3
A pepperoni pizza is cut
into 6 equal pieces while a
sausage pizza of the same
size is cut into 8 equal
pieces. If Martin eats 2
pieces of the pepperoni
pizza and Olivia eats 3
pieces of the sausage pizza,
who has eaten more? How
can you prove this?
84
Understanding
fractions
Antonio makes pizzas.
Besides selling whole pizzas,
he often sells part of a pizza to his
customers. For example, this
pizza has been cut into 3 equal
pieces. If a customer wants only 2
of these slices, then Antonio is
selling 23 of the pizza to the
customer.
WORKED Example 1
What fraction of the rectangle shown has been shaded?
THINK
1
2
3
WRITE
Total number of parts = 8
3 parts are shaded.
3
 of the rectangle has been shaded.
8
Chapter 3 Fractions
85
WORKED Example 2
Copy the number line shown, filling in the missing
numbers. Use it to find the next 3 terms in the given
sequence: 34 , 1, 1 14 , _, _, _.
THINK
1
2
3
4
1
4
1
2
3
4
134
WRITE
1
4
1
2
3
4
1
4
1
2
3
4
3
 ,
4
Now the child eats 2 quarters of a pizza and the mother eats half a pizza. If you look
carefully you will see that each person has the same amount of pizza. We can say that
1
2
1
2
 is equivalent to  or  =  .
2
4
2
4
Equivalent fractions can be found by multiplying or dividing both the numerator and
the denominator by the same number as long as the number is not zero. Therefore,
1 12 2
 =  = 2 22 4
So
and
1 13 3
 =  =  .
2 23 6
1 2 3
 =  =  .
2 4 6
86
WORKED Example 3
8
10
THINK
1
WRITE
4 42
8
 =  = 5 5 2 10
WORKED Example 4
From the list, find those fractions which are equivalent to 12 : 39 , 36 ,
THINK
1
9 10 7 17
 ,  ,  ,  .
18 15 14 34
WRITE
13 3
 = 23 6
19
9
 = 2 9 18
1 10 10
 = 2 10 20
7
17
 = 2 7 14
1 17 17
 = 2 17 34
Equivalent fractions of
1
2
are 36 ,
WORKED Example 5
WRITE
2 22 23 24
 =  =  = 3 32 33 34
2 4 6
8
 =  =  = 3 6 9 12
9
7 17
 ,  ,  .
18 14 34
Chapter 3 Fractions
87
Note: There are other fractions which are equivalent to 23 . These can be found by multiplying the numerator and denominator by other numbers. Answers to exercises (at the
back of the book) will always give the 3 smallest equivalent fractions.
Equivalent fractions can also be shown using diagrams. Equivalent fractions for 23are shown below.
2
3
2
3
= 46
= 69
2
3
8
=
12
Notice that the same amount of the rectangle has been shaded in each case.
Comparing fractions
If Antonios pizza is cut into quarters it would be easy to see that
1 piece is less than 2 pieces, or that 14 of the pizza is less than 24 .
If Antonio has another pizza of the same
size but cuts it into thirds, it can still be easily
seen that 14 is less than 13 .
This is because a pizza divided into 4 equal
pieces will give smaller pieces than one divided
into 3 equal pieces.
If the numerators are the same, the smaller fraction is the one with the larger
3
3
 is less than  . If the numerators
denominator. For example, 16 is greater than 17 and 10
4
are different, another method is required to compare fractions.
Fractions which do not have the same denominator can be compared by using
equivalent fractions. We need to rewrite each fraction so that it has the same denominator.
WORKED Example 6
Which is the bigger fraction,
2
3
or 35 ?
THINK
1
WRITE
Multiples of 5 are 5, 10, 15 . . .
15 is divisible by 3 so 15 is the lowest common
multiple.
2 2 5 10
3 33
9
 =  =  and  =  = 5 5 3 15
3 3 5 15
2
3
88
The answer to worked example 6 can be written as 23 > 35 . The symbol > means
bigger than or greater than. The symbol < means less than. For example, 12 < 34 means
that 12 is less than 34 . An easy way to remember this is that < looks a little bit like the
capital letter L (for less than).
remember
remember
1. Equivalent fractions can be found by multiplying or dividing both the
numerator and the denominator by the same number which is not equal to zero.
2. The numerator is the top part of the fraction.
3. The denominator is the bottom part of the fraction.
4. Different fractions can be compared or ordered by writing each one with the
same denominator.
5. The symbol > means greater than, the symbol < means less than.
3A
3.1
WORKED
Example
Understanding fractions
Do you recognise these flags? Can you name the country to which each flag belongs?
89
Chapter 3 Fractions
WORKED
Example
4 Copy the number lines shown, filling in the missing numbers. Then use them to find
the next 3 terms in the given sequence.
a
1
2
1
 ,
2
1
5
1
 ,
5
2
5
1
3
Example
WORKED
Example
4
5
123
4 12
125 135
2 2 15
2 35
3 3 15
3 45
4 15
4 35 4 45
5 25
2 13
1, __, __, __
1 1 3
1
0 4 2 4 1 14
1
 ,
4
WORKED
3
5
2
3
1 2
 ,  ,
3 3
3 312
14 2
1 1 3
3 34 32 34
22
44
1 3
1 1 3
52 54 6 64 62 64
44 5
5 For the equivalent fractions below find the number which has been used to multiply
both numerator and denominator.
a
3
7
9
21
1
4
3
12
3
7
2
3
10
15
5
9
30
54
9
10
11
12
7
9
84
108
2
7
121
132
12
28
=
=
81
90
14
49
6 From the list, find those fractions which are equivalent to the fractions marked in red.
a
2
3
7
9
20
30
5
8
12
16
14
21
40
60
4
5
12
15
15
20
36
45
16
20
28
35
80
100
8
9
17
18
40
45
56
63
14
18
18
19
24
27
7
10
18
25
35
50
14
21
21
30
14
20
140
200
1
7
28
6

35
3
4
3

11
12
=
=
40
22

=
=
18
72
=
=
Equivalent
fractions
36
55

WORKED
Example
3.2
1
8
10
13
Equivalent
fractions
(DIY)
90
3.3
WORKED
Example
Comparing
fractions
2
5
or
3
5
5
11
1
2
or
3
10
3
4
7
10
or
or
or
7
11
3
5
1
7
or
1
6
1
13
2
9
or
8
27
3
5
1
25
or
or
5
12
3
4
10 Insert the appropriate symbol, > or <, between each pair of fractions to make a true
statement.
4
3
1
3
1
7
3
a 58b 56c 35d 34e 15f 9
10
4
5
4
6
8
11 multiple choice
a Which fraction is smaller than 58 ?
A
7
8
17
24
11
12
13
16
3
5
9
16
12
24
15
24
3
8
6
8
12 Write the following fractions with the same denominator and then write them in
ascending order. (Ascending means from smallest to largest).
a
3 1 1
 ,  , 10 2 5
3 1 1
 ,  , 8 2 3
2 4 6
 ,  , 3 5 15
3 2 7
 ,  , 4 3 15
6
8
1
2
3
4
GAM
me
E ti
Fractions
01
QUEST
GE
EN
MAT H
5
6
CH
AL
91
Chapter 3 Fractions
8
28
4
20
28
49
1
2
18
21
3
4
21
35
2
5
10
14
5
9
4
5
3
21
15
40
5
8
13
16
24
12
1
7
12
30
6
7
C
10
17
15
18
21
15
27
63
3
8
3
7
20
36
18
4
7
20
11
19
17
34
4
24
5
6
1
6
1
5
12
27
H 14
16
2
3
1
3
35
56
12
15
18
24
4
9
3
5
2
7
4
12
1
4
5
7
1 2 3 4 5 3 3 6 7 2 8 9 7 5 2 7 10 3 11 1
10 8 12 7 1 1 13 14 11 15 8 5 16 17 7 13 3 18 18 14 18 5 12
3 11 13 8 11 19 12 15 7 8 16 17 7 13 3 18 18 5 17 7
3 20
5
8 21
7 13 7
15 8
6
14
11
7 21 13 5
18
3 17 8
11 19
5 16 17
92
Simplifying fractions
Usually the best way to write fractions is in the simplest form. To do this, it is necessary to divide both the numerator and the denominator by the highest common factor.
This is called cancelling.
WORKED Example 7
Write
3
6
in simplest form.
THINK
1
2
3
WRITE
3
6
31
 2
6
1
2
If the largest factor is not used the first time, the process can be repeated to find the
simplest fraction. To simplify a mixed number, leave the whole number and simplify
the fraction.
WORKED Example 8
 .
Simplify 7 40
64
THINK
1
2
3
WRITE
7 40
64
 8
= 7 40
64
= 7 58
Simplifying
fractions
40
64
in worked
64
Chapter 3 Fractions
93
WORKED Example 9
Dippers team scored 24 goals. Dipper scored 18 of the teams goals.
What fraction of the teams goals did Dipper score? Simplify the answer.
THINK
1
2
3
WRITE
18
24
3
4
Dipper scored
3
4
remember
remember
1. To simplify a fraction, divide both the numerator and denominator by the
highest common factor or HCF.
2. To simplify a mixed number, leave the whole number and simplify the fraction.
3B
WORKED
Example
Simplifying fractions
3.4
5
10
8
12
21
24
55
60
28
35
18
24
81
90
48
56
100
110
48
50
64
72
49
70
33
36
22
121
24
56
2 Simplify.
a 4 25
8
35
Simplifying
a fraction
WORKED
Example
f 1 44
48
e 3 56
64
7
d 5 42
c 10 10
20
b 7 42
54
3 multiple choice
a
33
39
A
b
40
48
3
9
12
13
9
12
11
16
6
8
5
8
5
6
3
4
4 multiple choice
In an Easter egg hunt, Guy managed to find nine out of 30 hidden eggs. He collected:
A
1
3
10
13
of the eggs
of the eggs
3
10
1
9
of the eggs
of the eggs
9
10
of the eggs
Simplifying
a fraction
94
WORKED
Example
5 Kylies netball team scored 28 goals. Kylie scored 21 of her teams goals. What fraction of the teams goals did Kylie score? Simplify the answer.
6 Year 7 students at Springfield Secondary College ran a car wash to
raise money for the local hospital. They raised a total of $1000 and
drew up a table showing how much money each class
raised.
7A
$200
7B
$150
7C
$320
7D
$80
7E
$250
Express as a simple fraction how much of the total
each class raised.
7 Below are the results of a pieeating competition.
Mark
5 pies
David
10 pies
Samantha
8 pies
Jules
6 pies
Ahmed
4 pies
Darren
7 pies
a How many pies were eaten in total?
b For each contestant, record the number of pies
each ate as a fraction of the total number of pies
eaten. Where possible, reduce the fractions to
simplest form.
WORKED Example 10
Draw a diagram to show
number.
5
4
THINK
1
WRITE
Chapter 3 Fractions
THINK
2
WRITE
95
5
4
1
4
needed.
= 1 14
If the improper fraction had a larger numerator it might be necessary to draw more
pizzas and the whole number part would then be greater than 1.
WORKED Example 11
Express
11
5
as a mixed number.
THINK
WRITE
11
5
10
5
=2+
1
5
1
5
= 2 15
WORKED Example 12
Draw a diagram to show 2 13 as pieces of pizza and then write 2 13 as an improper fraction.
THINK
1
2
WRITE
1
3
2 13 =
7
3
96
WORKED Example 13
WRITE
2 34
=2+
3
4
8
4
3
4
11
4
To change a mixed number to an improper fraction, enter the mixed number as the sum
of the whole number and the fraction. For example, to change 2 34 to an improper fracMATH select 1:Frac and press ENTER .
+
3
4
tion, press 2
To obtain a fraction answer to any calculation when using a TI graphics calculator
always remember to press MATH select 1:Frac and press ENTER after all numbers
and operations have been typed in.
remember
remember
1. An improper fraction has a numerator that is larger than the denominator.
2. A mixed number is made up of a whole number and a fraction.
3. Improper fractions can be changed to mixed numbers by making part of the
fraction a whole number.
4. Mixed numbers can be changed to improper fractions by first changing the
whole number to a fraction and then adding the two fractions.
Chapter 3 Fractions
3C
WORKED
Example
10
97
1 Draw a diagram to show the following improper fractions as pieces of pizza, then
write each improper fraction as a mixed number.
a
5
2
4
3
11
6
13
8
12
4
7
6
2 Copy these statements, filling the gaps with the appropriate expression from the list below.
mixed number
proper fraction
improper fraction
a An
has a numerator that is larger than the denominator.
b A
consists of a whole number and a fraction.
c A
has a denominator that is larger than the numerator.
3 a Sarah ate 32 or 3 halves of an apple. Draw the amount of apple that Sarah ate and
express 32 as a mixed number.
b Dean ate 94 or 9 quarters of pizza. Draw the amount of pizza that Dean ate and
express 94 as a mixed number.
WORKED
Example
11
7
5
11
4
21
2
39
10
51
12
92
11
29
13
23
8
100
3
25
2
20
3
10
3
There is a faster way of changing improper fractions to mixed numbers. If the denominator is divided into the numerator, the answer is a whole number with a remainder.
The whole number is part of the answer and the remainder becomes the numerator of
the fractional part with the same denominator as the original improper fraction. For
example, 54 = 5 4
= 1 remainder 1
= 1 14Converting improper fractions
to mixed numbers (DIY)
8
5
27
8
11
2
97
9
58
7
117
10
67
8
74
9
31
12
89
6
6 multiple choice
a
61
8
A 5 58b
73
10
48
5
C 7 58
D 8 58
E 9 58
7
C 7 10
3
D 3 10
4
E 7 10
C 9 59
D 6 39
E 9 35
7
A 3 10
B 6 583
B 7 10
A 8 45
B 5 59
98
7 Kim and Carly arrived home from school quite hungry and cut up some fruit. Kim ate
9 quarters of an apple and Carly ate 11 quarters. How many apples did they each eat?
8 Daniel was selling pieces of quiche at the school fete. Each quiche was divided into 8
pieces. If Daniel sold 51 pieces, how many quiches did Daniel sell?
9 It was Maxs responsibility to supply oranges
for his football team at halftime. If 19 players
ate 14 orange each, how many oranges were eaten?
10 Draw a diagram to show the following mixed
numbers as pieces of pizza and then write each
12
one as an improper fraction.
WORKED
Example
WORKED
Example
13
Converting mixed
numbers to
improper fractions
Converting mixed
numbers to
improper fractions
a 1 18
b 3 34
2 16
d 1 16
e 5 14
1 35
4 19
b 1 45
2 23
g 11 12
h 3 78
d 3 13i
e 6 14
7 45
9 25
34+2
4 23 = 3
=
14
3
12 Change these mixed numbers to improper fractions using the method above.
a 3 12Converting mixed
numbers to improper
fractions (DIY)
7
3 12
g 5 35
h 9 47
9
e 2 10
d 6 57
5 45
b 4 15
1 10
11
8 56
13 multiple choice
a 10 27 is the same as:
A
27
10
72
10
10
27
72
7
72
2
58
6
56
8
53
6
68
5
99
7
79
11
97
11
77
9
85
6
9
 is the same as:
7 11
86
11
Chapter 3 Fractions
99
14 a Amy made apple pies for her Grandmas 80th birthday party. She divided each pie
into 6 pieces, and after the party she noted that 4 16 pies had been eaten. How many
pieces had been eaten?
b Amys cousin Ria provided cordial for the same party, and calculated that she
 bottles had
could make 20 drinks from each bottle. At the end of the party 3 17
20
been used. How many drinks had been consumed?
15 Insert the appropriate > or < sign between each pair of fractions to make a true statement.
a
8
5
15
2
1 25
19
2
8 12
33
32
3
1 32
5 12
e 3 34
19
4
7 17
65
7
8
3
h 1 16
17
g 2 13
35
17
1
1 Write down the equivalent fractions from this list:
123
31
10 16 19
8
6
3
1 2
 ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  .
4 6 12 25 32 41 64 76 124 490
12
20
in simplest form.
26
3
as a mixed number.
12
9
1 35 , 3 35 ,
15
 ,
5
4 25 ,
28
 ,
5
6 15 .
3.1
100
WORKED Example 14
Find
5
9
+ 19 .
THINK
WRITE
5
9
1
9
6
9
2
3
If fractions do not have the same denominator, use equivalent fractions to make the
denominators the same.
WORKED Example 15
Find
5
6
1
 ,
12
THINK
WRITE
Multiples of 6 are 6, 12 . . .
Multiples of 12 are 12 . . .
LCM is 12.
5 1
 6 12
52 1
=  6 2 12
10 1
=  12 12
9
= 12
93
=  4
12
=
3
4
With practice many of these steps can be done in your head and the solution written as
follows.
5
6
1
12
=
=
=
10
12
9
12
3
4
1
12
Chapter 3 Fractions
101
WORKED Example 16
WRITE
2 34 + 1 12
11
4
3
2
11
4
6
4
17
4
= 4 14
Alternatively, you can add the whole numbers first and then work out the fractional
parts.
So,
5
4
= 3 + 1 14= 4 14This alternative method also works for subtracting fractions, unless the second fraction part is bigger than the first fraction part. Then use the method of equal addition.
(Also see the section on subtraction in chapter 1.)
WORKED Example 17
WRITE
3 15 1 34
4
15
 1 = 3 20
20
3
4
9
 2
= 3 20
9
= 1 20
102
12
then press
WORKED Example 18
WRITE
3 13 + 2 12
= (3 + 2) + ( 13 + 12 )
= 5 + ( 26 + 36 )
=5+
5
6
= 5 565
remember
remember
1. Fractions can be added and subtracted if they have the same denominator.
2. If fractions do not have the same denominator, use equivalent fractions to make
the denominators the same.
3. Mixed numbers can be added or subtracted by first changing them to improper
fractions.
4. Mixed numbers can also be added or subtracted by working with the whole
numbers, then the fractional parts. If the second fractional part is bigger than
the first fractional part, make the second fraction equal to a whole number by
adding the same fraction to both parts.
103
Chapter 3 Fractions
3D
WORKED
Example
14
1 Find:
a
1
5
20
50
5
8
3
5
11
50
1
8
3
8
9
11
3
11
3
6
15
25
6
25
12
12
4
7
33
100
5
7
3
7
2
6
Adding and
subtracting
fractions
1
12
7
100
11
100
Adding
fractions
WORKED
Example
15
5
12
37
100
13
16
1
12
+
+
13
100
9
16
10
16
7
16
9
4
11
28
3
16
7
4
10
28
9
15
4
7
21
81
+
+
4
15
5
7
21
81
2
7
30
81
Subtracting
fractions
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
8
20
32
9
18
7
9
8
27
31
35
2
21
1
3
1
6
17
40
1
2
3
7
8
10
28
70
1
4
4 Find the lowest common multiple of each of the following pairs of numbers.
a 2 and 3
b 3 and 5
c 5 and 10
d 4 and 6
e 5 and 6
f 9 and 6
g 4 and 8
h 6 and 8
i 7 and 5
5 Using the lowest common multiples that were found in question 4 as denominators,
add or subtract these fractions.
a
1
2
1
3
2
3
2
5
3
5
3
10
3
4
1
6
4
5
1
6
1
9
5
6
1
4
3
8
5
6
3
8
5
7
2
5
6 Answer the following questions by first finding the lowest common denominator.
Simplify your answer if necessary.
+
5
7
3
8
4
5
3
4
2
15
5
8
5
12
7
9
1
2
2
9
7
11
1
4
4
5
2
11
7
10
3
10
1
20
7
8
3
5
2
3
4
5
5
7
5
9
2
7
2
3
1
13
11
12
4
7
5
6
2
3
7
10
5
12
5
6
m
p
1
4
3
4
7
10
3.3
104
7 Angela was a little hungry the day before her birthday, and spied the cake to be eaten
1
 of it, her Mum might not notice.
the following day. She decided that if she ate only 1 10
However, she was still hungry and took another 6 .
a How much of the cake did Angela eat before her birthday?
b How much of the cake was left for her birthday?
8 multiple choice
a The lowest common denominator of 13 ,
A 16
B 24
and
1
6
and
1
5
C 18
B 10
is:
D 72
1 1
 , 2 4
1
4
C 20
E 12
is:
D 30
E 40
1
2
11
12
1
2
1
3
8
15
2
3
1
4
3
4
3
20
3
10
4
15
1
16
1
8
3
4
1
3
1
6
1
4
7
8
3
4
5
6
7
18
4
6
1
9
5
6
3
4
1
2
11 Robert, Jason and Luke play football in the same team. Last Saturday, Robert kicked
1
1
5
 of the teams goals, Jason kicked  and Luke  . What fraction of the teams goals
4
3
12
were kicked by:
a Jason and Luke?
b Robert and Jason?
c the three boys together?
12 Jacinta and her friend decided
to climb the tree in her Nans
front yard. It took her 10
minutes to climb halfway up,
10 more minutes to climb
another sixth of the way and yet
another 10 minutes to reach a
further tenth of the way. Here
she sat admiring the view for 5
minutes before beginning her
descent.
a What fraction of the height
of the tree had Jacinta
climbed after 20 minutes?
b What fraction of the tree did
Jacinta climb in total?
WORKED
Example
16
13 Find:
a 1 15 + 3 12
b 3 23 2 12
5 23 2 14
d 9 38 + 4
e 2 35 1 12
3 12 + 2 34
Chapter 3 Fractions
WORKED
Example
105
14 Find:
a 7 5 23
17
b 2 13
c 3 12 1 78
5
6
9
1
7
3
5
 e 5  1  f 5  3 d 4 35 2 10
4
12
4
6
15 Find:
a
WORKED
Example
1
5
+ 2 27
5
8
+ 3 34
1
2
2 29 + 1 13 +
d 4 23 + 1 38 3
1
6
18
b 1 16 + 2 12
c 3 13 + 1 16
d 6 12 2 14
3
5
1
 f 7  3 e 4 35 1 10
6
3
17 Onethird of a litre of cordial is mixed with 1 12 litres of water. How many litres of
drink has been made?
18 At a school danceathon, the number of hours each student danced was recorded.
Matthew 1 34 hours,
?
185"
5
16 "
? cm
7
3
16 cm
? cm
1
4
1
4 cm
cm
1
4
cm
QUEST
GE
EN
MAT H
a What is the width of a cylinder (see middle diagram above) which would slide
over the one shown above left?
b What is the width of a cylinder (see diagram above right) which would slide into
the one shown above left?
CH
L
AL
3
5
5
 .
12
106
Egyptian fractions
10
(b)
(c)
100
1000 10 000
23 462
(d)
1
3
1
5
(c)
1
6
10
1
5
(b)
(d)
100
1
5
1
5
or
1
2
10
Chapter 3 Fractions
107
4. Write 4 of your own questions using Egyptian hieroglyphics. Swap these with a
partner. Calculate the answers to your partners set of questions, showing
clearly how you were able to work them out.
Multiplying fractions
To multiply fractions, multiply the numerators and multiply the denominators.
WORKED Example 19
Find
1
5
34 .
THINK
WRITE
1
5
3
4
13
= 54
3
= 20
Fractions can be simplified by dividing both numerator and denominator by the same
number before being multiplied. This is easier than working with large numbers.
Dividing both numerator and denominator by the same number is often called
cancelling.
WORKED Example 20
Find
2
3
9
 .
10
THINK
1
3
4
WRITE
2
3
9
10
1
2 93
= 1 5
3 10
3
5
108
WORKED Example 21
Find
1
3
36.
THINK
WRITE
2
3
1
3
36
1 36 12
= 1  3 1
=
12
1
= 12
WORKED Example 22
WRITE
2
3
1 12 3 353 18 9
= 1 2 5
=
27
5
= 5 25
WORKED Example 23
Find
2
3
of 14 .
THINK
WRITE
2
3
21 1
=   2
3 4
of
1
6
1
4
109
Chapter 3 Fractions
WORKED Example 24
Mum put a 2 litre carton of flavoured milk in the refrigerator. When the children came
home from school, Joanna drank one quarter of the milk, Kieren drank one half of it and
Daisy drank one sixth of it. What fraction of the milk, in litres, did each person drink?
THINK
1
WRITE
Joanna:
1
4
of 2 =
1
4
1 21
= 2 4 1
=
Kieren:
Daisy:
1
2
1
2
1
2
of 2 =
1
6
1 21
= 1 2 1
=1
of 2 = 16 2
1 21
= 3 6 1
=
1
3
remember
remember
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3E
WORKED
Example
19
Multiplying fractions
1 Find:
1
2
11
13
5
8
7
8
1
3
2
3
2
5
6
7
9
11
11
12
1
3
2
3
2
3
5
6
7
8
2
3
4
13
3
5
1
4
1
2
5
9
4
3
8
9
5
9
11
12
5
11
3
10
4
7
3
5
11
12
5
12
2
3
Multiplying
fractions
Multiplying
fractions
110
WORKED
Example
20
2 Find:
a
4
8
3
9
2
5
3
8
4
15
10
11
18
32
64
72
48
56
8
49
14
16
4
9
42
54
12
49
5
25
1
2
3
7
22
25
24
27
9
8
24
60
15
27
36
45
6
12
8
10
18
24
12
36
6
8
12
48
5
6
3 Marks uncle gave him a family size block of chocolate. He divided it into thirds to
share with his 2 sisters. His friends Tom and Nick then arrived to visit, and Mark
shared his portion of the chocolate with them.
a Draw the block of chocolate, and shade Marks third of the block. Then draw lines
to represent Toms share.
b What fraction of the block of chocolate did Nick receive?
WORKED
Example
21
WORKED
Example
22
4 Find:
b
5
14
15
22
3
4
1 58
1 12 1 12
e 2 15 3 12
9

10 10
3 23
4 13
2
3
11
5
16
5 Find:
a 1 14
9
10
2
3
2
3
3
5
m 5 3 12
n 8 3 14
q 5 15 6 23
d 2 58 1 34
g 2 14 2 12
4
5
1 67
k 1 12 12
2 34 6
1
o 4 35 2 10
p 3 56 9 57
3 34 2 23
6 Tim was looking for something to do one Saturday afternoon and his Dad suggested
he cook something for afternoon tea.
Tim found a recipe for peanut butter muffins.
The recipe is given below.
Ingredients:
1
4
1
4
cup sugar,
1
2
cup margarine,
Method:
Blend the sugar, margarine and peanut butter. Beat in the eggs and milk. Add the selfraising flour and baking soda. Place the mixture in greased muffin pans and sprinkle
with cinnamon sugar. Bake for 1520 minutes in a 200C oven.
This recipe makes 10 muffins, but Tim wants enough mixture to make 15. He needs to
multiply the quantities by 1 12 . Write the quantities Tim needs to make 15 muffins.
Chapter 3 Fractions
WORKED
Example
23
7 Find:
a
1
2
3
4
9
10
2
3
5
7
8
9
of
1
4
4
5
of 20
7
8
2
5
of 45
3
5
3
4
of 6
9
10
of 15
3
7
of 12
1
2
2
3
of
5
6
of
1
4
3
2
5
6
5
7
of 32
9
10
of 25
8
9
1
12
of 10
of
1 12
3
4
of
8 23
of
18
25
7
8
of 3 13
Example
24
of
5
6
of
7
25
Fraction of
a number
of 50
of 81
GAME
time
of
of
111
Fractions
02
9 Jamies Mum made 6 litres of punch for his birthday party. Emily drank 13 of the
1
1
 and Jonathan drank  . What fraction of the punch, in litres,
punch, Tracy drank 18
12
did each person drink?
10 Zoe and Sarah play basketball with the Sharp Shooters. The games are played for 40
minutes. Zoe played 45 of last weeks game and Sarah played 78 . How many minutes
of the game did:
a Zoe play?
b Sarah play?
11 Gustaves monthly takehome pay is $2400. From this he spends a quarter on his
home loan payments, one half on food and drink and one sixth on clothing. One half
of the remainder goes into his savings account. How much money does Gustave put
into his savings account each month?
12 To make a fruit loaf using an automatic bread maker, the fruit needs to be added after
the second rise stage and the top of the bread needs to be glazed
twothirds of the way through the bake stage. The instruction
booklet shows you how long each stage of the total cycle
takes.
Stage
Length of time
First knead
5 minutes
Second knead
20 minutes
First rise then punch down
40 minutes
Second rise then punch down
25 minutes
Third rise
50 minutes
Bake
40 minutes
a After what length of time should the fruit be added?
b Express this as a fraction of the total time in the
bread maker.
c After what length of time should the top of the bread
be glazed?
112
13 a
b
c
d
Musical fractions
In music, particular symbols tells us how long a note is to be held for. The time
value of each note is shown below.
4 beats
2 beats 1 beat
(semibreve) (minim) (crotchet)
1
2
beat 14 beat
(quaver) (semiquaver)
(d)
When musicians decide they want a note held for a little longer, they put a
dot after the note. The dot adds an extra half of the number of beats to the
original time value. For example, a dotted minim
has a time value of
2+
1
2
2 = 3 beats.
(f)
(g)
(h)
To make music more organised, time signatures were added to the beginning of
a piece of music so that each section or bar was divided up into equal parts. For
example, 44 tells us that we need 4 crotchet beats (or notes that will make up
that amount) in a bar. The 4 on the top shows us the amount of beats per bar,
while the 4 on the bottom shows us that the note values we use are the ones that
belong to crotchet time. In 34 time, we need 3 beats to make up a bar and in 24
time we need 2 beats to make up a bar.
Chapter 3 Fractions
113
4
(e) 4
4
(f) 3
(g) 3
(h) 2
(c) 2
(d) 3
(e) 4
(f) 2
(g) 3
(h) 3
8. Put time signatures to each of the following rhythm patterns. (They are crotchet
beats.)
(a)
(b)
9. Write your own rhythm patterns 4 bars long, using a different pattern in each
bar for each of the following time signatures.
(a)
3
4
(b)
4
4
Dividing fractions
The reciprocal of a fraction is found by tipping the fraction upside down. So
reciprocal of 53 .
A whole number can be written as a fraction by putting it over 1 so that
reciprocal of 41 .
WORKED Example 25
WRITE
The reciprocal of
2
3
is 32 .
3
5
is the
1
4
is the
114
WORKED Example 26
WRITE
1 23 =
5
3
1
4
=2
The answer could also have been found by changing the division sign to a
multiplication sign and tipping the second fraction upside down.
1
2
1
4
1
2
4
1
=2
Division by a number is the same as multiplication by its reciprocal.
WORKED Example 27
Find
2
3
49 .
THINK
WRITE
2
3
4
9
2
3
Cancel if possible.
Perform multiplication.
3
2
= 1 12
9
4
To divide mixed numbers, you can first change them to improper fractions.
Chapter 3 Fractions
115
WORKED Example 28
WRITE
1 12 3 25
3
2
17
5
3
2
5
17
15
34
Dividing a fraction
by a fraction
remember
remember
1. The reciprocal of a fraction is found by tipping the fraction upside down.
2. The reciprocal of a mixed number is found by expressing it as an improper
fraction, then tipping it upside down.
3. A whole number can be written as a fraction by putting it over 1.
4. Division by a number is the same as multiplication by its reciprocal.
5. To divide mixed numbers, first change them to improper fractions.
3F
WORKED
Example
25
Dividing fractions
3
4
2
7
6
5
1
5
m 5
5
3
9
2
1
12
n 20
5
12
5
3
10
3
3
15
2
22
o 13
p 1
Reciprocals
116
WORKED
Example
26
b 4 37
3 67
g 3 38
h 5 13
7 12
d 4 25i
e 9 27
10 29
9
6 10
5
7
2
9
3
5
d 3 27
e 2 18
f 3 34
Example
Dividing
fractions
27
Dividing
fractions
WORKED
Example
28
5 Find:
1
4
1
12
10
3
4
9
4
3
2
3
9
10
1
2
5
6
7
12
9
11
20
21
8
15
16
15
4
7
10
5
8
20
15
11
7
9
30
b 9 4 12
9
4
3 12
e 5 2 34
7 49
h 1 15 2 13
5 67 2 34
9
 4
k 10 10
4 12 3 67
n 4 23
o 3 58 1 34
8
9
2
3
4
11
15
21
2
7
4
9
12
7
6
6 Find:
a 1 14
3
4
3 13
10
3
1
8
1 12
2 121
2
m 3 27 2 17
7
6
3.2
1
3
Chapter 3 Fractions
This part
part of
settled in 1804.
5
8
163
was first
Answer these
fraction questions to
discover the puzzle
answer code.
31
5
6
2
7
37
S How many
are there in
1
2
3
4
=
1
4
2
3
1 10
7
5
8
2
5
=
3
4
87
22
32
Divide 4 41
by 1 21
=
3
7
1
2
1 47 =
=
A
3
4
Divide
by 85
117
2
2
1
2
1
5
2
3
44
1 52
5
6
34
3
14
33
4
7
1
2
118
2
Calculate each of the following, expressing your answer in simplest form.
4
15
5
6
6 3 59
15
20
2
7
of
12
15
3
10
21
40
3 3 14 + 2 25
5
9
2
3
4
18
10 4 25
2
11
12
20
WORKED Example 29
Find
6
7
1 56 14 .
THINK
WRITE
6
7
1 56
6
7
11
6
1
4
1
4
1
6 11 4
=  1 7 6 1
44
7
= 6 27
119
Chapter 3 Fractions
remember
remember
The order of operations is the same for fractions as it is for whole numbers:
1. brackets
2. multiplication and division (left to right)
3. addition and subtraction (left to right).
3G
Mixed
operations
WORKED
Example
5
8
5
6
4
5
3
8
e 1 35 + 9 47
1 45
9
7
3
4
6 13 4 12
5 14
b 1 34 5 3 12
1
9
 + 2 
4 4
10
e 2 56 2 3 12
1
2
11
12
b (5 3 67 ) 4 13
(4 12 + 56 )
1
11
7
)
6 (3 23 + 2 12
5
2
21
32
7
8
1 78
9
10
Four operations
with fractions
2 15
29
2 13
1
2
10 + 2 34
1
3
2
9
3
4
2
3
1
2
3
5
1
5
Mixed
operations
3
4
1
2
d 6 (7 56 2)
1
1
 ) (7 
g ( 23 4 12
2
h 4 (2 1 37 )
1
 )
10
(8 29 5 16 )
QUEST
GE
3
2
EN
M ATH
CH
LL
3 The fraction
1
4
4 According to the will, the $120 000 estate is to be left to three children.
Sam is to receive 25 of the money, Georgia is to receive 13 of the money
and Olivia is to receive the remainder of the money. How much money
is Olivia to receive?
5 If a half, a quarter and an eighth of a number are added together, the
total is 63. What is the number?
120
1.
2.
3.
4.
Daniella takes a slice of pepperoni pizza and Christopher takes a slice of sausage
pizza. However, Christopher complains that his piece is smaller than Daniellas.
5. What is the difference in size between the larger and the smaller slice? (Write
your answer as a fraction of a whole pizza.)
Daniella continues to eat the pepperoni pizza and Christopher continues to eat
the sausage pizza.
6. How many slices of pizza should Daniella and Christopher each have so as to
eat the same amount?
7. What fraction of each pizza is now left over?
2
2

3
2
3
2
3
22
32
4
9
WORKED Example 30
Find: a
1 2
4
3
2

5
c (1 13 )2.
THINK
WRITE
2
1

4
12
42
1
16
Chapter 3 Fractions
THINK
WRITE
3
2

5
Simplify.
2
4

3
42
32
16
9
= 1 79
23
53
222
= 555
8
125
c (1 13 )2
It is also possible to find the square roots of fractions and mixed numbers.
WORKED Example 31
Find: a
9
16
6 14 .
THINK
WRITE
4
5
9
16
9
16
3
4
6 14
b
=
25
4
25
4
5
2
= 2 12
121
122
Powers and
square roots
remember
remember
1. To square a fraction, square both numerator and denominator (base is raised to
an index of 2).
2. To cube a fraction, cube both numerator and denominator (base is raised to an
index of 3).
3. To find the square root of a fraction, take the square root of both numerator and
denominator.
4. To find the square root of a mixed number, change the mixed number to an
improper fraction, then find the square root of both the numerator and the
denominator.
3H
WORKED
Example
30a
WORKED
Example
30b
Squaring and
cubing fractions
1 Find:
a
1 2
2
2
1

3
2
2

5
5 2
6
2
3

4
7 2
 10
5 2
 12
3 2
 11
2
3

8
2 Find:
a
1 3
4
3
1

2
3
2

5
3 3
 10
3
2

3
3
1

6
123
Chapter 3 Fractions
WORKED
Example
30c
WORKED
Example
31
3 Find:
a (1 13 )2
b (2 14 )2
(1 12 )2
1 2
)
d (1 10
e (2 15 )2
(3 23 )2
4 Find:
a
16
25
49
100
9
64
25
36
2 14
1 79
9
1 16
2 14
25
1 15
49
Square
root of a
fraction
2
1

2
2
3

4
2
2

3
2
4

7
2
3

7
4
9
2
1

2
2
2

3
1
2
2
3

5
2
5

9
16
25
2
1

2
QUEST
GE
EN
MAT H
5 Calculate:
CH
AL
3

5
2187
78 125
L
2 A length of rope is cut in half
and one half is used. Then one
third of the other half is cut
off and used. If the remaining
piece of rope is 10 cm long,
how long was the original
rope?
3 Find the answer to
3
( 12 )
.
1 2
)
( 1 + 1+3
4 Look for a pattern in this list
of fractions and write down the next two in the sequence.
2
3
9
5
16
14
23
50
30
53
3.3
1
10
124
summary
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
11
12
13
Copy the sentences below. Fill in the gaps by choosing the correct word or
expression from the word list that follows.
The
is the top part of the fraction.
The
is the bottom part of the fraction.
Different fractions can be compared or ordered by writing each one with
the
denominator.
order is from smallest to largest.
order is from largest to smallest.
are found by multiplying or dividing both the numerator
and the denominator by the same number as long as the number is not
equal to zero.
To
fractions, find the largest number that is a factor of the
numerator and the denominator and divide both by that number.
fractions can be changed to mixed numbers by dividing the
numerator by the denominator. The
becomes the numerator and the denominator remains the same.
Mixed
can be changed to improper fractions by multiplying
the whole number and the denominator then adding the numerator. The
result becomes the numerator and the denominator remains the same.
Fractions must have the same denominator to be added or subtracted.
This is done by finding a
denominator. Once the denominators are the same, the numerators can be added or subtracted.
To multiply fractions, simply
the numerators and multiply
the denominators. It is often easier to
or simplify numerators and denominators before multiplying. Remember to change mixed
numbers to improper fractions first.
To find the
of a number, swap the numerator and denominator.
To divide fractions, change the to and
the second fraction. Remember to change
numbers to improper fractions
first.
WORD
denominator
ascending
mixed
tip
multiply
improper
LIST
common
same
equivalent fractions
cancel
numerator
simplify
descending
remainder
numbers
reciprocal
Chapter 3 Fractions
125
CHAPTER
review
1 What fraction of the eggs in this carton are brown?
3A
3
8
4
9
5
11
3A
6
7
1
2
4
2
5
10
=
=
3
16

1
3
3

15
3
4
1
4
5

100
3
10
=
=
28
100
9

3A
300

42
49
81
108
18
20
21
28
36
72
50
150
75
125
2
80
4 15
20
20
d 1 100
3B
b 3 69
8
6 10
3B
6 What fraction of the months of the year begin with the letter J? Express your answer in
simplest form.
3B
3C
16
3
21
5
12
7
11
2
5
4
80
7
55
9
72
10
2 34
b 9 78
3 23
3 57
9
9 10
g 3 11
12
3C
d 5 56h 8 12
9 Find:
a
5
6
1
8
5
4
11
2
e 1 78 + 2 56
6 13 2 59
7
9
2
5
1 15 + 3 13
12
5
4
3
10 37 8 12
3D
h 5 12 2 56
10 Find:
a
13
15
3D
126
3D
3E
3F
3F
3G
3H
3H
12 Find:
4
7
25
36
5
9
2
5
56
81
2
4 25 3 11
10 27 6 29
4
5
of 55
2
11
of 121
7
9
of
1
12
of 200
18
20
18
84
3
5
18
64
13 Find:
a
3
5
4
9
2 14
5
6
2
7
3
4
16
21
7
20
5
3
1
 1  2 e 3 12
5
2
3
5
5
11
6
17
1 14 3 25
7
9
6 23 4 16
7 2 14 1 12
3
10
1
1 10
5
2
2
7
1
9
124
1
4
g 5 34
h 8 12
7 25
2 49
k 3 58
d 12
4 15
15 Find:
a
4
5
3
7
10
8
15
9
10
27
40
e 1 12 4 45
16 Calculate:
a
( 49 + 56 ) 3
3
4
9
10
5
7
5
14
3
2
 +  )
( 10
5
e 2 + 4 12 2 14
14
15
17 Calculate:
a
4 2
5
9 2
 10
2
3

4
7 2
8
3
1

3
3
5

6
(1 12 )2
h (2 14 )2
(1 35 )2
test
yourself
18 Calculate:
a
81
100
25
49
2 79
9
2 36
CHAPTER
3E
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