer more objective perspective on situations.

2) Organizational Approaches: Several of the factors that cause stress particularly task and role
demands and organizational structure are controlled by
management. As such, they can be modified or changed.
Strategies that management might want to consider include
improved personnel selection and job placement, training, use
of realistic goal setting, redesigning of jobs, increased employee
involvement, improved organizational communication, offering
employee sabbaticals, and establishment of corporate wellness
programs.

(a) Selection and Placement:Certain jobs are more stressful than other. Individuals differ in
their response to stress situation. Individuals with little
experience or an external locus of control tend to be more prone
to stress. Selection and placement decisions should take these
facts into consideration. Management should not restrict hiring
to only experienced individual with an internal locus, but such
individuals may adapt better to high stress jobs and perform
those jobs more effectively.

(b) Training: It can increase an individuals self-efficacy and thus lessen job
strain.

36

(c) Goal Setting:Based on an extensive amount of research

concluded that

individuals perform better when they have specific and


challenging goals and receive feedback on how well they are
progressing towards these goals. The uses of goals reduce stress
as well as provide motivation. Specific goals that are perceived
as attainable clarify performance expectation. In addition, goal
feedback reduces uncertainties about actual job performance.
The result is less employee frustration, role ambiguity, and
stress.

(d) Redesigning Jobs: To give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work,
more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress
because these factors give the employee greater control over
work activities and lessen dependence on others. The right
redesign, then, for employees with a low need for growth might
be less responsibility and increased specialization. If individuals
prefer structure and routine, reducing skill variety should also
reduce uncertainties and stress levels.

(e) Increasing Employee Involvement: By giving employees a voice in the decision that directly affect
their job performances, management can increase employee
control and reduce this role stress. So managers should consider
increasing employee involvement in decision making.

(d) Organizational Communication: 37

Increasing

formal

organizational

communication

with

employees reduces uncertainty by lessening role ambiguity and


role conflict. Given the importance that perceptions play in
moderating the stress-response relationship, management can
also use effective communications as a means to shape
employee perceptions. Employees categorize as demands,
threats, or opportunities are merely an interpretation, and that
interpretation can be affected by the symbols and actions
communicated by management

(f) Sabbaticals: Ranging in length from a few weeks to several months allows
employees to travel, relax, or pursue personal projects that
consume time beyond normal vacation weeks. Proponents argue
that these sabbaticals can revive and rejuvenate workers who
might be headed for burnout.

(g) Wellness Programs: These programs focus on the employees total physical and
mental condition. Provide workshop to help people quit
smoking, control alcohol use, lose weight, eat better, and
develop a regular exercise program. The assumption underlying
most wellness programs is that employees need to take personal
responsibility

for

their

physical

and

Organizations, of course, are not altruistic.

mental

health.

They expect a

payoff from their investment in wellness programs. Most of the

38

firms that have introduced wellness programs have found


significant benefits.

Individual coping strategies:


Many strategies for helping individuals manage stress
have been proposed.

Individual coping strategies are used when an employee under


stress exhibits undesirable behavior on the jobs such as
performance,

strained

relationship

with

co-workers,

absenteeism alcoholism and the like. Employees under stress


require help in overcoming its negative effects. The strategies
used are:

Exercise:-

39

One method by which individual can manage their stress is


through exercise. People who exercise regularly are known to
less likely to have heart attacks than inactive people are.
Research also has suggested that people who exercise regularly
feel less tension and stress are more conflict and slow greater
optimism.

Relaxation:A related method individual can manage stress is relaxation.


Copying with stress require adaptation. Proper relaxation is an
effective way to adopt.
Relaxation can take many forms. One way to relax is to take
regular vacations; people can also relax while on the job (i.e.
take regular breaks during their normal workday). A popular
way of resting is to sit quietly with closed eyes for ten minutes
every afternoon.

Time management:Time management is an often recommended method for


managing stress, the idea is that many daily pressures can be
eased or eliminated if a person does a better job of managing
time. One popular approach to time management is to make a
list, every morning or the things to be done that day. Then you
group the items on the list into three categories: critical
activities that must be performed, important activities that
40

should be performed, and optimal or trivial things that can be


delegated or postponed, then of more of the important things
done every day.

ROLE MANAGEMENT:Somewhat related to time management in which the individual


actively works to avoid overload, ambiguity and conflict.

SUPPORT GROUPS:This method of managing stress is to develop and maintain


support group. A support group is simply a group of family
member or friends with whom a person can spend time.
Supportive family and friends can help people deal with normal
stress on an ongoing basis. Support groups can be particularly
useful during times of crisis.

BEHAVIORAL SELF-CONTROL:In ultimate analysis, effective management if stress presupposes


exercise of self-control on the part of an employee. By
consciously analyzing the cause and consequences of their own
behavior, the employees can achieve self-control. They can
further develop awareness of their own limits of tolerance and
learn to anticipate their own responses to various stressful
41

situations. The strategy involves increasing an individuals


control over the situations rather than being solely controlled by
them.

COGNITIVE THERAPY:The cognitive therapy techniques such as Ellis rational emotive


model and Meichenbaums cognitive strategy fir modification
have been used as an individual strategy for reducing job stress.

COUNSELING:
Personal counseling help employees understand and appreciate
a diverse workforce, the holistic approach adopted by the
counselor gives him a comprehensive view of the employee as
client and enable him to deal the issues of work related
problems in a larger context with his awareness of the interrelationship among problems in adjustment with self, other and
environment and that a work concern will effect personal life
and vice-versa, the employee would receive help regarding the
problem in all life.
One of the advantage of the individual interventions is the
individual can use these skills to improve the quality of life in
offer domains like family, social support and self, thus reducing
the negative carry of experiences in these domains into the
work life which might affect his occupation mental health.

42

ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES:The most effective way of managing stress calls for adopting
stressors and prevent occurrence of potential stressors.
Two basic organizational strategies for helping employees
manage stress are institutional programs and collateral
programs.

Work Design

Stress

Management

Health

promotions

programs
Work schedules
programs
Culture

Other programs

Supervision

Institutional programs:-

43

Institutional programs for managing stress are undertaken to


established organizational mechanism for example, a properly
designed job and word schedules can help ease stress. Shift
work in particular can constantly have to adjust their sleep and
relaxation patterns. Thus, the design of work schedules should
be a focused of organizational efforts to reduce stress.
The organizations culture can also used to help to manage
stress. The organization should strive to foster a culture that
reinforces a healthy mix of work and nonworking activities.
Finally, supervision can play an important institutional role in
overload. In managing stress. A supervisor is a potential
manager source of overload. If made aware of their potential for
assigning stressful amounts of work, supervisors can do a better
job keeping workloads reasonable.

COLLATERAL PROGRAMS:
In addition to their institutional efforts aimed at reducing stress,
many organizations are turning to collateral programs. A
collateral stress program in an organizational program
specifically created to help employees deal with stress. The
organizations have adopted stress management programs, health
promotion programs and other kinds of programs for this
purpose.

Coping with Stress at Work place


44

With the rapid advancement of technology, the stresses faced at


work have also increased. Many people dread going to work,
hence the term Monday Blues. What is the reason for this?
There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times,
leading to greater job insecurity on the part of those who
remain. Undoubtedly, occupational stress is one of the most
commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world.

Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment


which results in psychological and physical reactions. Whilst
some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency,
too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced
effectiveness and efficiency. More and more people are feeling
isolated and disrespected at work, and this has led to greater
occupational stress. Many companies have taken to consulting
experts and professionals on ways to increase connectedness
and motivation of their employees.
Some companies organize parties and make their employees
feel valued at work. These are measures to motivate employees
and help them to feel secure at their jobs, translating into
greater productivity. However, not all companies have such
measures in place, and some have not gotten it quite right.
Hence, it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stress
at your workplace, and use it to help you work better. Here are
3 simple steps to help you with coping with stress in the
workplace.

Step 1: Raising Awareness


45

Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of


stress, tipping the scales from positive to negative. This is
important, as being able to identify signs of being stressed can
help you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life
does not drop. If left unacknowledged, the problem will only
snowball, leading to disastrous consequences to your health and
overall wellbeing.
You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you
have any physical or psychological reactions, such as excessive
sweating or heart palpitations, or the onset of headaches,
irritability or the need to escape. If you experience any of these
reactions, identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative
emotions, and if you are constantly worried.

Step 2: Identify the Cause


You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is
causing the rise in stress. These stressors can be external and
internal. External stressors refer to things beyond your control,
such as the environment or your colleagues at work. Internal
stressors refer to your own thinking and attitude. Often, we only
start reacting to stress when a combination of stressors working
together exceeds our ability to cope.
Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel
strong negative emotions, or that are likely stressors. This will
help you to identify the causes of your stress. Whilst it is not
46

always possible to eradicate them, we can change the way that


we cope with it.

Step 3: Coping with Stress


In order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress, you
need to calm your mind and body so as to stave off the reactions
and cope with it in a positive way. This can be through different
methods, such as taking time off. If a situation is triggering your
stress and you are unable to calm down, remove yourself from
it. Go outside and take a walk to calm down. Alternatively, you
can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep
breathing. If it is an internal stressor, stop your thought process
until you are able to deal with it logically.
The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice
them. These are not instantaneous solutions, and you need to
condition your mind and practice them so that you can
implement it when you are feeling stressed.

Programs of stress management targeted at perceptions and


experiences of stress and outcome of stress
Team building

Behaviour modification

47

Career counseling and other employee assistance program

Workshops on time management

Workshops on burnout to help employee understand its


nature
Training in relaxation techniques

Physical fitness or wellness programs

Employee assistance programs


Diagnosis: Employee with a problem asks for help. EAP
staff attempt to diagnosis the problem.
Treatment: Counseling or supportive therapy is provided.

Screening: Periodic examination of employees in highly


stressful jobs is provided to detect early indicators of
problems.
Prevention: Education and persuasion are used to convince
employees at high risk that something must be done to assist
them in effectively coping with stress.

48

The following were identified as positive measures for


reducing stress:

Good employee communication (68%)

Realistic deadlines (53%)

Empowering staff (32%)

A no blame culture (45%)

Flexible working arrangements (44%)

Promoting a family

In an April 2010 national opinion poll survey of a randomly


selected national sample of 2,025 adult women. The Gallup
Organization found that women have a wide variety of
issues that challenge them as they go about their daily lives.
The top seven categories of most concern to women are:
o Economic situation 26%
49

o Family 22%
o Health 15%
o Stress, managing their time and balancing their lives 14%
o Jobs and career 8%
o Education and schooling ( for both themselves and their
children) 7%

50

CHAPTER III

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

51

3. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


An in depth study about the stress among the employees
of WCL.

To understand the concept of stress management.

To identify the factors causing stress among the


employees.

To find out the kind of stress among the employees.

To study about the effect of stress on employees.

To check the degree of stress undergone by the


employees.

To identify specific ways in which stress


management techniques can be used in both
personal and vocational areas of life.

To recommend the coping strategies to manage


stress.

To study the stress management techniques adopted


by the company.

To analyze the companys working environment.

To suggest measures for improving the stress


management and overall employee satisfaction

52

53

CHAPTER IV

COMPANY PROFILE

54

WESTERN COAL FIELDS


LIMITED
(A Miniratna Cat-I Government of India Undertaking)
(A Subsidiary of Coal India Limited)
55

4. COMPANY PROFILE
Coal - the Black Diamond
Coal is the primary source of energy. Coal accounts for over
50% of Indias commercial energy consumption and about 78%
of domestic coal production is dedicated to power generation.
The inventory of Coal in India are estimated to be around
298.914 Billion Tonnes (as on 1st April, 2013), which constitute
about 0.8% of the Global Coal reserves, whereas it's production
contribution is around 7%. India today is one of the major coal
producers in the World and ranks at 3rd position after China and
USA.
Coal deposits in India are mainly occurring in lower Gondwana
formation of Permian period and Oligocene formation of
tertiary period. About 99.5% of Indian coal belongs to
Gondwana formation.
Major part of these reserves is bituminous coal, occurring in
basins, lying east of 780E Longitude and above 200N Latitude,
along prominent present day rivers. Coal deposits of tertiary
period are best developed in North Eastern Region while
Lignite deposits in Southern & Western part of the country.

56

The first published reference of Coal Mining in India dates back


to 1774. However, by the beginning of the 20 th Century, the
national coal production reached to a level of around 6 Million
Tonnes.
The industry got significant boost during the two great wars.
With the advent of Independence, the need for larger and
efficient coal production was stressed. This led to formation of
National Coal Development Corporation Limited in 1956,
which in turn stepped up production in states like Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, where at that point of time, the
mining conditions were not as favourable as in Bengal Bihar
belt.

Birth of Coal Limited


The nationalization of the Coal Industry in India took place in
two phases. The Coking Coal Mines were nationalized in May
1972, and the Non-coking Coal Mines in May 1973.
With this, all the mines in the country, except captive mines of
two private companies, were placed under Public Sector. 1st
November, 1975 represented a turning point for the nationalized
coal industry, when a comprehensive re- organization scheme
was launched. Coal India Limited was born as a holding
company with Rs.750 Crores as its Authorized Capital, and

57

Five Subsidiary Companies including Central Mine Planning &


Design Institute under it.
The process of amalgamation of mines into bigger units started.
The 925 taken over Mines, together with 44 NCDC Mines were
re-organized into 374 Mines. The national coal production
which stood at a level of 77.87 Million Tonnes during 1973-74,
reached a level of 557.707 Million Tonnes by 2012-13. Today,
Coal India has eight Subsidiary Companies including CMPDI,
and is one of the largest Corporate Employers of the world,
employing about 3.58 Lakh people. CIL produced 452.21
Million Tonnes of coal during the year 2012-13. Presently,
about 91.65% of CIL's production comes from Opencast Mines.

WCL : An Introduction
Western Coalfields Limited (WCL) is one of the Eight
Subsidiary Companies of Coal India Limited, contributing
about 8.19% of the national coal production. The company
came into existence on 1st November, 1975, after reorganization of the Nationalized Coal Industry. The Company
incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 has its registered
58

office at Coal Estate, Civil Lines, Nagpur440001. WCL has


been conferred "Miniratna" status on 15th March'2007. The
Company has contributed about 8.6% of the national coal
production during 2009-10. At that juncture, the operations of
WCL were spread over in the States of Maharashtra, Madhya
Pradesh and Orissa, organized into 2 Divisions and 12
operational Areas. By the year 1985-86, the number of mines in
WCL had increased to 130 and the total production to 48.89
Million Tonnes from the then WCL. Keeping in view the
tremendous growth programme, the Company was bifurcated,
with effect from January 1986, into South Eastern Coalfields
Limited and the present Western Coalfields Limited (WCL).
The present WCL has mining operation spread over in the
States of Maharashtra (in Nagpur, Chandrapur & Yeotmal
Districts) and in Madhya Pradesh (in Betul and Chhindwara
Districts). The Company is a major source of supplies of coal to
the industries located in Western India in the States of
Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and also in Southern
India in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
and Kerala. A large numbers of Power Houses under
Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Punjab and
Uttar Pradesh - Electricity Boards are major consumers of its
coal along with cement, steel, chemical, fertilizer, paper and
brick Industries in these states.

59

Mission
The Mission of Western Coalfields Limited is to produce and
market the planned quantity of Coal and Coal products,
efficiently and economically with due regard to Environment,
Safety, Conservation and Quality.

Vision
To emerge as a global player in the primary energy sector
committed to provide energy security to the country by
attaining environmentally & socially sustainable growth
through best practices from mine to market.

Values

Zeal to excel and zest for change

Integrity and fairness in all matters

Respect for dignity and potential of individuals

Strict adherence to commitments

Ensure speed of response

Foster learning, creativity and team-work


60

Loyalty and pride in the Company

61

62

Management Profile
Chairman:

Shri Rajiv Ranjan Mishra,


Chairman-cum-Managing Director

Director (Technical) Operations:

Shri S S Malhi

63

Director (Personnel):
(P&IR):

Shri Rupak Dayal

Director

Shri R. Mohan
Das

Economic advisor:
64

Dr. M. R. Anand

WCL AT A GLANCE
Number of working mines: 01.04.2014

Opencast

39

Underground

42

Mixed (OC+UG)

01

Total

82

65

Coal Production
(Million Tonnes)

Actual
2013-14

Actual
2012-13

Opencast

34.09

34.72

Underground

08.20

08.39

Total

42.29

43.11

Productivity
(Tonnes/Manshift)

Actual
2013-14

Actual
2012-13

Opencast

5.03

4.22

Underground

1.10

1.08

Overall

2.97

2.70

Off-take (Mill. Tes)

41.55

41.97

66

Average Wagon
Loading
(Boxes/Day)

885

761

Manpower (as on)

1.4.2014

1.4.2013

Executives

2868

2620

Monthly Rated

10879

11291

Daily Rated

39458

40587

Piece Rated

1414

2232

Company Trainee

341

259

Total

54960

56989

O.B.R. (Mil.Cu.M.)

113.69

122.49

67

Stock (as on 31st)MT

5.82

5.09

Manpower Reduction

2029

2054

Financial Performance 2013-14


The turnover of the company during the year 2013-14 was
Rs.8703.97 crores against budgeted Rs.7793.68 crores. The net
profit for the year is Rs.428.87 crores against budgeted loss of
Rs.131.77 crores. The total sales realization during 2013-14 was
Rs.8137.05 crores. The total outstanding dues with customers
have increased from Rs.133.05 crores as on 01.04.2013 to
Rs.551.66 crores as on 01.04.2013. The company has paid
Rs.325.00 crores by way of advance corporate taxes to Central
68

Government during the year 2013-14. Besides, the company


contributed to the State/ Central exchequer around Rs.1867.35
crores by way of royalty and S.Tax & other levies during the
year 2013-14.
The year-wise profit earned by WCL is given below:
(Ru
pees in Crores)
Year
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Budget (AAP)
2014-15

Profit
310.20
472.53
743.60
935.30
1446.96
1054.44
930.22
516.12
931.03
1067.97
440.50
428.87
520.28
(-)215.66

Coal Reserves
The Command Area of WCL has coal inventory of 14,503
Million Tonnes of coal, against All India coal inventory of
2,98,914 Million Tonnes (as on 01.04.2014). The distribution is
as under:
(M
illion Tonnes)
State
Maharashtra

Coking
69

Non-Coking
10964

Total
10964

Madhya Pradesh
TOTAL WCL
ALL INDIA
WCL reserves as
% of All India

666
666
34061
1.95

2813
13837
264853
5.22

(1) As per GSI, in seams more than 0.9 M thick and upto a

depth of 1200 M.
(2) This includes 1493 million tonnes of Tertiary coal.
With 4.85% of coal inventory WCL contributes about 9.35%
towards CIL coal production and about 7.58% towards national
coal production.

Mining Operations
The mining operations of WCL are organized into 10 Areas, 7
located in the State of Maharashtra and 3 in Madhya Pradesh.
WCL has 82 operating mines as on 01.04.2014.

The distribution of mines in the Areas is as follows:

MAHARASHTRA STATE
70

3539
14503
298914*
4.85

Sr. No.

State/Area

UG

OC

Mixed

Total

Chandrapu

11

r
2

Ballarpur

Majri

Wani

Wani North

Nagpur

12

Umrer

TOTAL

22

32

54

MADHYA PRADESH STATE


Sr. No.

State/Are

UG

OC

Mixed

Total

a
1

Pathakhera

71

Pench

14

Kanhan

TOTAL

20

28

Coal Production Trend


There has been a phenomenal growth in coal production of the
company from a level of 6.53 million Tonnes in 1973-74 to
42.29 Million Tonnes in 2013-14.
(Figs. In
Million Tonnes)
Year

OC

UG

Total

1973-74
1979-80
1991-92
1996-97
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05

0.75
1.84
15.75
21.36
27.52
28.43
30.02
31.76

5.78
7.76
8.99
9.86
9.49
9.39
9.51
9.65

6.53
9.60
24.74
31.22
37.01
37.82
39.53
41.41

72

2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
PROG.
2014-15

33.16
33.30
33.53
34.59
36.12
34.95
34.72
34.09
34.90
35.50

10.04
9.91
9.98
10.11
9.62
8.70
8.39
8.20
8.12
8.50

43.20
43.21
43.51
44.70
45.74
43.65
43.11
42.29
41.57
44.00

Manpower:
WCL has made concerted progress in rationalizing its
manpower. Despite increase in production from a level of 24.74
Million Tonnes to 42.29 Million Tonnes during the period 199192 to 2013-14, WCL is able to gradually reduce its overall
manpower and increase production and productivity.
The year wise manpower is given below:
As on 31st March
1992
1997
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006

Manpower
85742
84805
75005
72501
70515
68938
67378
73

2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

65599
64160
62492
60870
59043
56989
54960
52045

Western Coalfields Limited has made consistent progress since


nationalization. Production has increased from 6.53 million
tonnes in 1973-74 to 42.29 Million Tonnes in 2013-14
registering tremendous growth. Due to adverse geo-mining
conditions and high stripping ratio of coal deposits, the life of
OC mines are quite short and projects have less capacity. There
is no mega project. Most of the OC Mines are of less than 1.50
MTY capacity. Only one ongoing project, namely Penganga OC
is having a capacity of 3.00 MTY.
In view of above, identifying new projects and opening of the
same is continuous process at WCL to maintain the steady
growth. At WCL,

10 mines

were

existing

prior to

nationalization and were taken over. A total of 145 projects


have been sanctioned since nationalization, with ultimate
aggregate production capacity of 100.96 million tonnes/ annum
and aggregate sanctioned capital of Rs. 6624.92 crore. This
74

includes 38 projects/schemes approved on cost plus basis. Out


of 38, CSA on cost plus basis has been executed for 12
projects/schemes. The remaining projects are at various stages
of execution of CSA on cost plus basis. Out of 155 projects, 32
projects, with a sanctioned capacity of 32.18 million tonnes &
sanctioned capital of Rs. 1487.16 crore are ongoing.
Out of the 32 ongoing projects/schemes production has started
in 20 projects and rest is in construction stage. Contribution of
these projects in coal production for 2013-14 was 17.0686
Million tonne year on year. Due to enhancement of land rates
by Maharashtra Govt. and implementation of R&R Policy, 2013
most of the opencast projects approved on notified price are not
likely to remain viable at such price. Similarly, for projects
approved on cost plus basis, cost plus price is also likely to
undergo upward revision due to additional requirement of
capital for land.

75

CHAPTER V

SCOPE OF STUDY

5. SCOPE OF STUDY

76

It would help for staying calm and in focus despite


uncertainty.
Increased

organizational

participation

in

the

organizational activity.
It would reduce stress through improved organization.
It would help in interaction with others.
Saving time and reducing stress with improved
listening.
It would help to reduce anxiety levels.
It would help to develop coping skills.
There could be better performance of employees in the
organization.
It would reduce risk of depression.
It would help to make an employee less sensitive to
criticism.
It would increase the dedication towards work in the
organization.
It would help in achieving greater efficiency at work.

77

CHAPTER VI

RESEARCH &
METHODOLOGY

78

6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In order to accomplish the objectives of the study, it is
essential to articulate the manner in which it is to be conducted,
i.e., the research process is to be carried-out in a certain
framework. The research methodology, which follows, is the
backbone of the study. Every project work is based on certain
methodology, which is a way to systematically solve the
problem or attain its objectives. It is a very important guideline
and lead to completion of any project work through
observation, data collection and data analysis.
Research Methodology comprises of defining &
redefining problems, collecting, organizing & evaluating data,
making deductions & researching to conclusions.
-Clifford Woody

Data Collection Sources


Research work was done from two sources: (1) Primary data
(2) Secondary data
Primary data: It was collected by questionnaire and interview
in the organizations. The questionnaire comprised of closed and
attitude questions. The opinion on existing Stress Management
79

practices and their affectivity were collected through


questionnaire which was circulated to all the employees at all
levels and the results have been analyzed on the basis of agree
and disagree. The methodology for collection of data also
included interviews and discussion with the top management of
the organization.
Sources:
Questionnaire
Interview method
Secondary data: It was collected by reviewing different
literatures, from published books, management journals, articles
published by the other researchers on Stress Management.
Sources:

Magazine
Internet
Books
Previous Report

Sampling:
The total sample size for this project was 50 executives at
WCL.
The information collected through above methods has been
tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Finally an overall
assessment of the contribution of top management has been
made towards improving the effectiveness of the organization.

TYPES OF RESEARCH

80

Research methodology is a way to systematic solve the


Research Problem. It is a procedure, which is followed step by
step to solve a particular research problem.
There are basically four types of researches:
1

EXPLORATIVE RESEARCH

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH

HYPOTHESIS TESTING RESEARCH

Explorative Research:-

Explorative studies are undertaken

with a view to know more about the problem. These studies


help in a proper definition of the problem, and development of
specific hypothesis is to be tested later by more conclusive
research designs. Its basic purpose is to identify factors
underlying a problem and to determine which one of them need
to be further researched by using rigorous conclusive research
designs.
Descriptive Research:- To point accurately the characteristics
of the particular individual situation or a group.
Diagnostic Research:- To determine the frequency with which
something occurs or with which it is associated with something
else.
Hypothesis Testing Research:- To test a hypothesis of casual
relationship between variables.

81

The present project is Descriptive cum Explorative in nature.


It is done to point accurately the characteristics of a particular
individual situation or a group. The major purpose of the
descriptive research is the description of the state of the affairs
as it exits at resent. The main characteristics of this method are
that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can
only report what has happened or what is happening.

ANALYTICAL TOOLS USED


The term analysis refers to the computation of certain measures
along with searching for pattern of relationship that exists
among data group. Analysis is essential for a scientific study
and for ensuring that we have all relevant data for making
contemplated comparison. Therefore, I have used tabulations,
graphs and charts in my project.

SAMPLING PLAN:
Sample Size = 50 Employees
Sample Area = Nagpur
Duration

= 2 Weeks

82

CHAPTER VII

HYPOTHESIS

7. HYPOTHESIS
83

H0 : A good work culture is helpful for retaining employees.

H1 : Stress management is linked with compensation structure.

84

CHAPTER VIII

DATA COLLECTION &


INTERPRETATION

85

8. DATA COLLECTION &


INTERPRETATION

1. Do you have enough time to perform your work


without any disturbances?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

9
20
4
12
5
50

86

RESPONSE
(in %)
18
40
8
24
10
100

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

2. Do you think physical environment problems in

the work place causes stress?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

13
18
8
8
3
50

87

RESPONSE
(in %)
26
36
16
16
6
100

Strongly Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

3. Do you feel time pressure to complete work?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

5
21
6
14
4
50

88

RESPONSE
(in %)
10
42
12
28
8
100

Strongly Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

4. Do you think lack of communication causes

stress?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

3
20
10
13
4
50
89

RESPONSE
(in %)
6
40
20
26
8
100

Strongly Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

5. Do you think long work hours cause stress?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

13
27
7
3
90

RESPONSE
(in %)
26
54
14
6

TOTAL

Strongly Agree

6. Do

you

50

Agree

think

lack

100

Undecided

of

Disagree

clarity

Strongly Disagree

about

responsibilities causes stress?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree

2
14
12
19
91

RESPONSE
(in %)
4
28
24
38

Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

Strongly Agree

3
50

Agree

Undecided

6
100

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

7. Do you feel stressed because your job is

monotonous?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree

5
92

RESPONSE
(in %)
10

Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

Strongly Agree

16
2
19
8
50

Agree

Undecided

32
4
38
16
100

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

8. Do you lose your temper while being stressed at

work?

93

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

22
10
14
4
50

Strongly Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

RESPONSE
(in %)
44
20
28
8
100

Strongly Disagree

9. Do you plan your each day, and work out that

plan?

94

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

25
22
3
50

Strongly Agree

Agree

95

Undecided

Disagree

RESPONSE
(in %)
50
44
6
100

Strongly Disagree

10. Do you think high salary can relieve employees

from getting stressed?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

5
11
5
19
10
50

Strongly Agree

Agree

96

Undecided

Disagree

RESPONSE
(in %)
10
22
10
38
20
100

Strongly Disagree

11. Do you do meditation to reduce the stress?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

18
27
2
3
50

Strongly Agree

Agree

97

Undecided

Disagree

RESPONSE
(in %)
36
54
4
6
100

Strongly Disagree

12. Does financial motivation reduce the stress?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

11
16
20
7
50

Strongly Agree

Agree

98

Undecided

Disagree

RESPONSE
(in %)
22
32
40
14
100

Strongly Disagree

13.

Do

you

think

training &

development

programmes help to cope-up with the stress?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

20
25
3
2
50

Strongly Agree

Agree

99

Undecided

Disagree

RESPONSE
(in %)
40
50
6
4
100

Strongly Disagree

14. Is there a need for counseling?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

4
11
14
17
4
50

Strongly Agree

Agree

100

Undecided

Disagree

RESPONSE
(in %)
8
22
28
34
8
100

Strongly Disagree

15. Are you satisfied with your job?

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

18
30
2
50

Strongly Agree

Agree

101

Undecided

Disagree

RESPONSE
(in %)
36
60
4
100

Strongly Disagree

CHAPTER IX

FINDINGS

102

9. FINDINGS
Most of the employees get enough time to perform their
work without any disturbances.

Most employees think that physical environment


problems in the work place causes stress.

Most employees feel time pressure to complete work.

Most employees agree that lack of communication


causes stress.

Most employees agree that long work hours cause


stress.

Most employees disagree that lack of clarity about


responsibilities causes stress.

103

Most employees disagree that monotonous job causes


stress.

Most employees agree they lose temper while being


stressed at work.

Most employees agree that they plan their day and work
out that plan.

Most employees disagree that high salary can relieve


employees from getting stressed.

Most employees agree that they do meditation to reduce


stress.

Most employees agree that financial motivation reduces


stress.

Most employees agree that training & development


programmes help to cope-up with the stress.

104

Most of the employees disagree that they need


counseling.

Most of the employees agree that they are satisfied with


their job.

105

CHAPTER X

LIMITATIONS

10. LIMITATIONS

106

A few limitations and constraints came in way of conducting


the present study, under which the researcher had to work are as
follows:

The survey which has been conducted comprises a result of


Nagpur region and cannot be considered as representative of
other region.
Although all attempts were made to make this an objective
study, biases on the part of respondents might have resulted
in some subjectivity.
Though, no effort was spared to make the study most
accurate and useful, the sample Size selected for the same
may not be the true representative of the Company, resulting
in biased results.
The data interpretation is valid or applicable for the time
period of not more than six months.
This being the maiden experience of the researcher of
conducting study such as this, the possibility of better
results, using deeper statistical techniques in analyzing and
interpreting data may not be ruled out.

107

CHAPTER XI

SUGGESTIONS

108

11. SUGGESTIONS

First and foremost I would like to suggest that, the


employees who are working must have privacy so that
they can work efficiently.

The efficiency of the employee should be assessed and


work must be assigned according to it.

There must be hike in pay-package once in a while


according to the ability, qualification, workload and
experience of employees.

Training programs should be conducted from time to


time so that an employee does not get bored from their
job.

There should be some cultural programs to refresh the


employees doing monotonous job.

Certain measures should be adopted to enhance team


spirit and co-ordination among the employees.
109

CHAPTER XII

CONCLUSION

110

12. CONCLUSION

Stress is something that happens in our daily lives and is


usually associated with a particular event such as work,
family or other responsibilities. There are many situations
that we cannot control, but there are ways to control how we
deal with certain situations. It is vital that stress
management techniques are implemented into our daily
lives. A person that is stressed takes so much away from his
or her health and performance levels.

111

Employees are too much stressed with their job, so the


employees expect some refreshing events to add up in their
work place like entertainment, trips, tea breaks, intervals
once in a while during lumps of work. Accordingly the
employees expect a hike in their salary.
Finally I would like to conclude by saying that this project
work has given immense knowledge about the functioning
of government sectors. This has satisfied me to a greater
extent and at the same time I am motivated to carry out such
projects in future which would enhance my career and the
organization as well.
The hypothesis, H0: A good work culture is helpful for
retaining employees is proved according to the data.

112

CHAPTER XIII

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS:
113

K. Aswathappa, Organizational
edition, Himalaya Publishing House

Behavior,

9th

Finemann, A Psychological Model of Stress and its


Application to Managerial Unemployment, Human
Relations, 1979
JOURNALS:
Dr. Satish Chandra Pandy, Indian Ways of Winning
Stress, The Journal of Indian Management and
Strategy, 1997
WEBSITES:
www.wikipedia.com
www.westerncoal.nic.in

114

CHAPTER XIV

ANNEXURE

115

Dear sir/madam,
I am Rajeev Deb, student of final year B.B.A
(specialization in HRM) studying at D.A.I.M.S.R
College, Nagpur University. As a part of academic
curriculum, I am carrying out a project work.
In this regard a questionnaire has been provided to
you. Please express your fair views for the questions
asked in the questionnaire. I therefore invite your fair
opinion on the below mentioned questions.

The

outcome of the project will serve academic interest


only.
Th
ank
ing
Yo
u,
Ra
jee
v
De
b
116

A Study on Stress Management at


WCL

NAME

OF

EMPLOYE:

________________________________
AGE

_________________________________
GENDER

Male

Female
MARITAL STATUS

Married

Unmarried
DESIGNATION

_________________________________

1. Do you have enough time to perform your work


without any disturbances?
Strongly
Agree

Agree

117

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

2. Do you think physical environment problems in


the workplace causes stress?
Strongly
Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

3. Do you feel time pressure to complete work?

Strongly
Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

4. Do you think lack of communication causes

stress?
Strongly
Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

5. Do you think long work hours cause stress?

Strongly
Agree

Agree

118

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

6. Do

you

think

lack

of

clarity

about

responsibilities causes stress?


Strongly
Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

7. Do you feel stressed because your job is

monotonous?
Strongly
Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

8. Do you lose your temper while being stressed at

work?
Strongly
Agree

Agree

119

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

9. Do you plan your each day, and work out that

plan?
Strongly
Agree

10.

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

Do you think the high salary can relieve


employees from getting stressed?
Strongly
Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

11. Do you do meditation to reduce the stress?

Strongly
Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

12. Does financial motivation, reduce the stress?

Strongly
Agree

Agree

120

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

13.

Do you think training &

development

programmes help to cope-up with the stress?


Strongly
Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

14. Is there a need for counseling?

Strongly
Agree

Agree

Undecided

15. Are you satisfied with your job?


Strongly
Agree

Agree

121

Undecided