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Deicing / Anti-Icing Fluid Application Guide

Gulfstream G200

Revision 3, December 15, 2008

This guide is for the assistance of ground personnel only. In case of conflict between this guide and the Aircraft Maintenance Manual and/ or Airplane Flight
Manual, the Aircraft Maintenance Manual and / or Airplane Flight Manual shall take precedence.

General

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Process

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Close doors and windows. Install covers and plugs as necessary.


Avoid excessive pressure when applying fluid. Pressure should be
adjusted to be able to traverse distance from nozzle to aircraft without
damaging paint or structure.
The temperature of the fluid applied to the aircraft must not exceed
176f (80c) and if the spray rate per lance exceeds 10 imp gal / min
(12 us gal / min or 45 liters / min), reduce the temperature to 140f
(60c).
Always spray from nose to tail and top to bottom to prevent fluid accumulation in sheltered areas.
Never spray deicing / anti-icing fluid or water on or into any air inlet
or exhaust area, open tubes or ports (i.e., pitot tubes, static ports, total
Deicing / anti-icing may be accomplished using either one step or
two step process. Standard practice is to deice and if required, anti-ice
before takeoff.
The one step process is application of heated, diluted deicing / antiicing fluid, both to remove frost, snow and / or ice and provide very
limited anti-icing protection. This protection can be enhanced by use
of cold fluids or by use of techniques to cool heated fluid during deicing process. A technique commonly used is spraying a final coat of
deicing fluid using very a fine mist, in arched trajectory to cool fluid
before contact. This produces a thicker fluid film to enhance anti-icing
effectiveness. Care must be exercised when using this technique to
ensure freezing has not occurred within fluid previously applied.

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air temperature probe, AOA probes, vents, engine / APU, etc.). Never
spray against trailing edge of wings or control surfaces. Never spray
landing gear components. Avoid direct spraying of vortex generators
and static wicks.
Spray wing and tail surfaces from tip to root.
Spray along top centerline and then outboard, letting the fluid cascade
down and across the windows.
Avoid spraying heated fluids directly onto cabin and cockpit windows.
Aircraft must be sprayed symmetrically, both wings and tail must be
treated and not one side only.

The two step process involves both deicing and anti-icing. First step
(deicing step) is accomplished by using hot water or hot mixture of
FPD and water. Ambient weather conditions and type of accumulation
to be removed must be considered in determining which deicing fluid
to use. Second step (anti-icing step) involves applying full strength
Type I or stronger mixture of SAE or ISO Type II and water at cooler
temperatures to critical surfaces. If heated water alone is used in deicing
process, second step must be accomplished before refreezing occurs,
generally within 3 minutes after beginning of deicing step. If necessary,
this process is conducted area by area to prevent refreezing.

Gulfstream G200
DO NOT APPLY FLUID DIRECTLY
TO THESE POINTS
DIRECTION OF FLUID APPLICATION

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or by any means, electronic, photo-copying, microfilm, microfiche, mechanical, or otherwise, without prior written permission of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation.

Before Type I de-icing procedures begin, maintenance personnel


should familiarize themselves with areas to be sprayed and areas
to avoid with a direct spray of fluid.
2. Preliminary removal of heavy accumulations of snow may be
accomplished using brooms or other similar methods. Exercise
caution when brushing around antennas, windows, flight controls,
de-ice boots, probes, vanes and similar obstructions.
3. De-icing is best accomplished using the ambient temperature available from a heated hangar or by mechanical means using heated
glycol based FPD Type I fluid.
4. A heated hangar is an excellent option to de-ice aircraft and should
be utilized whenever possible. Care must be exercised; however,

Deicing

1.

to ensure all melted precipitation is removed from aircraft to prevent


refreezing once aircraft is moved from hangar to flight line.
5. Heated solutions of FPD are more effective than unheated solutions
because thermal energy is used to melt ice, snow or frost formations.
Type I de-icing fluids are used in diluted state, with specific ratios
of fluid-to-water dependent on ambient temperature. Type I de-icing
fluids have a very limited holdover time. Use de-icing fluid sparingly
around hinge point and bearings. Do not spray directly on these
areas.
6. It is heat of de-icing fluid that melts ice and snow. The function of
Glycol in de-icing solution is to lower freezing point of fluid remaining on aircraft to allow time to apply longer lasting Type II and Type
IV anti-icing fluids.

Anti-icing

1.

Anti-icing is accomplished by using Type II or Type IV fluids. Their


purpose is to delay reformation of ice, snow or frost on the aircraft.
This is accomplished by using chemically thickened formulas with
pseudoplastic properties. This feature enables fluid to form a protective film on treated surfaces of aircraft and is designed to flow off
aircraft surfaces at high speeds.
2. Anti-icing fluids may not be readily available at all locations. If this
is the case, unheated Type I fluids may be used for anti-icing, but
provides protection for a very limited time.
3. Type IV fluids can form a thick or a high-strength jell during dryout.

4.

Anti-icing fluids are often used undiluted and typically are applied to
the aircraft unheated. Holdover times for Type ii andType iv fluids
can vary widely based on atmospheric conditions. Consult specific
manufacturer charts for holdover times.
5. Anti-icing fluid should be applied within 3 minutes after de-icing is
completed due to limited holdover time of Type I de-icing fluid. If
anti-icing fluid has been applied and aircraft has not been dispatched
before new ice has formed, aircraft must be completely de-iced again
and anti-icing treatment applied immediately.

Guidelines for Application of SAE Anti-icing / Deicing Fluids

Type I(3)

Fluid
Type

OAT

> -3C (27F)

< -3C (27F)

Type II, III or IV

> -3C (27F)

One Step Process


Two Step Process
Deicing / Anti-icing (2)
Step 1: Deicing
Step 2: Anti-icing(1), (2)
Mix of fluid and water heated to 60C
(140F) minimum at the nozzle, with
a freeze point of at least 10C (18F)
below OAT

50 / 50 Heated(4) Type II, III or IV

< -3C (27F)


> -14C (7F)

75 / 25 Heated(4) Type II, III or IV

< -14C (7F)


> -25C (-13F)

100 / 0 Heated(4) Type II, III or IV

Heated water or mix of fluid and water


heated to 60C (140F) minimum at the
nozzle
Freezing point of heated fluid mixture shall
not be more than 3C (5F) above OAT
Heated water or a heated mix of Type
I, II, III or IV and water
Heated suitable mix of Type I, II, II or IV
and water with freezing point not more than
3C (5F) above actual OAT

Mix of fluid and water heated to 60C


(140F) minimum at the nozzle, with a
freeze point of at least 10C (18F) below
OAT

50 / 50 Type II, III or IV


75 / 25 Type II, III or IV
100 / 0 Type II, III or IV

SAE Type II/IV fluid may be used below -25C (-13F) provided the freezing point of the fluid is at least 7C (13F) below OAT and
that aerodynamic acceptance criteria are met.
< -25C (-13F)

SAE Type III fluid may be used below -10C (14F) provided the freezing point of the fluid is at least 7C (13F) below OAT and
aerodynamic acceptance criteria are met.
Consider the use of SAE Type I when Type II, III, or IV fluid cannot be used.
CAUTIONS

WING SKIN TEMPERATURES MAY DIFFER AND IN SOME CASES MAY BE LOWER THAN OAT. A STRONGER MIX (MORE GLYCOL) CAN BE USED UNDER THESE CONDITIONS.
ONLY THE FLUIDS SPECIFIED IN THE AIRPLANE MAINTENANCE MANUAL ARE APPROVED FOR USE ON GULFSTREAM AIRPLANES. THE USE OF
OTHER FLUIDS MUST BE APPROVED IN WRITING BY THE GULFSTREAM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT.
NOTES

(1)

For heated fluids, a fluid temperature not less than 60C (140F) at the nozzle
is desirable.

To be applied before first step fluid freezes, typically within 3 minutes.

(2)

Upper temperature limit shall not exceed fluid and aircraft manufacturer recommendations.

Fluids must only be used at temperatures above their Lowest Operational


Use Temperature (LOUT).

(3)

To use Type I holdover time guidelines in snow conditions, at least 1 liter per
square meter (2 gal. per 100 square feet) fluid must be applied to the deiced
surfaces.

This table is applicable for the use of Type I Holdover Time Guidelines.
If holdover times are not required, a temperature of 60C (140F) at the
nozzle is desirable.

(4)

Clean aircraft may be anti-iced with unheated Type II, III, or IV fluid.