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Chapter 5 Principles of Convection heat transfer

(Text: J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer, 8th ed., McGraw Hill, NY)


Consider a fluid flow over a flat plate with different temperatures (Fig 5-1)

T
= hA(T T )
x
T
since
depends on velocity of the steram
x
h = f ( fluid , flow pattern)
q = kA

We term the heat transfer depends on relative motions as convection heat transfer. The
problem is how to evaluate/predict/estimate the value of h for various flow pattern?
Flow Classification: (fig. )
Evaluation of convection heat transfer
1. Analytical solution of the fluid temperature distribution
2. Analogy between heat & momentum transfer
3. Dimensional analysis+experimental data in terms of dimensionless No.

Viscous flow (Fig)


Laminar boundary layers on a flat plate (Fig.)
dP
Assumptions: 1 incompressible, steady flow, 2.
= 0 , 3. constant physical
dy

properties, and 4. viscous shear force in y-dir are negligible.


Conservation of Mass (Fig.)
u
v
udy + vdx = (u + dx)dy + (v + dy )dx
x
y
u v
+
= 0......Continuity eq. for boundary layer
x y
Conservation of momentum (fig.)

= increase in momentum flux in x dir

Sheu Long Jye


Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

Shear force at the button face is


Shear force at the top face is

y + dy

dx

y
2u

net
shear
force
dxdy

2
u u

y
= dx[ + ( )dy ]
y y y

dxdy
P
net pressure force
x
pressure force over the right face is [ P +
dx]dy
x

pressure force over the left face is Pdy

uvdx +
(u

v
u
v u
2u P
udydx + v dx +
dydx = ( 2 )dydx
y
x
y x
y
x

u
u
2u P
.....Momentum eq. for B.L.
+v ) = 2
x
y
y
x

Conservation of Energy
Further assumptions: 1. negligible heat conduction in x-dir (Fig.)
u
Viscous shear force:
dx
y

The distance which it moves per unit time in respect to the control volume is:
the viscous energy is : (

u
dy
y

u 2
) dxdy
y

If we neglect the 2nd order differential terms, the energy equation can be derived as

c[u
u

T
T
u v
2T
u
+v
+ T ( + )]dxdy = k 2 dxdy + ( ) 2 dxdy
x
y
x y
y
y

T
T
2T u 2
( ) .....energy eq. for B.L.
+v
= 2 +
c y
x
y
y

Order of magnitude analysis for the two terms on the right hand side
u u , y

T
2T
2
2
y

u 2 U 2
( )
c y
c 2
If the ratio of these quantities is small, i.e.,

U 2
<< 1 ,
c T
The viscous dissipation is small in comparison with conduction term.
Sheu Long Jye
Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

Pr =

c c
=
=
= Prandtl No.
k
k

U 2
Pr
<< 1
cT

T
T
2T
+v
= 2 .....energy eq.
x
y
y

u
u
2u
+v
= 2 .......momentum eq.
x
y
y

Prandtl number controls the relation between the velocity and temperature
distributions.
Approximate integral boundary layer analysis
Consider the control volume in the B.L. (Fig)

Momentum flow across AB :

( x)

Momentum flow across CD :

( x)

u 2 dy
u 2 dy +

d ( x) 2
[
u dy ]dx
dx 0

And from the continuity eq. fluid also enters the C.V. across face BD at a rate of

d ( x)
[
udy ]dx .
dx 0
The flow of x-dir momentum into the C.V. across upper face is
U

d ( x)
[
udy ]dx
dx 0

Adding up the x-dir momentum


d ( x) 2
d ( x)
d ( x)
[ u dy ]dx U [ udy ]dx = [ u (U u )dy ]dx
dx 0
dx 0
dx 0
The net forces acting on the C.V. is
dP
dP
P ( P +
dx) w dx =
dx w dx
dx
dx
dP
1
P
[
= 0 since P + U 2 = 0 &
= 0]
dx
2
y
d ( x)
du
u (U u )dy = w =

dx 0
dy

.....Integral momentum eq. for B.L.


y =0

Evaluation of friction coefficient


Sheu Long Jye
Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

1. assume u(y) the form of polynomials


u ( y ) = a + by + cy 2 + dy 3
The constants are evaluated by applying the boundary conditions

y = 0 u = 0,

U2
3 U
y = u = U , a = 0, b =
, c = 0, d = 3
2
2

u
y =
= 0,
y

u
2u
u
2u P
P
u
v
0
, u = v = 0,

+
=

= 0

2
2
y
y
y
x
x
x

u
3y 1 y 3

=
( )
U 2 2
y=0

2. Substituting the expression into the integral momentum eq. yields


d
3y 1 y 3
3y 1 y 3
du
U 2 [
( ) ][1
+ ( ) ]dy = w =

dx 0
2 2
2 2
dy

y =0

d
39
3 U
( U 2
)=
dx
280
2
2
140 x

=
+ C ( = 0 at x = 0 C = 0)
2 13U

4.64
Re1/x 2

3. To evaluate friction coefficient

w =
C fx =

du
dy

=
y =0

w
1
U 2
2

3 U
3 U 1/ 2
=
Re x
2
9.28 x

0.647
Re1/x 2

Similarly, the integral energy equation(Fig)


We negelect the kinetic energy term and shear work term
enthalpy enter across AB :

enthalpy leaves across CD :

t ( x )

cuTdy

( x)

cuTdy +

d t ( x )
[
cuTdy ]dx
dx 0

The enthalpy carried into the C. V. across the upper face is


Sheu Long Jye
Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

cT

d t ( x )
[
udy ]dx
dx 0

Heat conducted across the interface between the fluid and the solid surface is
kdx

dT
dy

y =0

The net work done within the element is [

t ( x )

du 2
) dy ]dx
dy

Conservation of energy gives


cT

d t ( x )
d t ( x )
T
[
udy ]dx [ ucTdy ]dx kdx
0
0
dx
dx
y

d t ( x )
T
t ( x ) du 2
u
T

T
dy
+
(
)
( ) dy =

0
0
dx
dy
y
c

y =0

....integral energy eq. for B.L.


y =0

Evaluation of heat transfer coefficient


4. assume T(y) the form of polynomials
T ( y ) = e + fy + gy 2 + hy 3

The constants are evaluated by applying the boundary conditions

y = 0 T = Tw ,

(T T )
3 T Tw
, c = 0, d = 3 s
y = t u = T , e = 0, f =
2
2

T
= 0,
y = t
y

T
2T
T
= 0 u
+v
2
y
y
x
T Tw 3 y 1 y 3

=
=
( )
T Tw 2 t 2 t
y=0

2u
=
, u = v = 0

2
y

5. Substituting the expression into the integral energy eq. yields

Sheu Long Jye


Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

d t
d t
T
T
udy
(

)
=
( )udy

dx 0
dx 0
d t
dT
3 y 1 y 3 3y 1 y 3
= U
[1
+ ( ) ][
( ) ]dy =

dx 0
dy
2 t 2 t
2 2

=
y =0

3
2 t

Assume > t , let = t /

d
3
3 4
3
[ ( 2
)=
dx
20
280
2

for t < < 1 the term 4 << 2


d
3
3
U ( 2 ) =
dx
20
2
1
d
d

U (2
)=
+ 2
10
dx
dx

1
d
d

U (2 2 2
)=
+ 3
10
dx
dx

140
280 x
But d =
dx & 2 =
13 U
13U
d 13
=
dx 14
13
3 = Cx 3/ 4 +
14
with BCs t = 0 at x = x0 or = 0 at x = x0

3 + 4 x 2

t
x
1
Pr 1/ 3 [1 ( 0 )3/ 4 ]1/ 3
=
1.026
x

6. To evaluate the convection heat transfer coefficient


hx =

k (T y ) y =0
Tw T

3 k 3 k
=
2 t 2

x
U 1/ 2
) [1 ( 0 )3/ 4 ]1/ 3
x
x
hx
x
Nu x = x = 0.332 Pr1/ 3 Re1/x 2 [1 ( 0 )3/ 4 ]1/ 3
k
x
for x0 = 0

hx = 0.332k Pr1/ 3 (

Nu x =

hx x
= 0.332 Pr1/ 3 Re1/x 2
k

Average heat transfer coefficient

Sheu Long Jye


Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

h=

h dx = 2h
dx
x

x= L

Nu L =

hL
= 2 Nu x = L = 0.664 Pr1/ 3 Re1/L 2
k

The foregoing analysis based on the assumption that the fluid properties were constant
throughout the flow. When there is an appreciable variation between wall and
free-stream condition, it is recommended that the properties be evaluated at the
so-called film temperature, Tf.
Tf =

Tw + T
2

For constant heat flux wall


hx
= 0.453Pr1/ 3 Re1/L 2
k
qw x
Nu x =
k (Tw T )
Nu x =

Tw T =
or qw =

qw L / k
1 L
1 L q x
(Tw T )dx = w dx =

0.6795 Re1/ 2 Pr1/ 3


L 0
L 0 kNu x

3
hx = L (Tw T )
2

Other relations
Churchill & Ozee:
Nu x =

C1 Re1/x 2 Pr1/ 3

for Re x Pr > 100


1/ 4
C2 2 / 3
1 +
Pr
isothermal flat plate C1 = 0.3387, C2 = 0.0468
constant heat flux plate C1 = 0.4637, C2 = 0.0207
The relation between fluid friction and heat transfer

Sheu Long Jye


Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

w = Cf
for

U 2
2

u
y

u
3y 1 y 3
=
( )
U 2 2

3 U 3 U U 1/ 2
=
( )
2
2 4.64 x
C fx 3 U U 1/ 2 1
( )
=
= 0.323Re x 1/ 2
2
2
2 4.64 x
U

w =

Nu x
hx
=
= 0.332 Pr 2 / 3 Re x 1/ 2
Re x Pr cU
St x =

hx
Nu x
, Stanton No.
=
cU Re x Pr

St x Pr 2 / 3 = 0.332 Re1/x 2
St x Pr 2 / 3 =

C fx
2

.......Reynold Colburn Analogy

Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer


Fig.
In turbulent flow, u = u + u ', u : mean velocity, u ' : fluctuation

Shear stress:

u
= ( + M ) , M : eddy viscosity

Heat transfer:

q
u
= c( + H ) , M : eddy diffusivity
A
y

Turbulent heat transfer based on fluid-friction analogy


St x Pr 2 / 3 =

C fx

still holds,
2
Experimental values for Cf for turbulent boundary layer

C fx = 0.0592 Re x 1/ 5 , 5 105 < Re x < 107


= 0.370(log Re x ) 2.584 , 107 < Re x < 109
Average friction coefficient for a flat plate with a laminar boundary layer up to Recrit
and turbulent thereafter can be calculated from

Sheu Long Jye


Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

Cf =

0.455
A

, Re L < 109
2.584
(log Re L )
Re L

or
Cf =

A
0.074

, Re L < 107
1/ 5
Re L
Re L

Recrit

3x105

5x105

106

3x106

1055

1742

3340

8940

Applying the fluid-friction analogy St x Pr 2 / 3 =

C fx
2

St x Pr 2 / 3 = 0.0296 Re x 1/ 5 , 5 105 < Re x < 107


St x Pr 2 / 3 = 0.185(log Re x ) 2.584, 107 < Re x < 109

Average heat transfer over the entire laminar-turbulent boundary layer is


St Pr 2 / 3 =

Cf
2

for Recrit = 5 105 , Re L < 107


St Pr 2 / 3 = 0.037 Re L1/ 5 871ReL1
hL
= Pr1/ 3 (0.037 Re0.8
L 871)
k
for higher Reynold number

NuL =

hL
= [0.228 Re L (log Re L ) 2.584 871]Pr1/ 3 , 107 < Re L < 109 , Recrit = 5 105
k
The average heat transfer coefficient is defined as
NuL =

h=

1
L

xcrit

hlam dx +

xcrit

hturb dx

An alternative equation by Whitaker


1/ 4

NuL = 0.036 Pr

0.43


(Re 9200)
w
0.8
L

0.7 < Pr < 380, 2 105 < Re L < 5.5 106 , 0.26 <

< 3.5
w

Turbulent boundary layer thickness


Outside the laminar sublayer, the velocity profile can be described by
u
y
= ( )1/ 7

U
Sheu Long Jye
Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

This profile fails to derive w since

w =

C f U 2

y =0

and for Re x < 107 , C fx = 0.0592 Re x 1/ 5

w = 0.0296(

u
y

U x

)1/ 5 U 2

substitute into integral mom. eq.

1/ 5
d
y
y
[1 ( )1/ 7 ]( )1/ 7 dy = 0.0296(
)

dx 0
U x
1/ 5 1/ 5
d 72
= 0.0296(
) x
7
dx
U x
1. fully turbulent from the leading edge = 0 at x = 0,

= 0.381Rex 1/ 5

2. laminar up to
Rcrit = 5 105 , = lam at xcrit = 5 105

lam =

lam = 5.0 xcrit (5 105 ) 1/ 2

72

5
4/5
0.0296( )1/ 5 ( x 4 / 5 xcrit
)
7
U
4

= 0.381Re x 1/ 5 10256 Rex 1

Heat transfer in laminar tube flow (Fig)


Velocity profile

r 2 dp = 2 rdx = 2 r dx

u
r

1 dp
r dr
2 dx
1 dp 2
u=
r +C
4 dx
B.C. at r = r0 , u = 0
du =

u (r ) =

1 dp 2 2
(r r0 )
4 dx

Sheu Long Jye


Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

the velocity at the centerline


u0 =

r02 dp
4 dx

u
r2
= 1 2
u0
r0

Heat transfer: (Fig)


Assume a constant heat flux at wall,

dqw
=0
dx

The heat flow conducted into and out of the annular element are
qr = k 2 rdx
qr + dr = qr +

T
r

qr
dr
r

The net heat convected out of the element is


2 rdr cu

T
dx
x

The energy balance gives


1 T
1 T
(r
)=
x
ur r r
Assume heat flux qw=constant, then the temperature increases linearly with x, i.e.
T
=C
x
Boundary conditions:
T
= 0 at r = 0
r
T
k
= qw = const. at r = r0
r
The solution is
T=

1 T
r2
r4
u0 (
) + C1 ln r + C2
4 16r02
x

T Tc =

1 T u0 r02 r 2 1 r 4
[( ) ( ) ]
4 r0
x 4 r0

Tc : centerline temperature
The bulk temperature
Local heat transfer
Sheu Long Jye
Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

q " = h(Tw Tb ),
r0

Tb = T =

2 ruc pTdr

r0

2 ruc p dr

is so-called bulk temperature or energy average fluid temperature across the tube.
7 u0 r02
Tb = Tc +
96
3 u0 r02
Tw = Tc +
10

T
x
T
x

q = hA(Tw Tb ) = kA
h=

k ( T r )r = r

Nud =

Tw Tb

T
r

r = r0

24 k 48 k
=
11 r0 11 d 0

hd 0
= 4.364
k

Turbulent heat transfer in tube


f
St Pr 2 / 3 = , f : friction factor
8
Nud = 0.0395 Re3/d 4 Pr1/ 3
0.4
Nud = 0.023Re0.8
(evaluated at bulk temperature)
d Pr

Sheu Long Jye


Dep. of Mechanical Engineering
Chung Hua University
ljsheu@chu.edu.tw