Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 112

Book of abstracts

Faculty of Silviculture and


Forest Engineering
FOREST AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Braov, Romania, 24-25 October 2014

Book of abstracts

Book of abstracts

Contents
Forests and biodiversity .......................................................................................................................... 3
Forest ecosystem management ............................................................................................................ 36
Forests in the service of society ............................................................................................................ 58
Innovative forest engineering ............................................................................................................... 77
Applied geomatics ................................................................................................................................. 88
Wildlife management .......................................................................................................................... 101

Forests and biodiversity

Section 1:
Forests and biodiversity

Forests and biodiversity

GENETIC VARIATION AND HERITABILITY IN A BREEDING SEEDLING


ORCHARD OF RESONANCE NORWAY SPRUCE

Georgeta MIHAI, ICAS Bucuresti


Abstract: A breeding seedling orchard (BSO) of Norway spruce was established in 1976 at Sighisoara Forest
District. Plus trees were selected from 9 forest districts from both resonance spruce trees and common spruce
trees.
The aim was to evaluate the genetic control of quality traits of resonance spruce and to produce seeds
with high genetics quality for artificial regeneration. At 34-year old genetic parameters were estimated for
growth traits, stem straightness, branches characters and bark both for common spruce and resonance spruce
open-pollinated progenies.
The analysis highlights very significant differences between the two spruce groups and within each
group too. While heritability of total height and diameter at 1.30m are small for resonance spruce progenies,
the branches characters and bark form are strongly heritable. The juvenile-mature correlations and correlations
between traits were also investigated.
The results suggest that selection of founders for next generation of improvement could be possible.
Key words: resonance spruce, progeny trial, genetic parameters, genetic variability

VARIABILITY OF MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CHECKER TREE


(SORBUS TORMINALIS/L./CRANTZ.) FRUITS AND SEEDS IN THE REPUBLIC
OF SRPSKA (B&H )

Milan MATARUGA, Faculty of Forestry, University of Banja Luka, Banja Luka, Republic of
Srpska (B&H)
Zvjezdana TOPI, Public Forest Enterprise Forests of Srpska, Republic of Srpska (B&H)
Branislav CVJETKOVIC, Faculty of Forestry, University of Banja Luka, Banja Luka,
Republic of Srpska (B&H)
Abstract: Checker tree is a fruit tree species which is found on the priority list of the gene pool conservation in
Europe. Despite the fact that this is a species of high importance, there are only a few research papers on the
variability of its fruit and seed properties. The knowledge of these properties is invaluable, especially when it
comes to the terms of ex situ conservation of checker tree genetic resources.
The fruits of this species were collected together with seeds from 4 populations, 22 trees of various
environmental and site conditions of the Republic of Srpska. The following measurements were taken: the length
and the width of fruit, the length from stem to the widest fruit point, the number of seeds per fruit and the seeds
length, width and thickness. Seeds were treated via different stratification methods and placed in germination
tests by ISTA standards.
The research results revealed that in almost all analyzed traits there were significant differences at the
individual trees level than at the population level. Since geographically closer populations showed similar
results for the measured properties, it is necessary to collect seeds from greater distances for the purposes of ex
situ conservation. The number of seeds per fruit ranged from 1 to 5, where the full seed capacity was recorded in
cases of 2-3 seed grains. Additionally, the results provide answers about the prospects of selection, breeding and
production of Checker tree seedlings.

Key words: checker tree, fruits, variability

Forests and biodiversity

INFLUENCE OF AGE AND GROWTH INTENSITY ON CLIMATE-GROWTH


RELATIONSHIP FOR PICEA ABIES AND PINUS CEMBRA FROM CALIMANI
MTS. (EASTERN CARPATHIANS ROMANIA)

Ionel POPA, ICAS Cmpulung Moldovenesc

Abstract: In dendroclimatology it assumes that the relationship between climate and tree growth is independent
of tree age or growth intensity. The results from other studies are contradictory regard the variability of the
correlation intensity with tree age.
We tested the influence of tree age and growth intensity (effect of individual competition) on the
climate-growth correlation in timberline condition from Calimani Mts. Daily temperature and precipitation data
from CarpathClim grid database were used as climate variable. Tree ring widths were converted in basal area
increments and detrended with low frequency cubic spline. The moving correlation was computed with ClimTreg
software. Temperature from May to June is the main driving climatic factor of tree growth on Calimani for both
species. The correlation pattern remains the same regardless of age of growth level, what is varying is the size of
correlation.
Key words: dendroclimatology, climatic, correlation

A MULTISPECIES TREE RING CLIMATE SIGNAL PATTERN AT LOW


ALTITUDE IN NORTH-EASTERN ROMANIA

Nechita CONSTANTIN, ICAS Cmpulung Moldovenesc


Ionel POPA, ICAS Cmpulung Moldovenesc

Abstrat: We used 9 different tree species, local or artificially introduced by plantation, in order to identify
specific response for each of them, knowing that some are sensitive to moisture and others to temperature. We
combine 9 tree ring width, 2 late wood and 2 early-wood measurement data sets from a low-elevation tree sites
located in north-eastern Romania, Suceava County. This data is analyzed in order to verify the influence of
climate, in particular the temperature and the precipitation signal. We find that the sessile oak has a strong
response to May temperatures of the current year of vegetation (0.35), unlike precipitation, which contribute to
changes through values of growing during September (0.24) and November (0.30) previous year. Signal
observed for the late-wood series is stronger, for oak in particular, the maximum is calculated in relation to the
maximum temperature (0.44), also in May current year. Each species respond specifically, the most important
being that the majority can be used as proxies to reconstruct climatic parameters for the area analyzed. We find
that combinations of species are more successful in reconstructing climate than single species.

Forests and biodiversity

DENSITIES OF LARGE TREES IN NATURAL FORESTS - A KEY STRUCTURAL


CHARACTERISTIC. CASE STUDY FROM IZVOARELE NEREI NATURE
RESERVE, SW ROMANIA

Daniel Ond TURCU, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Bucharest,
Timisoara Branch
Oliver MERCE, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Bucharest, Timisoara
Branch; Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine King Michael I
of Romania from Timisoara Faculty of Agriculture

Abstract: The forests with high degree of naturality represent archetypes of structure and functioning of the
forest ecosystems. The Izvoarele Nerei Nature Reserve, located in South-Western Romania, represents one of
the largest natural forest massifs from Europe approx. 5000 ha consisting of pure beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)
forests.
A network of 12 sample plots of 1 ha each was set up on 4 altitudinal levels: 800, 1000, 1200 and 1350
m, respectively 3 plots / altitudinal level. Structural characteristics were measured and described within these
plots. An average of 3 trees/ha of over 100 cm in DBH, 20 trees/ha of over 80 cm and 59 trees/ha of over 60 cm
was found. For the standing dead trees, the average values were 0.5 trees/ha, 3 trees/ha and 6 trees/ha,
respectively. Most of the large trees, over 100 cm in DBH, were concentrated in the area located at 800-1000 m
altitude, where local densities of 7-11 trees/ha were found, while in the area close to the tree line showed 0-1
such large trees. Considering all trees over 60 cm in DBH, the situation is similar there is a maximum (70-77
trees/ha) at 800-1000 m altitude and quite small densities of such trees at 1350 m altitude. A top of the largest
10 trees by DBH and total height is also presented.
It was observed that these outstanding trees, excelling by DBH or by total height, have often both these
dimensions exceptional. It was concluded that large tree densities represent a key structural characteristic for
the natural forests.

Key words: natural forests, structural characteristics, large trees

TILIA TOMENTOSA DOMINATED FORESTS IN THE NATIONAL PARK MACIN


MOUNTAINS (SE ROMANIA) NATURAL OR MAN-MADE HABITATS?

Adrian INDREICA, Transilvania University of Brasov


Andreea LAVRO, Transilvania University of Brasov
Abstract: According with Romanian forestry criteria, the stands dominated by lime species (Tilia sp.), without or
with very low proportion of oak species are regarded as derived forests. Such forests cover a large area in the
National Park Macin Mountains and the expansion of lime species is considered to endanger the habitat 91I0*
(Natura 2000). Therefore the park administration initiated a study which aim was to seek solutions for an
ecological restoration of oak forests. This paper presents an analysis of the forest restoration opportunity, from
silvicultural and conservative point of view. The following objectives were set: (1) to identify the causes of stand
structure change, (2) to describe the ecological niche of tree species in the area, (3) to establish the link between
actual and natural vegetation types. During the field survey were collected data on vegetation (phytosociological
releves), oaks regeneration and site conditions (soil water storage capacity, solar radiation, soil pH). The results
suggest a high correlation of stand composition with site topography, herbaceous species composition and tree
species competition; moreover, Tilia tomentosa do not became monodominant in the sites of the potential habitat
91I0*. The opportunity of forest restoration in the case of silver lime forests is discussed in terms of several
arguments (Natura 2000 habitats, syntaxonomy, ecological niche, vegetation history) and some
recommendations are given.

Forests and biodiversity

PATERNITY ANALYSIS AND GENETIC ASSIGNMENT: STRATEGIES FOR


RESULTS COHERENCE WITHIN OAK MULTISPECIES COMPLEX

Iacob CRCIUNESC, Department of Forest Sciences, Transilvania University of Braov,


RomaniaAlexandru Lucian CURTU, Department of Forest Sciences, Transilvania University
of Braov
Neculae OFLETEA, Department of Forest Sciences, Transilvania University of Braov

Abstract: Microsatellites have proved to be very useful molecular markers in many fields of population genetics.
Thus, this genetic tools can be used for estimating the gene flow between populations with the help of paternity
analysis. Another application of microsatellites is the identification of population structure by means of Bayesian
clustering analyses. These two types of complementary analyses are used for the estimation of hybridization in
nature. However, even if paternity analysis and genetic assignment were used in the same study, the correlation
between their results wasnt a priority. The aim of this study is to find a strategy for the harmonization at the
individual level of the paternity analysis and genetic assignment results. We used a set of adult trees and acorns
sampled in a stand with four interbreeding oaks (i.e. Quercus petraea, Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. frainetto).
We genotyped adult trees and acorns at 12 and 10 microsatellite loci, respectively. First, we used STRUCTURE
program to assign the adult trees to species or hybrid category. In order to find the efficiency of the genetic
assignment program, we generated a set of 2000 simulated offsprings with known origin. Next, we made a
paternity analysis for sampled acorns and we identified fathers for several offsprings. Thus, we were able to
assess directly the membership in a pure or hybrid category for acorns with known parents. Finally, we tested
different sampling schemes in STRUCTURE to find one that offer a better efficiency.
Our results showed that the genetic assignment program better solved the simulated hybrid offsprings
when a relatively small but informative pre-defined group for each species was used. On the other hand, for
acorns with known parentage a better efficiency was obtained when the sampling scheme had a larger number of
pure trees with known origin. We found that the genetic assignment program had a better efficiency for acorns
with pure species parents. In conclusion, we recommend a set of microsatellites with high power of species
differentiation and a larger sampling scheme if a genetic assignment of hybrid offsprings is needed.
Key words: genetic assignment, hybridization, microsatellites, paternity analysis, Quercus spp.

Forests and biodiversity

SSR VARIABILITY OF 20 F. SYLVATICA L. POPULATIONS GROWN IN A


PROVENANCE TRIAL AT FRUSKA GORA, REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

Vladislava GALOVIC, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and


Environment, Antona Cehova 13, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Sasa ORLOVIC, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment,
Antona Cehova 13, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Georg VON WHLISCH, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry, and Fisheries,
Thuenen-Institute for Forest Genetics, Sieker Landstr. 2, D-22927, Grohansdorf, Germany
Miroslav ZORIC, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Maksima Gorkog 30, 21000 Novi
Sad, Serbia
Branislav KOVACEVIC, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and
Environment, Antona Cehova 13, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Sreten VASIC, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment,
Antona Cehova 13, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Abstract: Within the European network of beech provenance trials that were established in 23 countries, two
trials were established in the Republic of Serbia in 2007 one of which is located in the National Park Fruska
Gora. It is characterized by northwest exposure, elevation 366-375 m, slope of 30o. GPS coordinates of the
Fruska gora provenance test is N 45 10'09, 86 ', E 19 47'53, 45. The seedlings used for establishing the trials
were raised at the Thuenen-Institute for Forest Genetics, Grosshansdorf, Germany. The aim of the study was to
characterise genetic variability of beech populations of the Fruska Gora provenance trial using microsatellite
markers and to determine their level of adaptation. Seven species specific microsatellite (SSRs) markers
(FS4_46, FCM5, FS1_03, FS3_04, FS1_11, FS1_15 and FS1_25) were used to characterize the genetic
variation among 20 populations of European beech from seven European countries (Serbia, Hungary,
Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia). DNA was isolated from young leaves from
five randomly selected genotypes from each provenance. All loci were successfuly amplified and displayed high
level of polymorphisms in the observed populations. The most polymorphic loci were FS4_46 and FCM5. The
UPGMA-based dendrogram, divided the provenance populations into two major clusters. The first cluster covers
provenances from a wide geographic range, starting from northwest to southeast locations in Switzerland,
Germany, Austria, Croatia to Fruska Gora and Boranja on the south of Serbia. The second cluster forms two
subclusters of which the first subcluster obtained few provenances, mainly central Balkans with Kopaonik in
Serbia and Grmec and Crni vrh in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The second subcluster is formed with provenances
derived from north, central and eastern part of Europe. Each of the clusters suggesting a common genetic
background. In the first cluster, the highest genetic distance was displayed by one population from Fruska Gora
(36) and slightly less, by population Dilj Caglinski from Croatia (24). They were distinct and separated from all
other world populations. Two populations of Fruska Gora, Serbia (36 and 68) were separated also with only
some of the alleles sharing, indicating differences in their genetic structure. Populations from central Balkan,
Grmec (33) and Crni vrh (32) revealed narrow genetic variability sharing mutual alleles. The most distinct
population from the second cluster was the population from Vrani Kamen, Croatia (25). Revealing this first
insight into adaptation related characterisation of genetic diversity between world populations in this
provenance trial would be a sound strategy when applied in concert with further research on the species
breeding system, quantitative trait variation and environmental plasticity.

Key words: Fagus sylvatica L., provenance test, genetic adaptation, genetic distance, microsatellite markers

Forests and biodiversity

STAND STRUCTURE OF VIRGIN FORESTS LOCATED IN SEMENIC, RETEZAT,


AND PENTELEU MOUNTAINS
erban CHIVULESCU, Institute of Biology/ Romanian Academy (SCOSAAR), Bucharest,
Romania; Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Bucharest, Romania

Abstract: The presence of virgin forests in our country has a major importance for whole Europe due to the fact
that they keep the natural heritage values lost in other countries. Their protection and preservation is an
example to follow for current national and international forestry. The comparison of different biometric
indicators of Romanian virgin forests stands (located in Semenic, Retezat and Penteleu Mountains) is necessary
to understand the dynamics of virgin forests and to develop solutions for their sustainable management.
Field data were collected from 4 permanent research plots of 1 ha located in protected areas, not
affected by human activities, thus meeting all the criteria for being classified as virgin forests.
All trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) higher than 80 mm were measured, the main biometrics
characteristics (DBH, height, cenotic class, quality class ,width and lengh of crown etc. ) being registered.
Main objective of this research is to analyse the structure of stand structure in relation to tree
diameter and their heights . In this way the structure was analyzed by fitting different theoretical distribution
functions (Beta, Gamma, Weibull). Also, due to the fact that biodiversity is a component of great importance for
the functionality of virgin forests, the structural homogeneity was tested using Camino index(H) and Gini
index(G). The main preliminary results showed that the experimental distributions of diameters have a slight
reverse J shape, being adjusted using Gamma (in Semenic and Retezat plots) and Weibull (in Penteleu plot)
theoretical distributions. The tree height distribution has an increasing allure with two maximum points , being
in the best way characterized by Beta theoretical distribution. For all plots, the correlative relationship
between DBH and height is statistically significant (R2 - the coefficient of determination is between 0,854 and
0,869) and a high heterogeneity was emphasised (H= 1,71-1,74; G=0,84- 0,88). These knowledge have a high
contribution for understanding of natural mechanisms for structuring of these types of forests.

Forests and biodiversity

GROWTH DECREASE OF OAK FLOODPLAIN FORESTS AS A RESPONSE TO


CHANGE OF CLIMATE

Dejan STOJANOVI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi


Sad
Tom LEVANI, Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana
Bratislav MATOVI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad
Saa ORLOVI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad,

Abstract: Pedunculate oak (Quercusrobur L.) forests are widely distributed across Europe and are experiencing
extensive mortality. Up to now there were no strong evidences which will provide consensus among scientific
community about causes of these diebacks. Subtle change of Sava River water regime has never been considered
in deep as a possible oak growth decrease and dieback factor before this study.
Cores from totally 65 trees were sampled from three oak forest sites in Serbia during 2013 and
analyzed with the state-of-the-art dendroecological analysis. First site was in the narrow flooded zone near the
Sava River. Second site was five kilometers from the river and third 10 kilometers from the main stream. Treering widths (TRW) were compared with monthly average water levels of Sava River for past 62 years, as well as
with average monthly temperatures and sum of precipitation for the same period with the aims of R statistical
package.
Significant 30-years moving correlation between growth (TRW) and water level were noticed for the
first part of the observed period. During the same period precipitation didnt show any correlation. Around 1980
water level of Sava River drops permanently. At the same time, correlation among water level and TRW starts
falling, while correlation between TRW and precipitation begin to rise. Correlation between TRW and
temperature
were
constantly
negative
for
the
whole
period.
The fact that water level of Sava River has the seasonal amplitude of up to eight meters made about one
meterlong-term decrease not easily recognizable. Decrease of Sava River also coincided with decrease of
growth and increased sanitary fellings. This is the first research the make clear relationship among
environmental factors, change of climate and decrease of oak growth which in final instance lead to oak dieback
in the region of southeast Europe.
Acknowledgments: This research was realized as a part of the project Studying climate change and its
influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation (III 43007) financed by the Ministry of
Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia within the framework of integrated and interdisciplinary
research for the period 20112014.

Keywords: water level, dendroecology, growth decline, Serbia

10

Forests and biodiversity

DEADWOOD VOLUME AND ITS CORRELATION WITH STAND COMPOSITION


IN THE
'RUNCU GROSI' NATURE RESERVE

Oliver MERCE, Forest Research and Management Institute Bucureti


Gheorghe Florian BORLEA, Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary
Medicine King Michael I of Romania from Timisoara
Daniel Ond TURCU, Forest Research and Management Institute Bucureti
Ilie Cosmin CNTAR, Forest Research and Management Institute Bucureti
Iovu Adrian BIRI, Forest Research and Management Institute Bucureti

Abstract: Virgin forests are the most complex forest ecosystems both functionally and in terms of complexity and
information provided. They show the following structural characteristics: they have a large amount of biomass,
they present exemplars of trees with large dimensions, having very old ages, they have significant volumes of
dead wood in various stages of decay, they have a heterogeneous structure with a mosaic distribution of the
components. In the Runcu Grosi Nature Reserve they were studied the stages of decomposition and the
deadwood volume using 41 sample plots of 1000 m2 each, located in the Reserves area. The amount of dead
wood was 93.65 m3/ha. Also, using the t-student statistical test, they were compared the volumes of standing
wood and dead wood from the 41 sample plots, formed by the percentage of participation of the main species in
3 variants with 15, 16 and 10 repetitions. Thus, comparing the variants with beech, as main species, occupies a
smaller percentage than 70% with variants where beech has 100%, we obtained significant differences in terms
of the volume of dead wood. They were also obtained significant differences between variants with beech having
80-90%, and the variants where beech has 100%. Apparently the wood harvest does not affect the sustainability
of a forest because the wood chemistry is simple and the constituents are totally integated and recycled in the
carbon and water cycle but the reality is more complex. Deadwood volume and the carbon storage in a virgin
forest with a complex structure could be a very important indicator for the future forest management and
biodiversity conservation measures. The present-day forest management requires sustainability and the
fulfilment of the ecological services provided. The entomological forest fauna, mainly related to deadwood
represents 75% of the forest animal species in Europe (Barbalat S.,2010). Other species like woody fungi are
adapted to the very stable environment of the virgin forets. The virgn forests provide a unique opportunity to
study and learn how to manage sustainable.

Key words: deadwood, beech, Runcu Grosi, virgin forests, sustainable forest management, biodiversity
conservation

11

Forests and biodiversity

GAP ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON


NATURAL REGENERATION, WITHIN AN OLD-GROWTH SESSILE OAK-BEECH
FOREST
Florin Lucian Toiu, Transilvania University, Sirul Beethoven 1, ROU- 500123 Brasov
Any Mary Petritan, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS)
Nicu Constantin Tudose, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS)
Ion Catalin Petritan, Transilvania University of Brasov; Swiss Federal Institute for Forest,
Snow and Landscape Research WSL
Abstract: In the best preserved part (32.3 ha) of the Runcu Grosi natural reserve, we sampled 28 gaps
distributed along three gap sizes (<400, 400-800, >800m2 of extended gap area), to identify if the sessile oak is
able to regenerate and to quantify the mainly ecological factors which influenced the species establishment and
development. A series (13) of circular plots were placed at the gap center and uniformly distributed along each
of the two perpendicular transects and under surrounding closed forest. The light availability was assessed by
taking hemispherical photos above the regeneration in each plot center. All seedlings having a height>5 cm and
a dbh<7 cm were recorded according to species, height, and browsing. The regeneration was divided into five
height classes (5-20, 21-50, 51-130, 130-400, >400cm).
The light availability increased with the gap size and from canopy to the gap center. A mean of 1.6
seedlings/m2 was found, formed mainly by sessile oak (65%), followed by beech (32%) and other species (3%).
But the most of the sessile oaks were shorter than 20cm and were found mainly in the small gaps. Their greater
density in small compared to large gaps was a consequence of the higher proportion of the sessile oak into the
mature surrounding gap trees.
The distribution of sessile oak into different height classes varied along the gap size. Whereas in the
small gaps the percent of the oaks belong to 5-20 cm accounted 78% of all individuals, in the large gaps this
value was only 29%. In opposite, the oaks belong to 51-130cm accounted the highest percent in the large gaps
and the lowest in the small gaps. The oak saplings taller than 131cm were found only in center of large gaps
(3%). No sessile oak saplings >4 m were found. If the oak regeneration dominated the small height classes
(<50cm), we found beech as the main species of regeneration with a height >50 cm. Quercus petraea
regeneration was the most damaged by ungulates, indifferent of height classes. Ground vegetation has a
significant negative influence on seedlings. The success of oak regeneration depends on a complex of factors,
with the light availability playing the determinant role.

12

Forests and biodiversity

GROUND BEETLE DIVERSITY ON SHORT-ROTATION COPPICES IN A MOSAIC


OF HABITAT TYPES

Nicolai Olenici, tefan cel Mare University of Suceava


Mihai-Leonard Duduman, tefan cel Mare University of Suceava
Valentina Olenici, tefan cel Mare University of Suceava
Iulian Dnil, tefan cel Mare University of Suceava
Lucian Grosu, tefan cel Mare University of Suceava
Abstract: Short-rotation coppices (SRC) are considered important sources of biomass for renewable energy and
increasing land area is used for this purpose, but little is known about the impact of this land use change on
diversity of different animal groups. We studied the ground beetles because these species are very sensitive to
habitat changes.
Research objective was to compare the diversity of ground beetle in poplar short-rotation coppices
(PSRC) with that of ground beetle communities in the traditional habitat types: arable land (wheat), pasture and
periodically flooded riverside forest (PFRF).
Five pitfall traps were set up in each habitat type at two locations (Dorneti and Satu-Mare) in Suceava
county. The traps were 50 m apart from each other and from the edge of the habitat. Beetle trapping took place
since the end of April until the middle of October 2013, with a fortnightly trap checking.
Species richness (S) and Shannon-Wiener index (H) were used to study the diversity of ground beetle
communities in the four types of habitat, and the Bray-Curtis similarity index (CN) to compare them with each
other.
A total of 2,439 individuals representing 66 species were caught: 1,309 (37 species) at Dorneti and
1,130 (53 species) at Satu-Mare. Observed species richness (Sobs) in poplar stands (14 and 18 species at
Dorneti and Satu-Mare, respectively) was lower than that in wheat fields (19 and 22 species respectively), but
quite similar or even higher than that in pasture and PFRFs. The values of Shannon-Wiener index varied
between 1.036 (computed for ground beetle community from a degraded PFRF) and 1.484 (computed for the
pasture at Satu-Mare), but there were no statistical differences between mean values computed for all habitat
types. The highest similarity was noted between ground beetle communities from PSRCs and those from wheat
fields, which comprise mainly eurytopic species.
The results suggest that poplar short-rotation coppices do not contribute to a better conservation of
ground beetle diversity than traditional land uses, and extended on very large areas they could have detrimental
effects from this point of view.

13

Forests and biodiversity

WHOLE EXOME CAPTURE FOR LINKAGE AND ASSOCIATION MAPPING IN


NORWAY SPRUCE

Amaryllis Vidalis, Rosario Garcia-Gil, Pr Ingvarsson


Ume Plant Science Centre, Department of Ecology
and Environmental Science, SE-901 87 Ume, Sweden
Abstract: Conifers comprise one of the most successful groups of plants on Earth, being dominant member of
many ecosystems for millions of years. Picea abies (P. abies), is ecologically the most important species for
Swedish forestry and also one of the most important tree species in Europe. It was the first conifer that had its
genome sequenced, assembled and annotated. The complete genome and transcriptome of P. abies provides
abundant genomic resources for studying the development, adaptation and evolution of this species, and also
provides a powerful platform for the study of conifers in general. These genomic resources in combination with
advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and analytical genomic tools provide the opportunity to target the
whole exome of the species, including coding and regulatory regions, that are of primary interest for
evolutionary, population and ecological genetic studies. Based on the predicted gene models for P. abies, we
have developed an exome capture platform to be used for genotyping-by-sequencing of large number of spruce
populations in a number of downstream projects within Norway Spruce genome project (UPSC and SciLife Lab).
The success of the designed probes (exome capture platform) has been tested on DNA from 52 (haploid)
megagametophyte DNA samples (from seeds that represent our linkage mapping population), and from foliage
of six (diploid) spruce individuals representing the diversity across the geographic range of the species. The best
performing probes (including the majority of the genes of Norway spruce) have been chosen for further use in
linkage and association mapping. 2000 megagametophyte DNA and 550 plus trees from the Swedish breeding
base population comprise our linkage and association mapping populations to be genotyped, respectively.

MAST FRUITING OF FOREST TREES - A STOCHASTIC APPROACH


Ciprian PALAGHIANU, tefan cel Mare University of Suceava

Abstract: The term mast fruiting or masting refers to a reproductive pattern of some tree species which present a
rhythm of fruiting and set abundant crops only in certain years, with a more or less regular periodicity. Masting
has been considered to be strongly influenced by the environmental conditions and resources availability, but
there are studies that offer physiological and even ecological explanation, presenting this reproductive strategy
as an adaptation of tree species to seeds predators. The mechanisms of masting are certainly still unclear and
models of this phenomenon are not common, so a stochastic approach can cast significant light on some
particular aspects.
In this work, an alternative stochastic analysis for assessing fruition pattern is presented. The fruition
process is represented as a stochastic process, using randomly generated hypothetical tree populations that
differ in their periodicity of abundant fruition. For simplicity there were made assumptions that all trees are
mature and have the capability to fruit and for the analysed time period the mortality did not affect the tree
populations. The mast years were regarded as simulated events for each individual tree, and the fruition
dynamic was analysed for a long period of time. The results show different reproductive patterns in time,
dominated by abundant fruition frequencies, but outline some model limitations which must be deliberated in
further studies.

14

Forests and biodiversity

COMPARATIVE XYLEM GROWTH ANALYSIS FOR CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN


THE EASTERN CARPATHIANS
Anca SEMENIUC, Universitatea ,,tefan cel Mare'' Suceava
Ionel POPA, ICAS Cmpulung Moldovenesc
Abstract: The dynamics of xylem cell formation in Picea abies, Abies alba, Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua in
the Eastern Carpathians was studied to describe the radial growth for three vegetation seasons. Through
wooden microcores using xylological methods it was possible to analyze the tree-ring formation. The radial
growth of cell number and annual tree-ring width were evaluated by comparing the average values among
species within the same year and the average value of the same species among years. All the species showed
different dynamics of the tracheids number, as well as the annual tree-ring width in the three studied vegetation
seasons. The highest growth by cell number was observed in Picea abies, whereas the reduced cell number but
with higher size was observed in Larix decidua. This study has shown a varied radial growth of the xylem in
relation to the environmental factors for each species separately. Mixed stand of coniferous species represents
an important indicator in the assessment of annual tree-ring radial growth for various species.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological differences between the three
autochthonous lime species by using multivariate analysis. One hundred fifty lime individuals were sampled and
eleven twig and leaf descriptors were assessed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis were
performed. PCA indicated three different groups. Number of scales, abaxial laminal pubescence and lamina
length were the variables with the highest contribution to Factor (Principal Component) 1 within PCA. No
evident separation was provided by Cluster Analysis. The morphological differences found in this paper are
quite similar with those reported in other studies across Europe.

LEAF AND TWIG MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF ROMANIAN LINDEN


SPECIES (TILIA; TILIACEAE): A CASE STUDY
Cristian Mihai ENESCU, Department of Soil Sciences U.A.S.V.M. Bucharest
Cosmin LOGHIN, Forest Research and Management Institute Bucharest
Paula IVANOV, Faculty of Agriculture Bucharest

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological differences between the three
autochthonous linden species (Tilia spp.), by using multivariate analysis. One hundred fifty linden individuals
were sampled and eleven twig and leaf descriptors were assessed. ANOVA, Cluster Analysis and Principal
Component Analysis (PCA) were performed. In ANOVA, the variables with the lowest p values were: twig color,
abaxial laminal pubescence, lamina width and lamina length. No evident separation was provided by Cluster
Analysis. PCA indicated three different groups. Number of scales, abaxial laminal pubescence and lamina length
were the variables with the highest contribution to Factor (Principal Component) 1 within PCA. In the light of
highlighted importance of biodiversity, we recommend this statistical-morphological method as primary
evaluation tool to build up a high resolution database of stands in which two or more species of the same genus
occur.
Key words: linden, Tilia, ANOVA, PCA, Cluster Analysis

15

Forests and biodiversity

COMPARATIVE MORPHO-ANATOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CEDRUS


BREVIFOLIA HENRY NEEDLES: A TOOL FOR ASSESSING SPECIES LOCAL
ADAPTATION.
Eliades N.-G., Frederick Research Center, Cyprus
Kounnamas C., Frederick Research Center, Cyprus
Manolis A., Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
Pirikkis A., Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
Varsamis G., Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology, Greece
Merou Th., Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology, Greece
Christou A., Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Cyprus
Tsintides T., Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Cyprus
Fady B., Ecologie des Forts Mditerranennes (URFM), France.
Papageorgiou A. C., Democritus University of Thrace, Greece

16

Forests and biodiversity

Abstract: The present study aims to investigate the variation of morphologic and anatomic characteristics of
Cedrus brevifolia, as a result of adaptation within its natural population. This adaptation is expected to reflect
the demographic and ecological forces on the species throughout its survival in different environmental
conditions. Cyprus cedar (C. brevifolia) is an important endemic tree of the Cyprus flora, with narrow
distribution in a sole fragmented population in the Paphos forest. The species is included in the Red Data Book
of the Flora of Cyprus as vulnerable, while its habitat type (*9590) is characterised as a priority habitat
according to the Habitats Directive (92/43/EC). Recent studies have shown that the species is characterised by
high genetic variation and significant genetic differentiation between five patchy subpopulations. For the
purposes of the present study, 16 sampling plots have been established within the five fragments, covering the
natural and ecological boundaries of the species distribution. From each plot, plant tissue has been collected
from 20 adult cedar individuals; from each individual 10 needles (3-year-old) have been selected for conducting
morphological and anatomical measurements. For each needle, 24 morphological parameters and 8 anatomical
parameters have been studied; the results were analysed using statistical measurements for extracting relevant
conclusions. The results showed that within patches the variability of morpho-anatomic characteristics is higher
than among patches. In addition, and despite the narrow distribution of Cyprus cedar, significant differentiation
among the five patches was detected, while phenotypes of needles were created. The differences found between
patches suggest the adaptive nature of the morpho-anatomic characteristics of this species within its sole
population, probably owing to the gene diversity and micro-environmental conditions.

PATTERNS OF FINE-SCALE SPATIAL GENETIC STRUCTURE WITHIN THE


POPULATION OF THE ENDEMIC TREE SPECIES CEDRUS BREVIFOLIA
HENRY

N.-G. ELIADES, Frederick Research Center, Cyprus; Bsgen-Institute, Georg-August


University Gttingen, Germany
Bruno FADY, INRA, UR629, Ecology of Mediterranean Forests (URFM), France
Oliver GAILING, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan
Technological University, USA
Reiner FINKELDEY, Bsgen-Institute, Georg-August University Gttingen, Germany

Abstract: The present study aims to investigate the patterns of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) in
different stands within the sole natural population of C. brevifolia. Patterns of fine-scale (SGS) in plants result
from the interaction of genetic and demographic factors. Cyprus cedar (C. brevifolia) is a narrowly distributed
outcrossing and wind-pollinated conifer, endemic to the island of Cyprus. It is currently restricted to a single
mountain and comprises of a set of five isolated forest sites of different densities and sizes. For the purposes of

17

Forests and biodiversity

the present study sampling was performed in 11 plots, where 50 neighboring adult trees were georeferenced and
sampled. Fingerprint of genetic diversity was investigated by four bi-parentally (n-DNA) and three paternally
(cp-DNA) inherited microsatellites. The fine-scale SGS analysis of the 11 plots revealed contrasted patterns of
fine-scale SGS, and therefore restricted seed and/or pollen dispersal can explain fine-scale SGS in C. brevifolia.
The intensity of SGS decreased rapidly over short distances and became non-significant after 29 m for nDNA
and 20 m for cpDNA on average. Additionally, this study found that fine-scale SGS in C. brevifolia is not related
to the geographic location of sites (continuous or fragmented forest) or their size (effective population size). A
positive significant correlation was found between the aggregation index and Sp-statistics. This result reinforces
the assumption that the aggregation index is linked to the reduction of the SGS level, most likely as a
consequence of pollen randomly dispersed and seed shadows from individual trees overlapping. This study
demonstrates that significant and contrasted patterns of fine-scale SGS can exist even in a wind-dispersed and
wind-pollinated species as narrowly distributed as C. brevifolia.

18

Forests and biodiversity

NUCLEAR AND CHLOROPLAST MICROSATELLITE GENETIC STRUCTURE IN


ROMANIAN POPULATION OF CARPINUS SPP.
Mihaela CARABUS, Transilvania University of Brasov
Alexandru Lucian CURTU, Transilvania University of Brasov
Reiner FINKELDEY, Bsgen-Institute, Georg-August University Gttingen, Germany
Ludger LEINEMANN, Georg-August University Gttingen, Germany
Nicolae SOFLETEA, Transilvania University of Brasov

Abstract: This study provides an insight into the genetic structure Carpinus betulus in Romanian populations.
For this purpose, we used 4 SSRs markers to analyze the nuclear genome and 10 for chloroplast genome. We
chose nuclear genom just for Carpinus betulus (3 populations: Warthe Braov, Tmpa Braov; Coli
Buzu) to estimate the genetic diversity of nuclear DNA within and among populations. Chloroplast
microsatellite analyses included the same three populations for Carpinus betulus and one population of
Carpinus orientalis (Cndeti - Buzu) in order to verify if there is a haplotype derived from haplotypes
identified at hornbeam. At the nuclear genome level of the three hornbeam populations, 14 23 alleles per
analyzed marker have been identified, resulting an average for three populations as following: Na = 1.745,
respectively Ne = 1.525. Hornbeam analyzed populations reveal a low genetic diversity (He = 0.289-0.325),
values lower than in other analyzed populations, located in the specific area of the species. At the level of high
numbered reviewed alleles, a low degree of genetic differentiation between the populations (PT = 0.065, P =
0.001) resulted. CpSSRs marker analyses led to the identification of two haplotypes in hornbeam populations
and respectively the third haplotype in a population of orientalis hornbeam, which is different from haplotype 3
and haplotype 5, and it is difficult to infer their relation. Differentiation among populations was found (Gst=
0.905). The Gst value in this study is high. All three haplotypes correspond to the types identified in glacial
refuge in the Balkan Peninsula.
Keywords: Carpinus spp., genetic diversity, nuclear microsatellites, chloroplast microsatellites.

SOIL PROPERTIES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SOFT BROADLEAVES IN


VOJVODINA

PEKEC S., University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
NOVCIC Z., University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
KATANIC M , University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
STOJANOVIC D., University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment

Abstract: Vojvodina is a region with a forest area of only 6.37 %. Areas under the forests are mainly situated
along the flows of major rivers such as the Danube, Sava, Tisa and Tami, while in other parts they are
irregularly distributed. Forest belonging to the complex of alluvial-hygrophilic forests are situated in the areas
along the river flows and most of them are soft broadleaves, i.e. poplars and willows. In this region are situated
soils from hydromorphic group (such as soils from the undeveloped class: fluvisol; from semigley soils:
humofluvisol; from gley soils: humogley and eugley) whose physical and chemical properties will be analyzed.
Other soil types, suitable for cultivation of soft broadleaves outside the alluvial plains of rivers will be
mentioned, as well. Spatial and relief distribution of these soils will be showed as well as distribution of plant
communities for each of menshioned soiles from hydromorhic order. A particular aspect will be given to the
description of the external and internal morphology of pedological profiles of these soils with detailed physical
and chemical properties. Also, it will be shown hydrological conditions prevailing in this area, particularly the

19

Forests and biodiversity

impact of flood and groundwater to soil wetting which were besides favorable edaphic characteristics necessary
for successful cultivation of soft broadleaves.

EFFECTS OF SILVICULTURAL DISTURBANCE INTENSITY ON FUNCTIONAL


DIVERSITY IN A TROPICAL RAIN FOREST

Angela Luciana DE AVILA, University of Freiburg,


Ademir Roberto RUSCHEL, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) of the
Eastern Amazon
Lucas MAZZEI, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) of the Eastern
Amazon
Joo Olegrio PEREIRA DE CARVALH, Federal Rural University of the Amazonia (UFRA)
Carsten DORMANN, University of Freiburg
Jrgen BAUHUS, University of Freiburg
Abstract: Disturbance through harvesting entails changes in species composition and structure and the
magnitude of these shifts will depend on the disturbance regime and the ecosystems resistance, resilience, and
adaptability. Resilience to this type of disturbance is likely influenced by the post-harvesting stand density and
species or functional diversity of residual trees. It is assumed that biodiversity provides an insurance against
disturbance, since different species respond differently to changes in environmental conditions. In this study, we
investigated how four silvicultural disturbance intensities influenced functional diversity and its dynamics for a
period of 30 years after initial logging in 1982. The study area is located in the Tapajs National Forest, Par,
Brazil. Disturbance comprised logging in 1982 and thinning in 1993-1994 and ranged from 19 to 53% reduction
of the original basal area. Trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) 5 cm were measured on eight occasions
in 41 permanent sample plots of 0.25 ha each. Here, functional diversity will be presented for each disturbance
intensity considering functional group diversity, functional redundancy and response diversity. We examined
whether response diversity can be predicted from functional redundancy considering pre-harvesting data.
Additionally, we analysed, if response diversity values can predict the loss of species within functional groups
under future disturbance, assessing the relationship among response diversity before harvesting and functional
redundancy after harvesting. Positive correlations indicate higher resilience owing to high response diversity
and, as consequence, lower loss of species and greater likelihood that functional process associated to this
functional group will be maintained in the ecosystem. Thus, in order improve local sustainable management of
tropical forests, it is important to understand how disturbance intensity through harvesting influences functional
diversity. This information can help to improve management techniques and conservation of these ecosystems.

IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL OF THE MAIN PESTS FROM ENERGETIC


SALIX PLANTATIONS FROM WESTERN ROMANIA, BASED ON THE HYBRID
INGER EU 11365 AS INDICATOR PLANT

Trava, I. D., Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine King
Michael I of Romania from Timisoara Faculty of Agriculture
Abstract: The expansion of energetic willow plantations in Western Romania has triggered different pests
species in the region, known or unknown as willow crop specific pests. Significant damage brought by these
pests have sparked interest of energetic willow farmers. Only in Timis county, wire worm larvae attacked the
willow cuttings and destroyed 25 hectares of plantation. The planatation was 100% compromised. Problems
were also caused by mites, together with aphids, which damaged the leaves of the plants. Other pests are
represented by two species of beetles Dorcadion aethiops and Dorcadion scopolii the larvae attacked the
roots of the willow plants and respectively the (mature) beetles attacked the aerial parts of the plants. In order to
measure the intensity of the attack, 3 experimetal surfaces of 100 m2 were randomly installed in the affected
area. Abaout 30% of the total area was affected by the pest attack. The product used in pest control was Fastac
10 EC, used at 0.8 l/ha in 300 l of solution. Two weeks after this treatment, on the same surface it was applied

20

Forests and biodiversity

also a systemic insecticide Novadim Progress at 1 l/ha in 300 l of solution. These two insecticides combined
were effective in pest control.

INVESTIGATION OF PARASITIC AND SAPROPHYTIC FUNGHI ON WILD


CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM L.)

Markovic, ., University in Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment


Orlovic, S., University in Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Karadzic, D., University of Belgrade. Faculty of Forestry
Pap, P., University in Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Drekic, ., University in Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Galovic, V., University in Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Markovic, ., University of Belgrade, Institute of Lowland Forestry

Abstract: The aim of the study was investigation of microflora of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.). Dendromaterial
used in this work was collected in natural habitats (Fruska Gora, Zlatibor, Palanka, Tara, Rtanj, Juhor, Bor
(RTB), Pirot, Vlasina, Sar Mt.), where wild cherry appears in mix populations, seed stand (Crni vrh) and
nurseries (Batoina, Naupare, Milentija and Novi Sad).
Identification of the fungus was preceded by temporary microscopic preparation, after which the
determination was based on the basis of the apperiance of fruiting bodies, sporulation bodies and reproductive
organs. In cases where the symptoms of the disease were occurred but the fruiting bodies havent being
constituted yet, the fungi was isolated on culture media (PDA and MEA according to Booth's (1971) protocol).
The determination was carried out after received and developed pure cultures of the fungus.
In previous studies 47 different fungi was recorded on wild cherry. Out of this, 17 species of fungi were recorded
on the bark, 6 different species of fungi was found on the leaves and 23 species of wood decay fungi were
recorded. Lycogala epidendrum fungus, which feeds with a variety of microorganisms (bacteria, fungal spores)
that inhabit rotting wood is determined as well. Determined fungi depending on their significance were divided
into 3 groups. In the first group are classified fungi that are developing as parasites and can cause severe
consequences on the host plant. Among these fungi the most significant are fungi Polistigma rubrum (Persoon)
Saint-Amons and Daedaleopsis confragosa (Bolt.: Fr.) J. Schroet.
Comparing mycoflora occurring on wild cherry trees in natural stands and the ones that occurs in
nurseries and plantations it could be concluded: wood decay fungi are predominant on the old wild cherry trees
in natural stands while on the young trees established in the nurseries and plantations the parasitic fungi were
found on the leaves and the bark. Chemical measures should be recommended to combat fungal diseases on
young wild cherry trees in nurseries and plantations (especially of parasites in leaves) ie. the use of fungicides
in the critical period of parasite infection.

Keywords: wild cherry, Prunus avium, fungi, Republic of Serbia

21

Forests and biodiversity

GENETIC VARIABILITY ALONG ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT IN ROMANIA


BEECH POPULATION

Elena CIOCRLAN, Department of Silviculture, University Transilvania of Braov


Alexandru Lucian CURTU, Department of Silviculture, University Transilvania of Braov
Neculae OFLETEA, Department of Silviculture, University Transilvania of Braov

Abstract: Fagus sylvatica is the dominant and one of the most important commercial timber tree species of
Central European deciduous forests. In Romania the lower altitude of beech forest are between 300 to 500 m
and the higher altitude is from 1200 to 1400 m. The aim of this paper was to analyse the genetic variation of
beech individuals sampled in the margins of their natural distribution range. We investigated three altitudinal
transect (Apuseni, Novaci, Sebes), for each two samples one to low and other to high altitude. Eight
polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to screen 300 trees. Most of the genetic diversity parameters were
calculated with GenAlEx 6.4. Genetic differentiation among stands and regions was generally low, but the hight
genetic diversity was found - He = 0.76 for sampled to higher altitude and He = 0.68 for sampled to lower
altitude). Therefore the low-altitude populations have lower genetic diversity but values are comparable with
those reported for other populations distributed in Europa.

Key words: Fagus sylvatica, diversity, altitudinal transect.

ON THE WAY TO FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF PROTECTED AREAS IN


ROMANIA POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO FILL THE FINANCING GAPS BY
INTERNALIZATION OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES VALUES

Robert PACHE, National Forest Administration Romsilva


Alin BIRDA, National Forest Administration Romsilva, Maramures Mountains Natural Park
Administration
Bogdan POPA, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transilvania University from
Brasov
Abstract: The aim of biodiversity conservation rise the issue of financing the administration of protected areas
in a sustainable way. The scope of the paper is to seek solutions for a continuous sustainable financing of
protected areas by internalization of ecosystem services values, focusing on 5 pilot protected areas
administrated by National Forest Administration Romsilva. On one hand the paper estimates the financial gaps
of the protected areas administration, based on the provisions of the management plans, the costs of
administration in the last years and the anticipated financial allocation. On the other hand, it presents the
results of the evaluation of ecosystem services provided by the protected areas in several sectors of the economy.
The results shows a serious gap between the present level of financing and the actual needs for both basic needs
and the optimal implementation needs of the protected areas management plans. Although the ecosystem
services can be evaluated at high values for sectors as tourism, forestry, water administration or agriculture,
and those values can be a starting point for filling the identified financial gaps, the design and implementation of
payments for ecosystem services mechanisms face difficult barriers in the legislative framework and awareness
of the decision makers. Starting from the conclusions of this comparison between the financial needs and the
value of ecosystem services the paper also make some valuable recommendation regarding the possible
internalization of those values by designing and implementing payments for ecosystem services mechanisms.

22

Forests and biodiversity

BIODIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN POPULUS NIGRA IN DANUBE BASIN - LEAF


MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
Branislav KOVAEVI, Institute of lowland forestry and environment, University of Novi
Sad
Zoran TOMOVI, Public enterprise Vojvodinaume, Petrovaradin
Ivana VASI, Public enterprise Vojvodinaume, Petrovaradin
Saa ORLOVI, Institute of lowland forestry and environment, University of Novi Sad
Marina KATANI, Institute of lowland forestry and environment, University of Novi Sad
Milan DREKI, Institute of lowland forestry and environment, University of Novi Sad

Abstract: Variability of 12 measured and derived leaf morphological characters in 12 Populus nigra L.
populations from Danube basin is examined. Populations are distributed from Germany to Romania, in the
areas under protection regime. Beside descriptive statistics (average value, coefficient of variance), hierarchical
analysis of variance was used in order to describe the significance of leaf characters in differentiation of
examined populations. According to coefficients of heritability in broad sense i.e. interclass correlation, the most
informative characters appeared to be number of leaf veins on left and right side of the leaf blade (around 45%).
Results of contribution of trees within populations to the total variance suggested that characters related to
distance between the base of leaf blade and the widest part of the blade are under the highest influence of this
source of variability (40-60% of total variance)). According to correlation of coefficients, there is much of
colinearity among examined characters. These results could be of importance in further research in Populus
nigra from the aspect of biodiversity assessment, protection and restoration.

MINERAL NUTRITION OF PEDUNCULATE OAK (QUERCUS ROBUR L.) FROM


BRASOV DEPRESSION (PREJMER NATURAL RESERVE) AND PERSANI
PIEDMONT

Raluca-Elena ENESCU, Department of Silviculture, Transilvania University of Brasov


Lucian DINC, Forest Research and Management Institute, Department of Silviculture
Gheorghe SPRCHEZ, Department of Silviculture, Transilvania University of Brasov

Abstract: In Romania, the pedunculate oak was a preponderant species in the past. Nowadays, this covers only
2% of the forest area. The aim of this paper was to analysis the variability of the content of macro and
microelements in leaves, as well as of the soil in two pedunculate oak populations from two different sites. These
two populations are situated on different types of soil: eutricambosols or preluvosoils and gleysols. For analysis
the soil characteristics and elements content, four soil profiles were carried out. Leaves samples were collected
from twenty pedunculate oak trees and in three moments during the vegetation season. Both for soil and leaves
were determined the same eight elements in total form: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn. The obtained results show a
different mobility of the elements and a large variation between trees in leaves. Also, there were studied
correlations
between
the
content
of
the
elements
in
soil
and
leaf.

Key words: mineral nutrition, pedunculate oak.

23

Forests and biodiversity

EFFECTS OF CD2+ AND NI2+ IONS ON FREE POLYAMINES CONTENT IN


POPLAR PLANT SPECIES

Kebert M., University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Biondi S., University of Bologna,
Rapparini F., National Research Council- CNR, Institute of Biometeorology, Italy
Orlovi S., University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Stojni S., University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Galovi V., University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Abstract: Polyamines (PAs), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are universal,
multifunctional, low molecular-weight organic polycations displaying a high biological activity. PAs are also
involved in biological response to detrimental effects of heavy metals in soils and they have important role in
antistress action. Although poplars (Populus spp.) are known as a great candidate for investigation in the
aspect of phytorextraction, it is still unknown how heavy metal induced stress affect PAs content and how PAs
mediate aclimation to this stress. In this study, under controlled conditions in greenhouse, cuttings of poplar
species (Populus deltoides, Bartr.) were exposed for three months to two different concentration (maximum
allowed amount (MAA) in soil according to National legislation and tripled MAA) of two heavy metals (Cd2+
and Ni2+), separately. To determine free PAs amounts, PAs were extracted from leaves and roots with 4%
perchloric acid, derivatized with dansylchloride, and then separated and quantified by HPLC using a reverse
phase C18 column and a programmed acetonitrile-water step gradient. Obtained results showed that poplar
roots under nickel treatment of 50 mg/kg responded with increased free Put (139.6 nmol/g DW) and Spd (25.3
nmol/g DW) amounts comparing to non-treated roots (Put 89.5 and Spm 8.8 nmol/g DW), while the same
treatment caused significant decrease of Spm concentration (0.47 nmol/g DW) in roots compared to control
(2.48 nmol/DW). Cd treatment (3 mg/kg) induced increase of Put amounts in leaves (266.2 nmol/g DW)
compared to control plants (153.9 nmol/g DW), while Spd and Spm showed significant decrease under both Cd
treatments in poplar leaves. These results show effects of different heavy metals on poplar sensitivity to heavy
metal induced stress and give more information about plant adaptive responses to heavy metal polluted areas.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND YIELD OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF EIGHT


ECOTYPES OF LAVENDER (LAVANDULA LATIFOLIA MEDICUS) IN THE
REGION OF LA ALCARRIA (GUADALAJARA)
ARRAIZA, M. P., ETSI Montes. Department Forest of Engineering. Technical University of
Madrid. Ciudad Universitaria
SANDE, A. , ETSI Montes. Department Forest of Engineering. Technical University of
Madrid. Ciudad Universitaria
LPEZ, J. V., ETSI Montes. Department Forest of Engineering. Technical University of
Madrid. Ciudad Universitaria
Abstract: Aromatic plants, such as lavender, and their essential oils, are an important type of non wood forest
products, source of economic incomes, and vital for the subsistence of insect species such as bees, and for the
production of honey and its derivates in La Alcarria, Central Spain. Yield and composition of the essential oil of
eight ecotypes of common spike lavender, Lavandula latifolia M., grown in Guadalajara (Central Spain) were
determined in the different phases of the biological cycle during one year. Dry matter, oil yield and composition
were determined. Data show an average yield 2%, being 1, 8-cineol, camphor and linalool the major
constituents of the essential oil. Links between phenology, yield, percentage of the major constituents of the
essence and quality according to standards are observed during the entire vegetative cycle for every ecotype.
Key Words: essence, Lavandula, lavender, cineol, camphor, linalool

24

Forests and biodiversity

GENETIC METHODS FOR TRACEABILITY OF NORWAY SPRUCE FOREST


REPRODUCTIVE MATERIAL FROM CARPATHIANS

Maria TEODOSIU, Forest Research and Management Institute


Barbara FUSSI, Bavarian Institute of Forest Seedling and Planting, Germany
Georgeta MIHAI, Forest Research and Management Institute
Constantin DUA, Forest Research and Management Institute
tefan TANASIE, Forest Research and Management Institute
Monika KONNERT, Bavarian Institute of Forest Seedling and Planting, Germany
Abstract: Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) is one of the most important species in Romania and a detailed
knowledge of the genetic diversity and also of the spatial genetic structure is important for gene conservation
and for selection of well-adapted forest reproductive material in the context of a strong modification of
distribution by human management during the last century in Europe.
In this study we analyzed patterns of variability based on different genetic tools: isozymes,
mitochondrial DNA markers, nuclear microsatellites and shape of cone scale, in order to identify specific alleles
for different populations, together with the knowledge of geographical genetic variation, for determining how it
can be further used in traceability of forest reproductive material.
Eleven isozymes locies, two mitochondrial markers (mt15-D02 and nad1 b/c), and eight nuclear
microsatellites in 16 autochthonous Norway spruce populations were analyzed. From the analyzed isozymes
loci, 3 loci (Skdh-B, Idh-B and Got-C) presented regional specific alleles. On mtDNA markers, 4 different
haplotypes was found, but only one for mt15-D02.
The AMOVA analysis of the genetic differentiation indicated that the differentiation among the
considered populations was low, but significant: 99% of the observed variation was within populations. Two
main groups of populations were distinguished both in mtDNA and nSSR. Thus, two populations which did not
share a similar genetic patterns with the local one could indicate a long distance transfer of the forest
reproductive material. The relationships cone scale shape vs. molecular variation was also analyzed.
Obtained results indicated the possibilty to separate autochthonous from allochthonous populations
based on either mtDNA or cone scale shape, together with the limetness of this markers to assign specific
populations to a geographical region. Under this conditions, the control sistem based on
reference samples can be a viable alternative.

QUERCUS SPRING PHENOLOGY WITHIN A MIXED OAK FOREST FROM


EASTERN ROMANIA
Ecaterina Nicoleta APOSTOL, Forest Research and Management Institute
Neculae OFLETEA, Department of Silviculture, Transilvania University of Brasov
Alexandru Lucian CURTU, Department of Silviculture, Transilvania University of Brasov
Abstract: In spring of 2008 and 2009 have been observed bud burst and flowering phenology in a natural white
oak species complex situated in eastern Romania. A total of 300 mature individuals was mapped and identified
based on leaf morphology. The community consists of four oak species: Quercus pedunculiflora, Quercus robur,
Q. pubescens and Q. petraea. 28 individuals could not be unambiguously classified to one or another species.
Data on bud burst showed a normal distribution. The very late flushing was recorded on 15th of April in 2008
and on 18th of April in 2009, three weeks later when compared to early flushing individuals in 2008 and two
weeks later in 2009. Comparing with 2008, in 2009 the length of male flowering period was 3 days longer. (6
days in 2008 and 9 days in 2009).
The spatial distribution of phenological groups within the complex appears to be non-randomly. Our
results indicate an overlap in flowering time of different species. The data support the hypothesis that
interspecific
gene
flow
might
be
possible
between
closely
related
oak
species.
Key words: Quercus, bud burst, oak, phenology

25

Forests and biodiversity

CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREST PLANTATION INSTALLED ON DEGRADED


LANDS FROM CENTRAL DOBROGEA

Cezar UNGUREAN, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania


Andrei ADORJANI, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Nicu Constantin TUDOSE, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Adriana Agafia DAVIDESCU, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Dorin DAVID, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania

Abstract: Central Dobrogea is one of the most driest Romanian region, with a very high risk of drougts and
having the lowest afforestation rate of the country. In these areas drought is almost continuous even in years
when there is an additional rainfall. In terms of biogeographical regionalization, analyzed territory belongs to
steppe.
Data used on this paper were recorded as part of the project Inventory of badlands improvement
perimeters carried out by the forestry sector in the period 1980 to 2008 in the forest-steppe and steppe region of
Romania integrated in the program GEDEFOR funded by the Romanian Ministry of Education, Research,
Youth and Sports.
In the last 30 years were constituted 31 improving perimeters in this area, covering a surface of 7440
ha. From this surface, 5432 ha (73%) were afforested, the rest 27% are unproductive lands, lands pending
afforestation and litigation terrains.
The most important form of degradation is surface erosion of different degrees, which affects 98% of
the afforested area. Other identified types of degradation, alluvial deposits and gulling, represents 2% of all
these perimeters. In this paper is analyzed the behaviour of various tree species used for afforestation of land
affected by various types of degradation.
For afforestation were used 46 species of trees and shrubs. The most widely used species were by far
acacia and black pine. Other identified species were honey locust, elms, poplars, mahaleb cherry etc., and
shrubs (oleander, blackthorn, hawthorn etc.).
The average height of trees of the same age class, installed on land affected by the same type of
degradation, varies widely. This indicates the wide variability of edaphic and moisture conditions within the
same type of degradation and different quality of material used in afforestation.
However, plantations have achieved a high degree of coverage of the soil and ensure a significant role
in improving environmental conditions. Older acacia stands (over 15 years) manifests intense drying phenomena
of trees and a notable decline of vegetation condition, which requires their recovery by regeneration felling.
Key words: afforestation, erosion, acacia, black pine.

26

Forests and biodiversity

THE DYNAMICS OF PLANT DIVERSITY IN LEVEL II EUROPEAN INTENSIVE


FOREST MONITORING SYSTEM
G. IENASOIU, Transilvania University of Brasov; Forest Research and Management
Institute, Romania
Abstract: The Study of biodiversity dynamic, in our case the plant species diversity, has the purpose to bring new
scientific data about this characterization variable of forest ecosystems, used in level II European Intensive
Monitoring System of Forest in multidisciplinary analyses.
Starting with year 2001 in Romania this activities are pursued in twelve different sites, established on
an altitudinal transect along the Carpathian southern slope.
We used a method of research in accordance to Interna
ional Co -operative Programe on Assessment
and Monitoring of Air Polluion Effects on Forests - biodiversity monitoring manual, for a good international
intercalibration and an good transdisciplinary relationship. A survey plot has a total surface of 405 square
meters composed of five polygons of 81 square meters (9X9 m). Assessments were made for each plot every two
years. There have been identified 93 different species, from witch, according to the vertical stratification
imposed, 18,27% trees, 11,80% shrubs, 60,25% herbs and the rest 9,68% mosses.
From the multiannual floristic surveys we calculated an average or high floristic richness, in the
selected plots, based on the Shannon-Wiener indices. The values of the indices varies between 4.880 at plot no.9
- Predeal in the year 2007 and 2,603 at plot no.13 Mihaesti in the year 2009. These values must be correlated
with other characteristics of ecosystem because they are dependent on random plant composition of the plot.
For analyzing plant diversity time evolution we use Jaccard index, which is a similarity one. The results show
that the Jaccard indexes for the plots are in general medium or low. So there are evident differences between
annual plant diversity assessments.
Highlighting this evident differences and correlating them with the evolution of other variables assessed
in forest monitoring system, like: soil condition, deposition, meteorological data and so on, is an efficient way of
determining the forest ecosystems response to external factors and also to make models of further forest
developing.

GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE SORBUS DOMESTICA L. IN THE FOREST FUND OF


THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

Iachim GUMENIUC, State Agrarian University of Moldova


Victor SFECL, State Agrarian University of Moldova
Abstract: True service tree (Sorbus domestica L.) is a species included in the Red Book of the Republic of
Moldova. Indigenous tree of 15-20 m height, with squamiferous ritidom alike wild pear. The branches are
vigorous, green-olive, mahogany, covered at the begining with weathered soft hairs of white colour, then become
glabrous; are presenting ring-like brachyblasts. Ovoid sharp pilous on top buds are slightly sticky, green-olive,
the terminal bigger buds have a length of 8-12 mm. The leaves of 15-18 cm composed imparipennated with 1321 oblongue folioles, acute, serated, with the lenght of 3-5 cm, with white porous rahis. It flowers in May. The
flowers have 5 styles of 1,5 cm in diameter, being grouped in corymbes. The fruit is ripening in SeptemberOctober. The fruit is periform and globulous of 2-4 cm long, cored, green or mahogany, eatable after being
withered. The species vegetates in patches in South Europe, Little Asia, Crimea, West Caucasus, Balkan
Peninsula, Central Europe and Mediterranean Sea region. It reclaims a mild safely climate, kept away from
climatic excesses and is set up on a fertile weak acid-neuter relatively dry soil. In the Republic of Moldova
appears sporadically in Codri and Tigheci tableland at an altitude of 250-270 m on brown and dark brown soils
on sessile oak especially plant formations with lime and ash trees. It grows isolated in the composition of first
and second level of a stand or forest. As an object of study served the trees that have reached the maturity level
and fructify, are 6 to 18 m high and thick in diameter between the range of 16 to 34,1 cm. The fruit of arbores
vary on shape (periform and globulous). Fruit mass varies between 2,7 g to 7,6 g. There was emphasized a great
amplitude of variation of fruit mass and arbores crown (2,3 - 13,9 g). The length of fruit varies between 15,0
mm to 20,5 mm. The emphasized trees vegetate on plane or undulated sides of south-west exposition at an
altitude of 125-250 m. Arbores regularly produce fruit that are dispersed by birds or animals, fact that was
being demonstrated by seedling of different ages. It is necessary inventorying the size and population structure
with the aim to preserve in situ the domestic sorb and to undertake ex-situ conservation measures by creating
plantations of clones or families.

27

Forests and biodiversity

EXTRACTION OF TUMOR (QUERCUS AEGILOPS) PRESERVATION MATERIAL


FOR COSMETIC FROM CONTAMINATION WITH FUNGI

Nadeem A. RAMADAN, Mosul University Iraq


Faten N. Al- REFAI, Mosul University Iraq
Abstract: Seventy two kinds of locally manufactured and imported cosmetic materials were assayed for their
microbial contamination in this study . The survey included different kinds of skin creams, soaps,shampoo,
toothpaste,lip-sticks,body deodorant and make-up powders.18 strains (isolates) of Aspergillus were identified
from some samples of the cosmetic products The most common fungus was A. flavus (6 isolates) which was
33.35 of the isolation. While Penicillium species were common in creams. Moreover, P. chrysogenum was
common isolate ( 16) isolates out of (57) strains were contaminated (28%). also P. expansum was isolated from
26% of the samples.
Other fungi were isolated including Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Mucor spp
,three species of yeasts belonging to the genus candida also Geotrichium candidium, and Rhodotorula spp. were
identified.
Aqueous extract of tumor (Quercus aegilops) inhibited the fungal growth of A.niger (50%),P.grisiofulvum
(53.1%), A.alternata (29.2%) , Cl.cladosporioides (36. 5) and Mucor spp. (20.7%). In the same time the extract
had no effect on all species of Candida and G. candidum except Rhodotorula spp. Where the diameter of
inhibition zone was 6.5 mm when 25 mg/disc were used . The results showed that the alcoholic extract totally
inhibited the growth of A. versicolor at conc. 4 mg/ml ,and it had variable inhibitory effect ranging between
66%-90% with other fungi. The inhibition strength caused by Quercus tumor alcoholic extracts resembled that
of typical antifungal agents.
The tannic acid content in Quercus tumor determined to be 37%. The results indicates that tannic acid
is a good preservative since it was found that it preserved cream from contamination with fungus for 60 days.
Key words: Tumor(Querucs aegilops), Tannic acid, Cosmetic ,fungi

FOREST ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY OF KURE MOUNTAINS


NATIONAL PARK IN KASTAMONU PROVENCE, TURKEY

Temel SARIYILDIZ, Kastamonu University, Forestry Faculty, Department of Forest


Engineering
Abstract: The Kure Mountains in Turkey's western Black Sea region are a place of awesome beauty and
magnificent wildlife. The western part of these mountains is of particular importance where the age and size of
the forests, biodiversity, and variety of its endemic wildlife are concerned, and for this reason the World Wide
Fund for Nature (WWF) has listed the area as one of a hundred forest 'Hot Spots' in Europe deserving priority
conservation. The Kure Mountains National Park situated here covers an area of 34,000 hectares between
Kastamonu and Bartin cities. Since 2012, it has been named a Protected Area Network Park (PAN Park),
becoming the first PAN Park in Turkey and one of only 12 parks in the selective PAN Parks network in Europe.
Mountain ecosystems in the Kure National Park provide a habitat for different forest flora and many fauna
species depending on the factors like variable topographical structure, climate and distances to the sea. With
regard to the ecosystem variety, Kure Mountains National Park is divided into two main ecosystems as
aquatic/fresh water ecosystem and terrestrial ecosystem which has 6 sub-ecosystems named as forest, pasture,
maquis shrubland, rocky area-cave and agricultural/no wild life area ecosystem. There are over a thousand
plant species in the area, and these mountains are home to numerous wild animals. Kure Mountains National
Park is home to 157 endemic plants and 59 endangered plant taxons in the region. Of Turkey's total of 130
species of mammal, 40 species are to be found here, including the brown bear, otter, wolf, roe deer, red deer,
wild boar, fox, marten, badger and hare. In this present study, we provide the details on the structure of Kure
Mountains National Park forest ecosystems and its very rich flora and fauna species.
Keywords: Kure Mountains National Park, Forest Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Kastamonu

28

Forests and biodiversity

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS IN PRODUCTION OF FOREST SEEDLINGS

Verica Vasic, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Predrag Pap, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Sasa Orlovic, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Milan Drekic, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Leopold Poljakovic Pajnik University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and
Environment

Abstract: The presence of weeds in forest nurseries is the main limiting factor of successful production of
planting materials. Considering that quality of seedlings is one of the basic prerequisites a successful
establishment of plantations, production of seedlings in nurseries should be given special attention. Mechanical
weed control is often inefficient and expensive because it has to be repeated several times during the growing
season. Such measures are increasingly being replaced by more efficient measures of weed control. For that
reason, during the 2013-2014 experiments were established in order to investigate the possibility of weed
control by herbicides. Experiments were conducted in the Centre for Forest Seed and Nursery Production (440
49' 08,43''N, 180 57' 13,30''E) in production of two-years old seedlings maple, pedunculate oak, sessile oak and
European ash. The investigated herbicides imazamox and clopyralid which are registered for the control large
number of broadleaf weeds and cycloxydim which registered for the control of grass weeds. The experiments
were established using randomized block design in four replicates. The efficacy of herbicides in 2, 4 and 6 weeks
after treatment was evaluated. The used herbicides imazamox and clopyralid were effective in the control of
broadleaf weeds but better efficiency in the control of high presence Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. was achieved by
applying the herbicide imazamox. Beside Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. the most abundant weed species were
Sonchus arvensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and Solanum nigrum L. The herbicide cycloxidim was efficacy
in the control of Sorghum halepense (L.), Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beau. and Poa annua L. Herbicide
cycloxidim did not have a phytotoxic effect on forest seedlings. Also, imazamox and clopyralid did not have a
phytotoxic effect on the seedlings of pedunculate oak, sessile oak and European ash. However, imazamox and
clopyralid showed a phytotoxic effect on two-years old seedlings of maple.

29

Forests and biodiversity

HIGH CONSERVATION VALUE FORESTS FROM PROTECTED AREAS (HCVF


1.1.) OF ROMANIAN FOREST FUND
Diana Vasile, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Virgil Scrltescu, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Abstract: High Conservation Value Forests (HCVFs) 1.1. - Forest areas from protected areas - are natural
habitats, which are of outstanding significance or critical importance due to their high environmental,
biodiversity or landscape values. These areas need to be managed in order to maintain or enhance those
identified values. The HCV concept was developed by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) in 1999 under
Principle 9, and its application requires the identification of six categories of High Conservation Values (HCV).
The aim of this study was to identify forests areas from protected areas (HCVF 1.1) respectively forest areas of
integral protection zone from national and nature parks, nature reserves and protected areas, in the context of
the forests certification.
For the analysis performed and the identification of the HCVFs present within the national forest fund
the following data was used: maps of the network of the protected areas present in Romania, management plans,
public consultations etc.
After the preliminary assessment and full assessment, was identified an area of 93,707.45 ha HCVF 1.1,
representing 3 % of the total area of forest fund managed by National Forest Adminstration Romsilva and
40 % of he total area with High Conservation Value Forest of the 27 assessed Forest County Administrations.
Of the total area of HCVF1.1, the largest area is located in the national parks, respectively 67%. In protected
areas is located 19%, and the rest of the forest areas are located 8% n nature parks and 6% in nature reserves.
The largest area with HCVF 1.1. is in Forest Administration County Cara Severin, representing 39% of the
total area of HCVF1.1.
For this areas, management measures will be established by the management plan. All the identified
HCVF 1.1., must be managed to maintained or enhanced all the critical values. Any exploitation and other
activities, which would in any way change the natural situation and influence natural development in the future,
are prohibited.
Keywords: biodiversity, conservation values, environment, forests areas, management.

30

Forests and biodiversity

DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION PROFILE OF WRKY53 GENE IN QUERCUS


ROBUR SPECIES FROM SREM REGION, SERBIA, UNDER ENVIRONMENTAL
(DROUGHT) STRESS
Branislav TRUDI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad
Gregoire LE PROVOST, Universit Bordeaux,
Saa ORLOVI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad
Sran STOJNI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad
Dejan STOJANOVI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi
Sad
Abstract: Negative effects of drought on forest trees are not new phenomena. In the past years, long episodes of
drought have been associated with large-scale forest mortality and decreased forest-productivity. So far not
many studies, using transcriptomics and proteomics, have been done to characterize the responses of forest trees
exposed to drought. Existing studies mainly concentrate on the tree model species poplar.
Reference data and reports from forest managements from Srem region (Vojvodina province, Serbia) revealed
that senescence occurred in some parts of penduculate oak population induced by abiotic drought stress. WRKY
proteins comprise a family of zinc finger-type transcription factors involved in the regulation of gene expression
during pathogen defense, wounding, trichome development and senescence. It was confirmed in previous studies
that overexpression and knockout of the respective wrky53 resulted in changes in transcription levels of
WRKY53 transcription factor, indicating that AD protein is a positive regulator of wrky53 expression.
In our study, we tried to tackle expression profile of the wrky53 gene using qPCR, under the effect of
environmental drought stress on Q. robur species from Srem region. We targeted 42 individuals from Morovi
forest and tried to select equal number of senescing and vital ones in order to make comparison in gene
expression level between tolerant and less tolerant individuals from the selected population. RNA was extracted
from leaves of the same developmental stage and used for further reverse transcription process necessary in
obtaining stable cDNA for qPCR expression profiling. Our results showed interesting differential expression
profile of wrky53 gene on individual level of selected oak trees.\
Development of gene banks responsible for various aspects of resistance of oak and other tree species
to various abiotic factors should become an imperative for sustainable forestry that can respond to various
ecological challenges it is facing today.
This research was done under support of COST ACTION FP0905 Biosafety of forest transgenic treesimproving the scientific basis for safe tree development and implementation of EU policy directives.

Key words: oak, candidate genes, drought, Srem

31

Forests and biodiversity

HISTORIC SUPPLY OF FOREST REPRODUCTIVE MATERIAL WITH SPECIAL


EMPHASIS ON THE TRANSFER TO EUROPE (REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA)

Valeriu CAISN , Forest Research and Management Institute, Chisinau


Georgeta MIHAI , Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucuresti

Abstract: During the period 1848 1945 forest covered area in Basarabia reduced by more than 150 thous. ha
due to anthropogenic and natural factors. In 1945 1992 existed intensive activities for forest plantings in the
southern part of Republic of Moldova. In other zones the degraded stands were substituted by planting and
direct seeding. Non-autochthonous forest reproductiv material was used for those plantations. At the present
suspected great influence of non-autochthonous seeds origins regarding abnormal drying of tree stands. Forest
reproductive material from the regions that greatly exceed the current borders of the country was used to restore
deforested areas. The consequences of these transfers are very difficult to quantify, especially in the development
and stability of newly established stands. One thing is certain: it will change the genetic structure of forest
stands, populations, by introducing of the forest reproductive material from various origins, making impossible
to quantify changes in the ecological stability of the stands. Further efforts are needed to establish the regions of
origin for the main forest species and regulate the collection, transportation and use of forest reproductive
material. The main species affected by transfers of reproductiv material was oaks Quercus robur L. and Q.
pubescens Willd. ), and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). From one side the oak had been exploited at a
large scale for its timber. Instead the locust was massively planted. It was reasonable for low forested areas, but
not really augmented for replacing the natural low productive pubescent oaks stands with locust. For now there
is dilemma of planting autochthonous species- low productive (pubescent oak) but stable ecologically against
negative factors, versus planting rapid growing species, non-adapted to local conditions (locust).

32

Forests and biodiversity

PRELIMINARY BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF M1 (PANONNIA) POPLAR


CLONE SURFACE RESINS

Branislav TRUDI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad,
Boban ANELKOVI, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade
Saa ORLOVI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad,
Vele TEEVI, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade
Mirjana CVETKOVI, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy University of
Belgrade
Jovana STANKOVI, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy University of
Belgrade

Abstract: There is no data of biochemical composition of surface resin of any plant from Salicaceae family in
Serbia. The objective of this preliminary study was to tackle biochemical composition of surface resins of M1
(Panonnia) poplar clone, grown in the open, natural conditions.
Poplar plant material was sampled on 7th of August, 2013 in early morning hours. Terminal shoots with
leaves of different developmental stadium from two year old seedlings of M1 (Panonnia) poplar clone (Populus
euramericana L.) were sampled, provided from the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment (Novi Sad,
Serbia) collection, where all plants are of the completely the same genotype. DNA fingerprint profile of the M1
clone was previously determined through molecular marker system and published, confirming the same DNA
profile of the plants. The intact samples were immediately transported in sterile plastic bottle (5 ml volumes) on
ice (to avoid evaporation of thermally unstable components), to laboratories of Centre for Instrumental Analysis
in Belgrade, Faculty for Chemistry, University of Belgrade. Washing and extracting of surface resins from
terminal shoot for every sample was done with several steps of organic solvents included, until being ready for
HPLC/MS-TOF analysis. The quantification of the compounds was based on their peak areas from the
HPLC/MS-TOF analysis, compared to the peak areas of the internal standards from data base.
First results showed that composition of resins is very heterogenic and compounds which were identified, among
many, are: benzenediol, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, furanocoumarin, stilbenoid, flavonol-6-deoxy-hexose,
quercetin-3-methyl-ether, populin, dihydroxyflavanone, naringenin, apigenin and around 50 other diverse
compounds.
That information represents the resource for upcoming chemotaxonomic determination of species,
alongside with molecular marker system data; it is also of a strong interest for pharmacological and
ecophysiological studies, because resins are well known as a mixture of different secondary metabolites which
synthesis is induced by stress, with possible applied biological activity. This study was conducted under the
support of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological development of Republic of Serbia,
through projects 172053 and III 43007.

Key words: resins, compounds, HPLC/MS-TOF, shoots, poplar

33

Forests and biodiversity

VARIABILITY OF SOIL MOISTURE IN A PRIMARY NORWAY SPRUCE


FOREST: SPATIAL SAMPLING AND THE INFLUENCE OF THE
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Marius TEODOSIU, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania


Olivier BOURIAUD, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania

Abstract: Knowledge of the upper layer soil moisture is important both for processes in forest populations and in
relationship with the climate change. The sampling of soil moisture is an ongoing debate, including the
dependence on the environmental influential factors. The primary forests, which conserve structures and
processes can serve as a proper place to their evaluation.
This work analyze the variability of soil moisture in the upper layer (until 20 cm) in three spatial full
mapped plots, in a regular network of 5x5 m (largest - about 800 points). The influence of sampling on different
scale characteristics (lags between 5 to 20 m, grain of 2.5 and 5 m and extent of 0.5 to 1 ha) were investigated,
together with disentangling the influence of different structural attributes (e.g. leaf area index, coverage of
deadwood, or stand structure for the specific grain). In comparison with other studies, directional influences of
some influential factors (i.e. slope) were assessed.
The study contribute to the improvement of knowledge in (spatial) variability of soil moisture, including
its environmental dependencies, in a less studied forest type, with a less anthropic influence.

ASSESSMENT OF TREE MORTALITY ON THE ESTONIAN NETWORK OF


FOREST RESEARCH PLOTS
Henn Korjus, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life
Sciences
Ruth Mndma, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life
Sciences
Diana Laarmann, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life
Sciences
Allan Sims, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences
Abstract: Assessment of tree mortality provides deeper understanding of forest structure and functioning. This
enables evaluation of stand sustainability and provides information on stand productivity, diversity and health
condition. Tree mortality can be assessed by spatiotemporal patterns as well as by studying the processes and
causes of mortality. Tree mortality is caused by specific disturbance agents or by the complex effect of various
disturbances. The purpose of this study is to examine tree mortality of Estonian forests, determine the causes of
tree death, and estimate how different management regimes affect tree mortality and its causes. This study is
based on 360 sample plots measured in 2003-2005 and re-measured in 20082010. The sample plots were
divided into recently managed (RM, 146 plots) and low intensity/unmanaged (LU, 214 plots) plots based on
forest management regime. In total, 53,990 trees were measured, of which 20,020 were on RM and 33,970 on
LU plots. The tree mortality for 5-year period was 3.4% on RM plots and 8.0% on LU plots. Main cause of tree
mortality in recently managed stands was insect damage, which attributes to 29.8% of tree mortality, whereas in
LU stands the main cause was tree competition, which attributes to 45.4% of tree mortality. Analysis of the tree
mortality indicated that increase in relative tree diameter in both stand types contributes to the increase in
mortality due to insect or fungal damage or diseases. Opposite results were received with respect to competition
the smaller the tree relative diameter, the more probable it is that a tree will die because of competition with
neighbouring trees. Analysis of game damage, wind, and other causes of tree mortality showed that these were
not dependent from relative diameter of trees. Analysis of overall probability of tree mortality revealed that
relatively smaller trees have higher probability of mortality than larger trees. Probability of survival of smaller
trees is higher in RM stands compared with LU stands.

34

Forests and biodiversity

ECTOMYCORRHIZAL COMMUNITIES OF DIFFERENT SPRUCE STANDS


IN SERBIA
Marina KATANI, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Saa ORLOVI, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment
Tine GREBENC, Slovenian Forestry Institute
Hojka KRAIGHER, Slovenian Forestry Institute

Abstract: Spruce (Picea abies L.) is one of the major tree species in coniferous forests in Serbia which is
distributed on high mountains and mountain ranges with cold and humid climate. In most temperate and boreal
regions establishment, survival and growth of trees depend on colonization with ectomycorrhizal fungi. The
functional compatibility and stress tolerance of ectomycorrhizal types is species specific and depend on both
partners, therefore valuable information about functioning of forest ecosystems can be provided by investigating
the structure of ectomycorrhizal community. The aim of this study was to compare the ectomycorrhizal diversity
in mixed spruce stands at three sites in Serbia, mountans Stara planina, Kopaonik and Tara. Samples were
collected in September 2013 using a standardised soil corer of 274 ml volume. The total number of samples was
12, four samples per locality. Identification of fungal partner in ectomycorrhiza was obtained with
morphological and anatomical characterization according to published descriptions. Types of ectomycorrhiza
were described and identified. Ectomycorrhizal types and old nonturgescent fine roots were counted. Total
values of Shannon-Weaver diversity index, Species richness index, Evenness, Equitability and Berger Parker
index were calculated for analyzed localities. Total number of ectomycorrhizal types in examined spruce stands
was 11 (6 types of ectomycorrhiza were found in the locality Stara planina, 5 types in Kopaonik and 6
ectomycorrhizal types were observed in Tara). Total values of Species richness index and Shannon Weaver
diversity index were 1.26 and 1.14 at site Kopaonik; 1.61 and 1.31 at Stara planina and 1.75 and 1.54 at site
Tara respectively. Observed values are lower in comparison with ones recorded on comparable natural sites
with spruce. However, identification of ectomycorrhizal types should be supplemented with molecular methods
and seasonal dynamics of ectomycorrhizal community structure should be investigated.
Key

words:

ectomycorrhiza,

Picea

abies

L.,

diversity,

morphological-anatomical

characterization

Acknowledgement
This paper was realized as a part of the project III 43002 Biosensing technologies and global systems for
continuous research and integrated management of ecosystems financed by the Ministry of Education and
Science of the Republic of Serbia

35

Forest ecosystem management

Section 2:
Forest ecosystem
management

36

Forest ecosystem management

POTENTIAL BREEDING BETWEEN POPLAR CULTIVATIONS AND WILD


RELATIVES IN MEDITERRANEAN ENVIRONMENT
Donatella PAFFETTI, Department of Agriculture, University of Florence, Italy
Davide TRAVAGLINI, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, University
of Florence, Italy
Anna BUONAMICI, Institute of Bioscience and Bioresouces (IBBR), Italy
Mariaceleste LABRIOLA, Department of Agriculture, University of Florence, Italy; Institute
of Bioscience and Bioresouces (IBBR), Italy
Francesca BOTTALICO, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, University
of Florence, Italy
Silvia FIORENTINI, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, University of
Florence, Italy
Alessandro MATERASSI, Institute for Biometeorology, Division of Sassari, Italy
Cristina VETTORI, Institute of Bioscience and Bioresouces (IBBR), Italy

Abstract: Most strategies for the genetic improvement and biotechnologies may be applied to the Populus spp.
and their hybrids to increase productivity and adaptability. However, their weak reproductive barriers and
spontaneous hybridization with natural populations may impact the sustainable deployment of new poplar
cultivars. Deforestation and intensive management, with plantations of fast-growing tree species, may endanger
tree species by the destruction or loss of their habitats, but also by loss of species integrity through hybridization
and introgressive gene flow. Consequently, the implementation of conservation strategies requires the
monitoring of gene flow in relation to habitat structure. For the purpose to establish the best management
approaches for genetic diversity conservation, the objectives of this work were the characterization of spatial
genetic structure in poplar stand, and the study of the potential breeding between natural and cultivated
populations in the Mediterranean environment.
Two study areas, near to a poplar plantation, were settled within a natural protected area, the
Migliarino-San Rossore-Massaciuccoli Regional Park (Pisa, Italy). The spatial genetic structure showed that
three clusters can be identified in the Area 1 and four clusters in the Area 2. The differences between the spatial
genetic structures depended on the environmental features of two habitats. The detection of hybridization (by
paternity analysis) between the Area 2 and the poplar plantation, suggested the occurrence of a possible genetic
exchange among a natural stand and the plantation.
Besides, the potential hazard due to hybridization between poplar cultivations and its wild relatives in
the surrounding environments of the Regional Park was investigated. Based on the genetic information and
using the spatial dataset available for the study area, it seems that gene flow could affect important habitats
hosting naturally originated poplar population. The assessment of this potential hazard indicates that some
management measures are required to mitigate the risk.

37

Forest ecosystem management

EFFECTS OF A BIRCH SHELTER DENSITY GRADIENT ON GROWTH AND


QUALITY PARAMETERS OF UNDERSTORY OAK AND SPRUCE TREES

Stefan SCHNEIDER, University of Freiburg


Rdiger UNSELD, University of Freiburg
Jrgen BAUHUS, University of Freiburg
Abstract: What to do with birch (Betula pendula) dominated forest successions after storms under a sylvicultural
point of view? Is it recommended to early help undergrowing oak and spruce trees (Quercus petraea
(Mattuschka) Liebl.; Quercus robur L.; Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) to achieve better height and diameter
increments, or is this even contra productive for quality development of potential future crop trees to do so?
In order to answer the above mentioned questions, the present research aims to determine first of all, if
it is reasonable to sort early additional pioneer biomass, and if yes, until which degree. On one side the early
extraction of pioneer trees may not always be the best way to create a future valuable stand. On the other side, a
too dense shelter of pioneer species might result in high quality trees but with a growth rate far too low to
seriously expect high quality logs. We also want to determine a corridor of birch shelter where quality as well as
height and diameter growth parameters are suitable for forest owners all around Germany. And the last
contribution consists in giving concrete treatment recommendations for birch dominated forest successions with
portions of oak or spruce in the understory, valid under different environmental conditions as well as within
different age classes.
Following a pre-study, birch pioneer forests mixed with oaks and spruces are the most common once in
Germany, based on the data of the second National Forest Inventory.
In order to produce concrete recommendations for Central Europe, the different study areas are
distributed all around Germany. The selected forests, all grown without human interaction, represent different
age classes (from 10 to 40 years) and they are all exposed to different soil and climate conditions.
Within concentric sample plots, data from the focal tree as well as the surrounding trees are taken. With
a mixed model approach, the influence of inter and intraspecific competitors on focal trees and their growth and
quality parameters will be modeled.

Key-words: Successional forests, sylvicultural treatment recommendations, Betula pendula, Quercus spec.,
Picea abies

38

Forest ecosystem management

HETEROGENEOUS STANDS AND SILVICULTURAL MANAGEMENT: A CASESTUDY


Diana-Cristina IMON, University Transylvania of Braov, Faculty of Silviculture and
Forest Engineering
Valeriu-Norocel NICOLESCU, University Transylvania of Braov, Faculty of Silviculture
and Forest Engineering
Ioana-Mirela STROE, University Transylvania of Braov, Faculty of Silviculture and
Forest Engineering
Mihai-Florin OSTAFI, University Transylvania of Braov, Faculty of Silviculture and
Forest Engineering
Cornel Cristian TERENEU, University Transylvania of Braov, Faculty of Silviculture
and Forest Engineering

Abstract: Heterogeneous stands are an important component of forests Europe-wide as a major source of
resilience and biodiversity. In this context, as the maintenance or even improvement of diversity of forest
ecosystems is targeted whenever possible, the paper aims at presenting the close relationship between the smallscale heterogeneity of forest stands and the potential silvicultural interventions to be carried out under such
circumstances. For this purpose, eight research plots were established in two forest stands of Romania (Covasna
County) and Germany (Baden-Wrttemberg County) in 2013. Various data (i.e. d.b.h., total height, pruned
height, four crown radii, x-y location of each individual tree, presence and size of advance regeneration,
presence of defects such as forking, wounds, epicormic branches, bending-over, etc.) were collected within the
plots and processed subsequently.
The main findings of the project are as follows:
- the two stands are heterogeneous in terms of structure (both horizontal and vertical) and species composition.
The irregularity at small-scale (plot) level is higher in the Romanian stand;
- the Romanian stand includes many old and large (tall and thick) trees irregularly scattered and originating
either from a former coppice-with-standards stand (i.e. sessile oak, hornbeam) or being planted (Norway spruce
trees) for its enrichment;
- the German stand, not as irregular as the Romanian one, also contains old and large (tall and thick) trees (e.g.,
sessile oak, European beech, European larch) both naturally or artificially regenerated;
- the natural regeneration is very sparse and of low quality in the Romanian stand but rich, very diverse as
species composition and size of seedling/thicket trees as well as potentially usable in the future in the German
one.
Taking into account these peculiarities, various silvicultural interventions are proposed in the two
stands and consist of:
a. Romania: a mixture of thinning-sanitary cutting-extraction of old trees. Such approach is similar to the
irregular high forest cutting, never used or promoted in the Romanian forests and forestry yet but being confined
to heterogeneous stands in some relevant European countries.
b. Germany: mixed thinning combined when possible with extraction of old trees reaching the target diameter.

39

Forest ecosystem management

THE VARIABILITY OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRYS L.) IN THE


PROVENANCE TEST IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Branislav Cvjetkovi, Faculty of Forestry, University of Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska
Milan Mataruga, Faculty of Forestry, University of Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska
Vojislav Duki, Faculty of Forestry, University of Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska
Vanja Danii, Faculty of Forestry, University of Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska
Aleksandar Lui, Institute of Forestry , Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract: One of the five provenance tests of Scots Pine in Bosnia and Herzegovina was conducted in Sokolac
area (Republic of Srpska B&H) on 1,16 ha during 1989. The test includes 13 provenances (populations)
originating from Bosnia and Herzegovina; 11 of them come from natural stands and 2 of them come from seed
orchards (Doboj and Sarajevo). The test was carried out in a block system, i.e. each provenance was
represented by 200 trees (40 trees in 5 blocks/repetitions). In October 2011 (at the age of 22) measurements of
diameter and height were carried out, and their volumes were calculated on the basis of these parameters
accordingly.
Local provenances show the best results (Romanija - Glasinac and Biotica; Han Kram), i.e. the
provenances that are geographically closest to the test provenance, plus some further provenances (ipovo and
Petrovac). Also, the existence of significant differences within and among provenances was confirmed, referring
to the measured features, as well as significant differences among blocks. This research, alongside with the
previous and planned ones, should provide guidance for the selection of the best Scots Pine provenances in the
afforestation process in Republic of Srpska (B&H).

40

Forest ecosystem management

GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT POPLAR


CLONES ON HERBIVORY INDUCED STRESS
A. PILIPOVI, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment,
Serbia
M. DREKI, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, Serbia
L. POLJAKOVI-PAJNIK, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and
Environment, Serbia
S. ORLOVI, University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, Serbia
N. NIKOLI, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences-Department of Biology and
Ecology, Serbia
M. BORIEV, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences-Department of Biology and
Ecology, Serbia
Abstract: Climate change affects forest trees both directly through increase of temperature or decrease of
precipitation and indirectly through favorizing pest outbreaks. Insects feeding causes stress in plants which can
inhibit the growth or even cause drying of plants. In this paper, we investigated effect of the attack of poplar leaf
beetle (Chrisomela populi) on three fast growing poplar clones in their juvenile phase. In greenhouse
experiment, young rooted cuttings of three poplar clones Populus x euramericana clone Pannonia, Populus
deltoides clone Bora and complex hybrid Populus nigra x maximowiczii x Populus nigra var. Italica were
colonized with leaf beetle larvae for 30 days. After feeding period, various physiological parameters such are
photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance chlorophyll fluorescence, nitrate reductase activity and
proline content was measured, while after the cessation of growth, morphometric parameters such are height,
leaf number, biomass of roots, stem and leaves and damage intensity was assessed. In general, results showed
significant effect of leaf beetle attack through decrease of growth parameters. Physiological parameters were
differently affected. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and nitrate reductase activity of investigated clones
was decreased with insect attack, while proline accumulation increased. Differences amongst clones were not
significant in most of investigated parameters, although obtained results can give some information for future
selection of polar clones.
Keywords: Poplars, herbivory, photosynthesis, proline,

41

Forest ecosystem management

ESTIMATES OF AOT40 INDEX FROM MODELED HOURLY OZONE


CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED WITH PASSIVE SAMPLERS IN ROMANIAN
LTER SITES, USING LOIBL FUNCTION

Diana SILAGHI, Forest Research and Management Institute ICAS


Stefan LECA, Transylvania University of Braov, Forest Research and Management
Institute ICAS
Abstract: Ozone causes negative effects on forest trees such as reduced photosynthesis, premature leaf shedding
and growth reduction, and reduced resistance to environmental stresses. In rural and forested areas, it can
reach concentrations high enough to produce phytotoxic effects in native vegetation (Feretti et al., 2007).
Continuous measurements of ozone concentrations in remote areas, using ozone analyzers, are quite expensive
due to a lack of power supply. To determine the spatial and temporal patterns of this pollutant, ozone was
monitored using Ogawa passive samplers during 2010-2013 growing seasons (monthly) in 2 Romanian LTER
sites: Retezat (10 plots) and Bucegi Piatra Craiului (20 plots). The European legislation does not stipulate
critical threshold for forest vegetation protection based on ozone concentrations measured with passive
samplers, but only for AOT40 index (Accumulated Ozone over the Threshold of 40 ppb), computed based on
hourly ozone concentrations during 1st of April 30th September period (UNECE, 2004). The critical
thresholds specified by the European legislation for forest vegetation protection is 5 000 ppb h. In order to
calculate AOT40 index, the hourly ozone profile was modeled from passive samplers using Loibl function.
Preliminary results show that, in Retezat LTER site, the critical threshold is exceeded in 58% of plots in 20102012 period, the highest values being registered in 2012 (an exceeding in 63% of plots). Also, it was noticed
that, when modeling with Loibl function, ATO40 has values higher than the 5 000 ppb h even when the monthly
ozone concentration has a value of approximately 30 ppb. Further analysis on modelled AOT40 for BucegiPiatra Craiului LTER site will be performed and presented.

FOREST GROWTH MONITORING IN THE EXTENDED ROMANIAN LEVEL II


NETWORK
Stefan LECA, Transylvania University of Braov, Forest Research and Management
Institute ICAS
Ovidiu BADEA, Transylvania University of Bra ov, Forest Research and Management
Institute ICAS
Diana SILAGHI, Forest Research and Management Institute ICAS
Abstract: Tree growth and stand dynamics represent the main synthetic indicators on stability, functionality and
productivity of forest ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to create a complex auxological analyze of the
extended Level II monitoring plots in Romania in order to update and develop the national monitoring
methodology. The radial increment variability is influenced by stand age, productivity class, health condition of
trees, and also the sylvicultural management. The highest coefficients of variation of the trees diameters were
observed in SESI Sinaia - beech (73.1%) and Stana de Vale - spruce (50%), and the lowest ones for Campina oak (19.6%), Miheti - oak (21%), or Videle Turkey oak (23.1%) plots. The dynamics of growth indices series
developed for oak species in the extended Level II monitoring plots SESI Giurgiu - Turkey oak, Videle Turkey
oak, Videle Hungarian oak, Stefanesti - oak, and Ploiesti - Oak showed in most of the cases common extreme
negative or positive years. The common extreme negative years were: 1945 1948, 1950, 1968, 2002 i 2007,
and the positive ones were: 1969, 1984, 1991, 2005, and 2010. Tree growth data provided by the automatic
continuous dendrometric bands showed that the start of the annual ring formation process occurs around the
10th of April for oak, April 15th for sessile oak, 10th to 12th April for the Turkey oak and 25th April for beech.
We noticed the existence of an accelerated growth rate in the first part of the growing season, with a cumulative
growth curve flattening after the 1st of June for sessile oak, 15th June for Turkey oak, July 20th for beech and
July 15th for oak. The highest growth losses were recorded for SESI Fundata - beech (0.68 m3an-1ha-1) and
Stana de Vale - spruce (0.53 m3an-1ha-1), the least affected stands were SESI Giurgiu - Turkey oak and Videle
- Turkey oak with growth losses of 0.04 m3an-1ha-1 and 0.02 m3an-1ha-1 , respectively.

42

Forest ecosystem management

IMPACT OF CLIMATE AND ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION IN THE ROMANIAN


INTENSIVE MONITORING NETWORK
S. NEAGU, Institutul de Cercetri i Amenajri Silvice
I. BARBU, Institutul de Cercetri i Amenajri Silvice
O. BADEA, Institutul de Cercetri i Amenajri Silvice
C. IACOBAN, Institutul de Cercetri i Amenajri Silvice
Abstract: Defoliation is one of the most essential forest condition parameters assessed by the intensive
monitoring network in Romania. Furthermore, the crown defoliation is the trees response to biotic and abiotic
stressors and the mortality rate might be considered a response at the population or species level.
Defoliation dynamics explained by air pollution cannot be distinguished from other sources of disturbances. The
study of the patterns, causes, and effects on forest health status in the selected ecosystems of the Romanian
monitoring network is intended to shape the impact of environmental stressors (e.g. climate, deposition,
nutrients) and their relevance. This type of assessment attempts to describe the significance of the missing
leaves/needles in relation to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.
Climate change is gradually amplifying severe drought events in Romania, causing increased mortality
and morbidity and in addition upsets the forests carbon sink effectiveness. The studied ecosystems have
constantly and considerably adapted to the environment dynamics and remarkably, the mortality might be
considered as an adaptation response at population/species level. We have found that the defoliation and
mortality are linked together, although there is a systematic lag of 1 year in-between, and the main driver is
represented by climate dynamics.\
The preliminary results concerning the S-SO4 deposition show a relatively high concentration in
Stefanesti-oak and Fundata-beech stands (5-7 kg*ha-1yr-1) and very high in Mihaesti-sessile oak (8.6 kg*ha1yr-1). In addition, the deposition of nitrogen (N-NH4 and N-NO3) are low (1.6-2.4 kg*ha-1yr-1) to moderate
(3.4-4.2 kg*ha-1yr-1), respectively. On long term, the sulphur and nitrogen fluxes have a limited and somewhat
delayed impact on forest health status, indicating relatively stable ecosystems, and consequently, a good buffer
capacity.
Keywords: forest monitoring, defoliation, mortality, atmospheric deposition, climate

DIAMETER INCREMENT OF FAGUS ORIENTALIS LIPSKY IN UNDISTURBED


OLD-GROWTH STAND OF NORTHERN IRAN
Shaaban GHALANDARAYESHI, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource
Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Thomas NORD-LARSEN, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management,
University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Khosro SAGHEB-TALEBI, Department of Forest, Research Institute of Forests and
Rangelands, Tehran, Iran
Firoozeh ROSHANFAR, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management,
University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Abstract: Oriental beech is a climax species and is often dominant species of natural forests in northern Iran. A
literature review revealed no available tree growth model developed for oriental beech in Iran. The aim of this
study was to examine the diameter increment of oriental beech along the precipitation gradient in the region.
Because of lack of information on the history of management, this study was carried out in undisturbed stand as
a first attempt. Diameter increments were measured using increment cores collected from 12 one hectare
permanent plots covering a wide range of climate conditions. A site-specific individual-tree growth model was
developed using variable growth fitting approach. Different model components included site dummy variables,
tree sizes, distant dependent competition indexes and topographic characteristics. Maximum diameter increment
occurred at diameter at breast height (dbh) of 50-55 cm. As expected the growth increased from east to the west
of the region and the plots located at the east and west of the region showed significantly different diameter
increment.

43

Forest ecosystem management

NEW RESULTS ON EARLY BIOMMETRICAL PERFORMANCES OF NORTHERN


RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA L.) IN THE SOUTH-EAST OF TRANSYLVANIAROMANIA

Melinda Sandi, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, University Transylvania of


Braov-Romania
Valeriu-Norocel Nicolescu, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, University
Transylvania of Braov-Romania
Diana-Cristina imon, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, University
Transylvania of Braov-Romania
Henriette Boyanc, cole Nationale Suprieure des Technologies et Industries du Bois,
Epinal-France
Ionu-Cristian inca, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, University
Transylvania of Braov-Romania

Abstract: Northern red oak, one of the most important North-American species introduced in Europe in 1691,
covers nowadays on our continent about 219,000 ha.
In Romania, northern red oak was introduced at the beginning of 20th century and has been expanded
mostly in the hilly areas. This is also the case in the south-east of Transylvania (Covasna County), where it was
used mostly for the substitution of low productive sessile oak-dominated stands. In this respect, a 0.75 ha
plantation, with northern red oak (along with sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and wild cherry (Prunus
avium L.) as dominant tree species was established in the sub-compartment 81B (Forest Management Unit VI
Bodoc, uga Forest District) in 1997.
Four experimental plots were established within the stand in 2007 and 2008, a cleaning-respacing
intervention being performed in each plot in the 2007-2008 winter season. Diameters at breast height, total
heights, and 4 crown radii of all trees within the four plots were measured yearly between 2007 and 2014.
In the spring of 2008, 115 potential final crop trees were selected across the plantation based on the vigorquality-spacing criteria. A cleaning-respacing intervention focused around some of these individuals was
performed in the same spring.
The measurement of the same parameters as above in all potential final crop trees was carried out
yearly between 2008 and 2014.
The main findings of these works are as follows:
a. At plot level
- northern red oak trees had the highest mean diameter increment, followed by sycamore and wild cherry;
- the minimum diameter increment of individual trees was similar in case of all species and plots; the maximum
diameter increment was the highest for northern red oak, followed by sycamore and wild cherry.
b. At potential final crop trees level
- the mean diameter increment of northern red oak was about two times higher than of wild cherry and three
times higher than of sycamore;
Taking into account these results, combined with its high potential of adaptation to climate changes, the
easy natural regeneration by seed and establishment, northern red oak can be easily considered as a tree species
potentially usable on a larger scale in Romania in the future.

44

Forest ecosystem management

MANAGEMENT PATTERNS IN FORESTS RESTITUTED ACCORDING TO LAW


18/1991: A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

Liviu NICHIFOREL, University Stefan cel Mare Suceava


Ionut BARNOAIEA, University Stefan cel Mare Suceava
Ctlina BARBU, University Stefan cel Mare Suceava
Radu CENUSA, University Stefan cel Mare Suceava
Ovidiu IACOBESCU, University Stefan cel Mare Suceava

Abstract: Forest restitution in Romania has been a sensitive issue for politicians, forest practitioners, forest
owners and communities (Lawrence and Szabo 2005). The report done by the National Auditing Court (2012)
characterises the restitution process as chaotic and without long-term vision, generating conflicts (Mantescu
and Vasile, 2009) and opening the room for rent-seeking activities (Nichiforel and Schanz, 2011). The poor
capacity to enforce the forest legislation and to raise awareness on sustainable forest management resulted in
significant environmental damages in private forests (Abrudan et. al, 2009). The forest restitution process
induced a broad scale disturbance with effects in various types of forest ecosystems (Greenpeace 2012; Knorn et
al.,
2012).
Specific reports on the impact of restitution on the situation of the forest ecosystems are scarcely available. Most
studies focused, using mainly statistical data and ministerial reports, on forest restitution facts (Abrudan et al,
2009, Nichiforel, 2007, Ioras and Abrudan, 2006). The effects of forest restitution on land use change become
recently a focus for study (Griffiths et al, 2012; Kuemmerle et al, 2009);
In this context the paper proposes an integrated methodology to assess patterns of forest management
in restituted forest based on satellite images, forest inventories, geographic information systems data and socioeconomic data. The aim of the presented methodology is to enhance the understanding of ecologic, silvicultural
and economic effects deriving from different patterns of management of forests restituted according to the law
18/1991. Its implementation refers to comparing, categorizing and quantifying, using remote sensing tools and
field inventory, structural patterns of management in private forests.
The results are presented as case studies which delineate the directions in which the methodology could
offer information at a broader scale: the evaluation of the current stand structure (Vama, Moldovita, Solca,
Dolhasca), the evaluation of the possible management techniques needed for the reintegration of the stands in
the responsible management system (Moldovita) and the identification of the economic rent resulting from past
management patterns (Vama).

45

Forest ecosystem management

SELECTIVE THINNING: AN ADAPTATION MEASURE FOR EUROPEAN BEECH


FORESTS TO INCREASED SUMMMER DROUGHT

D. Diaconu, Institute of Forest Sciences, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Germany


H.P.Kahle, Institute of Forest Sciences, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Germany
H. Spiecker, Institute of Forest Sciences, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Germany

Abstract: This study investigates the diameter growth response of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) to
different thinning intensities and how the growth response is modified by aspect.
Thinning may modify competition regimes of forest stands and growth response of trees to weather and
climate. Consequently, knowledge of interactions between thinning and climate effects on growth becomes
essential for the selection of alternative silvicultural treatments and forest management options under the
projected global warming. In winter 1998-1999 a selective thinning experiment has been established on two
opposite-exposed slopes north-east(NE) and south-west(SW) of a valley in beech-dominated forest stands in
the Swabian Alb, southwestern Germany. The study area is considered a model ecosystem where the current
climate of the majority of beech forests in Central Europe is represented by the relatively cold and wet NE
aspect, and the future climate projections for the next 50 to 100 years by the relatively warm and dry SW facing
slope. The study is based on growth data from repeated diameter measurements of all trees inside experimental
plots and on retrospective growth data from stem analysis and increment coring of selected sample trees. The
tree- and stand level-analyses cover a 13 years period.
Aspect had a significant effect on the stand diameter increment: diameter growth under warmer climate
(on the SW aspect) is significantly lower. Thinning significantly increased radial growth of the released trees
and enhanced also their resistance and resilience to drought: given the same diameter the thinned trees grew
significantly faster and more when the release intensity was higher. Following the extremely dry and warm year
2003 reduction in radial growth of unthinned trees was larger and recovery of growth after the drought was
slower.
For the future climate scenario with more frequent and intense summer drought, selective thinning at
high intensity can be recommended as an adaptation measure to increase drought resistance of European beech
stands.

Keywords: Thinning, growth resilience, climate change

46

Forest ecosystem management

LONG-TERM MONITORING AND EVALUATING FOREST DYNAMICS: THE


ESTONIAN NETWORK OF FOREST RESEARCH PLOTS
Andres KIVISTE, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Forest Management,
Tartu, Estonia
Maris HORDO, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Forest Management,
Tartu, Estonia
Ahto KANGUR, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Forest Management,
Tartu, Estonia
Anton KARDAKOV, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Forest
Management, Tartu, Estonia
Henn KORJUS, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Forest Management,
Tartu, Estonia
Diana LAARMANN, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Forest
Management, Tartu, Estonia
Ando LILLELEHT, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Forest Management,
Tartu, Estonia
Sandra METSLAID, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Forest
Management, Tartu, Estonia
Allan SIMS, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Forest Management, Tartu,
Estonia

Abstract: Forest research has long tradition in Estonia that can be followed back to 19th century. Data from
long-term forest experiments is available since 1921. These studies were focused mainly on silvicultural
treatments and the data has limited application for understanding and modeling ecological processes.
Long-term data series have unique value in forest research as it is tempting to replace actual time with
chronosequence. Longitudinal studies and chronosequence studies have both several disadvantages in forest
research and may be substituted with an interval study. Permanent sample plots continuously re-measured over
long time periods are valuable source of forest information but they have high costs of maintenance, long
waiting time for results and risk of abandonment in future. Also, rare events cannot be studied only on these
plots. Permanent sample plots can be combined with additional interval plots to study more specific research
questions or rare events.
Department of Forest Management of the Estonian University of Life Sciences has started the Estonian
Network of Forest Research Plots (ENFRP) in 1995. Monitoring plots have been continuously re-measured with
5-year interval. Approximately 100-150 permanent sample plots have been measured annually. In 2013, the
long-term research network consisted of 714 permanent sample plots, of which 699 have been re-measured at
least once, 654 plots - twice and 242 plots - three times. The total number of trees recorded in the network
database amounts to 121,042. The plots are systematically distributed throughout the country. Detailed
measurements including tree locations are part of the survey protocol. Initially the network was set up to
produce suitable data for development of individual tree growth models for Estonia. The network has nowadays
much broader significance for the Estonian forest research as it is recognized as an important research
infrastructure.
The objectives of this paper are: (1) to present the design and methods of ENFRP, (2) to share the experience of
ENFRP and (3) present the data and different studies from ENFRP.

47

Forest ecosystem management

METHODOLOGICAL LINKAGE BALANCED SCORE CARDS AND ANALYTIC


NETWORK PROCESS - MEANS TO IMPROVE THE FOREST MANAGEMENT.
Marian DRAGOI, University of Suceava
Vasile RUSU, University of Suceava
Abstract: The paper is a first attempt to connect two promising methods meant to improve the manner in which a
forest district is producing a feed-back to the multiple signals coming from the economic and ecologic
environment. The novel approach consists in drawing the managerial process as a network, each node being a
source of information for the balanced score card system. Then, having an initial state described by a set of key
performance indicators, the managerial process is being gradually improved, firstly by addressing those
decisions that have a great potential to worsen the KPI and secondly by addressing those decisions able to
improve KPIs. The weights of potential treats and opportunities associated to each decision are assessed
through the ANP method and these weights can be further used to improve the employees' capacity to provide
new feed-backs to the signals collected by the balanced score card system assumed to be functional. The
theoretical background of the two analytical tools is presented in the first section, followed by a theoretical casestudy based on some factual information provided by Suceava subsidiary of the National Forest Administration
ROMSILVA. Results, discussion and conclusions highlight the manners in which the forest management may
address some aspects completely neglected by the actual decision-making process which pursue only financial
aspects. An important conclusion which has been also drawn refers to the whole information system beneath the
decision-making process, which shall be enhanced in some respects, for being able to render more information,
on the one hand. On the other hand, some of the results we have attained suggest that a great deal of information
handled by the information system is useless, not even redundant, and collecting it is simply a waste of human
resources.

DYNAMIC FOOTPRINT MODEL FOR FOREST FEEDBACK ASSESSMENT AT


THE SMEAR ESTONIA STATION

Steffen M. Noe, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and


Environmental Sciences, Dept. of Plant Physiology, Tartu, Estonia
Ahto Kangur, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural
Engineering, Dept. of Forest Management, Tartu, Estonia,
Dmitrii Krasanov, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and
Environmental Sciences, Dept. of Plant Physiology, Tartu, Estonia
Alisa Krasanova, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and
Environmental Sciences, Dept. of Plant Physiology, Tartu, Estonia
Azimeh Motallebi, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural
Engineering, Dept. of Forest Management, Tartu, Estonia,
Abstract: Interdisciplinary research on forest ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been a a leading research
topic within last decade in Estonia. Starting at 2008, these activities have been set as one of national priority
areas and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station
in Estonia. This research station is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research
infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. Its core is located in
the Jrvselja Training and Experimental Forestry Center in Jrvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem
and atmospheric research activities are conducted.
We present an dynamic footprint area assessment with the focus on the hemiboreal forest ecosystem at
the SMEAR Estonia site. The estimation of the source area of the flux measured on site varies depending on the
local wind direction and the sources of turbulence. The SMEAR Estonia is surrounded with very heterogeneous
forest stands by the tree species composition but also with the vertical stand structure. The Southern and SouthWestern winds are prevailing throughout of the growing season. The terrain in the footprint is flat in general,
but with several openings in the forest canopy. For the large tower, the estimated footprint area will cover a
2300 m radius range.

48

Forest ecosystem management

APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING FOR MANAGEMENT OF


NINEVAH FOREST STANDS IN NORTH IRAQ

Mohammed Younis Salim AL- ALLAF, Department of Forestry/ College of Agriculture and
Forestry/ University of Mosul/ Mosul/ Iraq

Abstract: Dynamic Programming approach was used to solve the rotation and thinning problems 0f Platanus
orientalis L. stands management the system of clear cutting harvest with or without thinning treatment at
different stand ages, so the best management alternative combination were selected in order to reach best
satisfying decision to meet the objectives. We considered the possibility of thinning at either age 4 to 6 years
using thinning 20% of stand trees, the second thinning treatments at age age 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11year by applying
same thinning percentage 20% of stand trees and the final harvest was done at age of 14years. Since there were
9 possible combinations for both first and second thinning treatments also one possible combination for the final
harvest. This results shown the best alternatives in each of the three suggested stages, and in general by
calculated the net revenues in each routes.

Keywords: Dynamic Programming, Forest management, Thinning, Ninevah plantations.

CONSTRUCTION OF SITE INDEX EQUATION FOR EVEN AGED STANDS OF


PINUS BRUTIA TEN. FROM NORTHERN OF IRAQI

Muzahem Saeed YOUNUS, College of Agriculture and Forestry University of Mosul Iraqi

Abstract: Site index used by the foresters as a reliable measure for productivity evolution . The need for
developing site index functions for plantation growth Pinus brutia Ten. Stands of natural of growing , was keenly
felt by local foresters since long for the ultimate purpose of improving plantation management planning
activities.
This study was , based on measurement of dominant height in temporary plots , In field data collection
two plantation VIZ. Zawata , and Atrowsh .
We covered assuming that they well represented the average growth conditions, from each of these
plantation, stratified random sample was taken , using age as the basis of stratification , In all (33, 28 ) for
Zawata, and Atrowsh respectively , the temporary plots of each ( 10 * 10) m in area , dominant height were
measured, while age data for the sample plot taken by using increment borer.
Different growth models tested , was adopted to calculated the regression procedures, to therefore ,
dominant height growth equation was developed, from equation , dominant heights were calculated by ( 5) year
age classes from ( 10) to ( 60) years , the dominant heights corresponding to base of ( 55) proved an estimate of
site index .

Keywords : site index , Pinus brutia Ten., growing stock , Allometric equation

49

Forest ecosystem management

BIOLOGICAL RULE OF SHORT ROTATION POPULUS NIGRA PLANTATION IN


ENVIRONMENTAL EQUILIBRIUM
Ammar Jasim MOHAMMED, College of agriculture and forestry / Mosul Unversity IRAQ

Abstract: This study has been conducted of irrigated Populus nigra plantation in Warso village Zakho
Governorate of Dohuk at the Northern part of Iraq . The aims were to determine the dry weights biomass for
different tree and stand parameters above ground surface ; in order to gain a clear view on carbon stock
retainer for different tree for different tree parts.
The basic data of this study were collected from the stands according to the Stratified Random
Sampling through felling of 30 poplar trees whose parts , above ground surface , were weighted in addition to
sub samples from each whole tree parameters in order to prepare estimating dry weights . By using the data and
different available regression methods within Statgraphics program system , it become possible to prepare
different tree parameters biomass forecasting equations . These equations were tested according to different
precision measures viz ; Adjusted Determination Coefficient , Standard Error , Ohtomo test , Furnival index
and Residual Analysis Test. Access at best equation to estimating carbon stock retainer .
Keyword : carbon stock , biomass , growing stock , Allometric equation

EFFECT OF BORON, SUCROSE CONCENTRATIONS AND CUTTINGS AGES ON


ROOTING ABILITY OF LAGERSTROEMIA INDICA SOFTWOOD CUTTINGS
A. O. ATTRAQCHI, College of Agric. & Forestry, University of Mosul Faculty of Agric.
Forestry, University of Duhok
J. A. SADEEQ, College of Agric. & Forestry, University of Mosul Faculty of Agric.
Forestry, University of Duhok
Abstract: This study was carried out in the greenhouse of Horticulture Department, College of Agriculture /
Duhok University, to study the influence of cutting ages, sucrose and boron concentrations on rooting ability of
softwood cuttings of Lagerstroemia indica softwood cuttings. Hence, factorial experiment was conducted by
using the Complete Randomized Block Design. Each treatment was replicated three times with eight cuttings for
each replicate. The results summarized as follows:
Softwood cuttings treated with 100 mg.l-1 boron gave significantly best results of rooting percentage 78.05%,
roots number 12.78 roots/cutting, roots fresh weight 160.0 mg/cutting, shoots number 0.84 shoots/cutting and
shoots length 14.11 cm. Cuttings treated with 10% sucrose gave significantly higher rooting percentage 89.6%
roots number 14.99 roots/cutting, longest root length 7.01 cm, fresh and dry weight of roots 183.6 and 27.3
mg/cutting, respectively; furthermore, best results were of vegetative growth. Shoots taken as cuttings after 4
weeks from bud break gave best results of rooting percentage 95.83%, roots number 17.77 root/ cutting and
longest root length 8.42 cm, in addition to shoots number and length per cutting. In general, the best results
obtained when Lagerstroemia indica propagated by shoots taken as cutting after 4 and 5 weeks from bud burst
treated with 100 mg.l-1 boron and 10% sucrose.

50

Forest ecosystem management

FOREST CERTIFICATION IN ROMANIA: THE VIEW OF THE EXPERTS


Aureliu- Florin HLLIAN, Departament of Silviculture, Transilvania University of
Braov, Romania,
Mihai MARINCHESCU, Departament of Silviculture, Transilvania University of Braov,
Romania
Abstract: FSC certification has become a interest topic for the forest managers and companies in Romania.
Using NVivo 10 software in coding and organizing data from the questionnaires provided by specialists in forest
certification (auditors/consultants), we tried to make a qualitative analysis regarding the perception of the forest
certification process in Romania. Thus, after the qualitative analysis, the result was that the main reason for the
adoption of FSC certification in Romania, indicated by experts, is the demand for certified products, especially
on external markets. The main problems in obtaining FSC certificate can be grouped into three categories: lack
of information about the forest certification scheme, financial problems and FSC standard requirements
(infringement of legal provisions may result in non-compliance with the FSC standard). Specialists, frequently,
consider that certification needs recognition from authorities. Financial stimulated in the past (by Order
578/2006- Methodology for calculating contributions and taxes owed to the Fund for the Environment it is
established that the certified operator does not pay 1% contribution to the Fund), the forest certification needs
now recognition. Also, forest certification become more imoprtant in achieving of the Regulation 995/2010 and
both have a common point: justifying the timber origin. The interviewed experts consider FSC certification a
concept in the short and medium term development, and the simplification of procedures and incentives, is as
basic conditions for the expansion and for the qualitative evolution of this voluntary tool.

Key words: FSC certification, qualitative analysis, experts

DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALITY OF STANDS OF PINE AND


BLACK PINE INSTALLED ON DAMAGED LANDS IN SUBCARPATIANS FROM
BUZAUS AREA
Ciprian Valentin SILVESTRU-GRIGORE, Transilvania University of Braov, Romania
Gheorghe SPRCHEZ, Transilvania University of Braov, Romania
Abstract: Studying the behavior of forestry ecosystems installed on the demaged lands is one of the current
issues because the forest plays an important role in improving and restoring demaged or destroyed soil by
erosion and other degradation processes, and lately human activities exert pronounced pressure on the forest by
deforestation, habitat fragmentation and conversion of the lands for other purposes.
This paper presents the result of research aimed at studying the dimensional characteristics and quality
of stands of pine and black pine installed on demaged lands in Subcarpatians from Buzaus area. Were placed in
these areas stands forty samples of 500 sqm each and analysed : distribution of the number of trees in diameter
classes, the height distribution of diameter classes, distribution Kraft tree classes, the slenderness coefficient
etc., separately on age class. In light of these characteristics was analysed the behavior of these stands in time
and have issued the recomandations croll work necessary care.

Keywords: demaged lands, the forestry ecosystems behavior, dimensional characteristics.

51

Forest ecosystem management

FOREST MANAGEMENT IN ROMANIA: FREQUENT PROBLEMS AND


EXPECTATIONS
Mihai MARINCHESCU, Departament of Silviculture, Transilvania University of Braov,
Romania
Aureliu- Florin HLLIAN, Departament of Silviculture, Transilvania University of
Braov, Romania,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to describe the situation of forest management in Romania and to highlight
the most frequently problems and expectations of the forest district managers. The obtained results rely on the
statistic indicators used in Romanian forestry and on the results of a sociologic survey resorting to the opinions
of 345 forest-district managers. In early 2013, over 4.4 million hectares of both State-owned, public and private
forest fund were administered by state forest districts and experimental forest districts, and over 1.7 million
hectares of forest fund, other than State-owned, by private forest districts. Note that approximately 0.4 million
hectares (over 5 % of Romanias forest area) are not administered, contrary to the legal provisions in force. The
most frequent problems faced by forest-district managers arise in the relation with forest owners or are caused
by illegal logging. Real, concrete problems faced by foresters and especially the structure and ownership-related
characteristics of the national forest fund must underlie the legislative changes in the forestry sector.
Key words: administration, ownership, private forest district, Romania
Acknowledgment: This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources
Development (SOP HRD), ID134378 financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian
Government.

THE ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FOREST PLANNING IN R.


MOLDOVA
Vladislav GRATI, Forest Research and Management Institute, Republic of Moldova
Eric PROSII, Forest Research and Management Institute, Republic of Moldova

Abstract: the application of the provisions of the forest planning and the future making decision- makes
absolutely necessary the analysis of implementation and copyright compliance.
The implementation of forest planning is necessary for colleagues who work in the manufacturing
sector.
According to the correct application of treatment, care, administration and regeneration depends the future of
the forest. On the basis of "Moldsilva" Agency order No. 12 from January 2014 regarding to the works of the
review of the implementation of forestry planning has made the decision to carry out the work of the analysis the
implementation of forestry planning. It was elaborated a guide which provides the execution step-by-step of the
works. The analyses will allow amending decisions in the middle of the Decade of the work originally designed.
Application of grove system in the past and the need for conversion to forests strictly enforce the provisions of
forest management planning through large-scale promotion of natural seed regeneration in particular cvercinee in
the trees partly derivative and total derivative is practiced successfully under massive artificial seeding with
seeds collected from the trees of cvercinee located in the vicinity.
In the context of the promotion of a silviculture with multiple aims, the sustainable development of the
forestry sector requires observance of the forest but also of the international conventions to which the Republic
of Moldova has adhered. The analyses shall be carried out every 5 years are welcome to be involved for the
purpose of modifying the decennial plan, etc.
The analyses of forest implementation will have a positive impact on sustainable development of forest
stands and will emphasize the promotion of fundamental natural type.

52

Forest ecosystem management

STATE OF FORESTS AND NECESSITY OF IMPROVEMENT OF FOREST


HOUSEHOLDS IN SOUTHERN MOLDOVA

Eric Prosii, Forest Research and Management Institute, Republic of Moldova


Vladislav Grati, Forest Research and Management Institute, Republic of Moldova
Abstract: Forests in southern Moldova consists primarily of stands of pedunculate oak and downy oak with a
very low percentage of sessile oak, adapted to poor environmental conditions less favorable for forest
vegetation.
According to scientific studies and existing information of Forest Planning, most of the forests in this area
represent an advanced state of decay. The surface of natural-founded stands, which share of only 15%, is
continuously reducing, its place being taken by artificial arborist stands that share about 65%, especially those
based on acacia. Along with reduction of natural-founded arboristic stands, their capacity of regeneration
naturally from seed is also losing. Artificial interventions based on applying restoration or substitution works
are necessary in almost all forests oaks.
In last decades, the surface of southern forests has grown through works for expansion of forest fund
(around 15 thousand ha). On the majority of afforested grounds was used acacia, species with the advantage of
relatively little effort to establish a massive state, but which in most conditions of given area its longevity is
reduced, being affected at early ages, forming natural "graveyards".
Fallowing the work of forest management in the South of the country, it is necessary to advisable assign
goals for households and functions for brushes, in this way directing planification and execution of differentiated
forestry works according to established goals. The current implementation of conservation works, which boils
down to thinning natural forest stands and full extraction of timber from the acacia ones, will not be a successful
state for forming future stands. Setting judicious arrangement of ecological restorations methods represents
foundation for success of any intervention. Introduction of a differentiated management of acacia, starting
recovery works through applying intensive treatments in valuable forests, must be a part of qualitative forest
management and a household oriented towards achieving planning and implementation of modern methods and
technologies.

53

Forest ecosystem management

INVESTIGATION OF EFFICACY OF SOME INSECTICIDES FOR CONTROL OF


STEREONYCHUS FRAXINI DE GEER

Milan DREKI, Instutute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad,
Serbia,
Leopold POLJAKOVI PAJNIK, Instutute of Lowland Forestry and Environment,
University of Novi Sad, Serbia
Verica VASI, Instutute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad,
Serbia
Branislav KOVAEVI, Instutute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi
Sad, Serbia
Miroslav MARKOVI, Instutute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi
Sad, Serbia

Abstract : Ash weevil is one of the most important insect defoliators of ashes. Mass occurrence of ash weevil
often cause long-term severe defoliation of ashes that lead to reduced growth, and it is even more important to
have the effect of physiological decline and to create preconditions for the emergence of secondary pest. Paper
present the examination results of chemical suppression of larvae and adults of ash weevil. The aim of the study
was to explore the application of some insecticides for the control of this insect.
In a laboratory experiment, we studied the efficacy of the insecticide thiamethoxam, thiacloprid,
bifenthrin and fenthion on ash weevil adults. The laboratory experiment was established in four replications with
20 adults per replication. The field experiment was tested the efficacy of the insecticide thiacloprid, bifenthrin
and fenthion for suppression of larvae. The experiment was set up in the forest Branjevina in a randomized
block design with four replications.
Insecticides based on active ingredients fenthion, thiamethoxam and bifenthrin caused high mortality
of ash weevil adults. We found a high efficacy of insecticides based on active ingredients of fenthion, bifenthrin
and thiacloprid in suppressing ash weevil larvae. Results are recommendation for application of these
insecticides against ash weevil.
Key words: Stereonychus fraxini , ash , insecticides , efficacy
Acknowledgment: This study was conducted under the support of the Ministry of Education, Science and
Technological development of Republic of Serbia, through project III 43007.

54

Forest ecosystem management

ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


WITHIN THE NATIONAL PARK ORHEI
Aliona MIRON, Nicolae TALP, Forest Research and Management Institute, Republic of
Moldova
Alexandru ROTARU, United Nations Development Programme, Republic of Moldova
Abstract: National Park Orhei (PNO) was created as a necessity of maintenance, conservation and rational use
of biological diversity and of unique natural complexes on an area of 33,8 thousand ha in the central area of the
country.
In order to achieve the objectives for which this protected area was established, the pilot project ClimaEast Moldova: Sustainable management of pastures and community forests in Moldovas first National Park
Orhei is implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) during 2013-2016. The projects
objective is to demonstrate a model of natural resource management in the pastures and forests of Moldova
which improves ecosystems capacity in carbon sequestration in conditions of climate risks, and at the same time
maintaining biodiversity and economic values.
The project activities are focused on community pastures (5.9 thousand ha) and forest lands (1.3
thousand ha) within the PNO and its buffer zone for which studies on their current state (stationary conditions,
vegetation, productivity, limiting factors, current pasture cattle support, calculating carbon stock, etc.) were
carried out.
Based on field researches it can be stated that the greatest influence on the state of grass vegetation and
productivity of pastures has anthropic factors, especially lack of maintenance works, inappropriate use of
pastures, grazing over the allowable limits, the cumulative effect of these factors, intensified by limiting factors
of soil (surface and depth erosion). Another important issue that defines state and productivity of pastures is
insufficient application of silvopastoral practices. Most pastures are devoid of forest protection belts and the
tree groups creating shade for both vegetation cover and animals.
Based on studies the technological measures on pasture (surface works, over seeding etc.) and
community forests improvement (regeneration works, forestry treatment and cleaning cuttings) have been
developed, which will be included in silvopastoral management plans and forest management plans. All these
represent practical solutions for sustainable land management taking into consideration biodiversity
conservation and economic value increase.
The accumulation of new scientific knowledge regarding the relations between the climate and the forest
ecosystems is essential when assessing vegetation responses to future climate changes. To achieve that, a
network of 18 tree-ring chronologies of Norway spruce (Picea abies) from the Eastern Carpathians (Romania),
distributed along a latitudinal and altitudinal transect, was used in order to highlight the temporal variability of
the relationships between low and high elevation chronologies and air temperature.
In order to use a homogeneous set of climatic data it was used the climatic database with a 0.5x0.5
resolution CRU TS 3. The trees radial growth reaction to climate variation (temperature and precipitation) was
analyzed by means of the response functions. To identify temporal variability of regional patterns in the climatic
response of the Norway spruce growth network we used the redundancy analysis (RDA) calculated for different
time periods.
The response to climate of Norway spruce in the Eastern Carpathians vary with stands elevation,
classified as follows: low altitudes 1000 m; intermediate altitudes = 1000 -1300 m and high altitudes 1300
m. The climatic variables that play the most significant role in Norway spruce's radial growth in the Eastern
Carpathians are the air temperature in June and July during the growing season and previous October air
temperature. At high elevations tree-ring growth responds positively to air temperatures in current June, July,
and previous October, while at low elevations the response is negative. The temperature thresholds at which the
climatic positive/negative response of the trees changes are of approximately 13C-13.5C average temperature
in June and of 15.5C-16C in July. These temperature thresholds, in June and July, correspond to an average
elevation of 1000-1100 m a.s.l. Relationship between the air temperature in June and July during the growing
season and previous October air temperature and Norway spruce radial growth are relatively stable in time
regarding the direction of influence, but the intensity of correlation and temperature thresholds varies.
In Maramure region, between 1984 and 2002, C. parasitica have infected 73.7% of chestnut stands
(35.1% were severely affected). In 2005, 85% of chestnut stands had week vitality and in 2012 all mature forest
trees (from untreated stands) have been destroyed by C. parasitica (some old trees still survive only by several
epicormic branch / sprout). Chestnut forest survived by natural regeneration of stool-shoots and (in lower rate)
seedlings. Sessile oak has been also infected (in mixed stands with chestnut), but fungus produced only cankers,

55

Forest ecosystem management

rare branch or (suppressed) tree dying. Between 2005-2008 biological control of C. parasitica has been tested
in Baia Mare region. Stand recovery after biologic treatment has been checked in 2012-2014. Natural
regeneration of chestnut is completely healed in parcels subject of three years consecutively treatments (3-7
treatments), in other parcels healing process is intermediate. Untreated old forests are dead and their
regeneration is successive killed by the pathogen.

EVALUATION OF REFORESTATION PROJECTS IN THE WILAYA OF


MASCARA (WESTERN ALGERIA)
Benamar BELGHERBI, Laboratory on go-environment and development space
Abstract: Since the independance, the Wilaya of Mascara (western Algeria) has benefited from several projects
of reforestation; some of them aim to the forest expansion; others are carried out on bared lands.
Evaluation of reforestation projects carried out during the period from 2000 to 2012 in various programs (Rural
Employment Project-PER and sectoral development project-PSD) over an area of 1,974 ha has revealed that
most of the plantations were examined registered a failure with the exception of a few plantations.
The average failure rate for the four districts is estimated to 63.50%. Losses are evaluated in areas 1 328 ha
with a rate of 67.27% and a plant number 2 052 031. The causes of this decline are various (fire, grazing,
clearing,...) but we reckon that reforestation techniques are far from being mastered by the officers concerned
and by fulfilling businesses. Personal training and become an absolute necessity in this area.
Keywords: Causes of decadence, Evaluation, Mascara, Planting density, Reforestation.

RESEARCH ON THE STEREONYCHUS FRAXINI L. INSECT (COLEOPTERA,


CURCULIONIDAE) AND THE DAMAGES PRODUCED BY THIS WEEVIL ON
THE ASH LEAVES
Tatiana BLAGA, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Branch Bacau
Ioana GAFENCO, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Branch Bacau
Abstract: The lack of balance caused in the forest ecosystems due to the influence of some climatic and
anthropic factors has materialized in the occurrence of some defoliation of insect gradations among which a
Stereonychus fraxini L. The protection work represented one of the main ways to prevent and control some forest
pests to assure a good health of the forest.
The main object of the research is to bring contributions to the knowledge under any aspects of the
Stereonychus fraxini insect species implicated in the drying of the ash tree in our.
Stereonychus fraxini is a dangerous pest for forests and ash tree plantations, especially through early defoliation
when the adults and the larvae attack in the same time the buds and the young leaves.
Stereonychus fraxini was mistaken in many cases with Cionus fraxini and was systematically classified in the
Curculionidae family, Macininae subfamily, Cionini tribe, Stereonychus Suffrian gender.
The pest was described morphologically insisting over the diagnose characters. Stereonychus fraxini
has on the tarsus with two unequal claws. The larva passes through five ages in order of the cephalic capsule.
The ash tree leaves pest causes damage in the larvae state as well as in the adult stage and it has two
generations per year. The development and behaviour state in nature was studied, resulting that the development
stages from the two generations over lap making it practically impossible to establish an exact date of the flight
periods of these two generations.
The population density was established for each permanent control area by year and generation,
finding out that in all the cases the second generation was smaller than the first and as a result the defoliation
was considerably smaller.
Parasites were identified with a significant role in population reduction in pupae stage, like Entedon
cannabis from Eulophidae family, Chalcidoide subfamily and Gelis species from the Ichneumonidae family. The
parasitation was reduced ( 9-15%).
The studies will contribute to the enrichment of our knowledge about the entomofauna of our country in
general and the new practical methods of tracking and reduction of population and the damages caused by this
pest.

56

Forest ecosystem management

CHAMAECYPARIS LAWSONIANA (MURR) PARL., PINUS STROBUS L. I


THUJA PLICATA D. DON - THREE SPECIES WITH A GREAT POTENTIAL FOR
OUR COUNTRY'S FORESTS
Ioana GAFENCO, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Branch Bacau
Tatiana BLAGA, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Branch Bacau

Abstract: Porpose .Bringing to light of three valuable exotic species (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Parl., Pinus
strobus L. i Thuja plicata D. Don) into the place of origin and who have shown great potential in terms of
growth since their introduction in the Hemeiusi Arboretum, to acclimatization.
Hemeiusi Arboretum is included in the ecological subregion B3 - Bistrita Tarcau, located at the western
limit of the Moldavian Plateau, on the interference with Moldova Subcarpathians, on the terrace of the right
bank of the river Bistrita. The area occupied by the Arboretum falls into the moderate continental climate region
of hills and plateaus. Geographical position of the Arboretum creates a specific microclimate, more arid. The
Arboretum was created in 1880, by arranging a meadow openly, in the pure and mixed sessile with oaks and
mixed foliage.
First attempts at acclimatization of the three species, in the Hemeiusi Arboretum, have been made since
1900 - Pinus strobus L., 1910 - Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr) Parl. and 1958 - Thuja plicata D. Don. In
1969 were created comparative cultures with these species originating from North America, along with other
exotic and native species.
To install this comparative cultures was used forest reproductive material of origin Dofteana Bacau
for Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr) Parl. and Thuja plicata D. Don. and from the west of North America for
Pinus strobus L.
The observation goal at 45 years after planting is to establish the current qualitative and quantitative
performance of wood, the aesthetic qualities and resistance to abiotic and biotic pests.
Conclusions from measurements and observations would be in a win on many levels and could lead
to the expansion of these species in experimental forest areas.

AVAILABLE POTASSIUM IN SOILS FROM FOREST NURSERIES EVALUATED


USING TWO DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS
Carmen Iacoban, Forest Research and Management Institute, Station Campulung
Moldovenesc, Calea Bucovinei, 73 bis, 725100 Romania
Abstract: Available potassium is one of the most important parameters for evaluation of soil fertility in
nurseries. In practice, the classes of soil fertility for nurseries with acid soils in Romania were established
considering the values of mobile potassium determined by extraction with a solution of ammonium chloride 0.4
N. But the extraction with ammonium lactate-acetate solution is widely used in present in international studies
and also has the advantage that allow the determination of available phosphorus in the same extract. In order to
compare the values for available potassium obtained using the two different extraction solutions, soil samples
collected from forest nurseries located in the Suceava County were analysed. The results were highly correlated.
For the studied soil samples analysed, the values obtained with the two extraction methods are very similar, so
the method with ammonium lactate-acetate can replace with success the method with ammonium chloride.
The new role of forest ecosystems in current time is related to their very important and significant
ability to capture carbon. This unique role is strongly related to the sylvicultural activities which leading to the
improvement of photosynthetic activity of forest stand canopy and to prevent forest soil to loss the carbon.
Pumping of the carbon form atmosphere to biomass san soil is strongly related to the carbon fluxes balance
betwee the forest stand and surrounding atmosphere. Using eddy coveraicen tower network the carbon capture
of different forest stands is investigated and potential effects of sylvicultural practices (thinning) are examined.
Thus it is evident that active sylvicultural techniques are reflected by the increased carbon flux into forest
stand It means that forestry could play extremely important role in the landscape carbon balance and thus,
new forest ecosystems service activity is available.

57

Forests in the service of society

Section 3:
Forests in the service of
society

58

Forests in the service of society

THE INFLUENCE OF SOIL CONDITIONS ON THE ALLOMETRY OF YOUNG


NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES [L.] KARST.) TREES
Ioan DUTCA, Transilvania University of Brasov; Buckinghamshire New University
Ioan Vasile ABRUDAN, Transilvania University of Brasov
Florin IORAS, Buckinghamshire New University
Liviu Alexandru CIUVAT, Forest Management and Research Institute

Abstract: Despite of the general invariant scaling laws in allometry, the empirical data in the literature shows a
large variation of the allometric exponents. Thus, tree allometry was found to vary with tree species, site and
position of the tree within the stand. Nevertheless, no studies showing how soil influences tree allometry have
been published yet. In this paper, we have assessed the impact of soil properties on allometric relationship for
young Norway spruce trees planted on non-forest lands in Eastern Carpathians of Romania. Using the mixedeffects modeling and also partial correlations between residuals of biometric based models and the soil
properties, we identified those soil properties that have a significant influence on the biomass allometric
relationship. The results showed that the pH, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and also the hummus, carbon and
nitrogen content, affected significantly the allometry of the trees. However, no influence was recorded from
cation exchange capacity, base and hydrogen saturation. The results of this study are very likely to influence
further studies to include soil properties in biomass prediction models, with direct impact on improving the
prediction performance of the allometric models.

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE CONTEMPORARY ROMANIAN FOREST LEGAL


RULES
Viorel-Gheorghe MARINESCU, Transilvania University of Brasov

Abstract: "Reform" has become, in contemporary Romanian, the obsessive word which is part of each program
of the parties/coalitions that reach the government after 1989 and aimed, perpetual (!), most (not to say all)
cultural, social and economic fields.
In the nearly twenty-five years elapsed after the change of the political regime, the forestry was also the
task of the permanent reform (!), which is, in many cases, undesirable and unfavorable.
Taking in considerations this undeniable (and unfortunate!) reality, a research was made on specific legal
system (forest legislation), which is an essential tool in any activity for the macroeconomic reform.
The research is carried out in stages, on the following categories of subjects of the normative system:
The Forest State Authority;
The forest owners;
The forest administrators;
Economic operators in the logging and primary wood processing;
Service providers in the field of forestry;
Specialists in foestry designing
The purpose of the research is to identify the causes of failures in the reform of this system (known as
the most effective treatment is to eliminate the causes of the unwanted effects, not the "mitigation" of the effects)
and to have, by this way, arguments, supported scientifically, for the dialogue with State Authorities in the
process of "participation in the decision."
This paper presents the results of Phase I of the research, respectively the results of the research in the
category of subjects" The forest administrators", subcategory "Private forest districts".

59

Forests in the service of society

FORESTRY AND NATURAL PROTECTED AREAS RELEVANCE, BENEFITS


AND THREATS
Viorela Marcu, Transilvania University of Braov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest
Engineering, Department of Forest Engineering, Romania
Stelian Alexandru Borz, Transilvania University of Braov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest
Engineering, Department of Forest Engineering, Romania
Rudolf Alexandru Derczeni, Transilvania University of Braov, Faculty of Silviculture and
Forest Engineering, Department of Forest Engineering, Romania
Lucian Dinc, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania

Abstract: Many sectors of activity, including forestry, are regarded as traditions, while balancing the interests of
different industries with those of nature conservation have became a permanent preoccupation of scientists
around the world, including Romania. In our study we aimed to evaluate the role of forestry and wood
procurement in natural protected areas by considering an ecosystem services oriented approach, developed,
mainly, on three key aspects: the resource relevance within the ecosystem, who benefits from ecosystem services
and who threatens the ecosystem services. For this purpose, we used a questionnaire developed within the COST
action FP 1203 based on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services which was delivered to
21 protected areas managers from Romania, who were asked to answer to a set of questions by giving relevance
scores on a Likert scale. Based on the answers to questionnaire, we conducted a statistical analysis which
revealed that in the case of provisioning services, the wood is still appreciated, mostly as an energy source fact
which probably could be correlated with the use as firewood in surrounding rural areas. Also, we found out that
the forestry sector in one of the main stakeholders benefiting from forest ecosystem services, while stakeholders
threatening the ecosystem services are mostly those related to recreational activities. Given the results, we used
the additional information collected through questionnaires in order to deepen the knowledge about the role of
forestry in the analyzed protected areas and we found out that forestry plays an important role in local economy,
by employing people and generating revenue. However, it seems that illegal activities and law disobeying in
various sectors of activity are the main causes threatening the ecosystem services in the studied areas.
Keywords: natural protected areas, forestry, relevance, benefits, threats

60

Forests in the service of society

HYDROLOGICAL REGIM OF HARMAN MARSH, A NATURA 2000 SITE IN THE


SOUTH - EASTERN CARPATHIANS

Nicu Constantin TUDOSE, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania


Serban Octavian DAVIDESCU, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Cezar UNGUREAN, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Andrei ADORJANI, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Adriana Agafia DAVIDESCU, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Abstract: Harman Marsh is a small wetland (5.34 ha), included in a larger Natura 2000 site also comprising
Lempes Hill. The site is located 18 km north from Brasov City inside its metropolitan area, in the residential
area of Harman village. Geomorphologically, the marsh is located in the center of the Brasov Depression (N450
43' E250 39'), the biggest intermountain depression of the southeastern Carpathians. The research is a part of
a LIFE project, founded by the European Commission, which will be completed in 2018. The project aims to
enhance the conservation status and the natural processes from Natura 2000 sites "Padurea si mlastinile eutrofe
de la Prejmer" (ROSCI0170) and "Dealul Cetatii Lempes - Mlastina Harman (ROSCI0055)".
We sought answer two questions: (1) which is the direction and speed of groundwater flow?, (2) which is the
depth of groundwater related to topographical surface? To answer these questions we drilled 12 shallow wells
(100-252 cm) where the water level was periodically measured (summer - fall 2013). For this period maximum
rainfall recoded was 50 mm, whilst daily potential evapotranspiration varied between 2.26 and 5.21 mm and
average daily temperature varied between 12 to 26 Co. Flow direction is from SW to NE and is influenced by the
hydrological network from Harman marsh. Average speed of groundwater flow in marsh area is estimated at 5.6
cm/hour and it shows a high variability thus: minimum speed is less than 1 cm/hour in the western part of
marsh, and the maximum assess speed is 75 cm/hour in the eastern part to the marsh. The amplitude of
groundwater level varied between 11 cm from 56 cm.
Groundwater flow it very low and human activities near the marsh (especially in the North West part)
influences water quantity and quality
Key words: marsh, rainfall, groundwater, temperature

ANALYSIS OF TREE DYNAMICS


Jaroslav Kolak, Safe Tree, Czech Republic
Andrea Szrdov, Safe Tree, Czech Republic
Abstract: Stability of individual trees and their canopies is being intensively studied since midst of last century.
With development of new techniques various methods for tree stability assessment are available. The most
common approach was use of the pulling test, which is considered as a static process. However, the tree
movement is a dynamic action. Because of this several teams tend to measure the natural movement of trees
using accelerometers within last ten years. More approaches are being used for data analysis and the most
common is FFT (Fast Fourier Transform). Additional approach of data processing is a statistic analysis, where
the crucial point is to find relevant parameters.
Paper deals with approaches to statistic analysis of long term data sets from accelerometers installed
on solitary trees, definition of possible parameters for analysis and comparison with assessment by FFT.
Key words: tree dynamics, arboriculture, device-supported tree testing, accelerometers

61

Forests in the service of society

LINKING THE EMPIRICALLY-BASED FOREST GROWTH MODEL MASSIMO


AND THE LITTER DECOMPOSITION MODEL YASSO07
Markus DIDION, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL
Abstract: For the second commitment period (CP) of the Kyoto Protocol, new guidelines were established on
accounting of activities related to land use, land use change and forestry. A-priori, a forest management
reference level (FMRL) had to be established for the period of the 2nd CP. Countries could construct FMRLs
using models to simulate a business-as-usual scenario. For methodological consistency, the same models need to
be used for the annual accounting of forest management activities during the 2nd CP. This poses several
challenges including a modeling approach to account for the effect of forest management on the total carbon
budget of forests comprising living and dead biomass as well as soil. To meet the reporting criteria, Switzerland
developed a modeling framework by linking the empirically-based forest growth model MASSIMO and the litter
decomposition model Yasso07.
In this study we pursue several objectives: Firstly, we present the framework and validate the approach
using data from the recent national forest inventory (NFI). Secondly, we apply the framework to estimate the
carbon balance for the starting year of the 2nd CP and we explore the impact of alternative management
scenarios on future forest conditions. Lastly, we identify limitations and challenges of the framework such as
time series consistency with previous accounting under the guidelines for the 1st CP.
We found that the simulated dynamics in the living biomass and the decomposition of deadwood agreed
well with observations. For 2013, the first year of the 2nd CP, the revised methodology results in a total carbon
sink of Swiss forests of -2.63 Tg CO2 compared to -2.28 Tg CO2 which were obtained using the methodology of
the 1st CP. The simulations of alternative forest management scenarios suggest that there is only a small
potential for further increasing the sink effect in the short term, which is due to the current high living biomass
stocks. In the mid- and long-term management can modify the potential of Swiss forests to sequester carbon
more significantly. We could demonstrate the strength of the new modeling framework and also identified some
limitations such as the assumption of a constant forest area.

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFECTS ACHIEVED IN WATERSHEDS


WITH WATER AND FOREST RESTORATIONS

Santiago Fbregas Reigosa, ETSI Montes, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid


Pablo Huelin Rueda, ETSI Montes, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid
Juan ngel Mintegui Aguirre, ETSI Montes, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid
Jos Carlos Robredo Snchez, ETSI Montes, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid
Jos Luis Garca Rodrguez, ETSI Montes, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid
Abstract: In many mountain regions of Europe in the last century, water and forest restoration works were
carried out in order to improve its physical state. With it, it was tried to avoid or reduce the triggering of natural
risks. In Spain works of this nature were carried out in their mountain ranges. This document shows works
carried out in a watershed in the Aragonese Pyrenees, close to the France border, in the first half of the 20th
century. Also, it tries to estimate relying in the methodologythe effects that the restoration achievedregarding the
protection before natural risks.

62

Forests in the service of society

ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PROVIDED BY BLACK LOCUST (ROBINIA


PSEUDACACIA L.) PLANTATIONS IN SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA
Alexandru Liviu CIUV, Forest Research and Managemnt Institute Bucharest
Viorel BLUJDEA, Forest Research and Managemnt Institute Bucharest
Ioan Vasile ABRUDAN, Transilvania University of Brasov
Ilie Silvestru Nu, Segarcea Forest District
Filofteia Negruiu, Transilvania University of Brasov
Abstract: This paper underlines how black locust plantations play an important part in ensuring forest specific
ecosystem services in Oltenia region located in South-Western part of Romania.
Forest area in Oltenia region has diminished considerably in the last two centuries, and by the year
2010 it dropped to 5.3% of region area. This phenomenon generated degraded lands (especially flying sands)
and had a devastating effect on the environmental and social conditions in southern Oltenia. Furthermore it has
been amplified in the last two decades by global climate change, which created prerequisites for desertification
in this part of the country.
The only efficient measure to reclaim the sandy soil degraded lands was found to be the afforestation
with an exotic fast growing species: Robinia pseudoacacia L. Forestry research and practice proved that black
locust has the required adaptability to help in the ecological reconstruction of different degraded land types (e.g.
flying sands, ravines, polluted soils and surface mine-lands) as long as its invasive nature is acknowledged.
Romanian forestry and society embraced this species as the local communities benefited from the black locust
plantations through wood and non-wood products, enhanced agricultural crops protection (resulting in gains)
and also from CO2 sequestration.
Considering that in Romania the total area of degraded lands exceeds 2 million hectares, extreme
weather is increasing in the South of the country, and the general need for services provided by forests, black
locust plantations represent a viable solution for these societal demands.
Key words: black locust, ecosystem services, degraded lands.

COMPARISON OF ABOVEGROUND TREE BIOMASS ALLOMETRIES


OBTAINED FROM CLASSICAL REGRESSION AND BAYESIAN APPROACH:
THE CASE STUDY OF Q. FRAINETTO SCH. IN CHALKIDIKI PENINSULA
Dimitris ZIANIS - Forest Service, Greece
Abstract: Aboveground forest biomass (M) estimation is an essential aspect of (i) global carbon cycle studies,
(ii) validating theoretical predictions on forest dynamics and (iii) forest management planning activities.
Traditionally, regression analysis relating tree aboveground biomass to the linear dimensions of stem diameter
and / or tree height, has been used as a means to derive M estimates at stand and forest scale. Within the
classical statistical framework, the collected datasets are logarithmically transformed and regression techniques
are applied in order to build an empirical equation. The equation is back-transformed to the original scale and
an allometric model is reported. This model is implemented to the diameter distribution, usually recorded from
forest management plots and through upscaling, forest biomass predictions are obtained. However, this
approach introduces bias while regression assumptions are not usually held. Nowadays, such allometric
relationships are analyzed within Bayesian theory. In this presentation, Bayesian approaches are applied to tree
biomass datasets collected from oak species growing in Chalkidiki Peninsula, Greece. Comparisons of
parametric values between classical and Bayesian regression are made and implications for theoretical
predictions of forest structure dynamics is discussed.

63

Forests in the service of society

FIFTH IPCC REPORT PROJECTIONS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ROMANIAN


FORESTS
Victor Dan PACURAR, Transilvania University of Brasov
Abstract: Presently, at the beginning of the XXI century, climate change represents one of the issues focusing a
huge amount of interest from the whole human society, spanning from elementary school children to scientists
and political leaders.
The recent Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), issued
this year, represents a valuable synthesis of updated information, but its thousands pages volumes, and even the
summaries, could be overwhelming for the forest specialists, who consequently are only taking into
consideration some fragments or few conclusions. In this context, there are briefly presented the main new
approaches brought by this new report, taking into discussion its three main components, namely the science
basis, with the new projected scenarios, the observed and expected impacts for the forest ecosystems and the
adaptation and mitigation schemes for this sector.
The report projections are downscaled for the European and Romanian forests in a useful and easily
understandable manner for the forest sector decision making factors at different levels. The possible impacts on
typical Romanian forest species of some climate elements modelled in the new scenarios (mean temperatures
and rainfall amounts) are analysed through very simple envelope models, taking into consideration several
representative locations.
Keywords: Fifth IPCC Report, Romanian forests, envelope models

THE EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD APPLICATIONS ON


ATTRIBUTES OF SCOTS PINE SEEDS
Sezgin AYAN, Faculty of Foresrtry, Silviculture Department, TURKEY
Tuba Dudu GNL, Faculty of Foresrtry, Silviculture Department, TURKEY
Abstract: In this study, the effects of electromagnetic field applications on (Crimean pine and Scotch pine) were
investigated. The seeds were exposed to different time intervals 5, 10 and 15 min and different magnetic field
intensities 150, 300 and 450 mT, respectively. The control and experimental groups were germinated at optimum
conditions in the climate chamber. Germination percentage was measured at 4th, 7th, 14th, 21th and 27th days.
The germination rate of seeds and germination percentage was measured at 10th and 27th, respectively. The
data obtained from the percentage and rate of seeds germination with the different magnetic field intensities and
exposure time intervals variance analysis was performed with SPSS statistical software.
As a result, the germination percentages and rates were higher in the magnetic field applications than that in the
control group. Duncan test was applied in order to manifest the obtained differences. According this, generally,
the best germination rate and percentage in magnetic field intensity which was applied for 450 mT and 5 min
was obtained. The results showed that electromagnetic field can have a positive impact on Scots pine seed
germination percentage and energy.

Key Words: Electromagnetic effect, seed, vitality, scots pine, stimulate

THEORETICAL EVALUATION MODELS OF THE FORESTRY POLITICS


PROGRAMS. LIMITS AND DYSFUNCTIONS OF THE NATIONAL PROGRAM TO
COMBAT ILLEGAL LOGGING
Filofteia NEGRUIU, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transylvania
University of Brasov

64

Forests in the service of society

Ioan Vasile ABRUDAN, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transylvania


University of Brasov
Cristian BLCESCU, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transylvania
University of Brasov

Abstract: The last years Romanian development of the evaluation of the theoretical and practical programs and
public policies have included forestry, where an interdisciplinary modelling between forestry sciences,
sociology, political sciences, economy and law was needed in order to clarify the process from the conceptual
point of view. Supporting the idea of a reform in the formulation of the national forestry policies, the first part of
the documentary study discusses different evaluation models, which could be applied on some of the forestry
programs in progress. The second part offers a primary analysis of the components of the National Program
against Illegal Logging through modelling based on Program Theory (Chen), highlighting the programs
limits and dysfunctions. The postpositive approach takes into account the identification of the presuppositions
that currently fundament the programs enouncements and their truth value. The studys conclusion proposes to
the decision makers a modification of these presuppositions, as an alternative for the initiation of some viable
measurements, which could reduce the causes of the illicit phenomena in forestry.

Key words: forest governance, forestry policies, programs evaluation, illegal logging, social forestry.

TILIA SP. URBAN TREES FOR THE FUTURE?


A.M. ENCHE-CONSTANTINESCU, USAMVB Timisoara
Gh. F. BORLEA, USAMVB Timisoara
E. MADOSA, USAMVB Timisoara
D. CHIRA, USAMVB Timisoara
C. HERNEA, USAMVB Timisoara
R.V. ENCHE-CONSTANTINESCU, USAMVB Timisoara
Abstract: Traditions, uses and mythology, current health issues, pollution and heavy metal accumulation aspects
related to Tilia sp. (Tilia tomentosa, Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos and some of their ornamental varieties),
have been analyzed. Tilia sp. as ornamental trees, have a privileged place in the European mythology and
traditions, and this is the reason of their constant presence in the urban landscape: the tree in front of the house
makes it possible for us to be closer to nature, childhood, love and life in general. Lime trees are very resistant
to biotic and abiotic stress, but some sanitary problems may occur. Aphids and other related organisms are
related to lime trees in urban green areas: leaf mites (Aceria sp., i.e. numerous galls of Aceria exilis syn.
Eriophyes tiliae), lime tree defoliation, Caliroua annulipes infestation in nurseries (2006-2009), saprophyte
associations produced by Cercosporum microsora but no important damages have been reported up to now. 40
tree species have been used in different monitoring studies (Poikolainen, 2004) and Tilia sp. are considered a
good bioaccumulator. Heavy metal accumulation (Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Mn, Co, Fe) in leaves and flowers of limetree species and ornamental varietes, in the urban green areas of Timisoara, in locations with similar
conditions related to the potential pollution sources has been analyzed using the atomic absorbtion
spectrophotometry method. The obtained results characterize the studied lime-tree species and varieties
regarding the urban pollution and indicate the level of heavy metals accumulation in leaves and flowers, the
potential role of Tilia sp. as urban tree in the future, as a bioaccumulator and the possible consequences of large
scale utilisation of the lime-trees (flowers) as medicinal plants.
Key words: lime-trees, pollution, heavy metal accumulation, bioaccumulator, urban landscape, medicinal plant

65

Forests in the service of society

MEDIUM TERM (20 YEARS) DYNAMICS OF FORESTS HYDROLOGICAL


FUNCTIONS USING STAND HYDROLOGIC INDEX CASE STUDY: MANECIU
RESERVOIR CATCHMENT
erban Octavian DAVIDESCU, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Braov
Nicu Constantin TUDOSE, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Braov
Cristinel CONSTANDACHE, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Focani
Petrior VIC, National Forest Administration
Codru BLEA, National Forest Administration
Abstract: Forest stands support structural changes affecting tree growth and development, as well as
environment and people. Therefore it can be managed to form structures most responsive to the desired effect.
Social, environmental (ecological) and economic interests related to forests are very diverse and require, to
maximize its benefits, a specific structure.
Using the stand hydrological index (Gaspar, 1997) in order to evaluate forest services for water
protection, will not only allow a comparative assessment of forests hydrological creditworthiness located in
different environments, but also will allow to estimate its dynamics taking account future silviculturale
measures. Moreover, simulations can be performed to compare different scenarios for establishing best forestry
practices (logging type and intensity) in order to improve water protection.
This concept, applied in a pilot catchment (Upper Teleajn) where forests have as first function the
protection of Mneciu Reservoir, is presented in this paper.

Key words: stand hydrological index, forest practices, hydrological functions.

CONTRIBUTION OF FORESTRY VEGETATION IN THE GHG BALANCE IN THE


REPUBLICA MOLDOVA
ION TALMACI, Forest Research and Management Institute, Republic of Moldova
DUMITRU GALUPA, Forest Research and Management Institute, Republic of Moldova
MARIUS TARANU, Climate Change Office, Ministry of Environment, Republic of Moldova

Abstract: Pursuant to the Third National Communication (2013) the total removals of GHG (CO2) by sources
from Moldova during 1990-2010 is estimated to average 3.3 million tons annually. The forest vegetation
(forests, forest belts, etc.) has a significant share in GHG sequestration, accounting for about 78% of that. The
evaluation methods 1 and 2 (IPCC, 2003, 2006) were used for source categories within the LULUCF sector, as
well as default emission/sequestration factors and country-specific data (current tree growth, wood density etc.).
Dynamics of GHG removals recorded during 1990-2010, besides the evolution of condition of forest and other
types of forest vegetation, was influenced to large extent by social, political and economic changes that took

66

Forests in the service of society

place in Moldova during that period. Although the forest area has been steadily growing during the reporting
period, their share in the removals suffered major fluctuations, including reductions. This fact was directly
influenced mainly by the increasing of wood harvest obtained in the result of both legal and illegal logging.
According to official records the volume of wood extracted from forests and other forest vegetation during 19902010 constituted 9.7 million m3, including 1.4 million m3 illegally.
Based on biological peculiarities, productivity and area, forest species have different participation in the
process of carbon sequestration. The largest share of CO2 sequestration process belongs to Quercus species
(46%) and Robinia (32%), the remaining species accounting for only about 22% of the total sequestered volume.
Increasing of GHG sequestration can be achieved on the account of increasing productivity of existing forests by
broader application of reconstruction works for damaged trees and stands with low productivity. Improving the
level of management of national forest fund will enhance climate and oxygen generation functions of Moldovan
forests. The same purpose will have the extension of woodland areas to indicators established by national policy
documents - 15% or about 510 000 ha of the countrys territory.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL VISUALIZATIONS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE


NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN SKI RESORT

Karatzidis NIKOLAOS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Forestry and Natural


Environment, Greece
Giannoulas VASILEIOS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Forestry and Natural
Environment, Greece
Fotiou ARISTEIDIS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Rural and Surveying
Engineering, Greece
Vasileios C. DROSOS, Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Forestry and
Management of the Environment and Natural Resources, Greece
Doucas KOSMAS Aristotelis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Forestry and
Natural Environment, Greece
Abstract: As a consequence, both direct and indirect, of one-dimensional economic development activities that
destroyed the environment, over the past few years the notion that development should occur in harmony with
the natural and cultural environment has grown in importance. This applies equally to economic, social,
technological and cultural developments. The environment-friendly planning and design of a technical work
must consider not only technical or economic parameters but also the effect of the construction (direct or

67

Forests in the service of society

indirect) upon the natural and social environment. Aim of the paper is the use of GIS in the evaluation of the
landscapes criteria before the construction of a developmental work. To assess the impact of the proposed work
on the aesthetics of the landscape the satellite image IKONOS was used. The satellite image was rectified
geometrically using ERDAS Imagine program and the DTM that derived from SPOT stereoscopic image
processing with pixel size 20 m.
By means of GIS were created three-dimensional visualizations using the satellite image and the DTM
that surveyed on the ground with GPS where with suitable coloring to simulate snow cover in order to assess the
Optical Absorptive Capacity (OAC) and to investigate their respective assessment criteria of the landscape. The
results proves that this method provides a means to evaluate the compatibility of the existing infrastructural
works with the natural environment, and offers the possibility to choose the most compatible solutions for the
environment in future.
Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund ESF)
and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National
Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society
through the European Social Fund.

THE USAGE OF AGRO-TEXTILE SHEETS AS A MULCH FOR SEEDLINGS,


INSIDE THE ARTIFICIAL REGENERATIONS

M. GREAVU, I.C.A.S. Tulcea


V. FETA, I.C.A.S. Tulcea
V. GREAVU, I.C.A.S. Tulcea
Abstract: Nowadays, loosening of the soil on the rows and among the seedlings is carried out by using manually
fieldcrafts. The purpose of using the agro-textiles as a mulch, is to eliminate the manually maintenance (e.g., the
hoe). In the last time, agro-textiles are mainly used for horticulture. A reason in favor of using this tipe of mulch
is that, after the inauguration, it is stable until the dense stand phase. Until the whole degradation, the material is
guaranteed for five years. At the same time, when agro-textiles are compared to the plastic sheets, the other tipe
of mulch included in this research, agro-textiles enable the water to infiltrate, by reducing the vaporizing.
Nine experimental plots were set up, situated in the south-east of Romania: Tulcea county and Vrancea county,
inside the forests or situated on the agricultural degraded lands. Quercus pedunculiflora and Robinia pseudacacia
are the main species where agro-textiles were practised.
Key words: experimental plantations, mulching, agro-textiles, south-east of Romania, main species: Quercus
pedunculiflora and Robinia pseudacacia.

68

Forests in the service of society

IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL OF THE MAIN PESTS FROM ENERGETIC


SALIX PLANTATIONS FROM WESTERN ROMANIA, BASED ON THE HYBRID
INGER EU 11365 AS INDICATOR PLANT
I.D. TRAVA, Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine King
Michael I of Romania from Timisoara Faculty of Agriculture
Abstract: The expansion of energetic willow plantations in Western Romania has triggered different pests
species in the region, known or unknown as willow crop specific pests. Significant damage brought by these
pests have sparked interest of energetic willow farmers. Only in Timis county, wire worm larvae attacked the
willow cuttings and destroyed 25 hectares of plantation. The planatation was 100% compromised. Problems
were also caused by mites, together with aphids, which damaged the leaves of the plants. Other pests are
represented by two species of beetles Dorcadion aethiops and Dorcadion scopolii the larvae attacked the
roots of the willow plants and respectively the (mature) beetles attacked the aerial parts of the plants. In order to
measure the intensity of the attack, 3 experimetal surfaces of 100 m2 were randomly installed in the affected
area. Abaout 30% of the total area was affected by the pest attack. The product used in pest control was Fastac
10 EC, used at 0.8 l/ha in 300 l of solution. Two weeks after this treatment, on the same surface it was applied
also a systemic insecticide Novadim Progress at 1 l/ha in 300 l of solution. These two insecticides combined
were effective in pest control.

Keywords: energetic willow plantations, pests

REVIEW REGARDING THE INFLUENCE FACTORS AND THE STABILITY OF


TREES
Elena Camelia MUAT, Transilvania University of Braov
Abstract: This paper aims at providing an overview of the information from the international literature
regarding the stability of the trees. In addition, the paper analyzes the working methodologies applied by
different authors and points out the factors that may influence the stability. Based on the data, will be carried out
comparisons between the results, taking into account the locations where were conducted the research, the
studied species and the elements taken into account. Special emphasis will be on the defects encountered at
studied trees, the characteristics of the crowns and also their influence on the stability.

69

Forests in the service of society

APPLIED ECONOMICS IN THE WATERSHED RESTORATION

Jos Luis GARCA RODRIGUEZ, Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory, Forest


Engineering Department,
Fernando GARCA, Economic and Forest Management Department
ETSI Montes, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain
Adrian CIULIANU, University of Brasov. Romania
Abstract: In the current context of costs reduction, investments in the environment have special meaning for the
positive impact which generate. Any environmental performance has a cost, but no action has a much higher
cost due to the value of the flows between the ecosystem and human life. These flows are reflected very little in
market values, because is dealing with intangible values.
In this paper we try to raise awareness among decision-makers about the importance of investing
resources (human and financial) in the conservation and enhancement of ecosystems in general, with a
particular focus on hydrological and forest restoration.
The conceptual frame used is defined by: ecosystem services, natural capital, valuation of intangibles,
environmental assets and liabilities, environmental externalities, yield of investments in watershed restoration.

WHAT CHANGED IN THE CLIMATIC EVOLUTION IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN


TRANSILVANIA IN THE LAST 120 YEARS

Marin MARCU, Transilvania University of Braov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest


Engineering
Viorela MARCU, Transilvania University of Braov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest
Engineering
Abstract: In this paper are presented results of meteorological research performed in the south-eastern
Transilvania (Braov area). The study was based on data collected dalily by instrumental and visual means at
the Braov-City (509m) and Braov-Ghimbav (534m) weather stations and, in order to test the homogeneity of
climatic series data provided by Tg. Mure (308m) weather station has been also used. The shorter climatic
series were extended to the long periond of reference weather station (Braov) using the quasi-constant
differences method.The primary processing of meteorological data was performed according to the unitary
methodology used in climatology, being followed by the determination of adequate statistical indexes.
Study of the general sinoptioc framework in which exceptional meteorological phenomenons took place was
performed using official meteorological data provided by ANM, GFS Analyse maps (Source: www.wetter3.de),
as well as data obtained from web sources.
Basically, our research emphasized that along with a variable more or less as usual weater evolution,
characterized by rare severe phenomena in the first part of research period, in the last 15 years major changes
took place in the regime of main climatic parameters (temperature, precipitations, wind) and extreme
meteorological phenomena occurred being characterized by an increasing frequency and devastating effects.
In order to explain these evident climatic changes, the authors mention the pattern of blocking anticyclones,
especially the east-European one, as well as their association with mediterranean cyclones, which generate

70

Forests in the service of society

both, instability periods with maximum violence phenomena such as strong storms, torrentail rains, tempests,
hail, floods, as well as anticyclonic weather episods characterized by increased stability, such as heatwaves and
droughts in summer and frost with blizzards in winter.

Key words: climatic changes, blocking anticyclones, mediterranean cyclones, atmospheric instability

A MARKETING RESEARCH ON THE BRASOV PRIMARY WOOD MARKET


Victor ANTONOAIE, Transilvania University of Braov

Abstract: A market research was conducted during the November 2012 and March 2014 period on the Brasov
primary wood market. It was focused on the issue of the auctions selling wood mass.
The defining aspects for 56 auctions were analyzed as well as their direct impact on the primary wood market.
The proposed objective was to highlight the behavior of the participants involved in these auctions (both the
forest owners and the felling companies).
The obtained results allowed for several important aspects to be determined for this specific primary
wood market activity, the auctions, which are: accessibility, participation, the fairness of the process, the
difficulties participants encounter (buyers and sellers), economic effects both on the primary and the secondary
wood market influenced by the results of these auctions.
The paper presents the essential aspects of this research and it is the first of this scale focused on the
Brasov area. The research will be extended this year to the entire central area of Romania.
Its implications can be synthesized as follows: only by researching and thoroughly understanding the issue of the
wood mass auctions can we properly define all the essential aspects of the wood market.

THE ORGANIC CARBON STOCK FROM ROMANIAS FOREST ECOSYSTEMS


LITTER
Lucian DINC, ICAS Braov
Gheorghe SPRCHEZ, Transilvania University of Braov
C. BRAG, ICAS Braov
D. LUCACI, ICAS Braov
Abstract: Forest ecosystems play a crucial role in the carbon circuit, acting both as its sink and as its source.
The estimation of the total quantity of organic carbon from the litter as well as from the organic component of
forest soils represents an extremely important parameter, necessary for national and international reports.
The study intends to calculate the average value of the quantity of organic carbon stocked in litter, based on the
type of vegetation, type of soil and geomorphological areas.
The quantity of organic carbon from Romanias forest soils litter has never been analyzed until now in
the activities from the forest domain. Harvesting such samples has only started in the year 2012.
Data concerning the quantity of organic carbon from litter was analyzed from: level I and II monitoring areas
(50 plots), areas from the Carbon Fund project (69 plots), areas from the FP7 GHG Europe project (9 plots),
and areas from IFN (14 plots). For the last areas, the stock of organic carbon was also calculated with the help
of CHN analyzer, in comparison with the classic method (standard value of 0.5 of the content of organic C).
The results have shown a great variability of the organic carbon from the litter, due to the type of stand, age,
composition or its consistency, as well as climatic or orographic conditions. By using the 0.5 coefficient for the
determination of the total content of organic C, the result is a significant overestimation. For the case of stand
litters with rapidly growing species, the locust presents the largest stocks, starting even at early ages (0.4 t/ha).
The Quercus species have average stocks of organic carbon (5-6 t/ha), whereas the largest stocks of organic
carbon can be found in the spruce stands litters (8-10 t/ha).

71

Forests in the service of society

MITIGATION POTENTIAL OF FORESTRY SECTOR FROM REPUBLIC OF


MOLDOVA

LILIANA SPITOC, Forest Research and Management Institute, Republic of Moldova


ION TALMACI, Forest Research and Management Institute, Republic of Moldova
Abstract. In policies, strategies and other development documents of the forestry sector in Moldova the target of
reducing GHG emissions is not referred directly. Targets set refer to achieving the countrys afforestation of
15%. In order to achieve this rate of afforestation is necessary to planted about 130 thousand hectares of forest
vegetation in the period up to 2020. The projection of measures for LULUCF sector for the period 2020 was
done based on strategies, programs that are under implementation, covering the period until 2020. The
projection for the period up to 2030 was based on overall global and national trends, the need for continuous
improvement of qualitative and quantitative indicators of forests and other types of forest vegetation. Evaluation
of carbon sequestration in LULUCF sector was performed using GPG for LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) and 2006
IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) (country specific emission factors were also used). Based on country policies
three development scenarios of LULUCF sector were developed: business as usual scenario (BAU,) scenario
with measures (WM) and scenario with additional measures (WAM). In all analyzed scenarios, the most
important GHG sequestrations are made by the category forest land. The most effective measures to increase
the capacity of CO2 emission reduction within LULUCF sector could be mentioned as follows: increasing rates
of expansion of areas covered with forests and other types forest vegetation on the account of public and private
lands, implementation of a new stage of extension of areas covered with forests (on the account of eroded land,
creation of energy plantations etc.); keeping indices of timber harvesting in the result of silvicultural treatments
at the existent level corresponding to regulatory provisions in force; decrease the volume of wood coming from
illegal logging; reconstruction (replacement) of degraded or low productive stands etc.

THE BRASOV WOOD AUCTIONS THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE OFFER


C. ANTONOAIE, Transilvania University of Braov
V. ANTONOAIE, Transilvania University of Braov
N. ANTONOAIE, Transilvania University of Braov
Abstract: The research conducted in the past two years on the Brasov primary wood market, especially on the
wood mass auctions, have highlighted a less known issue until now: the attractiveness of the offer made by the
forest owners and its effects on the companies involved, both in the field of felling and wood processing.
Consequently, the purpose of this research was to analyze the following aspects, which can be linked to the idea
of offer attractiveness: wood species, the products which can be obtained, price, felling conditions.
56 auctions were analyzed in this research (in which 9 companies participated, on average). The obtained
results (first of this kind conducted in this area) allow for a clear picture regarding the defining aspects for what
we like to call the attractiveness of the offer and lead to the development of a first set of requirements which
forest owners should take into account to better prepare and develop more attractive and profitable offers (while
at the same time abiding by the rules and regulation of the forestry governing bodies).

72

Forests in the service of society

ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF A NATIONAL FOREST


SHELTERBELTS NETWORK ON ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE
Maria Magdalena VASILESCU, Transilvania University of Braov,
Cornel Cristian, TERENEU, Transilvania University of Braov
Abstract: The need for a national network of forest shelterbelts designed in order to protect the agricultural
fields comes in the general attention each time an adverse event that could be otherwise avoided in the presence
of such a network is recorded. The present study highlights the positive effect that forest shelterbelts may
generate on the major field crops and the extent these benefits may have at national level. This study is based on
the distribution of crops, agricultural activity dynamics, frequency of drought in Romania and also our research
(over a decade) regarding the influence of forest shelterbelts on crops. This scientific paper may become a
technical and economic motivation for future proposals on agricultural support programs developed by the
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in Romania. Also, the results of this study strengthen the idea of
ecological protection of agricultural crops by creating biological barriers, rather than an economic insurance
as a financial instrument for a sustainable agriculture.

IDENTIFICATION OF SUITABLE METHODS FOR VALUATION OF THE


ROMANIAN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE LINK WITH
BIODIVERSITY AND INTEGRATING LOCAL COMMUNITIES NEEDS

NEGREA I., Transilvania University of Brasov


ABRUDAN I.V., Transilvania University of Brasov
ADAMESCU M., University of Bucharest
JURJ Constantina
CANDREA A., Transilvania University of Brasov
GRIDAN A. Transilvania University of Brasov
Abstract: The need for determining methods to evaluate the true value of biodiversity and of the services it
delivers to improve human welfare was highly acknowledged through the recent TEEB (The Economics of
Ecosystem and Biodiversity, 2010 a) and MA (Millennium Assessment, 2005, a) studies with great will to
transfer the knowledge obtained through this assessment into the decision-making process and the policy
drafting levels. The decline of biodiversity at un-precedent rates, the pressure on resources and the high level of
dependency of poor communities on the exploitation of goods derived from ecosystem services to meet their
immediate needs makes this undertaking vital, in order to reconcile the two conflicting interests. Policies that
address both the livelihood of people and conservation of biodiversity must be designed. This is especially true

73

Forests in the service of society

for the Romanian case, where many rural communities are still highly dependent on the income-generating
activities, developed in semi-protected areas and where there is a clear paucity of these valuation-type studies.
This study aims at identifying suitable methods for evaluating ecosystem services in Romania, by reviewing the
literature on the typology of ecosystem services, the means to isolate their net contribution to the goods that
increase welfare, the studies that link greater biodiversity with increased production of ecosystem services, the
appropriateness of using monetary vs. non-monetary methods in valuation. Moreover, it recognizes the need for
complementing monetary valuation with non-monetary techniques, such as questionnaires, followed by
contingent valuation, especially in communities relying on subsistence agriculture (cropping, breeding), timber,
hunting, fishing, wild food, tourism. Highly considering the local context in determining the most appropriate
methods for valuation should increase the embedment in decision-making, which is highly problematic in
Romania. With this view in mind, a study emphasizing the trade-off between peoples preference to nature
capital conservation versus renunciation of some part of their income generating activities is of great appeal for
future research. Another direction identified for follow-up studies is a scenario analysis of provision of ES under
alternative management states.

THE ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF PINE FORESTS ON DEGRADED


LANDS AFFECTED BY HARMFUL FACTORS

Cristinel CONSTANDACHE, Forest Research and Management Institute (Focsani Station)


Sanda NISTOR, Forest Research and Management Institute (Focsani Station)

Abstract: The pine stands on degraded lands or outside the area, grow in terms of the most difficult conditions,
being exposed to harmful factors (drought, wind, snow and other) sometimes suffered major damage (dryness,
ruptures / windfall etc.). Such plantation have been installed to harness the degraded lands and to protect the
environment (especially lands, soil and water),but and localities and other socio-economic objectives. In the last
years, reported an alarming phenomenon drying pine trees, in which significantly affected the protective
functions of pine forests.
Goals the researches were: knowledge the environmental/vegetation conditions of pine stands affected
by damage factors (drying), their structural characteristics and trend of their succession in relation to these
conditions and work performed, purpose of research being the substantiation of environmental measures of the
pine forests affected by harmful factors. Main results have made contributions to the elucidation of issues
necessary to establish management measures of affected pine forests: behavior of the pine forests to harmful
factors action in relation with environmental conditions and with the works performed; structural characteristics
of pine forests and their correlation with the damage degree; assessment the possibilities for regenerating

74

Forests in the service of society

affected pine stands; establishing ecological reconstruction solutions of damaged pine stands. The climate
change lately have increased the risk of damage to pine forests and environmental degradation through the
conjugate action of harmful factors, resulting that it is necessary continuous monitoring and quantifying their
environmental impact on the environment. The behavior of pine forests to the action of harmful factors is
different in relation to the phytoclimatic area, environmental conditions but also by composition of stands,
planting scheme / consistency, silvotechnics work performed
Depending on the environmental conditions, the type and degree of damage, the structural
characteristics of stands damaged, the natural regeneration potential, were differentiated representative cases
on the basis which were established solutions, emergency and intervention types with ecological reconstruction
measures/works.
The research was carried out between 2011 - 2013, being funded by NFA-Romsilva.

PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF WILLOW TREES FOR CADMIUM


CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CITRIC ACID
Nataa NIKOLI, Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad,
Republic of Serbia
Danijela ARSENOV, Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad,
Republic of Serbia
Milan BORIEV, Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad,
Republic of Serbia
Slobodanka PAJEVI, Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad,
Republic of Serbia
Saa ORLOVI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, Novi Sad, Republic of
Serbia
Milan UPUNSKI, Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad,
Republic of Serbia
Andrej PILIPOVI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, Novi Sad, Republic of
Serbia

Abstract: Contamination of the environment with heavy metals is a worldwide problem. Cadmium has attracted
considerable scientific attention due to its toxicity to most living organisms, and its relative mobility in the soil
plant system. Cadmium can be released to the environment from both natural (volcanoes, weathering of rocks)
and anthropogenic (mining, industry, agriculture) sources. Decontamination and regeneration of cadmium
polluted soils is a problem of increasing significance, in order to prevent cadmium to accumulate by
agriculturally important crops and enter the food chain. Contrary to traditional technologies employed to
remove cadmium from polluted soils, phytoremediation comprises several methods that use plants to remove
pollutants from the environment or to make them harmless. Phytoremediation is a low-cost, non-invasive,
publicly acceptable alternative, because it improves soil quality, as it is driven by solar energy. Phytoextraction
is one of the phytoremediation techniques, which uses plants to accumulate heavy metals into harvestable parts.
Citric acid is biodegradable chelating agents capable to enhance metal solubility and uptake by plants. The aim
of the present study was to compare the potential of willow species to accumulate cadmium in harvestable plant
parts. Salix viminalis, S. alba and S. matsudana plants were cultivated under semi controlled conditions
(glasshouse), using the method of soil culture. Cadmium and citric acid were applied alone, and in combination.
The phytoextraction potential of willows and plant performance were assessed according to photosynthetic
activity, rate of transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE), photosynthetic pigments concentration and cadmium
accumulation in young and mature leaves, stems and roots. Effects of treatments on physiological characteristics
were species specific. Concentration of chlorophylls and carotenoids was not considerably affected in cadmium
treated plants, irrespective of the citric acid supply. Accumulation of cadmium in leaves of S. matsudana
increased along with concentration of the metal in growth substrate, indicating this species as reliable

75

Forests in the service of society

bioindicator of soil pollution. In most cases, cadmium accumulated preferentially in roots. Cadmium applied
with citric acid did not negatively affect photosynthetic activity, transpiration, stomatal conductivity and WUE in
S. matsudana and S. viminalis plants. Further investigations in the field are necessary to confirm the potential of
these species for efficient decontamination of cadmium polluted soils, in order to preserve human and
environment health.

Key words: cadmium, citric acid, phytoremediation, willows

DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATIONS OF THE CARBWARE SINGLE TREEBASED STAND SIMULATOR

Kevin Black1,2
1 Forestry Division, FERS Ltd, 117 East Courtyard, Tullyvale, Cabinteely, Dublin 18, Ireland
2 UCD Forestry, School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
*Corresponding author: Tel: +353 1 272 2675; Fax: +353 1 282 7272; Email: kevin.black@ucd.ie
Abstract: There is an increasing resource assessment and management requirement for single tree-based stand
models due a shift towards mixed species and back to nature forestry. This paper describes the validation and
calibration of the CARBWARE stand simulator, a distance independent single tree growth modelling framework
specifically modified to include spatially explicit climatic and soil factors, for application to Irish and U.K.
forestry. Tree growth functional analysis suggests that stand competition factors contribute to most (21-33 %) of
the observed variation is diameter increment, followed by tree size factors (17-20 %). Edaphic and other site
factors, particularly soil nutrition and moisture status, explained 4-11 % of the observed site to site variation.
The developed empirical relationships may provide a deterministic framework for improving developed
ecological site classification systems. Independent validation showed that the CARBWARE simulator provides a
robust and un-bias estimate of single tree and stand based variables for both pure and intimate mixed stands.
The simulator has numerous applications and advantages over traditional stand based models, such as carbon
inventories, more accurate timber inventories or forecasts and bucking optimisation procedures. However,
refinement to the models are still required, particularly improvement to climatic and genetic response factors
and mortality functions for mixed species stands.

76

Innovative forest engineering

Section 4:
Innovative forest engineering

77

Innovative forest engineering

COMPARING THE PERFORMANCE OF A FUCHS 714 MU MADE CRANE


OPERATING IN AN INTERMEDIARY STORAGE AREA WHEN LOADING 3 AND
4 METER WOOD ASSORTMENTS INTO TRUCKS AND RAILWAY WAGONS
Stelian Alexandru BORZ, Transilvania University of Brasov
Marcian BRDA, Transilvania University of Brasov
Andrei APFIAN, Transilvania University of Brasov
Alexandru CHIRAC, Transilvania University of Brasov
Abstract: When considering the current level of technical development in forest operations, wood transportation
is recognized as a process which adds value to the harvested timber. However, in this process, loading and
unloading operations generate increased time and energy consumptions, effect which is emphasized when
transporting wood on short distances. On the other hand, the used transportation mean plays a key role in the
overall energy and time expenditure, while knowing the related performances, including that of loading and
unloading operations may help in decision making when one has to consider several transportation options. This
study aims to compare the performance of a FUCHS 714 MU made crane operating in an intermediary storage
area when loading 3 and 4 meter wood assortments into trucks and railway wagons. For this purpose we
adapted a time study to the forest related concepts and we used data prevailed from the storage area
surveillance system as well as from the wood reception documentation. Then we designed a factorial design
consisting of technological alternatives (statistical treatments) by considering the length of the wood assortments
and the transportation mean to be loaded. Using the adequate statistical tests we found significant differences
between all the tested treatments in the factorial design. Furthermore, we found out that when loading 3 and 4
meter assortments into railway wagons the net productivity rates were as high as 64.63 (376 logsh-1)
respectively 74.23m3h-1 (380 logsh-1). By comparison, when loading 4 meter wood assortments into trucks
the net productivity rate was of 58.99 m3h-1 (217 logsh-1). While the length of wood assortments is imposed
by market requirements, our study suggests that wood transportation from intermediary storage areas to
processers using the national railway network would be more feasible as supported by the reduced
transportation costs and an improved operational performance when loading railway wagons.

EFFICIENCY GAP ANALYSIS OF HARVESTING TECHNOLOGIES AND


SYSTEMS IN EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN FORESTS
Adrian ENACHE, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna Institute of
Forest Engineering
Martin KHMAIER, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna Institute
of Forest Engineering
Abstract: European mountain forests provide multiple ecosystem services, out of which an important one is
timber production. Increasing demand for quality timber and the strong competition for energy wood make
timber harvesting and extraction challenging activities, especially in remote forest areas with poor accessibility.
The prerequisites for the sustainable wood mobilization are the well-developed forest infrastructure and the
utilization of state of the art harvesting technologies and systems (HTS). Starting from a comprehensive survey
conducted in 2013 across seven European countries, the aim of this paper was to assess the current timber
harvesting practices in European mountain forests and to identify the existing efficiency gaps based on a
multidimensional approach of the technical feasibility, economic efficiency, environmental and social impact. In
this respect, a generic model for assessing different possible options of HTS was developed for benchmarking the
productivity, costs, global warming potential, energy efficiency and the number of accidents related to timber
harvesting in different European countries. Through a multiple criteria scenario based analysis, the model was
tested and validated by comparing different infrastructure conditions and harvesting systems in two case study
areas from Austria and Spain, in order to optimize the combined use of silviculture and harvesting systems.
Key words: timber harvesting, forest roads, global warming potential, multiple criteria analysis, decision
making

78

Innovative forest engineering

THE IMPACT OF FROST CRACK ON BEECH WOOD QUALITY


Rzvan CMPU, Transilvania University of Brasov
Abstract: Frost-crack represents one of the main defects which affect beech wood quality. The importance of
frost-crack is given, on the one hand, by the fact that it affects the basis of the tree which contains the most
valuable wood, and, one the other hand, by the increased frequency of this defect approximately 14 to 18 % in
natural beech stands. Frost-crack may lead to the downgrading of the tree by 2 up to 3 quality classes according
to its length and to the presence or absence of decay. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to improve the
knowledge regarding both the impact of frost-crack on beech wood quality and the frost-crack charactersitics
which affect wood quality. In order to do this, nineteen beech trunks with frost-crack have been studied. Each
trunk has been cross-cut to get 1 meter samples and the characteristics of frost-crack and stellar heart have been
measured in each of these samples. The defects which accompany frost-crack have also been identified in each
cross-cut section. Moreover, the possibility of determining these defects with the help of IML RESIF500 S
resistograph based on diagrams of resistance at wood penetration, has been tested. The results obtained lead to
an improvement of the criteria of beech wood quality assessment by expanding the already existent knowledge
and by identifying new aspects which may complete standing wood quality determination and sorting methods.

OPENING UP AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SEMI-MOUNTAINOUS


FOREST REGIONS
Angelos-Sarantis G. LIAMPAS, Department of Forestry and Management of the
Environment and Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
Dimitrios E. FARMAKIS, Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment and
Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
Abstract: The development of semi-mountainous areas is directly linked to the opening up of the forest. The
opening up as human intervention is accompanied by positive and negative environmental impacts.
The opening up of the forest is a parameter of sustainable development in semi-mountainous regions for both
indirect benefits e.g. Alternative tourism and for exploitation of biomass.
In 2009, in Copenhagen found out that while the ices melt interest for the environment freezes
because of the economic crisis. The sustainable development is the best answer to this bleak outlook. The
principal objective of the paper is the evaluation of the opening up of the semi-mountainous forest of Greece.
The calculation of the optimum road density is calculated by the method of internal rate, but is also evaluated
empirically. In semi-mountainous forests of Greece analyse the conditions of opening up-harvesting of wood.
The opening up is investigated based on the optimum road density:
The
theoretical
optimum
(Dth)
i.e.,
when
the
total
costs
become
minimum.
The economical optimum (Dec) i.e., when construction costs are equal to the skidding costs.
The maximum (Dmax) i.e. when not taken into account the construction costs of roads and the loss of land
revenue.
- The formulation of the opening up of forest areas is impossible, since each forest area is something special
that requires a special handling. The techno-economic opening up of each forest area is achieved after a
thorough study of the traffic, the soil and climate, and forest, financial and ecological conditions of the region.
- In productive semi-mountainous forests with technical-economic criteria i.e. when not considering indirect
benefits, in terms of opening up (road network) there is a problem of excessive road construction through uneven
space distribution of the forest roads in places.
Sustainable development, development in general, wants guts and not a unilateral effect of a man, a
field, a single political will, a modern developmental law. It should be done a lot of things together. Its about
exploiting wealth, the existence of appropriate human resources, operation of infrastructure, creation of modern
institutional framework, the culture of a society. And yet, development initiatives are not always immediate
return. An investment that starts today can yield in a few months or few years. But they must go on. Biomass is
the important material from which can be done solid, liquid and gaseous combustible material from which can
obtained heat and energy. The composite material is a part from the biomass and wooden waste that results from
the processing wooden industry. In this paper is described the calorific power of the PAL (chipboard), PFL
(Fiberboard), plywood that are composite material. An important result from this research is that composite
material has a calorific power closely to the fossil fuels. This material if is collected and transformed in
combustible wooden material can contributes to the ensuring the necessary energy production.

79

Innovative forest engineering

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ROLE OF FOREST AND WOOD PRODUCTS ON


GLOBAL WARMING

Octavia Zeleniuc, Transilvania University Brasov- Faculty of Wood Engineering


Abstract: Forests provide a wide range of goods including timber, energy and non-wood forest products. On the
other hand forests play a vital role in maintaining climate stability around the world and also there is a great
interest directed towards their sustainable use. Forestry and wood products can contribute to decreasing carbon
sources, thus can help countries to achieve their Kyoto targets. Greater use of wood productswill stimulate the
expansion of Europes forests andreduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The paper aims to present the importance and the role that play the forest and wood products in
combating climate change.
The forest management is moving towards methods that enhance natural processes and implement
sustainable practices of logging to ensure their longevity.
It is important to appreciate that over 90% of European wood consumption is sourced from European
forests which are characterized as generally stable, well managed and in surplus production, Compared with
the high emissions and embodied energy of alternative materials like steel, concrete and plastic, wood has low
embodied energy and, thanks to the carbon sink effect of the forest, negative CO2 emissions. In two similar
houses, one made from timber, and the other from steel and concrete, it can be found 370 kg/m2 difference in
CO2 emissions which is equivalent to the emissions from 27 years heating.
It has to take into account where the material comes from, how it is used or converted into a product, its
uses, disposal and possibility of recycling after end of life.Encouraging the use of wood products can act as a
greener alternative to more fossil-fuel intensive materials.

BENCHMARKING THE SOIL DISTURBANCE IN MOUNTANOUS FORESTS DUE


TO HARVESTING OPERATIONS: EFFECT OF EXTRACTION INTENSITY,
SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM AND USED EQUIPMENT

Elena Camelia DAVID, Transilvania University of Brasov


Horaiu MUNTEANU, Transilvania University of Brasov
Stelian Alexandru BORZ, Transilvania University of Brasov

Abstract: The level of mechanization in harvesting operations differs from region to region depending in a great
measure on forest types, wood species, management methods, terrain and climatic conditions. However, most of
the currently used forest equipments do affect the forest soils, while ground-based ones are characterized by
stronger impacts. On the other hand, the extent at which the forest soil may be affected depends on several key
aspects such as the extent of extraction infrastructure which, ultimately may be correlated with other parameters
such as the extraction intensity and the management methods silvicultural system. In the mountainous forests
of Romania ground-based extraction systems are extensively used even if such conditions are more appropriate
for using cable yarders. Our study aimed to quantify the soil disturbance in a mountainous forest district by
taking in consideration of all the forest compartments in which harvesting operations were performed in the last
10 years. For this purpose we used two approaches: skid trails were benchmarked at their extents while lateral
zones and animal logging was investigated using a systematic sampling approach. A factorial experiment was
designed using the main descriptors such as the equipment used, extracted volume, used harvesting method,
extraction intensity and the applied silvicultural system. Following the statistical analysis, we found out that
significant differences occurred when analyzing the soil disturbance between the designed statistical treatments.
The results of this study may be helpful in forest operations planning and equipment selection.

80

Innovative forest engineering

IMPACT OF HARVESTING OPERATIONS ON FOREST SOILS AND POSTHARVESTING RECOVERY A SINTHESYS OF INSTRUMENTS, METHODS AND
RESULTS
Horaiu MUNTEANU, Transilvania University of Braov
Valentina Doina CIOBANU, Transilvania University of Braov
Jean VIAN, NFA - ROMSILVA
Stelian Alexandru BORZ, Transilvania University of Braov
Abstract: Wood procurement activity plays a key role in the economic strategy of many regions and countries. In
the same time, harvesting operations are regarded in many regions as traditions and provide income for many
people which actually perform them. Generally, it is commonly accepted that the level of mechanization in
harvesting operations strongly affects the productive efficiency of a given harvesting system, reason which
triggered the accelerated introduction of machines in such operations. On the one hand, these equipments have
their own impact on several elements, functions and processes within a forest ecosystem contributing to different
kinds and levels of disturbances. On the other hand, scientists around the world have notified, developed
methods and studied the potential impact one given equipment may have on the forest ecosystems. Ground based
logging equipments are more likely to have an impact on the forest soil even if other equipment types such as
cable yarders may affect the forest soils at some extent. In this context, the present study aims to give a synthesis
on the currently used instruments and methods in the assessment of forest soil impact when using different kind
of logging equipments. Furthermore, the obtained results are critically reviewed and possible scientific
approaches for improving the used methods are benchmarked. The results of this study may be helpful in
developing new methods and instruments with potential use in the assessment of harvesting operations impact on
the forest soils.

DETERMINING THE FUEL CONSUMPTION IN CASE OF A KOMATSU


(VALMET) 941 HARVESTER BASED ON FOUR-MONTH SHIFT LEVEL DATA
Andrei APFIAN, Transilvania University of Braov
Stelian Alexandru BORZ, Transilvania University of Braov
Valentina Doina CIOBANU, Transilvania University of Braov
Abstract: In the actual conditions, which are characterized in most of the developed and developing countries by
industries aiming to those methods and equipments which are adequate for a green economy, energy expenditure
and especially fossil energy inputs into given processes has gain a lot of attention in the scientific community. In
harvesting operations, a special attention has been given to proper quantification of fossil fuels consumptions in
relation with operational variables since the performance of given equipments or systems is strongly affected by
local operational conditions. Even if not available in many cases, long term data has important advantages
when one tries to calculate the energy expenditure is such operations. On the other hand, harvesters are known
for their increased efficiency when performing forest operations, but little is known about their performance in
mountainous conditions of Romania since they were recently introduced in this country. In this context, our
study aimed to determine the direct fossil-based energy expenditure when harvesting trees with a Komatsu
(Valmet) 941 harvester, based on four month shift level recordings on fuel consumption, operating hours and the
amount of over-bark wood production. Data was collected from accounting system of a harvesting company and
further matching procedures were applied in order to correlate the energy expenditure with other descriptive
operational conditions. The results of our study suggest that in the case of 532.5 working hours performed by an
operator having an experience of 16 months, fuel consumption varied between 11.26 and 12.56 liters per
working hour and from 1.75 to 2.14 liters per one processed over-bark cubic meter. The results of this study may
be helpful for different kinds of strategic and operational assessments and activities starting with LCA studies
and ending with operational costing.

81

Innovative forest engineering

TECHNICAL EXPERTISE OF INTERSECTIONS OF FOREST AND NATIONAL


ROADS IN BRAOV COUNTY
Constantin - Alexandru BRATU,Transilvania University of Braov, Department of Forest
Engineering, Forest Management Planning and Terrestrial Measurements
Valetina Doina CIOBANU, Transilvania University of Braov, Department of Forest
Engineering, Forest Management Planning and Terrestrial Measurements
Andrei Ioan APFIAN, Transilvania University of Braov, Department of Forest
Engineering, Forest Management Planning and Terrestrial Measurements
Vasile BOGHIAN, Transilvania University of Braov, Department of Forest Engineering,
Forest Management Planning and Terrestrial Measurements
Abstract: Junctions of forest roads and national roads are known to have a high risk potential. The main reasons
for this are the deficient geometric connection, absence of optimum joint between the road structures with
different stiffnesses, mud and other debris that are transported by the vehicle tires into the national roads
surface and the diversity of cars that are passing through the two intersecting roads.
This paper studies the degree of degradation of the road structures and geometric deficiencies of the
intersections formed by forest roads and national roads in Braov County. The structure of forest roads was
investigated by direct observation and laboratory tests. The quantity of mud transported by vehicle tires was
determined in the laboratory by the sedimentation method. The national road surfaces on which accumulated
mud transported by the vehicles that eventually will lead to safety issues were established. The expertise of
geometric elements was performed with Leica TCR 805 Power 5 Total Station conformable the method traverse
and deletion . The geometric deficiencies of the intersections were established with the transit vehicle simulation
software.
The technical expertise results indicates that the current technical conditions at the junctions between forest and
national roads from Brasov County were determined to be at an unsafe level regarding vehicle traffic. The
observed deficiencies will be developed as starting points in future research.

Key words: research, intersection, forest, mud, simulation

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE DAMAGES INFLICTED TO BEECH AND OAK


STANDS IN CONDITIONS OF USING FOREST TRACTORS FOR SKIDDING
Rudolf Derczeni, Transilvania University of Brasov/Faculty of Silviculture and Forest
Engineering
Alexandru Stelian Borz, Transilvania University of Brasov/Faculty of Silviculture and Forest
Engineering
Viorela Marcu, Transilvania University of Brasov/Faculty of Silviculture and Forest
Engineering
Abstract: Size of damages made during the logging are very important in terms of future of the woods quality.
Comparing the size and the positions of bark removal for the same logging equipment in beech and oak stands
could reach to provide some useful informations regarding the way in which the logging could be made for each
type of forest and also to help the forest ownership to establish proper regulations in order to reduce the size of
these damages.

82

Innovative forest engineering

ENVIRONMENTAL COMMITMENTS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF FOREST


ROADS OF MOUNTAINOUS FORESTS
Vasileios J. Giannoulas, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Forestry and Natural
Environment, Greece
Vasileios C. Drosos, Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Forestry and
Management of the Environment and Natural Resources, Greece
Anastasia Stergiadou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Forestry and Natural
Environment, Greece
Aristotelis-Kosmas G. Doucas, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Forestry and
Natural Environment, Greece
Abstract: The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is designed to assess the degree of injury to the natural
environment of an investment project. The EIA to the extent that uses qualitative criteria is necessarily
descriptive,
with
the
risk
of
presenting
impacts
without
objective
criteria.
It is necessary to develop improved methods for assessing environmental costs and environmental impacts of
investment projects.
The purpose of this paper is the assessment of compatibility of mountainous roads and formulation of
criteria for environmental commitments in the construction of forest roads. The fast development of P/C
technology and GIS software provides an objective and effective evaluation of the Environmental Impact
Assessment (E.I.A.). The present research focuses on E.I.A. concerning forest road construction, using
measurable Intensity and Absorption criteria and exploiting the above mentioned modern technologies.
Based on the literature and following an inspection of the above resulted special environmental
commitments. These commitments are for the staking and construction of individual forest road in productive
forests. The implementation of this method requires an existing Database of geographical data. Spatial analysis
and processing are carried out in an efficient and reliable way in comparison to classical methods.
Many various digital maps and diagrams were produced, examining different road variables. All these digital
products contribute significantly to choose the most compatible for the environment solution.
Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund ESF)
and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National
Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society
through the European Social Fund.

CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE ON HOW WATER AFFECTS FOREST


ROADS SURFACE, COMPARING TWO METHODS OF REHABILITATION OF
FOREST ROADS DAMAGED BY WATER
Ing Vasile BOGHIAN, Transilvania University of Brasov
Prof dr ing Gheorghe IGNEA, Transilvania University of Brasov
ing Constantin Alexandru BRATU, Transilvania University of Brasov
Abstract: It is known that forest roads are very important for security, protection and sustainable management
of forests. Also the forest road network has a significant role especially in the process of wood harvesting and
transportation of wood logs from the stump to the sorting centers and further on to the industry. Because
nowadays the traffic operating machinery and trucks loaded with wood have a significance pressure on road
structure that will undergoe several changes. These structural changes may be lower or higher depending on the
amount of water that is combined in the road surface and beneath. Water is present in the soil in all forms of
aggregation depending on the temperature. Water has a very important role in the processes of compression and
compaction that occur on forest roads and is the main factor of degradation of forest roads. This research is a
study of the current knowledge about how water works on forest roads and what methods are known to reduce
water damage. Transport of timber should be limited in certain time periods in which the amount of water is at a
minimum percentage thus will lead to a minimal road damage. The present research includes a comparison
between the rehabilitated forest roads presenting different damages using various methods and equipment
ranging from traditional to modern ones.

83

Innovative forest engineering

EVALUATING THE SURVIVAL RATE OF TWO SALIX CULTIVARS PLANTED


ON A SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH HEAVY METALS

Cezar SCRIBA, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and


Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Stelian Alexandru BORZ, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning
and Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Rudolf Alexandru DERCZENI, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management
Planning and Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Daniel POPOVICI, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and
Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov

Abstract: One way to mitigate the effects of global warming is to actually use in a greater proportion of
renewable energy sources including different types of biomass. This triggered several scientific preoccupations
related to the efficient use of forest and short rotation culture related biomass. While short rotation cultures
came into attention as a possible way to reduce the pressure on forests, willows are only ones of the many
species that actually can fulfil the requirements of supply security by balancing the productive potential of soils
with quite increased yields provided at short time spans. Furthermore, such cultures may be additionally used
for phytoremediation purposes such as stabilizing and enhancing the properties of terrains which are otherwise
degraded, wastewater management and improvement of contaminated soils. Our study aimed to evaluate the
survival rate and estimate the potential financial loss in case of two Salix cultivars (TORDIS and INGER)
planted on a heavy-metal contaminated soil, after three months from plantation. For this purpose we examined
integrally a 2 hectare plantation which was established in the early spring of 2014, at each cutting level and we
used a binary approach when we collected data in the field. Thus, each cutting which actually generated viable
shoots was considered as being a survivor while each one having no viable shoots was considered as dead. In
the last category we included also the missing cuttings at the date of field data collection. This way we examined
a total number of 24203 cuttings belonging to the two cultivars. Following data analysis we found out that
INGER cultivar had the smallest survival rate (62.93%) which also varied significantly between plantation rows,
while TORDIS cultivar presented a better behaviour in what concerns both the survival rate (83.97%) and
variability on the plantation rows. Considered together, the survival rate was of 72.92% and the financial loss
due to cuttings mortality (excluding plantation costs) was about 2700 lei (600 euro) in case of all surface taken
into study. The results of our study suggest that the above mentioned figures are the result of synergy between
several factors such as an improper maintenance, improper field preparation before planting and the
contamination of soil. Also, the results of this paper may be helpful at strategic and operational level when such
cultivars and soil conditions are in question.

84

Innovative forest engineering

DEVELOPING NOMOGRAMS FOR A RAPID DIMENSIONING OF ROADWAYS


IN CASE OF FOREST ROADS
Gheorghe IGNEA, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and
Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Vasile BOGHEAN, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and
Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Aurelian CANDREA, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and
Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Abstract: Currently, Romania has about 23,000 km of forest roads. However, this forest roads network does not
provide a sufficient density and not all the forested areas are sufficiently opened. Also, an important part of
these roads are characterized by a non-adequate technical state, mainly due to roadway degradation. In order to
assure the full accessibility of forested areas construction of new roads as well as the rehabilitation of existent
ones represent key aspects. For a defined number of consecrated roadways, in this paper were developed
nomograms using the critical deformation method, as these may be helpful in a rapid design of forest roads. In
order to properly design a roadway, a first step involves the determination of required deformation modulus as a
function of traffic intensity and structure. From the designed nomograms may be extracted the thickness of the
road layer which is actually dimensioned by considering different values of the required deformation modulus
and different terrain (soil) categories including their deformation modulus. The developed nomograms may help
in a better time management when designing forest roads as well as in assessing the influence which certain
factors may have on the bearing capacity of roadways.

Keywords: forest roads, nomograms, dimensioning, roadway

ACTUAL ENDOVEMENT OF ROMANIAN FOREST WITH FOREST ROADS

Rostislav BEREZIUC, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and


Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Valeria Maria ALEXANDRU, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management
Planning and Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Valentina Doina CIOBANU, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management
Planning and Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Adela Eliza DUMITRACU, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management
Planning and Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Jean VIAN, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and Terrestrial
Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Ctlina ANTONIADE, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management Planning and
Terrestrial Mesurements, Transilvania University of Braov
Abstract: The paper presents the situation recorded in year 2013 of the edovement with foret roads network for
countyies, forest district countyies and also for other owner categories which are deserved.
Considering the accessibility as a qualitative element of forest openness, it is necessary, for a clear depiction of
the situation, that the forest accessibility to be always interpreted in correlation with the afferent quantitative
elements, respectively the density of transportation network and the logging distance.
Considering that, presently, the forest accessibility is assured only in proportion of 65%, in the paper are
underlined the technical and economic requirents which should be considered when endowing forests with new
roads or rehabilitating those non-usable.

85

Innovative forest engineering

SURFACE EVALUATION OF PROCESSED BLACK ALDER SPECIMENS AS


FUNCTION OF DIFFERENT PARAMETERS
Emilia-Adela SALCA, Transilvania University of Brasov
Abstract: The present work proposes to impel the interest of specialists from the wood processing field with a
view to capitalize and value the potential of black alder wood and to highlight the role and importance of such
fast growing wood species. When being cultivated under scientific screening and proposed in furniture
manufacturing as furniture parts or interior decoration and design, it can contribute to satisfy some social,
economic and ecological needs. It is considered that the wood of black alder has good working properties and
presents a good response to machining operations. The surface quality of each product must meet industrial
standards and be aligned to the customer-oriented quality criteria. Therefore the purpose of the present study
was to evaluate the quality of processed surfaces made of black alder wood. The samples were processed on
their longitudinal edges by straight milling on the vertical milling machine by respecting different cutting
schedules and the matrix of experiments comprised: rotation speed, feed speed, cutting depth and cutting width.
The indicator of the surface quality is the surface roughness which was measured with the help of a profilometer
of MicroProf FRT type. The processing roughness was evaluated according to specific standard. The study
revealed that good longitudinal quality surfaces were obtained after milling when using low feed speed and light
cutting depth. This study and its results can be successfully used in wood furniture industry. The results will
contribute to make decisions and to choose the material and process with a view to obtain the desired quality of
value-added products. A new attitude related to the economic and efficient use of this wood species is to be
expected.

Key words: black alder, processing, roughness.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE MARKED TREES IN THE


UNIFORM SHELTER WOOD SYSTEM

A.I. Pop, Transilvania University of Brasov


Abstract: The level of damages of remaining standing trees by wood exploitation activities, depends on a variety
of factors including, as an important one, the spatial arrangement of marked trees and arrangement of the
remain standing trees.
Analysis of the spatial distribution of trees was performed using specific indicators characterizing the
structure stands: density, composition, vertical distribution, distance to the nearest neighbor, aggregation index,
the index of positional distribution clustering index.
The research was conducted in a beech stand in which the treatment of uniform shelterwood system was
applied, respectively, open seeding felling.
The aim of research was a comparative study on the arrangement of trees mark, in the version adopted
by the production, and theoretical alternatives that would ensure their optimal arrangement in accordance with
the needs of stand management and ensuring favorable conditions of operation in terms of reducing damage.

86

Innovative forest engineering

CRITERIA FOR MARKING TREES IN MIXED HARDWOOD STAND

Sima, F, Universitatea Transilvania din Braov

Abstract: The quality of marking trees, and thereby effects of silvicultural intervention, depends on a multitude
of factors involved in choosing trees for removal, and the hierarchy of these factors according to certain criteria.
The complexity of this action is evident in mixed stands where some species should be promoted even in
qualitative way trees meet the criteria for extraction.
The research of the author was located in a plain mixed hardwood stand located in the valley of
Luncav, in which a comparison was made between an existing and a proposed marking. In the proposed
marking are taken into account the following factors: grade; breast height diameter; height; horizontal position
of trees; Kraft class; shape and size of the crown; inclination of the trunk; condition of vegetation; tree health.
Comparison of stand characteristics in existing and proposed variants was done by analyzing its structure, with
specific parameters: aggregation index; index of distribution; density index; clustering index; index of regularly.

87

Applied geomatics

Section 5:
Applied geomatics

88

Applied geomatics

USING REMOTE SENSING FOR MONITORING OF GULLY EROSION


PROGRESS IN JARAMA RIVER BASIN (GUADALAJARA, SPAIN)
V. Bernab, Department of Engineering and Management Forestry and Environmental
Technical University of Madrid. Spain
J. A. Riesco, Department of Engineering and Management Forestry and Environmental
Technical University of Madrid. Spain
M. Gimnez, Department of Engineering and Management Forestry and Environmental
Technical University of Madrid. Spain
J.L. Garca, Department of Engineering and Management Forestry and Environmental
Technical University of Madrid. Spain
Abstract: Currently, an erosion inventory is taking place in Spain, incorporating gully erosion, in addition to
laminar and rill erosion, already taken into account in former inventories. Gullies have been geo-referenced
through aerial photographs. The study try to be a step forward incorporating remote sensing in the assessment
of natural evolution of these formations through time-series analysis between 1984 and 2013. Natural response
may offer a way to act in the management control of this type of erosion.

ANALYSIS AND PROJECTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON FUTURE


DISTRIBUTION OF NORWAY SPRUCE AND SCOTS PINE
IN MONTENEGRO
Bratislav MATOVI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi
Sad, Antona ehova 13d, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Dejan STOJANOVI, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi
Sad, Antona ehova 13d, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Aleksandra KRI, Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, Kneza Vieslava 66,
11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Vladimir UREVI, Institute of Meteorology, Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade,
Dobraina 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Orlovi SAA, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad,
Antona ehova 13d, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Mirjana IVANOV, Hydrometeorological and Seismological Service of Montenegro, IV
proleterske 19, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
Slavica MICEV, Ivanov Mirjana, Hydrometeorological and Seismological Service of
Montenegro, IV proleterske 19, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of climate change using a regional climate model and
biometeorological index to future distribution of Norway spruce and Scots pine in Montenegro. These species
are mainly represented in the boreal forests, but they also occur in temperate coniferous forests and temperate
broadleaf and mixed forests. Montenegro is on the edge of the distribution of these species going to the Adriatic
Sea. For this analysis we used biometeorological indices: Ellenberg's climate quotient (EQ) and Forest aridity
index (FAI). Observed data of the average monthly temperatures and sums of monthly precipitation were taken
from 21 meteorological stations over Montenegro for the reference period 1961-1990. Temperature and
precipitation are interpolated with detrending technique using Digital Elevation Model in ArcGIS, after which
the EQ and FAI index were calculated for each individual pixel size of 90 x 90 m. Climatic data for the 21st
century are provided from a regional climate model EBU-POM for A1B and A2 scenarios for the periods 20012030 and 2071-2100. For evaluation of the current distribution of major tree species data from the National
Forest Inventory were used. After detailed analysis, we found that EQ didn't show reliable results for
Montenegro. Based on the distribution of FAI values it can be concluded that the potential climate changes will
have dominantly negative impact on distribution of Norway spruce and Scots pine in Montenegro.

89

Applied geomatics

COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT ICP ALGORITHMS USING TLS DATE


Corina Daniela PUN, Technical University Gheorghe Asachi of Iasi, Faculty of
Hydrotechnical Engineering, Geodesy and Environmental Engineering, Department of
Terrestrial Measurements and Cadastre
Philipp GLIRA Research Group Photogrammetry, Department of Geodesy and
Geoinformation, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Abstract: For the geometric alignment of TLS data, acquired from different scan stations, have been proposed
different ICP algorithms. The Iterative Closest Point algorithm optimization is a current issue that has many
approaches to important fields of activity. Currently, many variants of ICP were published, influencing all
stages of the algorithm, from the selection, matching or rejection of point pairs, to the metric error minimization.
Thus, in this study, we proposed a new strategy for minimize the distances between corresponding points. In
other words, for points rejection are imposed two conditions: if the angle between normal vectors of
corresponding points and the distance between corresponding points, are to large then a threshold, the points
are rejected. The ICP enhancements are demonstrated in an example. We conclude by finding accurate
registration for more than two scan stations, that all "point to plane" distances between all possible overlapping
point clouds, are minimize simultaneously and the whole process is done iteratively.

FOREST VEGETATION DISTURBANCE PATTERN IN COMPLEX FOREST


OWNERSHIP AREAS: A CASE STUDY IN THE NORTHERN ROMANIAN
CARPATHIANS
Ionu BARNOAIEA, Stefan cel Mare University Suceava, Forestry Faculty
Liviu NICHIFOREL, Stefan cel Mare University Suceava, Forestry Faculty
Cosmin COOFRE, Stefan cel Mare University Suceava, Forestry Faculty
Ovidiu IACOBESCU, Stefan cel Mare University Suceava, Forestry Faculty
Abstract: Forest disturbance pattern is a resultant of a complex of factors, both natural and human. The most
frequent cases of disturbance in the study area are related to windthrown, insect attacks and illegal logging. The
disturbance drivers mentioned have mutual interactions and tend to enhance their total influence on the forest
ecosystems (windthrowns are a start point for bark beetle attacks, illegal logging creates gaps in the canopy that
increase the probability of windthrown etc.). These interactions are related to the types of forest ownership
present, and most important, to the moment of the restitution.
The aim of the paper is the mapping of the forest disturbances in the Northern part of the Romanian
Carpathians using Landsat image series (1984-2002) and to compare the disturbance pattern with the forest
ownership maps and the forest restitution types in certain forest districts that are representative for these
processes. Analysis of satellite images over time serves as a powerful tool to track changes in forest cover, which
short-term fieldwork cannot observe. The archive of LANDSAT images is practically the only accessible
source of spatial information on forest cover around 1990, since no higher spatial resolution data (aerial
images) were taken in the period 1978-2004.
The analysis showed a significant grouping of forest disturbance areas in the areas with very high
percentages of Norway spruce as a general perspective, but also showed a complex disturbance pattern in the
stands restituted on the basis of Law 18/1991. These stands were already affected by illegal logging in the
previous decade and the massive windthrowns in March 2002 just perfected the effect of previous disturbances.
The forest disturbance maps represent a basis for further investigations related to the forest vegetation
successions in the areas that were affected by forest vegetation loss in an effort to delineate the owners
approach to the continuous management of these areas.

90

Applied geomatics

TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING AND GIS METHODS FOR FORESTRY


APPLICATIONS

Andreea Florina JOCEA, Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, Faculty of


Geodesy
Ctlina CRISTEA, Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, Faculty of
Geodesy

Abstract: Terrestrial laser scanning is a fast and efficient technology which can provide high speed, precise 3D
measurements of an object. This non-destructive technology can be applied in different fields such as surveying,
architecture, industry, reverse engineering and forestry. A combination of terrestrial laser scanning data with
GIS technology can be a proper support for estimating the most important parameters of trees (tree height, basal
area, diameter etc.) contained by a forest inventory. This paper will describe an automatic method for
determining tree characteristics, which in traditional way are measured manually. The study was realised on a
sample plot with an average size of approximatively 256 m2 using a Leica ScanStation 2 terrestrial laser
scanner. An important step in this study is represented by data processing. The terrestrial laser scanning data
were converted into a GIS format suitable for interpretation, processing, estimation and dissemination. Further,
the tree metric parameters, which are estimated automatically using the algorithms implemented into processing
software can be used for geometric and statistical, qualitative and quantitative analyses, or for forest monitoring
and management planning of forest sites.

Key words: terrestrial laser scanning, GIS, forest parameters

TORNAAPPS - ENTERPRISE PLANNING SYSTEM FOR FORESTRY BUSINESS

Kimmo KORTELAINEN, TornaApps project manager, Tornator Oyj


Alexandru NITULESCU, TornaApps project manager, Tornator SRL
Abstract: Tornator is a forestry company managing 650.000 ha of forest land in different parts of Europe. The
immediate need of a managing system which would combine GIS, reporting and accounting led the company into
creating TornaApps, its own Enterprise Resource Planning system designed to help all types of employees
(starting with the forest worker, continuing with forest supervisors and accountants and ending with the country
managers).
For the Romanian subsidiary of Tornator, the research work for TornaApps Romania started in March
2009 collecting opinions and methods of working from the employees. The main goal was to develop an app
which would closely follow all the processes involved in silviculture and forestry business in Romania. First
version for testing was launched in November 2013, and testing phase lasted 7 months (this interval of time was
used for corrections, re-designing and development). After this period, the production version was launched: a
web-based application with 4 modules (Forest module = electronic forestry data, Work management module=
planning and checking forestry operations, Cadastre module= real estate data, Document archive module=
archiving multiple types of documents), and an Android based app linked to the web-based system (for field use
of the Forest and Work modules and also electronic maps with GPS positioning and tracking).
The result was a system combining simplified GIS with reporting and bookkeeping. TornaApps is
currently providing working tools for most of the employees inside the organization, causing an increased
productivity and reduced bureaucracy, henceforth it can be stated that the initial expectation of Tornator
management regarding the implementation of an own IT management system was reached, yet the development
of such a system is a never-ending process.

91

Applied geomatics

TRANSPOSITION OF FOREST ROADS IN GIS BASED ON DTM DERIVED FROM


AIRBORN LIDAR DATA AND AERIAL ORTOFOTO IMAGES

Eugen IORDACHE, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering


Marius PETRILA, Forest Research and Management Institute
Abstract: Analysis of LiDAR terrain data presents an opportunity to map forest roads with unprecedented
completeness and accuracy. Traditional remote sensing data such as satellite imagery and aerial photography
are often insufficient for identifying forest roads because passive sensors are unable to penetrate dense canopy .
The purpose of this study was the extraction of 1 km long forest road three-dimensional, efficiently and
accurately featured from Airborn LiDAR data and aerial OrtoFoto images and to determine the suitability for
mapping forest roads in areas of dense forest canopy and steep terrain.
The test site is 37,5ha wide and is located in Romania, Vlcea county, in the area of Voineasa Forest
District, within the Lotru river valley.
Previously processed and classified LiDAR data and ortorectified aerial images were used.Then, in
order to obtain the spectral data the classified LiDAR data were fused with aerial imagery spectrum attribute
into groups by kinds of feature, such as ground, vegetation etc. Finally, the 3D models of interested regions are
quickly constructed, based on the classified points and the aerial-image.
The position, gradient and total length of a forest haul road were accurately extracted using a 1 m
DEM. In comparison to a field-surveyed centerline, the LiDAR-derived road exhibited a positional accuracy of
1.5 m and total road length within 0.3% of the field-surveyed length.

Key words: forest roads, Airborn LiDAR, OrtoFoto Images

BUILDING-UP THE GEOSPATIAL DATABASE OF THE TORRENT CONTROL


STRUCTURES WITHIN COZIA NATIONAL PARK
Corina GANCZ, ICAS, Bucureti
Ioan CLINCIU, Universitatea Transilvania, Braov
Vladimir GANCZ, ICAS, Bucureti
Abstract: The geospatial databases are very important for an effective management using GIS environment in
any activity related with geospatial data and information. One of the most important, and time and effort
consuming, is designing and building such geospatial database tailored according with a specific purpose.
This paper presents the building-up of two connected geospatial databases: the watershed catchments and the
torrent control structures.
he watershed catchments database (polygon type) was built-up semi
automatic way based on digital elevation model, medium spatial resolution (previously extracted from SPOT
stereoscopic satellite imagery) using geospatial analyse facilities of the GIS environment. Subsequently, the
limits of the watershed basins were finished using aerial orthorectified imagery. Than the specific attributes
were added and areas were automatically computed.
The torrent control structures geospatial database (point type) was built up using field work data
acquisition (including positions of the torrent control structures with GPS receivers) and data and information
from torrent control structures standard fishes, realised by the specialist, according with field evaluation. This
fishes, very rich in information and data for each torrent control structure, were converted into a digital form
matching with relational databases requested by GIS software.
One of the most important issue is the unique identification code (ID) for each torrent control
structures, taking into consideration the possible and necessary extension of this geospatial database for others
protected areas and, finally, to whole country. The authors propose in this paper a simple but effective method to
build-up this unique ID.
Once these databases were built could be used in an effective way, to build maps, to search according with
logical criteria or using geospatial analyses. Also could be combined with other geospatial databases (i.e. forest
management geospatial databases) for various analyses and purposes.

92

Applied geomatics

MONITORING DEFORESTATION AND VEGETATION REGENERATION IN


TROTUSULUI VALLEY, ROMANIA, USING CHANGE VECTOR ANALYSIS AND
LANDSAT IMAGERY
Vorovencii Iosif, Transilvania University of Braov
Abstract: Monitoring vegetation is one of the most important activities that yield information about the type of
changes, the nature and intensity of changes, in a given period. In this study it was used a time series imagery of
Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) acquired in 1986, 1993,
2000 and 2009 for monitoring deforestation and vegetation regeneration in Trotusului Valley, Romania. The
satellite images were radiometrically normalized using the no-change set determined from scattergrams method.
Before performing the relative radiometric normalization each image was classified in forest and non-forest
classes. The obtained images have used like mask in delineation the forest to the other classes. The normalized
images were then processed using Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT) resulting brightness (TCB) and
greenness (TCG) components which enhance the landscape features and reduce data redundancy. Change
Vector Analysis (CVA) were applied to TCB and TCG which produced images of change direction and
magnitude between two dates. The direction of change indicate the changes of landscape that means
deforestation, vegetation regeneration or maintaining the same landscape status. The magnitude indicate the
dimensions of changes occured in every subperiod and on the whole studied period. Results of the study shows
that in the period 19862009 in Trotusului Valley occurred major changes which resulted to deforestation and
vegetation regeneration. Deforestation is due, mainly, illegal loggings that occurred after 1989. Vegetation
regeneration occurred after loggings and in other areas.

STUDY ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SUPPORT NETWORKS BY


ENFORCEMENT ON POINTS OF THE NETWORK OF STATE GEODETIC
TRIANGULATION
Maricel PALAMARIU, "1 Decembrie 1918" University of Alba Iulia
Nicolae BOS, Transilvania University of Braov
Mircea PUSCAS, "1 Decembrie 1918" University of Alba Iulia
Abstract: The modern control networks, no matter their porpoise, are created using as a starting base of points
with known coordinates in the reference systems used by the GNSS systems, that are part of geodesic networks of
higher order, then the coordinates of the determined points will need to be transformed into coordinates of the
national system of reference. Taking in consideration that also in Romania continental networks were developed
in the global system of reference (WGS84/ETRS89), geodesic points are available with coordinates calculated in
the global reference system, resulting the National Geodesic Network RGNS, created from points with known
coordinates in the European reference system ETRS89.
In the same time, there are still points from the national geodesic triangulation, of different orders (
from I to IV), materialized with guard stones, in good condition, with spatial coordinates determined in the
following systems: Stereo 70 and Black Sea 75, which can be used. Moreover the present regulations
recommend that these points should be used is specific situations, after a thorough check.
Although the Network of Permanent Stations is fully functional, and the distribution of permanent
stations on the national territory has reach a convenient density, the new control networks, taking in
consideration their specifications, cannot always be developed at a convenient distance from a permanent
station, therefore, new solutions need to be used to realize them. A geodesic control network H|GNSS can be
compensated, depending on the situation, in different ways, as a free network, partially or fully constrained. In
this direction, different methods of positioning and calculation, compensation and transformation will be taken
in consideration, comparing each other, with improvement conclusions for positioning the GNSS control
networks.
The problem regarding developing the control network using the national geodesic triangulation
network is the main topic of this essay.

93

Applied geomatics

A POSSIBLE APPROACH OF STAND VOLUME ESTIMATION BASED ON


FUSION AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA AND TERRESTRIAL MEASUREMENTS FOR
A NORWAY SPRUCE TEST SITE IN ROMANIA
Bogdan APOSTOL, Forest Research and Management Institute,Transilvania University of
Braov
Marius PETRILA, Forest Research and Management Institute
Adrian LOREN, Forest Research and Management Institute Transilvania University of
Braov
Vladimir GANCZ, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS)
Ovidiu BADEA, Forest Research and Management Institute, Transilvania University of
Braov
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to present a possible approach of stand volume estimation for a
Norway spruce (Picea abies) test site in Romania using airborne LiDAR Remote Sensing technology and
terrestrial measurements. The Norway spruce test site is located in Valcea County, in the area of Voineasa
Forest District. The proposed method uses data fusion of airborne LiDAR data (individual trees detection),
aerial imagery and ground truth data such as field biometric measurements. Ground truth data were collected
using FieldMap equipment, high accuracy GPS and laser Vertex inclinometer. Airborne LiDAR data were
collected using an airborne Riegl LMS-Q560 device, were processed using LP360 and Fusion software and we
have extracted digital terrain model and canopy height model. For the estimation of tree height, number of trees
and tree crown width using airborne LiDAR data was used Canopy Maxima algorithm (Fusion software) and a
local regression equation between measured individual height tree and tree crown diameter calculated from
ground measured tree crown projection. Good results were obtained when we linked the airborne LiDAR
identified trees with the corresponding field measured tree (58% from the field measured trees were identified
using LiDAR data, only the upper canopy (Kraft classes I, II and occasionally III) could be identified using
LiDAR data). This approach of volume estimation is using a regression equation based only on the individual
tree height identified on LiDAR data. We obtained a good correlation between the two datasets, ground truth
calculated volume and the individual tree height identified on LiDAR data (r=0.717). The percentage error (for
one plot from the test site) between the volumes estimated using airborne LiDAR and the ground truth volume
was 2.6%. In order to asses this approach we test it for other plot within test site but without making the
correspondence between LiDAR identified trees and ground truth measured ones. In this case we used different
resolution parameter for the Canopy Maxima algorithm (Fusion software). The percentage error in this case
was varying between 12.7% - 8.7% according to the different resolution parameter used for identifying
individual trees on LiDAR data.
Keywords: LiDAR data, FieldMap measurements, data fusion, volume estimation

94

Applied geomatics

THE GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION AS A TOOL OF RATIONAL MANAGEMENT,


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND PROTECTION OF A FOREST REGION IN
DIGITAL MAPS
Dimitrios E. FARMAKIS, Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment and
Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
Rigas GIOVANNOPOULOS, Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment
and Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
Abstract. Sustainable development of the planet depends, in fact, on recycling of resources rather than their
extraction and eventual discard following use. Sustainable development of mountainous regions has as objective
to increase the economic investments to profit of residents of region, without however it influences drastic the
natural environment. In this paper we are going to highlight the contribution of the spatial information in an
integrated sustainable planning, management and development for a characteristic mountainous area in Greece
on the basis of digital techniques. The DTM is the state-of-the-art design development tool. So by creating a
DTM sets out the creation of a cartographic database, which is a component of a digital map. First is the
recognition of Forest (Location and boundaries of the forest, forestry species composition, forest structure,
management form, management classes, and access roads, facilities and settlements, etc.). Then follow the data
collection from municipalities, Forest Service and some additional cartographic and aerial material from the
Military Geographical Service and the Ministry of Rural Development and Food. The second step was the
creation of land uses map and relief map of the forest complex. Then field investigation with data collection was
carried out. Afterwards by data processing a digital multifunctional and interactive forestry map was generated.
The D.T.Ms. can be used in combination with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to create a land
information system, necessary for the protection and sustainable development of forest areas and especially
when derives from reliable geospatial information. The GIS combined with modeling techniques of the bas-relief
is the appropriate approach for analyzing spatial data. Provide the basis for developing a wide range of
applications related to earth sciences. Geoinformatics enable modeling and performance analysis of spatial
phenomena related to topography or other areas with similar spatial properties.
Keywords: natural environment, digital terrain model, forestry map, land use, land cover.

STUDY ON AN INCREASED EFFICIENCY OF TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS OF


RIVERBEDS WITH SPECIFIC FOREST VEGETATION

Maximilian DIAC, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania


Cristian ONU, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania
Abstract: Technological progress in recent years in terrestrial measurements fails to effectively solve all
practical situations that may occur in topographic survey because of the difficult conditions caused by the
existence of specific forest vegetation in the riverbeds of rivers. Topographic surveys networks of minor
riverbeds involve development of supported spatial poligonometric traversing. This paper presents a
comparative study on the accuracy and execution time of such traversing via two procedures applied on a study
section of about one kilometer, located on the lower course of the river Nicolina in Iasi county.
Keywords: topographic surveys, minor riverbeds, spacial poligonometric traversing, precision, yield.

95

Applied geomatics

3D SPATIAL MODELING OF EXISTING ANALOG GRAPHIC DATA AND ITS USE


AS A SUPPORT IN THE DESIGNING AND EXECUTION PROCESS OF SPECIAL
CONSTRUCTIONS WORKS
Constantin BOFU, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi
Horaiu-Iulian HOGA, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi
Mihaela CRDEI*, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi
Abstract: Space modeling technology has evolved a lot with powerful tools for research and analysis in almost
all areas of social life. At the same time there is a lot of data in analog format, which, if integrated into this
technology can be used as a support base in spatial analysis specific to each area. Through this work the
authors propose a technological procedure of organizing data and creating basic 3D model, designing dams on
this model and ways of exploiting the information in the process of special constructions realisation.
Key words: technology, modeling, analogical, spatial analysis, construction.

DESIGNING A SPATIAL DATABASE FOR CADASTRAL INFORMATION


SYSTEM - S.I.C.

Horaiu-Iulian HOGA, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi


Constantin BOFU, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi
Mihaela CRDEI*, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi

Abstract: Improving decision-making process of local institutions that operate with spatial data is tightly linked
to the existence of an information system with cadastral data content (and here the authors understand both
informations that define cadastre and also specific data content of information systems in specific areas of
activity). The architecture of such a information system of cadastre on the administrative territory level, has as
foundation a database designed and created to meet the requirements of such an approach. The aim of this
paper is to present own design concept of a spatial database that meets both the requirements of exploitation
phase of created Cadastral Information System and to the necessity of updating it in real time.

96

Applied geomatics

TESTING THE ACCURACY OF GPS LOCATIONS AS A PRE-REQUISITE OF


FOREST CADASTRE RELATED BORDERING ISSUES
Cornel Cristian, TERENEU, Transilvania University of Brasov
Maria Magdalena VASILESCU, Transilvania University of Brasov
Abstract: This paper deals with the accuracy of locations when collecting GPS data at the border between forest
and other land cover categories based on a case study performed in the mountainous forests area of BranMoeciu, Brasov County. Two Trimble made GPS receivers were used (Trimble PRO XH and Trimble PRO XT)
in order to collect 2704 locations within the forest area and 996 at the tree line respectively. The later ones were
grouped according to several criteria such as species, topography and aspect resulting this way a number of 22
categories. Each case was analyzed in terms of accuracy using Statistica 8.0 software. The paper also
approaches the forest bordering issue, including field delimitation by trying to harmonize the requirements of
the Civil Code with the forest management norms.

NEW TRENDS IN AUTOMATIC METHODS OF COLLECTING AND


PROCESSING THE MEASUREMENTS FOR DETERMINING THE
DISPLACEMENT OF LARGE HYDROTEHNICAL BUIDINGS
Irinel Constantin GRESITA, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transilvania
University Brasov, Romania
Abstract: In recent years, there is a worldwide tendency to continuously examine the movements of
hydrotechnical constructions through continuous monitoring.
The need for more detailed knowledge about the changes in geometric shapes and constructions space
positions, both during the preparation of the projects, for testing the construction components and structures, as
well as during implementation and exploitation of buildings, over time, has led to finding and studying the ways
that these changes can be determined and advanced. Determining the changes occurred during the operation of a
construction is essential for both its safe operation, and for the design of other constructions.
Current technological development allows us to dispose of high precision devices that apply various corrections
even when collecting data (temperature, atmospheric pressure, etc.) that allows us to have very accurate data,
even from the field phase, for further processing.
Due to systems automation, the graphics and also the other components of a classic documentation it
can be obtained in real time or at any time predefined by the beneficiary.

AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA FOR URBAN AREA ANALYSES


Valeria Ersilia ONIGA, Depart. of Terrestrial Measurements and Cadastre, Technical
UniversityGheorghe Asachi of Iasi, Romania
Corina Daniela PUN, Depart. of Terrestrial Measurements and Cadastre, Technical
UniversityGheorghe Asachi of Iasi, Romania
Abstract: Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a widely used technique for the analyses of the earths surface,
including the objects situated on its surface, like trees, buildings, etc. This article presents the methodology for
the calculation of the buildings heights based on the 3D point cloud acquired by airborne laser scanning (ALS).
The objective of the current study was to analyze the potential of the discreet-waveform airborne laser scanning
for building classification based on their heights. To achieve the goal, the necessary steps are presented, from
the different topographic models derivation, such as the digital terrain model (DTM) and the digital surface
model (DSM) based on moving least squares interpolation e.g. moving planes, to the determination of the
normalized surface model (nDSM) that contains the buildings heights, calculated by subtracting the DTM from
the DSM.

97

Applied geomatics

MAPPING WATERSHED DISTURBANCES BY COMBINING UNMANNED


AERIAL SYSTEMS AND LANDSAT IMAGE COMPOSITES
Mihai Daniel NI, Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest
Engineering
Bogdan CANDREA, SC FOREST DESIGN SRL
Ioan CLINCIU, Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest
Engineering

Abstract: Forest disturbance and recovery are critical ecosystem processes and an improved monitoring of
changes in forest structure is needed to quantify natural and human impact on forest systems. The influence of
forest disturbances to watersheds, especially to hydrological behaviour is directly proportional to the covered
area.
Landsat's temporal and spatial coverage, moderate spatial resolution, and long history of earth
observations provide a unique opportunity for characterizing vegetation changes. On macro level, this kind of
method offers a large view on forest disturbances which occur during a management cycle. From manager point
of view this solution does not solve the entire problem. The lack of information which Landsat low spatial
resolution cannot provide related to the disturbance (e.g. windthrow vs. illegal logging, clear cut vs. final cut)
makes the method less attractive. Due to economical issues, in many cases, is preferred a more detailed analysis
of the problem using on-site observation, than a high resolution remote sensing method.
Nowadays UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) technology is rapidly growing and extending. UAS make
up the aerospace industrys most dynamic growth sector. According to a recent market study, UAV spending is
on pace to double during the 2010 2020 period, from current worldwide expenditures of 4.3 billion euro
annually to 8.2 billion euro, totalling just more than 68 billion euro. Although started as hobby for model plane
enthusiasts, civil drone technology expanded especially in remote sensing area. The reasons are simple: they are
cheap, easy to use and offer high resolution products in short time. Based on this, a high resolution remote
sensing method becomes attractive to forest managers interested in mapping forest disturbances.
In this study, we developed a practical method of combining the forest disturbances maps extracted
from Landsat image composites and aerial photo mosaics produced with unmanned aerial systems. This paper
uses several case studies to describe and economical evaluate the method that make use of satellite and UAS
remote sensing.

Key words: UAV, UAS, watershed, disturbance, Landsat

98

Applied geomatics

THE USE OF GIS BASED TECHNOLOGY IN SOIL MAPPING OF LOCAL LEVEL


Zoran Gali, University of Novi Sad - Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, Serbia
Zoran Novi, University of Novi Sad - Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment,
Serbia
Abstract: This paper analyses the soil mapping possibilties and recent management options on local level and
future persepctives.
The dominant soil type in management unit Muzljanski rit was humogley - meadow black soil.
Humogley soils are a subtype of gley soils. This type of soils situated in lowest position with oscillation of
ground water from 1 to 2 meter. The main soil processes are humification and humization. This type of soil are
clayly loams texture with a thick humus-accumulativ horizon. The CaCO3 concentartion most frequently
incraeses with the depth.
The dominant tree species was poplar. Poplar productivity on meadow black soils mainly depends on
texture, water availabity and CaCO3 content. High percentage of loess and CaCO3 content have a negative
influence on the develop of the poplar root system. For the above reason, poplars should not be cultivated on
meadow black soils on loess with high CaCO3 content.
The most important species regarding to climate change scenarios are pedunculate oak.
Acknowledgement: This paper was realized as a part of the project "Studying climate change and its influence
on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation" (43007) financed by the Ministry of Education and
Science of the Republic of Serbia within the framework of integrated and interdisciplinary research for the
period 2011-2014.
Key words: soil mapping, management unit, humogley

UPGRADING OF ROAD ' S NETWORK BY USING COST PATH ANALYSE IN A


TYPICAL GREEK FOREST

Stamatiou C. CHRISTOS, Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Forestry and


Management of the Environment and Natural Resources, Laboratory of Forest Engineering
and Surveying
Liampas G. SARANTIS - AGGELOS, Democritus University of Thrace, Department of
Forestry and Management of the Environment and Natural Resources, Laboratory of Forest
Engineering and Surveying
Abstract: Sustainable development of semi-mountainous regions have as objective to increase the economic
investments to profit of residents of region, without being influenced drastic the natural environment. Forest
opening up is one of the most important interventions in a forest ecosystem and is carried out by planning and
constructing a transport network (forest roads, skidding tracks etc.), satisfying not only the need for skidding
and transporting of forest products, but also forest protection and recreation activities. The objective of this
study is the specification of strategic directions for an integrated development of semi-mountainous areas
through reinforcing forest road network and improving the access to the basic infrastructure system with Gis
software. Using Cost Path Analyse, which is tool of Arc view Gis, for the best proposed forest network to
connect three villages of the perfecture: Zagliveri, Petrokeraso and Livadi. Automatising the procedure in model
builder using factors as land uses and slope of the area, in the public Complex Zagliveri - Adam - Petrokeraso,
the forest road network is upgraded in analogy with distance to cost.

Key words: GIS, Cost Path Analyse, Forest road network

99

Applied geomatics

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ORGANIZATION AND EFFICIENCY OF THE LAND


INVENTORY WORKS IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICATION THE LAW NO.
165/2013

Mihaela CRDEI*, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi


Horaiu-Iulian HOGA, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi
Constantin BOFU, Associate Professor PhD Eng., Gheorghe Asachi Technical University
of Iasi
Abstract: In a context in which Romania, for years, has been condemned to the European Court of Human
Rights for breaching the right to private property, restitution legislation of the assets confiscated was radically
modified by the Law no. 165/2013 on measures to complete the restitution in kind or equivalent of real estate
abusively confiscated during the communist regime in Romania, published in Official Monitor no.
278/17.05.2013. The main objective of this paper is to identify the problems that occurred in application of the
law, but also to establish a unitary work flow, which describes the responsibilities of each member of the local
commission for real estate inventory. At the same time it intends to present necessary stages and operations
performed by specialist surveying in the inventory process, the necessary data for this, and the problems
encountered during project implementation.

Key words: inventor, private property, property title, restitution.

DIGITAL IMAGES AND TOTAL STATION MEASUREMENTS FUSION FOR 3D


BUILDINGS MODELS CREATION

Ana-Maria LOGHIN, Technical University Gheorghe Asachi of Iasi, Faculty of


Hydrotechnical Engineering, Geodesy and Environmental Engineering,
Valeria Ersilia ONIGA, Technical University Gheorghe Asachi of Iasi, Faculty of
Hydrotechnical Engineering, Geodesy and Environmental Engineering, Department of
Terrestrial Measurements and Cadastre
Abstract: In recent years, 3D buildings models have known a great evolution, being used in many scientific
domains of activity. In this paper is presented a method for 3D building model creation, using digital images and
total station measurements. For this case study, the historical monument Vovidenia church from Iai City was
chosen. Due to fact that the north part of the church is occluded, also by trees and the property limit, digital
images couldnt be taken in ideal conditions. So, this part of the church, was modeled in 3D using total station
measurements, made for building characteristic points: corners of windows, doors, etc. and the south part, was
modelled based on digital images, acquired with the Nikon Coolpix L810 digital camera, calibrated with a 3D
calibration target. Finally, the two results were fused into AutoCAD software and the final 3D model was
created. The 3D building model, was evaluated by comparing the coordinates of 20 building characteristic
points, as resulted from the total station measurements and by digital images processing respectively.
Keywords: digital images, total station, building, 3D model, accuracy

100

Wildlife management

Section 6:
Wildlife management

101

Wildlife management

QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL STUDY REGARDING HUMAN-WILD LIFE


INTERACTION IN THE SOCIAL SPACE OF DEVELOPMENT.
AN ANALYSIS OF COMMUNITIES FEELINGS AND ACTIONS TOWARDS THE
BEAR (Ursus Arctos Arctos) IN CENTRAL-CARPATHIAN REGION OF ROMANIA
Cristian BLCESCU, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transylvania
University of Brasov
tefan UNGUREAN, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transylvania University
of Brasov
Tudor STNCIOIU, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transylvania University
of Brasov
George PREDOIU, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transylvania University
of Brasov
Abstract: By innovatively adapting the modal concept of social capital regarding the relation human- nature
(wildlife) to the social forestry, this study focuses on analysing the dimensions trust and tolerance,
characteristically applicable to the non-conflictual relationships, the intangible binder of the development.
Through quantification of the events in the life of the relationship (the direct or mediated experience with the
bear) in a general score of the cognitive evaluation, we tried to collect emotional indices. Then, the re-felt
emotion, measured as a behavioural, consciously declared change, is decoded through a model proposed by
Robert Plutchin. We have investigated the series of tolerance/ intolerance behaviours, by testing the correlation
between the emotional beliefs and the tolerance level towards the bears. It was proven that the existence of the
consciousness towards the animals suffering significantly influences the level at which the individual perceives
the interaction situation as threatening. This perception can also decide the way humans act in their relationship
towards the bear (distant, controlled, isolated, grounded, killed). The emphasize of these causalities explains
why the reservations policy has the Romanian communities support.
Key words: social forestry, social space of development, human-bear relationship, cognitive evaluation, proenvironmental behaviour.

102

Wildlife management

ESTIMATION AND MONITORING OF POPULATION SIZE FOR MEDIUM AND


LARGE SIZE TERRESTRIAL MAMMALS OF CONSERVATION INTEREST IN
ROMANIA

Constantin CAZACU, Department of Systems Ecology, Bucharest University,


Mihai Cristian ADAMESCU, Department of Systems Ecology, Bucharest University,
Ovidiu IONESCU, Transilvania University, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering,
Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Georgeta IONESCU, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Ramon JURJ, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Marius POPA, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Roxana CAZACU, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania
Abstract: Species of conservation interest are those listed on the annexes of EU Habitat Directive (92/43/EEC)
therefore they need a special attention in order to assure a favorable conservation status by active management
measures. Knowing population size is crucial in order to achieve this goal .Robust and cost efficient monitoring
programs have to be carried out at national level in order to obtain reliable population size estimates and their
fluctuations in time. The following work is proposing a monitoring scheme for ten large and medium size
terrestrial mammals: Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Canis aureus, Felis silvestris, Lynx lynx, Rupicapra rupicapra,
Martes martes, Lutra lutra, Castor fiber and Mustella lutreola. The monitoring scheme was designed based on
existing estimates of population size reported by hunting management units, occurrence of species in different
biogeographical regions and diversity of targeted species. Available data were converted to an INSPIRE
reference grid of 10 x 10 km2 used to select the monitoring plots at country level and to assure interoperability of
data reporting at European level. In order to develop an optimized monitoring scheme, the ten species were
associated in four functional groups on the basis of their habitat and feeding preferences. Monitoring plots were
selected using a stratified random approach. The used strata were developed using geographical information
system software and consisted of population size distribution, biogeographical regions, Simpsons diversity
index and land use/land cover data. The monitoring scheme was established in order to cover at least 10% of
species ranges encountered at national level. Thus, a total number of 248 plots of 10 x 10 km2 were selected with
the following distribution per biogeographical region: 58 for Alpine, 13 for Black Sea, 127 for Continental, 21
for Pannonic, and 29 for Steppic. The selected monitoring plots assure an estimation of population size with
95% confidence level based on Z-statistical test.
Key words: mammal monitoring scheme; hunting management units, Natura 2000; Geographic Information
System; EU directives

103

Wildlife management

ASSESSMENT OF THE WOOD VOLUME WITH STEM DECAY IN NORWAY


SPRUCE STANDS DAMAGED BY RED DEER

Radu, VLAD, Forest Research and Management Institute, Romania

Abstract: The deer damage to trees has a large impact on wood quality in the Norway spruce affected forests. It
was usually considered that only the winds of high intensity are dangerous and cause calamities, with little
emphasis on the fact that the red decay, as a result of the damages caused by red deer by bark-stripping, causes
calamities by generating wood qualitative losses.
This study was conducted in the Eastern Carpathians in 32 forest district and 150 management units
where the most damaged Norway spruce stands are located. In the studied Norway spruce stands, two variables
were measured to quantify the damage caused by red deer: height and the wood volume of the stem decay. The
research we performed has also allowed us to elaborate specific models, which established certain specific
average values for the studied aspects.
The age of the wounds caused by the red deer and the diameter at breast height are the best predictor
variables for the stem decay height in the Norway spruce trees. After first 10 years from the infliction of the
wounds, the stem decay may have an average height of 4.5 m, 5.7 m after 20 years, 6.7 m after 30 years, and 7.2
m after 40 years.
Frequency of the damages caused by the red deer, wound age and the breast height diameter specific to
the stand are the predictor variables that best express the volume variation of the stem decay in the affected
Norway spruce stand. In the Norway spruce young timber stage stands with breast height diameter of 28 cm, an
average age of the wounds of 22 years and 80% frequency of the deer damages the mean volume of the wood of
the stem decay is about 32.4%.
We have tried several models and surface response regression is the optimum model for both studied
aspects. The results will be used to evaluate the wood volume in Norway spruce stands affected by red deer and
to elaborate mid- and long-term simulation models of the production and the productivity dynamics in the
ecosystems exposed to the disturbing factors.

THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE HABITAT USE OF THE WILD BOAR


IN DIFFERENT ROMANIAN HABITATS
Jzsef-Tams FODOR, University of West-Hungary, Sopron, Hungary
Abstract: The research was started in 2012, and its main goal is to study the movement area of the wild boar in
two radically different types of habitats. Five wild boars were fitted with GPS Plus (Vectronic) type collars. One
of the two mentioned habitat areas is the high-hilly hunting ground from the foot of the Bodok mountains
(Kovszna county), the other one is situated in the Southern part of Romania, at the meeting point of the Olt and
Danube rivers, where we can find a typical flatland, and river-flats hunting ground. In the high situated hunting
ground bear, wolf and lynx is present in great numbers. The average temperature during the year is much lower,
and the number of snowy days is significantly higher compared to the lower hunting ground, where the
mentioned predators are absent. However, the golden jackal is present (Canis aureus, L.) in great numbers,
which could be relevant in the perspective of the piglets survival. The immobilization of the wild boars took
place in a corral type trap, with anesthetic rifle. The individuals slept after an average of 4,45 minutes. They
came around completely after an average of 185 minutes. We cannot confirm any special secondary effect. The
raw data was processed with Excells ArcWiew, Quantum GIS program. For the habitat use analysis we applied
the Corinne Land Cover 2000 habitat map. The home area was calculated with KHR (Kernel Home Range) and
MCP (Minimal Convex Poligon) method.
Our partial results show interesting differences compared to the information described in the current
professional literature. For instance the yearly movement area of the adult, old boars, calculated with the MCP
method, varied between 1060 and 12.001 hectares. The average daily movement varied between 3,6 and 4,8 km.
The analysis of the habitat use also produced interesting results: even in a very diverse habitat, every collared
individual preferred the greenery forests. 46,54-99,13% of the registered GPS positions were found in greenery
forests or terrains on the edges of these forests.

104

Wildlife management

INVENTORY OF BREEDING BIRDS BY POINT AND TRANSECT METHODS A


CASE STUDY IN ROMANIA
Daniel IORDACHE, Department of Forest Engineering, Transilvania University of Braov,
Romania
Dan Traian IONESCU, Department of Forest Engineering, Transilvania University of Braov,
Romania
Vladimir POPESCU, Department of Forest Engineering, Transilvania University of Braov,
Romania
Abstract: Two breeding water birds inventory methods as a part of the national assessment are discussed based
on a local level approach. The Romanian wetlands were randomly overlapped with 2x2 km squares. Each square
includes 4 observation points as the centrum of two circle with 50 and 100 m radius from where the observer
notes all birds species. The method is based especially by listening birds song. The key species of this method
are mainly wetland passerines and other reedbed species. The observer will select transects within the square by
covering all the wetland habitats and will count all identified water bird species and note on a map. At the office
is calculated the total number of individuals/species and estimated the pairs number. The squares are accessed
four times/year during breeding season (April - July). Two squares overlapped on Brsei Depression
(Transylvania, central side of Romania), respectively within the most important wetlands of the region Dumbrvia and Rotbav lakes and fishponds. Based on point method 8 species were identified within both
squares. The most abundant species per point was Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) for Dumbrvia
and Great Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) for Rotbav. The highest frequency of occurrence was
found at Great Reed Warbler and Marsh Warbler (Acrocephalus palustris). Based on transect count 26 species of
breeding water birds were found. Considering both squares, the most abundant species were: Black-headed Gull
(Chroicocephalus ridibundus) - 130 pairs, Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) - 41-45 pairs and Coot
(Fulica atra) -29-31 pairs. In conclusion 2x2 km squares methods for inventory of breeding water birds is now
considered the most accuracy methods used at national level by Romanian Ornithological Society. This method
could be also applied at local level (e.g. Natura 2000 Sites, Ramsar Sites) obviously with much more squares.
Based on our experience we consider that some methodological aspects should be improved, such as: time
consuming and the dead time between the point and transect method in a single observation day.

NEW BREEDING BIRD SPECIES OF COMMUNITY INTEREST WITHIN


WETLANDS FROM THE CENTRAL SIDE OF ROMANIA
Dan Traian IONESCU, Department of Forest Engineering, Transilvania University of Braov,
Romania
Daniel IORDACHE, Department of Forest Engineering, Transilvania University of Braov,
Romania
Vladimir POPESCU, Department of Forest Engineering, Transilvania University of Braov,
Romania
Abstract: This paper presents a contribution to the knowledge of the actual breeding water birds distribution in
the Central side of Romania Transylvania Province. Four species of Community interest (annexe I of Birds
Directive): Microcarbo pygmeus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ardeolla raloides and Egretta garzetta formed a mixed
colony within a fishpond from Dumbrvia Ramsar Site beginning on 2012 in a Grey willow scrub and Common
reed (Phragmites australis) bed habitat (CORINE). A very rare Romanian breeding species of gull (Ichtyaetus
melanocephalus) started to breed in a small breeding nucleus inside a large Croicocephalus ridibundus colony
within a Rotbav lake in a Euro-Siberian annual river mud communities and Reed mace (Typha) beds habitat
(CORINE). Microcarbo pygmeus and Ichtyaetus melanocephalus are documented as breeding birds for the first
time within the Central side of the country. All these new data show an expansion of these species or occupying

105

Wildlife management

of new suitable areas. The breeding habitat changing, inter-specific competition and the water level within lakes
are the main potential threats of these breeding bird species.

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN HABITUATED AND WILD INDIVIDUALS OF BROWN


BEAR (URSUS ARCTOS)

Ancuta COTOVELEA, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov,


Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania,
Michael W. BRUFORD, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Sir Martin Evans Building, Cardiff
University,
Neculae SOFLETEA, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov,
Romania,
Ramon JURJ, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania,
Ovidiu IONESCU, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov, Forest
Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania,
Mihai FEDORCA, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov,
Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania,
Alexandru Lucian CURTU, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of
Brasov, Romania,
Abstract: Bears live solitary adult lives and have prolonged parentoffspring relationships, therefore the share
of learned skills compared to the inherited ones is much larger than in other carnivores. This promotes
acquisition of deviated behavior and simultaneously establishment of a kinship structure. Un-natural bear
behavior and human food conditioning are the symptoms of habituation. The aim of this paper is to detect
differences in genetic diversity of habituated and wild individuals located in Brasov and Prahova, districts that
records permanently human-bear conflicts. Twelve microsatellites were used to genotype 145 samples (ear clips
and tissue), out of which 82 were classified as habituated and 63 as wild individuals, respectively. Our results
suggest the presence of family structures in habituated bear group and a reduction of genetic diversity
(He=0.75), while the group located in the wild registered a higher genetic diversity (He=0.79) and more private
alleles. The genetic differentiation of 2 percent (AMOVA) between the two groups has been strengthened by the
Bayesian analysis (K=2), and highlights the negative impact of brown bear kinship structure mainly due to
human expansion on wilderness. FST values were small between the wild and habituated bears indicating that
the populations are sharing their genetic material due to the dispersal and breeding patterns of male bears. The
emergence of genetic differences between the two groups can be avoided by preventing bears to become humanfood conditioned, over time kinship structure representing a threat to gene diversity.

106

Wildlife management

IMPACT ON FLOW VELOCITY OF BEAVER DAM BUILT ON DAMMED


STREAMS FROM BRASOV DEPRESSION
Andrei ADORJANI, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Braov
erban Octavian DAVIDESCU, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Braov
Cezar UNGUREAN, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Braov
Dorin Vasile DAVID, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Braov
Abstract: After the extermination of Romanian beaver populations (during 19-th century), the actions done to
repopulate favourable habitats (since 1998) have led to a partial recovery of lost beaver populations, but also, to
a reactivation of the conflict between human and beaver. The conflict is even more acute as the landscape
modifications done by humans, especially in the last 50 years, were more drastic. To protect a constantly
increasing human population against flooding and due to the adoption of farming extensive policies, in the last
century, important surface of Brasov Depression was drained and many small rivers, together with Olt and Raul
Negru were dammed.
When beavers were brought on rivers Olt and Raul Negru, many individuals have migrated upstream
on various tributaries, some of them being dammed, beaver activities (dam and den building) influencing their
hydraulic.
The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the impact of beaver dams over the flow velocity by
simulating with MIKE 11 various floods. Simulations were done on six river sectors belonging to the same
number of Raul Negru tributaries and covered two scenarios (with and without beaver).
In all cases the flow velocity was higher in the scenario without beaver, but the variation interval for the
entire river sector is much greater in the scenario with beaver, which indicates a discharge with major
velocity variation, especially near beaver dams.
Consequently, by significantly reducing the average flow velocity, beaver dams delay flood waves and
reduce peak flows. On the other hand, due to the sudden changes of flow velocity, vortex may occur threating the
integrity of closer objectives.
Key words: beaver dam, embankment, flow velocity, floods.

107

Wildlife management

EUROPEAN BEAVER (CASTOR FIBER L.) DISTRIBUTION AND DYNAMICS IN


OLT RIVER BASIN
Authors: Claudiu PACA, Forest Research and Management Institute Braov
Georgeta IONESCU, Forest Research and Management Institute Braov
Daniel IORDACHE, Transylvania University of Braov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest
Engineering
George SRBU, Forest Research and Management Institute Braov
Marius POPA, Forest Research and Management Institute Braov
Daniel VIAN, Forest Research and Management Institute Braov
Abstract: The European beaver was reintroduced in Romania after more than hundred years from extinction.
Firs restocking actions took place on Olt River in the period 1998-2001, by a German-Romanian partnership.
After ecological diagnosis of habitats 91 beavers individuals were released in the best river zones.
Immediately after the releasing monitoring action began in order to determine the success of restoring mission
of beaver populations in Romania.
The estimation methodology is based on the registration of signs of presence of the species: shelter,
woody/herbaceous
vegetation
consumption,
dams,
territorial
markings,
paths,
canals;
For each identified den or territory the number of beavers was estimated between 1 and 6 based on the signs of
presence.
In the last population assessment, conducted during 2013-2014, 1089 km of watercourse were
completed of which 528 km on the main course and 561 km on tributaries.
Throughout entire Olt River Basin there were identified 473 beaver dens with a total of 1,291 beaver
estimated.
Compared with the beginning situation it shows a positive evolution of the population both numerically and also
in terms of the species area, which is determined by habitat quality. Based on the data obtained it can be stated
that the reintroduction was successful, the species management has reached the next level which involves
identifying of mitigation measures for human-beaver conflicts in the areas where the species has exceeded the
optimum density.
Keywords:

european

beaver,

castor

fiber,

distribution,

population

dynamics,

reintroduction.

108

Wildlife management

ASSESSING THE SUITABLE FOREST HABITATS FOR CAPERCAILLIE IN


ROMANIA

Mihai FEDORCA, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov,


Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania,
Ancuta COTOVELEA, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov,
Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania,
Neculae SOFLETEA, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov,
Romania,
Ovidiu IONESCU, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov, Forest
Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania,
Petru Tudor STANCIOUI, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of
Brasov, Romania,
Abstract: The capercaillie population is declining in the Central and Western Europe, thus determining forest
habitats used by the species is essential for adopting long-term conservation measures. The aim of this study
consists in mapping the favorable habitats of the species and determining the distribution area along Romanian
Carpathians. Our initiative represents the first study conducted in Romania and is an important step towards
ensuring the preservation of a viable population. In order to identify the habitat classes used by capercaillie, a
filtering on a GIS forest habitats raster map was applied, considering the species requirements previously
documented in the literature. Subsequently an altitudinal filter (minimum 800m) was added. Additionally we
integrated the dataset collected from the field and the information provided by the hunting stakeholders,
regarding the presence of the species. An area of approximately 491354 ha, evenly distributed along Romanian
Carpathians has been shown suitable for the species existence. Spruce forests are very well represented being
found in 59% of the total suitable habitats for capercaillie. At habitat type level, best represented habitat code
used by the species is low acidophilus mixed norway spruce-silver fir beach forests, which expend on 16% from
the total identified habitats. When combined analysis of altitude and forest habitats was implemented, we
identified 4 potential zones for reduction/fragmentation of gene flow between individuals/populations, which
certainly needs to be tested by genetic analyses. These results from habitats, combined with genetic analyses
regarding the Romanian capercaillie population, will lead to a preciously determination of the
favorable/vulnerable zones for the species existence. These should be translated in long-term conservation
measures.

109

Wildlife management

PARTICULARITIES OF BEAVER CHEMICAL IMMOBILIZATION IN ROMANIA


Alexandru GRIDAN, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov,
Forest Research and Management Institute Braov, Romania
gridanalex@gmail.com
Dieter SIMON, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania
George SRBU Forest Research and Management Institute Braov, Romania
Claudiu PACA Forest Research and Management Institute Braov, Romania
Abstract: The aim of this paper consists in finding the best combination of substances chemical immobilization
of beaver. The monitoring actions for beaver population(Castor fiber) regarding the establishment of an precise
image of the specific ethological aspects and the dispersal movement of juveniles are made using radiothelemetry.Attaching transmitters requires capturing the animal, its sedation, vital signs monitoring during the
sedation, treating possible wounds, administration of antagonistic substances and the safe release of the
animal.The study was conducted on a number of 30 beavers, originated from three different locations with high
beaver densities: Covasna-Trgu Secuiesc; Covasna-Ghidfalu; Braov-Ghimbav. Capture was performed using
CH 623 live animal 301 traps. After capture the animals were weighed for establishing the required dosage of
sedative.For anesthesia it was used the following combination of substances: Ketamine 5 mg/kg-Medetomidine
0,05mg/kg ; Ketamine 10 mg/kg-Xylazine 1mg/kg which was injected with a blow pipe or a pole syringe.
Depending on the animal's reaction additional doses were administered. As antagonistic substance used for
recovery from immobilization was used Atipamezole 0,25mg/kg.After immobilization the animals were
measured, they were parasitological examinated, the transmitter was attached by cauterization method,
induction of anesthesia and recovery time were recorded.After testing revealed that the combination Ketamine 5
mg/kg-Medetomidine 0,05mg/kg is more accurate and less stressful for the animal , it has an higher analgesic
effect than Ketamine 10 mg/kg-Xylazine 1mg/kg, the recovery time of the combination Ketamine 5 mg/kgMedetomidine 0,05mg/kg is shorter and an pre-anesthetic is not required.

PRELIMINARY STUDY REGARDING BAT (ORD. CHIROPTERA)


POPULATIONS IN BUCEGI NATURAL PARK, ROMANIA
Cezar Georgian SPTARU, Game Bilology, Forest Research and Management Institute,
Braov, Romania,
Grui IENOIU, Forest Research, Forest Research and Management Institute, Brasov,
Romania
Oana Mirela CHACHULA, National Museum of Romanian History, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract: The aim of this paper consist in identification of bat' flights and most frequented routes using visual
observation and monitoring instruments. During the 2013-2014 period we surveyed some roost sites and species
composition of bats in Bucegi Natural Park. Thus whithin this study we identified 6 bat species: Myotis
myotis/oxygnathus, Myotis emarginatus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus hipposideros during
hibernation time in 23 underground shelters as caves (Pe tera Rteiului, Petera Ialomiei, Petera Pustnicului,
Petera Mic, Petera Urilor, Petera lui Bogdan, Petera Tunelul Apelor, Avenul de sub Col
ii apului),
tunnels and mines. The winter monitoring consisted in two visits by visual counting and identification of
populations found. Starting with the active time of the mammals in spring, 30 hours of ultrasound records using
the bat detectors along car transects and fix points in different open and semi-open habitats from Park were
performed. Therefore founding the nursery and breeding shelters and other activity areas is needed, thus
defining the next step of this study.

110

Wildlife management

THE IMPORTANCE OF USING ECODUCT-TYPE CONSTRUCTIONS TO PERMIT


THE MOBILITY OF BROWN BEAR POPULATION IN THE BRASOV-PRAHOVA
VALLEY CORRIDOR, IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PLANNED INFRASTRUCTURE
DEVELOPMENT
Aurelian CANDREA-GRIGORA, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania
Gheorghe IGNEA, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania
Georgeta IONESCU Forest Research and Management Institute Braov, Romania
Ioana NEGREA Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania

Abstract:The infrastructure development can bring important benefits to the economy and the general progress
of a developing country like Romania, but an analysis of the downsides it entails on the quality of habitats and
mammals populations is imperative. The requirement to use ecoduct-type constructions, in the context of
transport infrastructure development in the Brasov- Prahova Valley corridor is of upmost importance, both from
the economic and biodiversity conservation perspective. The brown bear is situated on the top of the trophic
pyramid, being the most suitable for the present study. The highest risk is represented by the Brown bear habitat
and population fragmentation from the ecological corridors, with powerful influence on the entire population of
Brown bear from Romania. From previous data, the Brasov-Prahova Valley corridor is the area with the highest
gene flow, but with a fragmentation tendency that is due to the intense traffic on National Road 1 (DN1),
especially during weekend time and by night when the heavy duty traffic is allowed. Its deterioration leads to the
consanguinity of populations and a poor conservation state. The establishment of suitable and feasible solutions
for the construction of ecoducts is of vital importance, with a view to mitigate the negative effect of the planned
highway on the population mobility.This can be achieved by analyzing the ecological and ethological aspects
regarding the Brown Bear (Ursus arctos), the human negative impact and concluded by proposing constructive
solutions for the adequate communication channels, in the Brasov-Prahova Valley corridor.

HABITAT QUALITY OF TWO AREAS WITH A DIFFERENT HISTORICAL


MANAGEMENT FOR BROWN BEAR
Georgeta IONESCU, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania,
Marius POPA, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania,
Ovidiu IONESCU, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov,
Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania
Ramon JURJ, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania,
George SIRBU, Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania,
Ancuta COTOVELEA, Department of Forest Sciences, Transylvania University of Brasov,
Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Romania
Abstract: Determining the conservation status of the species (Habitats DirectiveArticle 17) should take into
consideration four parameters: areal, population, habitat, threatening and pressures. For brown bears, among
all these, the existence of favorable habitats is crucial for surviving species itself, mainly now when hunting units
are administrated by many private stakeholders. Thus we conducted a research for reevaluating the habitats
quality, focusing on two areas that have different historical management conditions: Curvature and Western
Romanian Carpathians. For determining the quality of the habitat standard evaluation keys (ICAS) were used,
likewise the optimum number of individuals per hunting area has been calculated. While in the first point all four
categories for habitat quality are present and register the majority in the 3rd class (54.1%), in Western
Carpathians predominantly we find only three categories represented (1st class missing). Differences registered
between the two areas indicate the consequence of human interventions (supplementary feeding, measures for
improving habitats), which in Curvature Carpathians were intensively adopted, while in the second point were
almost missing from management of the species. Therefore the involving of new stakeholders in the management

111

Wildlife management

of the species is crucial and can contribute to population expansion, if not the brown bears from the second area
are under threatening of reduction.

THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMPACT OF BROWN BEAR (URSUS ARCTOS) ON THE


PEOPLE OF BRAOV
Ana-Maria VERES, Departament of Silviculture, University Transilvania of Braov
Ovidiu IONESCU, Departament of Silviculture, University Transilvania of Braov

Abstract: The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is one the most important species of large carnivores in Romania. The
expansion of Brasov got the brown bear habitat destruction and that change the behavior of this. Thereby the
conflicts between brown bear and humans are increasingly more frequent. The aim of this study is therefore to
describe behavioral reactions of brown bears when encountering humans, both in terms of how it affects human
safety, but also the effect such encounters have on bears.To analyze the sociological impact was made teen
question about the causes of behavioral brown beer changes, measures to be taken to maintain the habitat and
the institutions that might prevent the relationship beer-human. Such data were obtained by interviewing a
sample of 180 people, they were chosen according to sex, age and profession. Sex ratio was 58% female and
42% male. Data were collected on both the north west (chei zone), and on the south -east (Valea Cetii zone)
parts of the massif. The people of the Braov agrees with the existence and maintenance the habitat of the brown
bear in the Tmpa mountain, considering the main factor that influence behavior changes was the human.
Key words: Brown bear, habitat, sociological impact

112