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Fractions

3
A pepperoni pizza is cut
into 6 equal pieces while a
sausage pizza of the same
size is cut into 8 equal
pieces. If Martin eats 2
pieces of the pepperoni
pizza and Olivia eats 3
pieces of the sausage pizza,
who has eaten more? How
can you prove this?

84

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

Understanding
fractions
Antonio makes pizzas.
Besides selling whole pizzas,
he often sells part of a pizza to his
customers. For example, this
pizza has been cut into 3 equal
pieces. If a customer wants only 2
of these slices, then Antonio is
selling 2--3- of the pizza to the
customer.

Fractions are used to describe


parts of a whole. The numerator
or top number of the fraction
shows how many parts there are,
while the denominator or bottom
number shows the number of parts the whole has been divided into. So 2--3- means that
the whole thing has been divided into 3 equal parts and that we are concerned with 2
parts. The horizontal bar separating the numerator from the denominator is called the
vinculum.
A proper fraction is a fraction with the numerator smaller than the denominator,
like 2--3- .
An improper fraction has a numerator that is larger than the denominator, like 5--4- .
A mixed number is made up of a number and a fraction, like 1 3--5- .

WORKED Example 1
What fraction of the rectangle shown has been shaded?

THINK
1
2
3

Count how many equal parts the


rectangle has been divided into.
How many parts are shaded?
Write the answer in a sentence.

WRITE
Total number of parts = 8
3 parts are shaded.
3
--- of the rectangle has been shaded.
8

Chapter 3 Fractions

85

Fractions can be marked on a number line in the


0 1 2 1 11 12 2 2 1
3
3
3
3
3
same way as counting numbers.
The number line above can be used to count in fractional steps. The fractions marked
in bold are found by adding 1 to the previous fraction or mixed number so that the
following sequence of numbers is obtained:
1
--- ,
3

1 1--3- , 2 1--3- , 3 1--3- , 4 1--3- , . . .

WORKED Example 2
Copy the number line shown, filling in the missing
numbers. Use it to find the next 3 terms in the given
sequence: 3--4- , 1, 1 1--4- , _, _, _.
THINK
1
2
3
4

1
4

1
2

3
4

134

WRITE

Copy the number line and fill in the


missing numbers.
Circle the 3 given numbers in the
sequence on the number line.
On the number line, find the next 3
terms which continue the sequence.
Write the sequence with the missing
numbers.

1
4

1
2

3
4

1 114 112 134

1
4

1
2

3
4

1 114 112 134

3
--- ,
4

1, 1 1--4- , 1 1--2- , 1 3--4- , 2

Finding equivalent fractions


Antonio cuts a pizza into 2 equal pieces as shown.
Each piece is exactly half of the pizza.
A lady with a small child comes into the shop and wants
to buy some pizza. She decides to cut one of the halves into
2 smaller, equal pieces as shown.

Now the child eats 2 quarters of a pizza and the mother eats half a pizza. If you look
carefully you will see that each person has the same amount of pizza. We can say that
1
2
1
2
--- is equivalent to --- or --- = --- .
2
4
2
4
Equivalent fractions can be found by multiplying or dividing both the numerator and
the denominator by the same number as long as the number is not zero. Therefore,
1 12 2
--- = ------------ = --2 22 4
So

and

1 13 3
--- = ------------ = --- .
2 23 6

1 2 3
--- = --- = --- .
2 4 6

86

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

WORKED Example 3

For the equivalent fractions 4--5- =


numerator and denominator.

8
-----10

find the number which has been used to multiply both

THINK
1

What number is 4 multiplied by to


equal 8? (4 _ = 8)
What number is 5 multiplied by to
equal 10? (5 _ = 10)
Write the answer.

WRITE
4 42
8
--- = ------------ = -----5 5 2 10

The number used is 2.

WORKED Example 4

From the list, find those fractions which are equivalent to 1--2- : 3--9- , 3--6- ,
THINK
1

Multiply the numerator and


denominator of 1--2- by the numerator of
the first fraction (3) to check whether
the new fraction is in the list.

Multiply the numerator and


denominator of 1--2- by the next different
numerator (9) and check whether the
new fraction is in the list.

Continue until all fractions have been


considered.

Write the equivalent fractions.

9 10 7 17
------ , ------ , ------ , ------ .
18 15 14 34

WRITE
13 3
------------ = --23 6

19
9
------------ = -----2 9 18

1 10 10
--------------- = -----2 10 20
7
17
------------ = -----2 7 14
1 17 17
--------------- = -----2 17 34
Equivalent fractions of

1
--2

are 3--6- ,

WORKED Example 5

Write 3 equivalent fractions for 2--3- .


THINK
1

Multiply both the numerator and


denominator by 2, 3 and 4.

Write the equivalent fractions.

WRITE
2 22 23 24
--- = ------------ = ------------ = -----------3 32 33 34
2 4 6
8
--- = --- = --- = -----3 6 9 12

9
7 17
------ , ------ , ------ .
18 14 34

Chapter 3 Fractions

87

Note: There are other fractions which are equivalent to 2--3- . These can be found by multiplying the numerator and denominator by other numbers. Answers to exercises (at the
back of the book) will always give the 3 smallest equivalent fractions.
Equivalent fractions can also be shown using diagrams. Equivalent fractions for 2--3are shown below.

2
3

2
3

= 46

= 69

2
3

8
=
12

Notice that the same amount of the rectangle has been shaded in each case.

Comparing fractions
If Antonios pizza is cut into quarters it would be easy to see that
1 piece is less than 2 pieces, or that 1--4- of the pizza is less than 2--4- .
If Antonio has another pizza of the same
size but cuts it into thirds, it can still be easily
seen that 1--4- is less than 1--3- .
This is because a pizza divided into 4 equal
pieces will give smaller pieces than one divided
into 3 equal pieces.
If the numerators are the same, the smaller fraction is the one with the larger
3
3
- is less than --- . If the numerators
denominator. For example, 1--6- is greater than 1--7- and ----10
4
are different, another method is required to compare fractions.
Fractions which do not have the same denominator can be compared by using
equivalent fractions. We need to rewrite each fraction so that it has the same denominator.

WORKED Example 6
Which is the bigger fraction,

2
--3

or 3--5- ?

THINK
1

Find the lowest common multiple of the


denominators. That is, find multiples of
the larger denominator. Continue until
there is one which is divisible by the
other denominator.

Write each fraction as an equivalent


fraction using this number (15) as the
denominator.
Decide which is bigger by comparing
the numerators of the equivalent
9
------ and ------ ).
fractions ( 10
15
15

WRITE
Multiples of 5 are 5, 10, 15 . . .
15 is divisible by 3 so 15 is the lowest common
multiple.

2 2 5 10
3 33
9
--- = ------------ = ------ and --- = ------------ = -----5 5 3 15
3 3 5 15
2
--3

is bigger than 3--5- .

88

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

The answer to worked example 6 can be written as 2--3- > 3--5- . The symbol > means
bigger than or greater than. The symbol < means less than. For example, 1--2- < 3--4- means
that 1--2- is less than 3--4- . An easy way to remember this is that < looks a little bit like the
capital letter L (for less than).

remember
remember
1. Equivalent fractions can be found by multiplying or dividing both the
numerator and the denominator by the same number which is not equal to zero.
2. The numerator is the top part of the fraction.
3. The denominator is the bottom part of the fraction.
4. Different fractions can be compared or ordered by writing each one with the
same denominator.
5. The symbol > means greater than, the symbol < means less than.

3A
3.1

WORKED

Example

Understanding fractions

1 What fraction of each of the following rectangles has been shaded?


a
b

2 What fraction of each of these flags is coloured red?


a
b

Do you recognise these flags? Can you name the country to which each flag belongs?

89

Chapter 3 Fractions

3 What fraction of this collection of fruit is made up of bananas?

WORKED

Example

4 Copy the number lines shown, filling in the missing numbers. Then use them to find
the next 3 terms in the given sequence.
a

1
2

1
--- ,
2

1 1--2- , 2 1--2- , __, __, __

1
5

1
--- ,
5

1 1--5- , 2 1--5- , __, __, __

2
5

1
3

Example

WORKED

Example

4
5

123

4 12

125 135

2 2 15

2 35

3 3 15

3 45

4 15

4 35 4 45

5 25

2 13

1, __, __, __

1 1 3
1
0 4 2 4 1 14

1
--- ,
4
WORKED

3
5

2
3

1 2
--- , --- ,
3 3

3 312

14 2

1 1 3
3 34 32 34

22

44

1 3
1 1 3
52 54 6 64 62 64

44 5

1 1--2- , 2 3--4- , __, __, __

5 For the equivalent fractions below find the number which has been used to multiply
both numerator and denominator.
a

3
--7

9
-----21

1
--4

3
-----12

3
--7

2
--3

10
-----15

5
--9

30
-----54

9
-----10

11
-----12

7
--9

84
--------108

2
--7

121
--------132

12
-----28

=
=

81
-----90

14
-----49

6 From the list, find those fractions which are equivalent to the fractions marked in red.
a

2
--3

7
--9

20
-----30

5
--8

12
-----16

14
-----21

40
-----60

4
--5

12
-----15

15
-----20

36
-----45

16
-----20

28
-----35

80
--------100

8
--9

17
-----18

40
-----45

56
-----63

14
-----18

18
-----19

24
-----27

7
-----10

18
-----25

35
-----50

14
-----21

21
-----30

14
-----20

140
--------200

7 Fill in the gaps.


9
- =
a 3--5- = -----= ----20
c

1
--7

-----28

6
------

-----35

3
--4

3
------

11
-----12

=
=

-----40
22
------

=
=

18
----------72

=
=

Equivalent
fractions
-----36
55
------

WORKED

Example

3.2

8 Write 3 equivalent fractions for each of the following.


5
3
a ----b 4--7c ----d 2--912
10

1
--8

10
-----13

Equivalent
fractions
(DIY)

90
3.3

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

9 Which is the bigger fraction?

WORKED

Example

Comparing
fractions

2
--5

or

3
--5

5
-----11

1
--2

or

3
-----10

3
--4

7
-----10

or

or
or

7
-----11
3
--5

1
--7

or

1
--6

1
-----13

2
--9

or

8
-----27

3
--5

1
-----25

or
or

5
-----12

3
--4

10 Insert the appropriate symbol, > or <, between each pair of fractions to make a true
statement.
4
3
1
3
1
7
3
------------a 5--8b 5--6c 3--5d 3--4e 1--5f ----9
10
4
5
4
6
8
11 multiple choice
a Which fraction is smaller than 5--8- ?
A

7
--8

17
-----24

11
-----12

13
-----16

3
--5

9
-----16

12
-----24

15
-----24

b Which fraction is equivalent to 3--4- ?


A

3
--8

6
--8

12 Write the following fractions with the same denominator and then write them in
ascending order. (Ascending means from smallest to largest).
a

3 1 1
------ , --- , --10 2 5

3 1 1
--- , --- , --8 2 3

2 4 6
--- , --- , -----3 5 15

3 2 7
--- , --- , -----4 3 15

13 Four rather hungry teenage boys ordered


pizzas, but none could eat the whole pizza.
Peter Pepperoni ate

6
--8

of his pepperoni pizza.

Harry Hawaiian ate

1
--2

of his Hawaiian pizza.

Sammy Special ate

3
--4

of his special pizza.

Vince Vegetarian ate

of his vegetarian pizza.

a Draw the 4 pizzas and shade the


amount that each boy ate.
b Which boy ate the most pizza?
c Who ate more pizza, Peter
Pepperoni or Sammy Special?

GAM

me
E ti

Fractions
01

QUEST

GE

EN

MAT H

5
--6

CH

AL

1 Can you arrange the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 to form a fraction


7329
- . Can you find 2
which is equivalent to 1--2- ? For example, one way is --------------14 658
others?
Hint: Try starting with a numerator beginning with 72 for one of them
and 67 for the other.
2 Can you find a way to arrange the 9 digits so that they form a fraction
equivalent to 1--3- ?

91

Chapter 3 Fractions

Flatback turtle facts


Connect the dots next to equivalent fractions.
Each straight line drawn will pass through a letter
and number, giving the puzzle answer code.
7
28

8
28

4
20

28
49

1
2

18
21

3
4

21
35

2
5

10
14

5
9

4
5

3
21

15
40

5
8

13

16
24

12

1
7

12
30

6
7

C
10

17

15
18

21

15

27
63

3
8

3
7

20
36

18

4
7

20

11

19

17
34

4
24

5
6

1
6

1
5

12
27

H 14

16
2
3

1
3

35
56

12
15

18
24

4
9

3
5

2
7

4
12

1
4

5
7

1 2 3 4 5 3 3 6 7 2 8 9 7 5 2 7 10 3 11 1
10 8 12 7 1 1 13 14 11 15 8 5 16 17 7 13 3 18 18 14 18 5 12
3 11 13 8 11 19 12 15 7 8 16 17 7 13 3 18 18 5 17 7
3 20
5

8 21

7 13 7

15 8
6

14

11

7 21 13 5

18

3 17 8

11 19

5 16 17

92

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

Simplifying fractions
Usually the best way to write fractions is in the simplest form. To do this, it is necessary to divide both the numerator and the denominator by the highest common factor.
This is called cancelling.

WORKED Example 7
Write

3
--6

in simplest form.

THINK
1

2
3

WRITE

Write the fraction and find the highest common


factor (HCF) or the largest number that is a factor
of both the numerator and the denominator (3).
Cancel by dividing the numerator and denominator
by this factor (3 3 = 1, 6 3 = 2).
Write the answer in simplest form.

3
--6

31
--- 2
6

1
--2

If the largest factor is not used the first time, the process can be repeated to find the
simplest fraction. To simplify a mixed number, leave the whole number and simplify
the fraction.

WORKED Example 8

------ .
Simplify 7 40
64

THINK
1

2
3

WRITE

Write the mixed number and think of the HCF or


largest number that divides into both numerator
and denominator; that is, the number 8.
Divide both numerator and denominator by that
factor (40 8 = 5, 64 8 = 8).
Write your answer as a mixed number in simplest
form.

Graphics Calculator tip!

-----7 40
64

------ 8
= 7 40
64

= 7 5--8-

Simplifying
fractions

To reduce a fraction into its simplest form using a TI


graphics calculator, type in the fraction using the key.
Press MATH then select 1:Frac and finally ENTER
to obtain the answer. For the fraction

40
-----64

in worked

example 8, you would press the following keys:


40

64

MATH then select 1:Frac and press ENTER .

Chapter 3 Fractions

93

WORKED Example 9
Dippers team scored 24 goals. Dipper scored 18 of the teams goals.
What fraction of the teams goals did Dipper score? Simplify the answer.
THINK
1

2
3

WRITE
18
-----24

Write a fraction with Dippers goals in


the numerator and the teams scores in
the denominator.
Simplify the fraction by dividing top
and bottom by the HCF (6).
Write the answer in a sentence.

3
--4

Dipper scored

3
--4

of the teams goals.

remember
remember
1. To simplify a fraction, divide both the numerator and denominator by the
highest common factor or HCF.
2. To simplify a mixed number, leave the whole number and simplify the fraction.

3B
WORKED

Example

Simplifying fractions

3.4

1 Write the following fractions in simplest form.


a

5
-----10

8
-----12

21
-----24

55
-----60

28
-----35

18
-----24

81
-----90

48
-----56

100
--------110

48
-----50

64
-----72

49
-----70

33
-----36

22
--------121

24
-----56

2 Simplify.
-----a 4 25
8
35

Simplifying
a fraction

WORKED

Example

-----f 1 44
48

-----e 3 56
64

7
d 5 ----42

-----c 10 10
20

-----b 7 42
54

3 multiple choice
a

33
-----39

A
b

40
-----48

is the same as:


11
-----13

3
--9

12
-----13

9
-----12

11
-----16

6
--8

5
--8

5
--6

3
--4

is the same as:


4
--8

4 multiple choice
In an Easter egg hunt, Guy managed to find nine out of 30 hidden eggs. He collected:
A

1
--3

10
-----13

of the eggs
of the eggs

3
-----10

1
--9

of the eggs
of the eggs

9
-----10

of the eggs

Simplifying
a fraction

94

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

WORKED

Example

5 Kylies netball team scored 28 goals. Kylie scored 21 of her teams goals. What fraction of the teams goals did Kylie score? Simplify the answer.
6 Year 7 students at Springfield Secondary College ran a car wash to
raise money for the local hospital. They raised a total of $1000 and
drew up a table showing how much money each class
raised.
7A
$200
7B
$150
7C
$320
7D
$80
7E
$250
Express as a simple fraction how much of the total
each class raised.
7 Below are the results of a pie-eating competition.
Mark
5 pies
David
10 pies
Samantha
8 pies
Jules
6 pies
Ahmed
4 pies
Darren
7 pies
a How many pies were eaten in total?
b For each contestant, record the number of pies
each ate as a fraction of the total number of pies
eaten. Where possible, reduce the fractions to
simplest form.

Improper fractions and mixed numbers


An improper fraction has a numerator that is larger than the denominator; for example,
3
1
3
--- . A mixed number is made up of a whole number and a fraction; for example, 1 --- , 2 --- .
2
2
4

Changing improper fractions to mixed numbers


Improper fractions can be changed to mixed numbers by making part of the fraction a
whole number. Antonio Capricciosas pizzas can show how it is done.

WORKED Example 10
Draw a diagram to show
number.

5
--4

as pieces of pizza, then write the improper fraction as a mixed

THINK
1

WRITE

Draw a whole pizza and divide it into


the number of parts shown by the
denominator.

This is 4 quarters or 4--4- .

Chapter 3 Fractions

THINK
2

WRITE

Find the number of parts left over and


draw them.
Extra

95

Write the improper fraction as a mixed


number.

5
--4

1
--4

needed.

= 1 1--4-

If the improper fraction had a larger numerator it might be necessary to draw more
pizzas and the whole number part would then be greater than 1.

WORKED Example 11
Express

11
-----5

as a mixed number.

THINK

WRITE

Write the improper fraction.

11
-----5

Find the largest multiple of the


denominator which is less than the
numerator (10) and write the improper
fraction as 2 separate fractions.
Simplify the new improper fraction and
write the answer as a mixed number.

10
-----5

=2+

1
--5

1
--5

= 2 1--5-

Changing mixed numbers to improper fractions


Mixed numbers can be changed to improper fractions by first changing the whole
number to a fraction and then adding the two fractions. Antonio Capricciosas pizzas
can again show how it is done.

WORKED Example 12

Draw a diagram to show 2 1--3- as pieces of pizza and then write 2 1--3- as an improper fraction.
THINK
1
2

WRITE
1
--3

Draw 2 whole pizzas and of a pizza.


Divide the whole pizzas into thirds.

Count the number of thirds and write


the mixed number as an improper
fraction.

2 1--3- =

7
--3

96

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

WORKED Example 13

Express 2 3--4- as an improper fraction.


THINK

WRITE

Write the mixed number.

2 3--4-

Split the mixed number into the


addition of a whole number and a
fraction.
Change the whole number to a fraction
with the same denominator as the
fraction part (4).
Add the numerators of the 2 fractions to
make 1 numerator and keep the
denominator the same. The answer
should be an improper fraction.

=2+

3
--4

8
--4

3
--4

11
-----4

Graphics Calculator tip!

Changing a mixed number


to an improper fraction

To change a mixed number to an improper fraction, enter the mixed number as the sum
of the whole number and the fraction. For example, to change 2 3--4- to an improper fracMATH select 1:Frac and press ENTER .
+
3

4
tion, press 2
To obtain a fraction answer to any calculation when using a TI graphics calculator
always remember to press MATH select 1:Frac and press ENTER after all numbers
and operations have been typed in.

remember
remember
1. An improper fraction has a numerator that is larger than the denominator.
2. A mixed number is made up of a whole number and a fraction.
3. Improper fractions can be changed to mixed numbers by making part of the
fraction a whole number.
4. Mixed numbers can be changed to improper fractions by first changing the
whole number to a fraction and then adding the two fractions.

Chapter 3 Fractions

3C
WORKED

Example

10

97

Improper fractions and


mixed numbers

1 Draw a diagram to show the following improper fractions as pieces of pizza, then
write each improper fraction as a mixed number.
a

5
--2

4
--3

11
-----6

13
-----8

12
-----4

7
--6

2 Copy these statements, filling the gaps with the appropriate expression from the list below.
mixed number
proper fraction
improper fraction
a An
has a numerator that is larger than the denominator.
b A
consists of a whole number and a fraction.
c A
has a denominator that is larger than the numerator.
3 a Sarah ate 3--2- or 3 halves of an apple. Draw the amount of apple that Sarah ate and
express 3--2- as a mixed number.
b Dean ate 9--4- or 9 quarters of pizza. Draw the amount of pizza that Dean ate and
express 9--4- as a mixed number.
WORKED

Example

11

4 Express these improper fractions as mixed numbers.


a

7
--5

11
-----4

21
-----2

39
-----10

51
-----12

92
-----11

29
-----13

23
-----8

100
--------3

25
-----2

20
-----3

10
-----3

Converting improper fractions


to mixed numbers

Converting improper fractions


to mixed numbers

There is a faster way of changing improper fractions to mixed numbers. If the denominator is divided into the numerator, the answer is a whole number with a remainder.
The whole number is part of the answer and the remainder becomes the numerator of
the fractional part with the same denominator as the original improper fraction. For
example, 5--4- = 5 4
= 1 remainder 1
= 1 1--4Converting improper fractions
to mixed numbers (DIY)

5 Change these improper fractions to mixed numbers.


a

8
--5

27
-----8

11
-----2

97
-----9

58
-----7

117
--------10

67
-----8

74
-----9

31
-----12

89
-----6

6 multiple choice
a

61
-----8

is the same as:

A 5 5--8b

73
-----10

48
-----5

C 7 5--8-

D 8 5--8-

E 9 5--8-

7
C 7 ----10

3
D 3 ----10

4
E 7 ----10

C 9 5--9-

D 6 3--9-

E 9 3--5-

is the same as:

7
A 3 ----10

B 6 5--83
B 7 ----10

is the same as:

A 8 4--5-

B 5 5--9-

98

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

7 Kim and Carly arrived home from school quite hungry and cut up some fruit. Kim ate
9 quarters of an apple and Carly ate 11 quarters. How many apples did they each eat?
8 Daniel was selling pieces of quiche at the school fete. Each quiche was divided into 8
pieces. If Daniel sold 51 pieces, how many quiches did Daniel sell?
9 It was Maxs responsibility to supply oranges
for his football team at half-time. If 19 players
ate 1--4- orange each, how many oranges were eaten?
10 Draw a diagram to show the following mixed
numbers as pieces of pizza and then write each
12
one as an improper fraction.

WORKED

Example

WORKED

Example

13
Converting mixed
numbers to
improper fractions

Converting mixed
numbers to
improper fractions

a 1 1--8-

b 3 3--4-

2 1--6-

d 1 1--6-

e 5 1--4-

1 3--5-

11 Express the following mixed numbers as improper fractions.


a 1 1--7f

4 1--9-

b 1 4--5-

2 2--3-

g 11 1--2-

h 3 7--8-

d 3 1--3i

e 6 1--4-

7 4--5-

9 2--5-

There is a quicker way of changing mixed numbers to improper fractions. Mixed


numbers can be changed to improper fractions by multiplying the whole number and
the denominator, then adding the numerator. The result becomes the numerator and the
denominator stays the same.
For example,

34+2
4 2--3- = --------------------3
=

14
-----3

12 Change these mixed numbers to improper fractions using the method above.
a 3 1--2Converting mixed
numbers to improper
fractions (DIY)

7
3 ----12

g 5 3--5-

h 9 4--7-

9
e 2 ----10

d 6 5--7-

5 4--5-

b 4 1--5-

-----1 10
11

8 5--6-

13 multiple choice
a 10 2--7- is the same as:
A

27
-----10

72
-----10

10
-----27

72
-----7

72
-----2

58
-----6

56
-----8

53
-----6

68
-----5

99
-----7

79
-----11

97
-----11

77
-----9

b 8 5--6- is the same as:


A
c

85
-----6

9
- is the same as:
7 ----11

86
-----11

Chapter 3 Fractions

99

14 a Amy made apple pies for her Grandmas 80th birthday party. She divided each pie
into 6 pieces, and after the party she noted that 4 1--6- pies had been eaten. How many
pieces had been eaten?
b Amys cousin Ria provided cordial for the same party, and calculated that she
------ bottles had
could make 20 drinks from each bottle. At the end of the party 3 17
20
been used. How many drinks had been consumed?
15 Insert the appropriate > or < sign between each pair of fractions to make a true statement.
a

8
--5

15
-----2

1 2--5-

19
-----2

8 1--2-

33
-----32

3
1 ----32

5 1--2-

e 3 3--4-

19
-----4

7 1--7-

65
-----7

8
--3

-----h 1 16
17

g 2 1--3-

35
-----17

1
1 Write down the equivalent fractions from this list:
123
31
10 16 19
8
6
3
1 2
--- , --- , ------ , ------ , ------ , ------ , ------ , ------ , --------- , --------- .
4 6 12 25 32 41 64 76 124 490

2 Write 3 equivalent fractions for 2--5- .


3 Write

12
-----20

in simplest form.

4 On a recent quiz, Simone answered 6 out of the 50 questions incorrectly. What


fraction of the test did Simone answer correctly? Express your answer in simplest
form.
5 Write

26
-----3

as a mixed number.

6 Change 1 1--4- to an improper fraction.


7 Write
form.

12
-----9

as a mixed number in simplest

8 Change 3 6--7- to an improper fraction.


9 Rewrite these fractions in ascending (from
smallest to largest) order:
2 14
--- , ------ ,
5
5

1 3--5- , 3 3--5- ,

15
------ ,
5

4 2--5- ,

28
------ ,
5

6 1--5- .

10 A catering company provided 12 quiches


which were each cut into 8 pieces for a
luncheon. At the end of the function there
were 12 pieces of quiche left over. How
many whole quiches were eaten?

3.1

100

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

Adding and subtracting fractions


Fractions can be added and subtracted if they have the same denominator. Remember to
simplify your answer if possible.

WORKED Example 14
Find

5
--9

+ 1--9- .

THINK

WRITE
5
--9

Write the question.

If the denominators are the same, add


or subtract the numerators.
Simplify the answer if possible.

1
--9

6
--9

2
--3

If fractions do not have the same denominator, use equivalent fractions to make the
denominators the same.

WORKED Example 15
Find

5
--6

1
------ ,
12

expressing the answer in simplest form.

THINK

WRITE

Find multiples of each denominator.

Find the lowest common multiple


(LCM) of 6 and 12 (12).

Rewrite the fractions if necessary so


that they both have the LCM as the new
denominator.

Add or subtract the numerators.

Simplify your answer if necessary by


cancelling by the highest common
factor (9 3 = 3, 12 3 = 4).

Multiples of 6 are 6, 12 . . .
Multiples of 12 are 12 . . .
LCM is 12.
5 1
--- -----6 12
52 1
= ------------ -----6 2 12
10 1
= ------ -----12 12
9
= -----12
93
= ------ 4
12
=

3
--4

With practice many of these steps can be done in your head and the solution written as
follows.
5
--6

1
-----12

=
=
=

10
-----12
9
-----12
3
--4

1
-----12

Chapter 3 Fractions

101

Adding and subtracting mixed numbers


There are a number of ways of adding and subtracting mixed numbers. Use the method
which you prefer. All mixed numbers can be added and subtracted by first changing
them to improper fractions. Remember to simplify the answer if possible.

WORKED Example 16

Find 2 3--4- + 1 1--2- .


THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

2 3--4- + 1 1--2-

Change to improper fractions.

11
-----4

3
--2

Write both fractions with the same denominator using


equivalent fractions.

11
-----4

6
--4

Add the fractions.

17
-----4

Write the answer as a mixed number if appropriate.

= 4 1--4-

Alternatively, you can add the whole numbers first and then work out the fractional
parts.
So,

2 3--4- + 1 1--2- = (2 + 1) + ( 3--4- + 1--2- )


= 3 + ( 3--4- + 2--4- )
=3+

5
--4

= 3 + 1 1--4= 4 1--4This alternative method also works for subtracting fractions, unless the second fraction part is bigger than the first fraction part. Then use the method of equal addition.
(Also see the section on subtraction in chapter 1.)

WORKED Example 17

Find 3 1--5- 1 3--4- .


THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

3 1--5- 1 3--4-

Write both fraction parts with the same denominator


(20).
Add the same number of parts to both fractions to make
5
- .
the second fraction a whole number ----20
Subtract and simplify if necessary.

4
15
- 1 -----= 3 ----20
20

3
4

9
- 2
= 3 ----20
9
= 1 ----20

102

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

Graphics Calculator tip!

Adding and subtracting fractions

As with any calculation involving fractions, if you wish


to have an answer expressed as a fraction then each
calculation needs to end by pressing MATH , selecting
1:Frac and pressing ENTER . The calculation for worked

example 15 would be entered as 5


MATH , select 1:Frac and press ENTER .
When entering mixed numbers, it is a good idea to
use brackets. This allows the correct order of operations
to occur, particularly when subtracting.
The calculations for worked examples 16 and 17 can
be viewed in the screen shown. Note that the answers
are given as improper fractions.

12

then press

Estimation can be used to find approximate answers to addition and subtraction of


mixed numbers. This allows you to easily check whether your answer to a calculation
looks reasonable.

WORKED Example 18

Find 3 1--3- + 2 1--2- and check the answer by estimation.


THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

3 1--3- + 2 1--2-

Group the whole numbers and group the fractions.

= (3 + 2) + ( 1--3- + 1--2- )

Add the whole numbers and write the fractions


with the same denominator.
Simplify the answer.

= 5 + ( 2--6- + 3--6- )

=5+

5
--6

= 5 5--65

Check the answer by adding the whole numbers to


find an approximation.

3 1--3- + 2 1--2- > 3 + 2 so 3 1--3- + 2 1--2- > 5

remember
remember
1. Fractions can be added and subtracted if they have the same denominator.
2. If fractions do not have the same denominator, use equivalent fractions to make
the denominators the same.
3. Mixed numbers can be added or subtracted by first changing them to improper
fractions.
4. Mixed numbers can also be added or subtracted by working with the whole
numbers, then the fractional parts. If the second fractional part is bigger than
the first fractional part, make the second fraction equal to a whole number by
adding the same fraction to both parts.

103

Chapter 3 Fractions

3D
WORKED

Example

14

Adding and subtracting


fractions

1 Find:
a

1
--5

20
-----50

5
--8

3
--5

11
-----50

1
--8

3
--8

9
-----11

3
-----11

3
--6

15
-----25

6
-----25

12
-----12

4
--7

33
--------100

5
--7

3
--7

2
--6

Adding and
subtracting
fractions

1
-----12

7
--------100

11
--------100

Adding
fractions

2 Find the following, expressing the answers in simplest form.

WORKED

Example

15

5
-----12

37
--------100

13
-----16

1
-----12

+
+

13
--------100
9
-----16

10
-----16

7
-----16

9
--4

11
-----28

3
-----16
7
--4
10
-----28

9
-----15

4
--7

21
-----81

+
+

4
-----15

5
--7

21
-----81

2
--7

30
-----81

Subtracting
fractions

3 Find the following, expressing the answers in simplest form.


a

1
--2

1
--4

1
--2

1
--8

20
-----32

9
-----18

7
--9

8
-----27

31
-----35

2
-----21

1
--3

1
--6

17
-----40

1
--2

3
--7

8
-----10

28
-----70

1
--4

4 Find the lowest common multiple of each of the following pairs of numbers.
a 2 and 3
b 3 and 5
c 5 and 10
d 4 and 6
e 5 and 6
f 9 and 6
g 4 and 8
h 6 and 8
i 7 and 5
5 Using the lowest common multiples that were found in question 4 as denominators,
add or subtract these fractions.
a

1
--2

1
--3

2
--3

2
--5

3
--5

3
-----10

3
--4

1
--6

4
--5

1
--6

1
--9

5
--6

1
--4

3
--8

5
--6

3
--8

5
--7

2
--5

6 Answer the following questions by first finding the lowest common denominator.
Simplify your answer if necessary.
+

5
--7

3
--8

4
--5

3
--4

2
-----15

5
--8

5
-----12

7
--9

1
--2

2
--9

7
-----11

1
--4

4
--5

2
-----11

7
-----10

3
-----10

1
-----20

7
--8

3
--5

2
--3

4
--5

5
--7

5
--9

2
--7

2
--3

1
-----13

11
-----12

4
--7

5
--6

2
--3

7
-----10

5
-----12

5
--6

m
p

1
--4

3
--4
7
-----10

3.3

104

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

7 Angela was a little hungry the day before her birthday, and spied the cake to be eaten
1
- of it, her Mum might not notice.
the following day. She decided that if she ate only ----1 10
However, she was still hungry and took another --6- .
a How much of the cake did Angela eat before her birthday?
b How much of the cake was left for her birthday?
8 multiple choice
a The lowest common denominator of 1--3- ,
A 16

B 24

and

1
--6

and

1
--5

C 18

B 10

is:
D 72

1 1
--- , --2 4

b The lowest common denominator of


A 8

1
--4

C 20

E 12

is:
D 30

E 40

9 Answer the following:


Adding and
subtracting
fractions

1
--2

11
-----12

1
--2

1
--3

8
-----15
2
--3

1
--4

3
--4

3
-----20

3
-----10

4
-----15

1
-----16

1
--8

3
--4

1
--3

10 A cake needed to be cooked at 200C for


is the total cooking time in hours?

1
--6
1
--4

7
--8

3
--4

5
--6

7
-----18

4
--6
1
--9

5
--6
3
--4

hour then a further

1
--2

hour at 150C. What

11 Robert, Jason and Luke play football in the same team. Last Saturday, Robert kicked
1
1
5
--- of the teams goals, Jason kicked --- and Luke ------ . What fraction of the teams goals
4
3
12
were kicked by:
a Jason and Luke?
b Robert and Jason?
c the three boys together?
12 Jacinta and her friend decided
to climb the tree in her Nans
front yard. It took her 10
minutes to climb halfway up,
10 more minutes to climb
another sixth of the way and yet
another 10 minutes to reach a
further tenth of the way. Here
she sat admiring the view for 5
minutes before beginning her
descent.
a What fraction of the height
of the tree had Jacinta
climbed after 20 minutes?
b What fraction of the tree did
Jacinta climb in total?

WORKED

Example

16

13 Find:
a 1 1--5- + 3 1--2-

b 3 2--3- 2 1--2-

5 2--3- 2 1--4-

d 9 3--8- + 4

e 2 3--5- 1 1--2-

3 1--2- + 2 3--4-

Chapter 3 Fractions

WORKED

Example

105

14 Find:
a 7 5 2--3-

17

b 2 1--3-

c 3 1--2- 1 7--8-

5
--6

9
1
7
3
5
- e 5 --- 1 ------ f 5 --- 3 --d 4 3--5- 2 ----10
4
12
4
6

15 Find:
a
WORKED

Example

1
--5

+ 2 2--7-

5
--8

+ 3 3--4-

1
--2

2 2--9- + 1 1--3- +

d 4 2--3- + 1 3--8- 3

1
--6

16 Find the following and check the answers by estimation.


a 5 1--3- + 2 1--4-

18

b 1 1--6- + 2 1--2-

c 3 1--3- + 1 1--6-

d 6 1--2- 2 1--4-

3
5
1
- f 7 --- 3 --e 4 3--5- 1 ----10
6
3

17 One-third of a litre of cordial is mixed with 1 1--2- litres of water. How many litres of
drink has been made?
18 At a school dance-a-thon, the number of hours each student danced was recorded.
Matthew 1 3--4- hours,

Leigh 2 2--3- hours,

Daniel 1 5--6- hours

How many hours did the boys dance in total?


19 The lengths of bolts and nails are often measured in inches.
For the bolt shown, find the length of the threaded section
if the total length of the bolt is 3 1--4- inches.

?
185"
5

16 "

20 To make the casing for a simple collapsible telescope


you need 2 cylinders, one of which fits inside the other.
One cylinder has measurements as shown below left.

? cm

7
3
16 cm

? cm
1
4

1
4 cm

cm
1
4

cm

QUEST

GE

EN

MAT H

a What is the width of a cylinder (see middle diagram above) which would slide
over the one shown above left?
b What is the width of a cylinder (see diagram above right) which would slide into
the one shown above left?

CH

L
AL

1 Find the fraction that is equivalent to

3
--5

with the product of its numer-

ator and denominator being equal to 375.


2 The sum of two fractions is 1 1--2- . Their difference is
fractions?

5
------ .
12

What are the

3 If a clock takes 5 seconds to strike 6 oclock, how many seconds will it


take to strike 12 oclock?

106

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

Egyptian fractions

The ancient Egyptians (from 3100 BC to 332 BC)


used different symbols or hieroglyphics to show
numbers.
Using these symbols, the number 23 462 would be
shown as:

10

1. Work out each number using the description


given above.
(a)

(b)

(c)

100

1000 10 000

23 462

(d)

As well as expressing words and whole numbers with hieroglyphics, the


ancient Egyptians devised a way of expressing fractions as well. They placed a
mouth (pronounced er) over their symbols for whole numbers. For example:

1
3

1
5

Apart from some special fractions,


all numerators were of the value 1,
so to write a fraction like 3--5- , they
would write
2. What do these symbols represent?
(a)

(c)

1
6

10

1
5

(b)

(d)

100

1
5

1
5

or

1
2

10

Chapter 3 Fractions

107

3. Perform the following calculations. Give your answer in Egyptian


hieroglyphics and in HinduArabic numerals.
(a) Add these 2 numbers.
(b) Subtract the second number from the first.

4. Write 4 of your own questions using Egyptian hieroglyphics. Swap these with a
partner. Calculate the answers to your partners set of questions, showing
clearly how you were able to work them out.

Multiplying fractions
To multiply fractions, multiply the numerators and multiply the denominators.

WORKED Example 19
Find

1
--5

3--4- .

THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

Write as one fraction.

Multiply the numerators and the


denominators and simplify your answer
if appropriate.

1
--5

3
--4

13
= -----------54
3
= ----20

Fractions can be simplified by dividing both numerator and denominator by the same
number before being multiplied. This is easier than working with large numbers.
Dividing both numerator and denominator by the same number is often called
cancelling.

WORKED Example 20
Find

2
--3

9
------ .
10

THINK
1

Write the question.

Write the 2 fractions as 1 keeping the


multiplication signs.
Divide numerator and denominator by
the same numbers or cancel.
Multiply to find the answer.

3
4

WRITE
2
--3

9
-----10

1
2 93
= 1--------------- 5
3 10

3
--5

108

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

WORKED Example 21
Find

1
--3

36.

THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

2
3

Express the whole number as a fraction and cancel


if possible.
Multiply the numerators and denominators.

Simplify your answer.

1
--3

36

1 36 12
= 1 --- -----3 1
=

12
-----1

= 12

Mixed numbers must be changed to improper fractions before multiplying.

WORKED Example 22

Find 1 1--2- 3 3--5- .


THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

2
3

Change mixed numbers to improper fractions and


cancel if possible.
Multiply numerators and denominators.

Simplify your answer.

1 1--2- 3 3--53 18 9
= 1--- -----2 5
=

27
-----5

= 5 2--5-

Using the word of


Sometimes the word of can mean the same as multiply. Antonio might take 1--3- of an
hour (60 minutes) to cook his pizzas. A third of an hour or 1--3- of 60 minutes is the same
------ = 20 minutes. So it takes Antonio 20 minutes to cook a pizza.
as 1--3- 60
1
A customer wants to buy 1--4- of the 8 remaining pizzas for the familys evening meal.
A quarter of 8 is the same as 1--4- 8--1- = 2. So the customer buys 2 pizzas.

WORKED Example 23
Find

2
--3

of 1--4- .

THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

2
--3

Change of to and cancel if appropriate.

21 1
= --- --- 2
3 4

Perform the multiplication.

of

1
--6

1
--4

109

Chapter 3 Fractions

WORKED Example 24
Mum put a 2 litre carton of flavoured milk in the refrigerator. When the children came
home from school, Joanna drank one quarter of the milk, Kieren drank one half of it and
Daisy drank one sixth of it. What fraction of the milk, in litres, did each person drink?
THINK
1

WRITE

Write the fraction of milk that Joanna


drank and simplify the answer.

Joanna:

1
--4

of 2 =

1
--4

1 21
= 2--- --4 1
=

Write the fraction of milk that Kieren


drank and simplify the answer.

Kieren:

Write the fraction of milk that Daisy


drank and simplify the answer.

Daisy:

1
--2
1
--2

1
--2

of 2 =

1
--6

1 21
= 1--- --2 1
=1
of 2 = 1--6- 2

1 21
= 3--- --6 1
=

Write a sentence giving the answer in


litres.

1
--3

Joanna drank a half a litre, Kieren drank 1 litre


and Daisy drank a third of a litre.

remember
remember
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

To multiply fractions, multiply the numerators and multiply the denominators.


Fractions can be simplified (or cancelled) before being multiplied.
A whole number can be written as a fraction with a denominator of 1.
Change mixed numbers to improper fractions before multiplying.
In a problem involving fractions, of can be replaced with multiply, then the
fractions can be multiplied in the usual way.

3E
WORKED

Example

19

Multiplying fractions

1 Find:

1
--2

11
-----13

5
--8

7
--8

1
--3

2
--3

2
--5

6
--7

9
-----11

11
-----12

1
--3

2
--3

2
--3

5
--6

7
--8

2
--3

4
-----13

3
--5

1
--4

1
--2

5
--9

4
--3

8
--9

5
--9

11
-----12

5
-----11

3
-----10

4
--7

3
--5
11
-----12

5
-----12
2
--3

Multiplying
fractions

Multiplying
fractions

110
WORKED

Example

20

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

2 Find:
a

4
--8

3
--9

2
--5

3
--8

4
-----15

10
-----11

18
-----32

64
-----72

48
-----56

8
-----49

14
-----16

4
--9

42
-----54

12
-----49

5
-----25

1
--2

3
--7

22
-----25

24
-----27

9
--8

24
-----60

15
-----27

36
-----45

6
-----12

8
-----10

18
-----24

12
-----36

6
--8
12
-----48

5
--6

3 Marks uncle gave him a family size block of chocolate. He divided it into thirds to
share with his 2 sisters. His friends Tom and Nick then arrived to visit, and Mark
shared his portion of the chocolate with them.
a Draw the block of chocolate, and shade Marks third of the block. Then draw lines
to represent Toms share.
b What fraction of the block of chocolate did Nick receive?
WORKED

Example

21
WORKED

Example

22

4 Find:
b

5
-----14

15
-----22

3
--4

1 5--8-

1 1--2- 1 1--2-

e 2 1--5- 3 1--2-

9
-
10 ----10

3 2--3-

4 1--3-

2
--3

11

5
-----16

5 Find:
a 1 1--4-

9
-----10

2
--3

2
--3

3
--5

m 5 3 1--2-

n 8 3 1--4-

q 5 1--5- 6 2--3-

d 2 5--8- 1 3--4-

g 2 1--4- 2 1--2-

4
--5

1 6--7-

k 1 1--2- 12

2 3--4- 6

1
o 4 3--5- 2 ----10

p 3 5--6- 9 5--7-

3 3--4- 2 2--3-

6 Tim was looking for something to do one Saturday afternoon and his Dad suggested
he cook something for afternoon tea.
Tim found a recipe for peanut butter muffins.
The recipe is given below.
Ingredients:
1
--4

1
--4

cup sugar,

1
--2

cup peanut butter, 2 eggs,

cup margarine,

1 1--2- cups milk, 2 1--2- cups self-raising flour,


1
--4

teaspoon baking soda

Method:
Blend the sugar, margarine and peanut butter. Beat in the eggs and milk. Add the selfraising flour and baking soda. Place the mixture in greased muffin pans and sprinkle
with cinnamon sugar. Bake for 1520 minutes in a 200C oven.
This recipe makes 10 muffins, but Tim wants enough mixture to make 15. He needs to
multiply the quantities by 1 1--2- . Write the quantities Tim needs to make 15 muffins.

Chapter 3 Fractions

WORKED

Example

23

7 Find:
a

1
--2

3
--4

9
-----10

2
--3

5
--7

8
--9

of

1
--4

4
--5

of 20

7
--8

2
--5

of 45

3
--5

3
--4

of 6

9
-----10

of 15

3
--7

of 12

1
--2

2
--3

of

5
--6

of

1
--4

3
--2

5
--6

5
--7

of 32

9
-----10

of 25

8
--9

1
-----12

of 10

of

1 1--2-

3
--4

of

8 2--3-

of

18
-----25

7
--8

of 3 1--3-

Example

24

of

5
--6

of

7
-----25

Fraction of
a number

of 50
of 81
GAME
time

of

of

8 A cars petrol tank holds 48 litres of fuel.


a If the tank was full at the start of a trip,
what fraction of the tank has been used?
b How many litres of petrol have been used?
WORKED

111

Fractions
02

9 Jamies Mum made 6 litres of punch for his birthday party. Emily drank 1--3- of the
1
1
- and Jonathan drank ------ . What fraction of the punch, in litres,
punch, Tracy drank ----18
12
did each person drink?
10 Zoe and Sarah play basketball with the Sharp Shooters. The games are played for 40
minutes. Zoe played 4--5- of last weeks game and Sarah played 7--8- . How many minutes
of the game did:
a Zoe play?
b Sarah play?
11 Gustaves monthly take-home pay is $2400. From this he spends a quarter on his
home loan payments, one half on food and drink and one sixth on clothing. One half
of the remainder goes into his savings account. How much money does Gustave put
into his savings account each month?
12 To make a fruit loaf using an automatic bread maker, the fruit needs to be added after
the second rise stage and the top of the bread needs to be glazed
two-thirds of the way through the bake stage. The instruction
booklet shows you how long each stage of the total cycle
takes.
Stage
Length of time
First knead
5 minutes
Second knead
20 minutes
First rise then punch down
40 minutes
Second rise then punch down
25 minutes
Third rise
50 minutes
Bake
40 minutes
a After what length of time should the fruit be added?
b Express this as a fraction of the total time in the
bread maker.
c After what length of time should the top of the bread
be glazed?

112

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

13 a
b
c
d

Draw a quarter of a pie.


Shade half of this piece of pie.
What fraction of the whole pie is shaded?
Complete the mathematical sentence 1--4- 1--2- = __ to show how the answer was found.

14 a Find how many half pizzas in 1 pizza.


b Find how many half pizzas in 2 whole pizzas.
c Find how many half pizzas in 5 whole pizzas.

Musical fractions
In music, particular symbols tells us how long a note is to be held for. The time
value of each note is shown below.

4 beats
2 beats 1 beat
(semibreve) (minim) (crotchet)

1
2

beat 14 beat
(quaver) (semi-quaver)

More than 1 quaver is shown as


More than 1 semi-quaver is shown as

1. What is the total number of beats indicated by these notes?


(a)
(b)
(c)

(d)

When musicians decide they want a note held for a little longer, they put a
dot after the note. The dot adds an extra half of the number of beats to the
original time value. For example, a dotted minim
has a time value of
2+

1
--2

2 = 3 beats.

2. What is the time value indicated by a dotted crotchet?


3. What is the time value indicated by a dotted quaver?
4. What is the total number of beats indicated by these notes?
(a)
(b)
5. Write one note which is equivalent in time value to each of the following.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

To make music more organised, time signatures were added to the beginning of
a piece of music so that each section or bar was divided up into equal parts. For
example, 44 tells us that we need 4 crotchet beats (or notes that will make up
that amount) in a bar. The 4 on the top shows us the amount of beats per bar,
while the 4 on the bottom shows us that the note values we use are the ones that
belong to crotchet time. In 34 time, we need 3 beats to make up a bar and in 24
time we need 2 beats to make up a bar.

Chapter 3 Fractions

113

6. Add one note to complete each of the following bars.


(a) 2
(b) 4
4
4
(c) 3
(d) 2

4
(e) 4

4
(f) 3

(g) 3

(h) 2

7. Add 2 notes to complete each of the following bars.


(a) 4
(b) 3

(c) 2

(d) 3

(e) 4

(f) 2

(g) 3

(h) 3

8. Put time signatures to each of the following rhythm patterns. (They are crotchet
beats.)
(a)
(b)
9. Write your own rhythm patterns 4 bars long, using a different pattern in each
bar for each of the following time signatures.
(a)

3
4

(b)

4
4

Dividing fractions
The reciprocal of a fraction is found by tipping the fraction upside down. So
reciprocal of 5--3- .
A whole number can be written as a fraction by putting it over 1 so that
reciprocal of 4--1- .

WORKED Example 25

Find the reciprocal of 2--3- .


THINK

WRITE

Turn the fraction upside down and write a sentence.

The reciprocal of

2
--3

is 3--2- .

3
--5

is the

1
--4

is the

114

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

To find the reciprocal of a mixed number, express it as an improper fraction first.

WORKED Example 26

Find the reciprocal of 1 2--3- .


THINK

WRITE

Write 1 2--3- as an improper fraction.

1 2--3- =

Turn it upside down and write a sentence.

The reciprocal of 1 2--3- is 3--5- .

5
--3

Antonio had a half of one of his famous pizzas left.


A small child asked him how many quarters there
were in his half. Antonio cut the pizza as shown,
so that it was clear that one half divided into
quarters gave 2 pieces or 2 quarters.
1
--2

1
--4

=2

The answer could also have been found by changing the division sign to a
multiplication sign and tipping the second fraction upside down.
1
--2

1
--4

1
--2

4
--1

=2
Division by a number is the same as multiplication by its reciprocal.

WORKED Example 27
Find

2
--3

4--9- .

THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

2
--3

4
--9

Change the division sign to a multiplication sign


and tip the second fraction.

2
--3

Cancel if possible.

Perform multiplication.

3
--2

Simplify your answer.

= 1 1--2-

9
--4

To divide mixed numbers, you can first change them to improper fractions.

Chapter 3 Fractions

115

WORKED Example 28

Find 1 1--2- 3 2--5- .


THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

1 1--2- 3 2--5-

Change mixed numbers to improper fractions.

3
--2

17
-----5

Change the to and tip the second fraction.

3
--2

5
-----17

Multiply the numerators and the denominators and


simplify your answer if necessary.

15
-----34

Graphics Calculator tip!

Dividing a fraction
by a fraction

With the TI graphics calculator we use the key to


enter a fraction as well as when we need to divide
two numbers. Using brackets around each fraction
helps to keep the operations clear, particularly with
mixed numbers.
The calculation for 1 1--2- 3 2--5- is shown.

remember
remember
1. The reciprocal of a fraction is found by tipping the fraction upside down.
2. The reciprocal of a mixed number is found by expressing it as an improper
fraction, then tipping it upside down.
3. A whole number can be written as a fraction by putting it over 1.
4. Division by a number is the same as multiplication by its reciprocal.
5. To divide mixed numbers, first change them to improper fractions.

3F
WORKED

Example

25

Dividing fractions

1 Find the reciprocals of each of the following.


a

3
--4

2
--7

6
--5

1
--5

m 5

5
--3

9
--2

1
-----12

n 20

5
-----12

5
--3

10
-----3

3
-----15

2
-----22

o 13

p 1

Reciprocals

116
WORKED

Example

26

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

2 Find the reciprocals of these mixed numbers.


a 1 2--3-

b 4 3--7-

3 6--7-

g 3 3--8-

h 5 1--3-

7 1--2-

d 4 2--5i

e 9 2--7-

10 2--9-

9
6 ----10

3 Multiply each of these numbers by its reciprocal.


a

5
--7

2
--9

3
--5

d 3 2--7-

e 2 1--8-

f 3 3--4-

4 Copy and complete the following statement:


When any number is multiplied by its
.
WORKED

Example

Dividing
fractions

27

Dividing
fractions

WORKED

Example

28

, the answer is always

5 Find:

1
--4

1
-----12

10
-----3

4
--9

4
--3

2
--3

9
-----10

1
--2

5
--6

7
-----12

9
-----11

20
-----21

8
-----15

16
-----15

4
--7

10

5
--8

20

15
-----11

7
--9

30

b 9 4 1--2-

9
--4

3 1--2-

e 5 2 3--4-

7 4--9-

h 1 1--5- 2 1--3-

5 6--7- 2 3--4-

9
- 4
k 10 ----10

4 1--2- 3 6--7-

n 4 2--3-

o 3 5--8- 1 3--4-

8
--9

2
--3

4
-----11

15
-----21

2
--7

4
--9

12

7
--6

6 Find:
a 1 1--4-

3
--4

3 1--3-

10
-----3

1
--8

1 1--2-

2 1--21
--2

m 3 2--7- 2 1--7-

7
--6

7 Felicity is dividing 1 1--2- kilograms of mince steak into 8 hamburger


portions. How many kilograms of mince will be in each hamburger portion?
8 Ned spends his school holidays helping his father with
the shearing.
a It takes Ned 1--4- hour to shear one sheep. How many
sheep will Ned shear in 5 1--2- hours?
1
- of
b Neds father, Wesley, shears a sheep every ----12
an hour. How many sheep would Wesley shear if
he worked continuously for 8 hours?

3.2

9 Michelle can run one lap of a cross-country course


in 1--5- hour.
a How many laps could she complete in 1 1--3- hours?
(Assume she can keep up the same pace.)
b How many minutes does it take Michelle to run
one lap?

1
--3

Chapter 3 Fractions

This part
part of
settled in 1804.
5
8

163

was first
Answer these
fraction questions to
discover the puzzle
answer code.

31

5
6

2
7

37

S How many
are there in

1
2

3
4

=
1
4
2
3

1 10
7

5
8

2
5

=
3
4

87

22

32

Divide 4 41
by 1 21

=
3
7

1
2

1 47 =

=
A

3
4

Divide
by 85

117

2
2

1
2

1
5

2
3

44

1 52

5
6

34

3
14

33

4
7

1
2

118

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

2
Calculate each of the following, expressing your answer in simplest form.

4
-----15

5
--6

6 3 5--9-

15
-----20

2
--7

of

12
-----15

3
-----10
21
-----40

3 3 1--4- + 2 2--5

5
--9

4 11 5--8- 3 1--29 8 1 3--4-

2
--3

4
-----18

10 4 2--5-

2
-----11

12
-----20

Mixed operations with fractions


If more than one operation is involved in a question with fractions, the same set order
is used as with whole numbers. Therefore, the order of operations is:
1. brackets
2. multiplication and division (from left to right)
3. addition and subtraction (from left to right)

WORKED Example 29
Find

6
--7

1 5--6- 1--4- .

THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

6
--7

1 5--6-

Change the mixed number to an


improper fraction.

6
--7

Change division to multiplication and


tip the next fraction (times and tip).
Cancel where appropriate.
Multiply and simplify.

11
-----6

1
--4

1
--4

1
6 11 4
= --- 1------ --7 6 1

44
-----7

= 6 2--7-

On a TI graphics calculator, the calculation in worked


example 29 can be entered as
(6 7) (1 + 5 6) (1 4), then pressing MATH
selecting 1:Frac and pressing ENTER .

119

Chapter 3 Fractions

remember
remember
The order of operations is the same for fractions as it is for whole numbers:
1. brackets
2. multiplication and division (left to right)
3. addition and subtraction (left to right).

Mixed operations with


fractions

3G

Mixed
operations

1 Find the following.

WORKED

Example

5
--8

5
--6

4
--5

3
--8

e 1 3--5- + 9 4--7-

1 4--5-

9
--7

3
--4

6 1--3- 4 1--2-

5 1--4-

b 1 3--4- 5 3 1--2-

1
9
- + 2 ---
4 ----4
10

e 2 5--6- 2 3 1--2-

1
--2

11
-----12

b (5 3 6--7- ) 4 1--3-

(1 1--2- + 3--4- ) (5 3 3--4- )

(4 1--2- + 5--6- )

1
-----11

7
-)
6 (3 2--3- + 2 ----12

5
--2

21
-----32

7
--8

1 7--8-

9
-----10

Four operations
with fractions

2 1--5-

2 Find the following.


3
--5

29

2 1--3-

1
--2

d 5 1--3- + 7 3--8- 8 1--24


--5

10 + 2 3--4-

1
--3

2
--9

3
--4

2
--3
1
--2

3
--5

1
--5

Mixed
operations

3
--4

3 Calculate these, remembering to remove the brackets first.


a ( 5--4- + 2--3- )

1
--2

d 6 (7 5--6- 2)
1
1
- ) (7 ---
g ( 2--3- 4 ----12
2

h 4 (2 1 3--7- )

1
------ )
10

(8 2--9- 5 1--6- )

QUEST

GE

3
--2

( 2--3- 1--6- ) (3 1--8- 2 5--6- )

EN

M ATH

CH

LL

1 Without using a calculator find three quarters of four ninths of 78.


1
1
1
--- + --- + --2
3
4
-.
2 Without using a calculator find the answer to -----------------1
1
--- + --4
9

3 The fraction

1
--4

is a third of what number?

4 According to the will, the $120 000 estate is to be left to three children.
Sam is to receive 2--5- of the money, Georgia is to receive 1--3- of the money
and Olivia is to receive the remainder of the money. How much money
is Olivia to receive?
5 If a half, a quarter and an eighth of a number are added together, the
total is 63. What is the number?

120

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

You want more pizza?


Do you remember the question posed at the start of this chapter? Martin eats 2
slices of a pepperoni pizza which has been cut into 6 equal pieces while Olivia eats
3 pieces of the sausage pizza which has been cut into 8 equal pieces. Who has
eaten more?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Try this question again, showing your calculations.


How many pieces of each pizza is left?
What fraction of each pizza is left?
What is the total amount of pizza left?

Daniella takes a slice of pepperoni pizza and Christopher takes a slice of sausage
pizza. However, Christopher complains that his piece is smaller than Daniellas.
5. What is the difference in size between the larger and the smaller slice? (Write
your answer as a fraction of a whole pizza.)
Daniella continues to eat the pepperoni pizza and Christopher continues to eat
the sausage pizza.
6. How many slices of pizza should Daniella and Christopher each have so as to
eat the same amount?
7. What fraction of each pizza is now left over?

Powers and square roots of fractions


Fractions and mixed numbers can be squared (index or power of 2) or cubed (index or
power of 3) by using index notation just as with whole numbers.
For example,

2
2
---
3

2
--3

2
--3

22
----32

4
--9

WORKED Example 30

Find: a

1--- 2
4

3
2
---
5

c (1 1--3- )2.

THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

Square the numerator and the


denominator.
Simplify.

2
1
---
4

12
----42

1
-----16

Chapter 3 Fractions

THINK

WRITE

3
2
---
5

Write the question.

Cube the numerator and the


denominator.

Simplify.

Write the question.

Change the mixed number to an


improper fraction.
Square both the numerator and the
denominator.

2
4
---
3

42
----32
16
-----9

Change back to a mixed number.

= 1 7--9-

23
----53

222
= --------------------555
8
--------125

c (1 1--3- )2

It is also possible to find the square roots of fractions and mixed numbers.

WORKED Example 31

Find: a

9
-----16

6 1--4- .

THINK

WRITE

Write the question.

Write the numerator and


denominator as separate square
roots.
Calculate the square root of both the
numerator and the denominator.

Write the question.

Change the mixed number to an


improper fraction.
Write the numerator and the
denominator as separate square
roots.
Calculate the square root of both the
numerator and the denominator.
Change to a mixed number.

4
5

9
-----16

9
---------16

3
--4

6 1--4-

b
=

25
-----4

25
---------4

5
--2

= 2 1--2-

121

122

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

Graphics Calculator tip!

Powers and
square roots

As with whole numbers, we can use the TI graphics


calculator to find different powers and square roots of
fractions. To enter the index or power we use the ^ key
or if we are squaring a number we can also use the
x2 key. Remember to press the appropriate keys to obtain
your answer as a fraction.
The screen at right shows the calculations for worked
example 30.
To obtain the square root of a fraction, first enter the
square root sign by pressing 2nd [
] (that is, press
2nd then x2 ) then follow with the fraction.
The screen obtained for worked example 31 is shown
opposite.

remember
remember
1. To square a fraction, square both numerator and denominator (base is raised to
an index of 2).
2. To cube a fraction, cube both numerator and denominator (base is raised to an
index of 3).
3. To find the square root of a fraction, take the square root of both numerator and
denominator.
4. To find the square root of a mixed number, change the mixed number to an
improper fraction, then find the square root of both the numerator and the
denominator.

3H
WORKED

Example

30a

WORKED

Example

30b
Squaring and
cubing fractions

Powers and square roots of


fractions

1 Find:
a

1--- 2
2

2
1
---
3

2
2
---
5

5--- 2
6

2
3
---
4

7 2
---- 10

5 2
---- 12

3 2
---- 11

2
3
---
8

2 Find:
a

1--- 3
4

3
1
---
2

3
2
---
5

3 3
---- 10

3
2
---
3

3
1
---
6

123

Chapter 3 Fractions

WORKED

Example

30c

WORKED

Example

31

3 Find:
a (1 1--3- )2

b (2 1--4- )2

(1 1--2- )2

1 2
-)
d (1 ----10

e (2 1--5- )2

(3 2--3- )2

4 Find:
a

16
-----25

49
--------100

9
-----64

25
-----36

2 1--4-

1 7--9-

9
1 ----16

-----2 14
25

-----1 15
49

Square
root of a
fraction

2
1
---
2

2
3
---
4

2
2
---
3

2
4
---
7

2
3
---
7

4
--9

2
1
---
2

2
2
---
3

1
--2

2
3
---
5

2
5
---
9

16
-----25

2
1
---
2

QUEST

GE

EN

MAT H

5 Calculate:

CH

AL

1 Find the missing power for this calculation:

3
---
5

2187
---------------78 125

L
2 A length of rope is cut in half
and one half is used. Then one
third of the other half is cut
off and used. If the remaining
piece of rope is 10 cm long,
how long was the original
rope?
3 Find the answer to
3

( 1--2- )
------------------------.
1 2
-)
( 1 + ----------1+3
4 Look for a pattern in this list
of fractions and write down the next two in the sequence.
2
--3

9
--5

16
-----14

23
-----50

30
-----53

3.3

1
-----10

124

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

summary
1
2
3
4
5
6

7
8

10

11

12
13

Copy the sentences below. Fill in the gaps by choosing the correct word or
expression from the word list that follows.
The
is the top part of the fraction.
The
is the bottom part of the fraction.
Different fractions can be compared or ordered by writing each one with
the
denominator.
order is from smallest to largest.
order is from largest to smallest.
are found by multiplying or dividing both the numerator
and the denominator by the same number as long as the number is not
equal to zero.
To
fractions, find the largest number that is a factor of the
numerator and the denominator and divide both by that number.
fractions can be changed to mixed numbers by dividing the
numerator by the denominator. The
becomes the numerator and the denominator remains the same.
Mixed
can be changed to improper fractions by multiplying
the whole number and the denominator then adding the numerator. The
result becomes the numerator and the denominator remains the same.
Fractions must have the same denominator to be added or subtracted.
This is done by finding a
denominator. Once the denominators are the same, the numerators can be added or subtracted.
To multiply fractions, simply
the numerators and multiply
the denominators. It is often easier to
or simplify numerators and denominators before multiplying. Remember to change mixed
numbers to improper fractions first.
To find the
of a number, swap the numerator and denominator.
To divide fractions, change the to and
the second fraction. Remember to change
numbers to improper fractions
first.

WORD
denominator
ascending
mixed
tip
multiply
improper

LIST
common
same
equivalent fractions
cancel
numerator
simplify

descending
remainder
numbers
reciprocal

Chapter 3 Fractions

125

CHAPTER
review
1 What fraction of the eggs in this carton are brown?

3A

2 Write 3 equivalent fractions for the following.


a

3
--8

4
--9

5
-----11

3A

6
--7

3 Fill the gaps to make equivalent fractions.


a

1
--2

--4

2
--5

-----10

=
=

3
--16
------

1
--3

3
---

-----15

3
--4

1
--4

5
---

--------100

3
-----10

=
=

-----28

--------100

9
---

3A
300
---------

4 Simplify these fractions.


a

42
-----49

81
--------108

18
-----20

21
-----28

36
-----72

50
--------150

75
--------125

2
-----80

-----4 15
20

20
d 1 -------100

3B

5 Simplify the following mixed numbers.


a

b 3 6--9-

8
6 ----10

3B

6 What fraction of the months of the year begin with the letter J? Express your answer in
simplest form.

3B

7 Convert these improper fractions to mixed numbers.

3C

16
-----3

21
-----5

12
-----7

11
-----2

5
--4

80
-----7

55
-----9

72
-----10

8 Express these mixed numbers as improper fractions.


a

2 3--4-

b 9 7--8-

3 2--3-

3 5--7-

9
9 ----10

-----g 3 11
12

3C

d 5 5--6h 8 1--2-

9 Find:
a

5
--6

1
--8

5
--4

11
-----2

e 1 7--8- + 2 5--6-

6 1--3- 2 5--9-

7
--9

2
--5

1 1--5- + 3 1--3-

12
-----5

4
--3

10 3--7- 8 1--2-

3D

h 5 1--2- 2 5--6-

10 Find:
a

13
-----15

b 4 7--9- 1 5--6- + 3 1--3-

3D

126
3D

Maths Quest 7 for Victoria

11 Tony caught 3 fish with masses:


7
1
4
- kg, 2 --- kg and 2 --- kg.
2 ----10
2
5

a Which fish is the heaviest?


b What is the combined mass of the fish?
c What is the difference in mass between
the heaviest and the lightest fish?

3E
3F

3F
3G
3H

3H

12 Find:

4
--7

25
-----36

5
--9

2
--5

56
-----81

2
4 2--5- 3 ----11

10 2--7- 6 2--9-

4
--5

of 55

2
-----11

of 121

7
--9

of

1
-----12

of 200

18
-----20

18
-----84

3
--5
18
-----64

13 Find:
a

3
--5

4
--9

2 1--4-

5
--6

2
--7

3
--4

16
-----21

7
-----20

5
3
1
- 1 --- 2 --e 3 ----12
5
2

3
--5

5
-----11

6
-----17

1 1--4- 3 2--5-

7
--9

6 2--3- 4 1--6-

( 2--3- 1--6- ) ( 3--4- + 5--8- )

7 2 1--4- 1 1--2-

3
-----10

1
1 ----10

14 Write the reciprocals of:


a

5
--2

2
--7

1
--9

124

1
--4

g 5 3--4-

h 8 1--2-

7 2--5-

2 4--9-

k 3 5--8-

d 12

4 1--5-

15 Find:
a

4
--5

3
--7

10

8
-----15

9
-----10

27
-----40

e 1 1--2- 4 4--5-

16 Calculate:
a

( 4--9- + 5--6- ) 3

3
--4

9
-----10

5
--7

5
-----14

3
2
- + --- )
( ----10
5

e 2 + 4 1--2- 2 1--4-

14
-----15

17 Calculate:
a

4--- 2
5

9 2
---- 10

2
3
---
4

7--- 2
8

3
1
---
3

3
5
---
6

(1 1--2- )2

h (2 1--4- )2

(1 3--5- )2

test
yourself

18 Calculate:
a

81
--------100

25
-----49

2 7--9-

9
2 ----36

CHAPTER

3E