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A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

Type (I) : Very Short Answer Type Questions :

[01 Mark Each]

1.

What kind of charges are produced on each, when (i) a glass rod is rubbed with silk and (ii) an ebonite rod is
rubbed with wool ?
(C.B.S.E. 1990)

2.

Given two point charges q1 and q2, such that q1q2 < 0. What is the nature of force between them ?

(H.P.S.S.C.E. 2004 ; 2002)

3.

Electrostatic force between two charges is called central force. Why ?

4.

The test charge used to measure electric field at a point should be vanishingly small. Why ?

5.

Two point electric charges of unknown magnitude and sign are placed a distance apart. The electric field
intensity is zero at a point not between the charges but on the line joining them. Write two essential
conditions for this to happen.

6.

Why two electric lines of force cannot intersect each other ?

(P.S.S.C.E. 2006)

7.

IT

(H.P.S.S.C.E. 2010, 2002; P.S.S.C.E. 2009, 2005S, 2002, 2001; H.S.S.C.E. 2001 ; C.B.S.E. 1992)

Write a relation between electric field at a point and its distance from a short dipole.

(P.S.S.C.E. 2008 S, H.S.S.C.E. 2008)

Does an electric dipole always experience a torque, when placed in a uniform electric field ?

9.

When is the torque acting on an electric dipole maximum, when placed in uniform electric field ?

10.

A charged particle is free to move in an electric field. Will it always move along an electric line of force ?
Define electric flux.
Or
What do you understand by electric flux ?

IN

11.

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8.

(I.I.T. 1979)
(C.B.S.E. 2001, 2000; H.S.S.C.E. 1995)

(P.S.S.C.E. 2001, 2000; H.S.S.C.E. 1995)

Suppose a gaussian surface does not include any net charge. Does it necessarily mean that E is equal to
zero for all points on the surface ?

13.

What is the use of gaussian surface ?

14.

How does electric field at a point charge with distance r from an inifinte thin sheet of charge ?

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12.

(H.S.S.C.E. 2008)

Two infinite parallel planes have uniform charge densities . What is the electric field
(a) in the region between the planes and
(b) outside the plates ?
In what way does the infinite extension of the planes simplify your derivation ?

16.

What would be the work done, if a point charge +q is taken from a point A to a point B on the circumference
of a circle drawn with another point charge +q at the centre ?
(C.B.S.E. 2001)

17.

If a point charge +q is taken first from A to C and then from C to B of a circle drawn with another point charge
+q as centre [fig.], then along which path more work will be done ?
(C.B.S.E. 2001)

15.

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ELECTROSTATICS - 100

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


18.

How is electric field at a point related to potential gradient ?

19.

Why the electric field is always at right angles to the equipotential surface ? Give reason.

Type (II) : Short Answer Type Questions :

[02 Marks Each]

Why can one ignore quantization of electric charge, when dealing with macroscopic i.e., large scale
charges?
(H.P.S.S.C.E. 2006)

21.

Can two balls having same kind of charge on them attract each other ? Explain.

22.

Fig. shows tracks of three charged particles crossing a uniform electrostatic field with same velocities along
horizontal. Give the signs of the three charges. Which particle has the highest charge to mass ratio ?

23.

What is electric line of force ? What is its importance ?

24.

Electric field intensity within a conductor is always zero. Why ?

25.

A small metal sphere carrying charge +Q is located at the centre of a spherical cavity in a large uncharged
metal sphere as shown in the fig.

IT

20.

IN

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(P.S.S.C.E. 1998 S)

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Use Gauss theorem to find electric field at points P1 and P2.

26.

If a conductor with a cavity having charge Q. Now another charge q is inserted into the cavity show that the
total charge on the outside surface of the conductor is Q + q.

27.

Explain the term electrostatic shielding.


Or
What is the principle of electrostatic shielding ?

(P.S.S.C.E. 2002, 2000)

Is it possible to transfer all the charge from a conductor to another insulated conductor ?

29.

work done in moving a test charge between two points in an electric field is independent of the path followed
comment.

28

30.

RES

(H.S.S.C.E. 2010; P.S.S.C.E. 2004)

Figure (a) and (b) show the field lines of a single positive and negative charge respectively :
(i)
Given the sign of the potential difference Vp VQ and VB VA .
(ii)
Give the sign of the potential energy difference of a small negative charge between the points Q
and P; A and B.
(iii)
Give the sign of the work done by the field in moving a small positive charge from point Q to P.
(iv)
Give the sign of the work done by an external agency in moving a small negative charge from point
B to A.
ELECTROSTATICS - 101

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


(v)

Does the kinetic energy of a small negative charge increase or decrease in going from point B to
A?

T
U

Fig. (b)

Type (III) : Long Answer Type Questions:

[04 Mark Each]

Explain the terms : (i) quantization of charge


(iii) additive nature of charge.

32.

State Coulombs law in electrostatics. Express it in vector form. What is importance of expressing it in
vector form ?

33.

Find the electric field intensity at any point on the axis of a uniformly charged ring or hoop. What happens,
if ring is far away from the point ?
(H.P.S.S.C.E. 2010)

34.

Give important properties of electric lines of force .

35.

Explain the terms electric dipole and dipole moment. Derive a relation for the intensity of electric field at an
equatorial point of an electric dipole.
(H.P.S.S.C.E. 2007)

36.

Show that in a uniform electric field, a dipole experiences only a torque but no net force. Derive expression
for the torque.
(H.S.S.C.E. 2008; C.B.S.E. 1999 S, 1992)

37.

Distinguish between linear, surface and volume charge density. Obtain expression for force on a charge q
due to continuous distribution of charge over a volume.

38.

State Gauss theorem in electrostatics. Apply this theorem to calculate the electric field due to a solid
sphere of charge at a point (a) outside the sphere (b) on the sphere and (c) inside the sphere.

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39.

(ii) conservation of charge

IT

31.

(H.P.S.S.C. 2004; P.S.S.C.E. 1998 S; C.B.S.E. 1991)

Define electric potential at a point. Derive an expression for the potential at a point due to a point charge.
(H.P.S.S.C.E. 2009S; P.S.S.C.E. 2007; H.P.S.S.C.E. 2005)

What do you mean by potential energy of the configuration of two electric charges ? Derive expression for
a system of two point charges lying at distance r.

41.

Obtain expression for potential energy of the configuration of three charges. Hence, generalise the result
for a system of n point charges.
(P.S.S.C.E. 2010)

40.

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ELECTROSTATICS - 102

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

PART - I : SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS


SECTION (A) : PROPERTIES OF CHARGE AND COULOMB'S LAW
A-1.

Two point charges q1 = 2 103 C and q2 = 3 106C are separated by a distance x = 10cm. Find

the magnitude and nature of the force between the two charges.
Two point charges q1 = 20C and q2 = 25C are placed at (1, 1, 1) m and (3, 1, 2)m, with respect
to a coordinate system. Find the magnitude and unit vector along electrostatic force on q 2?

A-3.

20 positively charged particles are kept fixed on the X-axis at points x = 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, ....., 20 m. The
first particle has a charge 1.0 10 6 C, the second 8 106 C, the third 27 106 C and so on. Find
the magnitude of the electric force acting on a 1 C charge placed at the origin.

A.4.

(i)

IT

Two charged particles having charge 4.0 10 6 C and mass 24 103 Kg each are joined by
an insulating string of length 1 m and the system is kept on a smooth horizontal table. Find the
tension in the string.
If suddenly string is cut then what is the acceleration of each particle?
Are they having equal acceleration?

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(ii)
(iii)

A-2.

Two identical conducting spheres (of negligible radius), having charges of opposite sign, attract each
other with a force of 0.108 N when separated by 0.5 meter. The spheres are connected by a conducting
wire, which is then removed (when charge stops flowing), and thereafter repel each other with a force
of 0.036 N keeping the distance same. What were the initial charges on the spheres?

A-6.

Two small spheres, each of mass 0.1 gm and carrying same charge 10 -9 C are suspended by threads
of equal length from the same point. If the distance between the centres of the sphere is 3 cm, then

IN

A-5.

The distance between two fixed positive charges 4e and e is . How should a third charge q be
arranged for it to be in equilibrium? Under what condition will equilibrium of the charge q be stable
(for displacement on the line joining 4e and e) or will it be unstable?

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A-7.

find out the angle made by the thread with the vertical. (g = 10 m/s2) & tan1 100 = 0.6

Three charges, each of value q, are placed at the corners of an equilateral triangle. A fourth charge Q
is placed at the centre O of the triangle.
(a)
If Q = q, will the charges at corners start to move towards centre or away from it.
(b)
For what value of Q at O will the charges remain stationary?

A-9.

Two charged particles A and B, each having a charge Q are placed a distance d apart. Where should
a third particle of charge q be placed on the perpendicular bisector of AB so that it experiences
maximum force? Also find the magnitude of the maximum force.

A-8.

SECTION (B) : ELECTRIC FIELD


B-1.

The electric force experienced by a charge of 5 10 6 C is 25 103 N. Find the magnitude of the
electric field at that position of the charge due to the source charges.

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ELECTROSTATICS - 103

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


A uniform electric field E = 91 106 V/m is created between two parallel, charged plates as shown in
figure. An electron enters the field symmetrically between the plates with a speed v 0 = 4 103 m/s.
The length of each plate is = 1m. Find the angle of deviation of the path of the electron as it comes
out of the field. (Mass of the electron is m = 9.1 10 31 kg and its charge is e = 1.6 10 19 C).

B-3.

Two point particles A and B having charges of 4 106 C and 64 106 C respectively are held at
a separation of 90 cm. Locate the point(s) on the line AB or on its extension where the electric field is
zero

B-4.

Three point charges q0 are placed at three corners of square of side a. Find out electric field intensity
at the fourth corner.

B-5.

Two point charges 3C and 2.5 C are placed at point A (1, 1, 2)m and B (0, 3, 1)m respectively.
Find out electric field intensity at point C(3, 3, 3)m.

B-6.

A hollow sphere of radius a carries a total charge Q distributed uniformly over its surface. A small
area dA of the sphere is cut off. Find the electric field at the centre due to the remaining sphere.

B-7.

(i)

Two infinitely long line charges each of linear charge density


are placed at an angle as shown in figure. Find out elec
tric field intensity at a point P, which is at a distance x from
point O along angle bisector of line charges.

(ii)

Repeat the above question if the line charge densities


are and as shown in figure.

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B-2.

The bob of a simple pendulum has a mass of 60 g and a positive charge of 6 10 6 C. It makes 30
oscillations in 50 s above earth's surface. A vertical electric field pointing upward and of magnitude
5 104 N/C is switched on. How much time will it now take to complete 60 oscillations ?
(g = 10 m/s2)

B-9.

If three infinite charged sheets of uniform surface charge densities , 2 and 4 are placed as
shown in figure, then find out electric field intensities at points A, B, C and D.

B-8.

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ELECTROSTATICS - 104

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


Find out electric field intensity due to uniformly charged solid non-conducting sphere of volume charge
density and radius R at following points :
(i)
At a distance r from surface of sphere (inside)
(ii)
At a distance r from the surface of sphere (outside)

B-11.

Repeat the question if sphere is a hollow non-conducting sphere of radius R and has uniform surface
charge density .

B-12.

A thread carrying a uniform charge per unit length has the configuration shown in figure a and b.
Assuming a curvature radius r to be considerably less than the length of the thread, find the magnitude
of the electric field strength at the point O.

IT

B-10.

SECTION (C) : ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE


A point charge 20 C is shifted from infinity to a point P in an electric field with zero acceleration. If
the potential of that point is 1000 volt, then
(i)
Find out work done by external agent against electric field?
(ii)
What is the work done by electric field?
(iii)
If the kinetic energy of charge particle is found to increase by 10 mJ when it is brought from
infinity to point P, then what is the total work done by external agent?
(iv)
What is the work done by electric field in the part (iii)
(v)
If a point charge 30 C is released at rest at point P, then find out its kinetic energy at a large
distance?

C-2.

Two particles A and B having charges of 4 10 6 C and 8 106 C respectively, are held fixed at a
separation of 60 cm. Locate the point(s) on the line AB where the electric potential is zero.

C-3.

Six equal point charges 'q0' each are placed at six corners of a regular hexagon of side 'a'. Find out
work required to take a point charge 'q' slowly :
(i)
From infinity to the centre of hexagon.
From infinity to a point on the axis which is at a distance ' 3 a ' from the centre of hexagon.
Does your answer to part (i) and (ii) depends on the path followed by the charge.

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(ii)
(iii)

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C-1.

20 J of work has to be done against an existing electric field to take a charge of 0.05 C from A to B.
How much is the potential difference V B VA ?

C-5.

A charge of 8 mC is located at the origin. Calculate the work done by external agent in taking a small
charge of 2 109 C from a point A(0, 0, 0.03 m) to a point B(0, 0.04 m, 0) via a point C( 0, 0.06 m,
0.09 m).

C-6.

In front of a uniformly charged infinite non-conducting sheet of surface charge density , a point
charge q0 is shifted slowly from a distance a to b (b > a). If work done by external agent is W, then
find out relation between the given parameters.

C-4.

C-7.

RES

An electric field of 20 N/C exists along the negative x-axis in space. Calculate the potential difference
VB VA, where the points A and B are given by :
(a) A = (0, 0) ; B = (0, 4m)
(b) A = (2m, 1m) ; B = (4m, 3m)

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A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


A uniform field of 8 N/C exists in space in positive x-direction.
(a) Taking the potential at the origin to be zero, write an expression for the potential at a general point
(x, y, z). (b) At which points, the potential is 160 V? (c) If the potential at the origin is taken to be 80V,
what will be the expression for the potential at a general point? (d) What will be the potential at the
origin if the potential at infinity is taken to be zero ?

C-9.

A particle of charge + 3 x 10-9 C is in a uniform field directed to the left. It is released from rest and
moves a distance of 5 cm, after which its kinetic energy is found to be 4.5 x 10-5 J.
(a) What work was done by the electrical force?
(b) What is the magnitude of the electrical field?
(c) What is the potential of the starting point with respect to the end point?

C-10.

In the previous problem, suppose that another force in addition to the electrical force acts on the
particle so that when it is released from rest, it moves to the right. After it has moved 5 cm, the
additional force has done 9 10-5 J of work and the particle has 4.5 10-5 J of kinetic energy.
(a)
What work was done by the electrical force?
(b)
What is the magnitude of the electric field?
(c)
What is the potential of the starting point with respect to the end point?

C-11.

A positive charge Q = 50 C is located in the xy plane at a point having position vector r0 = 2i 3j m

C-8.

IT

where i and j are unit vectors in the positive directions of X and Y axis respectively. Find:

Four charges + q, + q, - q, - q are fixed respectively at the corners of


A, B, C and D of a square of side a arranged in the given order.
Calculate the electric potential and intensity at O (Center of square).
If E and F are the midpoints of sides BC, CD respectively, what will
be the work done by external agent in carrying a charge Q slowly
from O to E and from O to F?

+q

A +q
O +Q

a
Dq

IN

C-12.

The electric intensity vector and its magnitude at a point having co-ordinates (8 m, - 5 m).
Work done by external agent in transporting a charge q = 10 C from (8 m, 6 m) to the point
(4 m, 3 m).

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(a)
(b)

B
E

q C

A charge Q is distributed over two concentric hollow spheres of radius r and R (R > r), such that the
surface densities of charge are equal. Find the potential at the common centre.

C-14.

Two concentric hollow spheres of radii R and 2 R are charged. The inner sphere has a charge of 1 C
and the outer sphere has a charge of 2 C of the same sign. The potential is 9000 V at a point P at a
distance 3R from the common centre O. What is the value of R?

C-13.

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SECTION (D) : ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A POINT CHARGE


An particle is placed in an electric field at a point having electric potential 5V. Find its potential
energy ?

D-2.

Find the potential energy of a charge q 0 placed at the centre of regular hexagon of side a, if charge
q is placed at each vertex of regular hexagon?

D-3.

A solid uniformly charged fixed non-conducting sphere of total charge Q and radius R contains a
tunnel of negligible diameter. If a point charge 'q' of mass 'm' is released at rest from point P as
shown in figure then find out its velocity at following points

D-1.

(i) At the surface of sphere


D-4.

(ii) At the centre of the sphere

Two identical charges, 5 C each are fixed at a distance 8 cm and a charged particle of mass 9 10kg and charge 10 C is placed at a distance 5 cm from each of them and is released. Find the
speed of the particle when it is nearest to the two charges.
6

RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 106

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


D-5.

A particle of mass m, charge q > 0 and initial kinetic energy K is projected from infinity towards a
heavy nucleus of charge Q assumed to have a fixed position.
(a)
If the aim is perfect, how close to the centre of the nucleus is the particle when it comes
instantaneously to rest?
(b)
With a particular imperfect aim, the particles closest approach to nucleus is twice the distance
determined in (a). Determine speed of particle at the closest distance of approach.

SECTION (E) : POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF POINT CHARGES


Two positive point charges 15 C and 10 C are 30 cm apart. Calculate the work done in bringing
them closer to each other by 15 cm.

E-2.

Three point charges are arranged at the three vertices of a triangle as shown in Figure.
Given: q = 107 C, calculate the electrostatic potential energy of the system.

E-3.

Eight equal point charges each of charge 'q' and mass 'm' are placed at eight corners of a cube of
side a.
(i)
Find out potential energy of charge system
(ii)
Find out work done by external agent against electrostatic forces and by electrostatic forces
to increase all sides of cube from a to 2a.
(iii)
If all the charges are released at rest, then find out their speed when they are at the corners
of cube of side 2a.
(iv)
If keeping all other charges fixed, charge of corner 'A' is released then find out its speed
when it is at infinite distance?
(v)
If all charges are released simultaneously from rest then find out their speed when they are at
a very large distance from each other.

IN

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E-1.

q
q

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SECTION (F) : SELF ENERGY AND ENERGY DENSITY


A spherical shell of radius R with a uniform charge q has point charge q 0 at its centre. Find the work
performed by the electric forces during the shell expansion slowly from radius R to 2R. Also find out
work done by external agent against electric forces.

F-2.

Two identical non-conducting spherical shells having equal charge Q, which is uniformly distributed
on it, are placed at a distance d apart. from where they are released. Find out kinetic energy of each
sphere when they are at a large distance.

F-3.

In a solid uniformly charged sphere of total charge Q and radius R, if energy stored out side the
sphere is U0 joules then find out self energy of sphere in term of U 0?

F.1

SECTION (G) : QUESTIONS BASED ON RELATION BETWEEN E AND V :


G-1.
G-2.

RES

If E = 2y i + 2x j , then find V (x, y, z)

If V = x 2y + y2z then find E (x, y, z)

ELECTROSTATICS - 107

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


G-3.

If V = 2r2 then find out (i) E (1, 0, 2) (ii) E(r 2)

G-4.

An electric field E (10 i 20 j) N/C exists in the space. If the potential at the origin is taken to be

zero, find the potential at (3m, 3m).

An electric field E Bxi exists in space, where B = 20 V/m2. Taking the potential at (2 m, 4 m) to be zero,
find the potential at the origin.

G-6.

If E = 2r2, then find V(r)

G-7.

If E = 2x 2 i 3y2 j , then find V(x, y, z)

G-5.

SECTION (H) : DIPOLE

Three charges are arranged on the vertices of an equilateral triangle as shown in figure. Find the
dipole moment of the combination.

H-2.

Three point charges Q, Q and Q are placed on a straight line with distance d between chargesas
shown. Find the magnitude of the electric field at the point P in the configuration shown which is at a
distance a from middle charge Q in the system provided that a >> d. Take 2Qd = p.

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H-1.

H-3.

A charge ' q ' is carried slowly from a point A (r, 135) to a point B (r, 45) following a path which is a

quadrant of circle of radius ' r '. If the dipole moment is P , then find out the work done by external
agent.

H-4.

Find out the magnitude of electric field intensity and electric potential due to a dipole of dipole

moment P = i
(i) (2, 0, 0)
RES

3 j kept at origin at following points.

(ii) (1,

3 , 0)
ELECTROSTATICS - 108

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


H-5.

A molecule of a substance has permanent electric dipole moment equal to 10 29 C-m. A mole of this
substance is polarised (at low temperature ) by applying a strong electrostatic field of magnitude
(106 Vm 1 ). The direction of the field is suddenly changed by an angle of 60. Estimate the heat
released by the substance in aligning its dipoles along the new direction of the field. For simplicity,
assume 100% polarisation to the sample.

SECTION () : ELECTRIC LINES OF FORCE, FLUX CALCULATION AND GAUSS'S LAW


Find out the electric flux through an area 10 m 2 lying in XY plane due to an electric field

E 2i 10 j 5k .

-2.

n a uniform electric field E if we consider an imaginary cubical closed suface of side a , then find
the net flux through the cube ?

-3.

-1.

Find the flux of the electric field through a spherical surface of radius R due to a charge of 8.85 x 10
C at the centre and another equal charge at a point 3R away from the centre
(Given : 0 = 8.85 1012 units)

IT

A charge q is placed at the centre of an imaginary hemispherical surface. Using symmetry arguments
and the Gausss law, find the electric flux due to this charge through the given surface.

-5.

What do you predict by the given statement about the nature of charge (positive or negative) enclosed
by the closed surface. "In a closed surface, lines which are leaving the surface are double than the
lines which are entering it".

IN

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-4.

SECTION (J) : CONDUCTOR, IT'S PROPERTIES & ELECTRIC PRESSURE

Two conducting plates X and Y, each having large surface area A (on one side), are placed parallel to
each other as shown in figure. The plate X is given a charge Q whereas the other is neutral. Find:

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J-1.

(a) The surface charge density at the inner surface of the plate X,
(b) The electric field at a point to the left of the plates,
(c) The electric field at a point in between the plates and
(d) The electric field at a point to the right of the plates.

J-2.

RES

Three identical metal plates with large equal surface areas are kept parallel to each other as shown in
figure. The leftmost plate is given a charge q, the rightmost a charge 2q and the middle one remains
neutral. Find the charge appearing on the outer surface of the leftmost plate.

ELECTROSTATICS - 109

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


Figure shows two conducting spheres separated by large distance and of radius 2cm and 3cm containing
charges 10C and 20C respectively. When the spheres are connected by a conducting wire then find
out following :

(ii) Final charge on each sphere.


(iv) Heat produced during the process.

(i) Ratio of the final charge.


(iii) Ratio of final charge densities.

J-3.

Two concentric hollow conducting spheres of radius a and b (b>a) contains charges Q a and Q b
respectively. If they are connected by a conducting wire then find out following
(i) Final charges on inner and outer spheres.
(ii) Heat produced during the process.

J-5.

There are two concentric metal shells of radii r 1 and r2 (> r1). If initially, the outer shell has a charge
q and the inner shell is having zero charge and then inner shell is grounded. Find :
(i)
Charge on the inner surface of outer shell.
(ii)
Final charges on each sphere.
(iii)
Charge flown through wire in the ground.

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J-4.

PART - II : OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS


* Marked Questions may have more than one correct option.

SECTION (A) : PROPERTIES OF CHARGE AND COULOMB'S LAW

IN

A charged particle q1 is at position (2, - 1, 3). The electrostatic force on another charged particle q 2
at (0, 0, 0) is :
(B)

q1 q2
(C) 56 (j 2 i 3 k )
0

(D)

q1 q2
(A) 56 (2 i j 3 k )
0

q1 q2

56 14 0 (2 i j 3 k )
q1 q2

56 14 0 ( j 2 i 3 k )

Two equal negative charges q each are fixed at the points (0, a) and (0, -a) on the y-axis .A positive
charge Q is released from rest at the point (2a, 0) on the x-axis. The charge Q will :
(A) Execute simple harmonic motion about the origin
(B) At origin velocity of particle is maximum.
(C) Move to infinity
(D) Execute oscillatory but not simple harmonic motion.

A-3.

Three charges +4q, Q and q are placed in a straight line of length at points at distance 0, /2 and
respectively from one end of line. What should be the value of Q in order to make the net force on q
to be zero?
(A) q
(B) 2q
(C) q/2
(D) 4q

A-4.

Two similar very small conducting spheres having charges 40 C and 20 C are some distance apart. Now
they are touched and kept at the same distance. The ratio of the initial to the final force between them is :
(A) 8 : 1
(B) 4 : 1
(C) 1 : 8
(D) 1 : 1

A-5.

Two point charges placed at a distance r in air exert a force F on each other. The value of distance R
at which they experience force 4F when placed in a medium of dielectric constant K = 16 is :
(A) r
(B) r/4
(C) r/8
(D) 2r

-O
N

A-2.*

A-1.

RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 110

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

SECTION (B) : ELECTRIC FIELD


A simple pendulum has a length & mass of bob m. The bob
is given a charge q coulomb. The pendulum is suspended in
a uniform horizontal electric field of strength E as shown in
figure, then calculate the time period of oscillation when the
bob is slightly displaced from its mean position.


(C) 2

g qE

E
T

(A) 2


(B) 2

g qE
m

(D) 2

B-1.

qE
g

m
2

Charges 2Q and Q are placed as shown in figure.


The point at which electric field intensity is zero will be:
(A) Somewhere between Q and 2Q
(B) Somewhere on the left of Q
(C) Somewhere on the right of 2Q
(D) Somewhere on the perpendicular bisector of line joining Q and 2Q

B-3.

The maximum electric field intensity on the axis of a uniformly charged ring of charge q and radius R
will be :

2q
3R

1
(C) 4
0

2q

3 3R

3q
1
(D) 4 i
2 3R 2
0

A charged particle of charge q and mass m is released from rest in a uniform electric field E.
Neglecting the effect of gravity, the kinetic energy of the charged particle after time t seconds is
(A)

Eqm
t

(B)

E 2 q2 t 2
2m

(C)

2E 2 t 2
mq

(D)

Eq 2m
2t 2

A flat circular fixed disc has a charge +Q uniformly distributed on the disc. A charge +q is thrown with
kinetic energy K, towards the disc along its axis. The charge q :
(A) may hit the disc at the centre
(B) may return back along its path after touching the disc
(C) may return back along its path without touching the disc
(D) any of the above three situations is possible depending on the magnitude of K

-O
N

B-5.

1
(B) 4
0

B-4.

q
1
4 0 3 3R 2

IN

(A)

S
T

IT

B-2.

A non-conducting solid sphere of radius R is uniformly charged. The magnitude of the electric field
due to the sphere at a distance r from its centre.
(A) increases as r increases, for r R(B) decreases as r increases, for 0 < r < .
(C) decreases as r increases, for R < r < . (D) is discontinuous at r = R

B-7.

The linear charge density on upper half of a segment of ring is


and at lower half, it is . The direction of electric field at centre
O of ring is :
(A) along OA
(B) along OB
(C) along OC
(D) along OD

B-6.*

RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 111

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


B-8.

A positively charged pendulum is oscillating in a uniform electric field


as shown in Figure. Its time period of SHM as compared to that when
it was uncharged. (mg > qE)
(A) Will increase
(B) Will decrease
(C) Will not change
(D) Will first increase then decrease

SECTION (C) : ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE


At a certain distance from a point charge, the electric field is 500 V/m and the potential is 3000 V.
What is the distance ?
(A) 6 m
(B) 12 m
(C) 36 m
(D) 144 m

C-2.

Figure represents a square carrying charges +q, +q, q, q at its


four corners as shown. Then the potential will be zero at points : (A,
C, P and Q are mid points of sides)
(A) A, B, C, P and Q
(B) A, B and C
(C) A, P, C and Q
(D) P, B and Q

C-1.

+q

+q

IT

Two equal positive charges are kept at points A and B. The electric potential, while moving from A to B
along straight line :
(A) continuously increases
(B) remains constant
(C) decreases then increases
(D) increases then decreases

C-4.

A semicircular ring of radius 0.5 m is uniformly charged with a total charge of 1.5 10 9 coul. The
electric potential at the centre of this ring is :
(A) 27 V
(B) 13.5 V
(C) 54 V
(D) 45.5 V

C-5.

When a charge of 3 coul is placed in a uniform electric field, it experiences a force of 3000 newton.
The potential difference between two points separated by a distance of 1 cm along field within this
field is:
(A) 10 volt
(B) 90 volt
(C) 1000 volt
(D) 3000 volt

C-6.

A 5 coulomb charge experiences a constant force of 2000 N when moved between two points separated by a distance of 2 cm in a uniform electric field. The potential difference between these two
points is:
(A) 8 V
(B) 200 V
(C) 800 V
(D) 20,000 V

C-7.

The kinetic energy which an electron acquires when accelerated (from rest) through a potential
difference of 1 volt is called :
(A) 1 joule
(B) 1 electron volt
(C) 1 erg
(D) 1 watt

-O
N

IN

S
T

C-3.

C-8.

The potential difference between points A and B in


the given uniform electric field is :
(A) Ea
2

E
b

(B) E (a b )
(C) Eb

(D) (Eb / 2 )

An equipotential surface and an electric line of force :


(A) never intersect each other
(B) intersect at 45
(C) intersect at 60
(D) intersect at 90

C-10.

A particle of charge Q and mass m travels through a potential difference V from rest. The final
momentum of the particle is :

C-9.

(A)
RES

mV
Q

(B) 2Q mV

(C)

2m QV

(D)

2QV
m
ELECTROSTATICS - 112

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


C-11.

If a uniformly charged spherical shell of radius 10 cm has a potential V at a point distant 5 cm from its
centre, then the potential at a point distant 15 cm from the centre will be :
(A)

V
3

(B)

2V
3

(C)

3
V
2

(D) 3V

A hollow uniformly charged sphere has radius r. If the potential difference between its surface and a
point at distance 3r from the centre is V, then the electric field intensity at a distance 3r from the
centre is:
(A) V/6r
(B) V/4r
(C) V/3r
(D) V/2r

C-13.

A hollow sphere of radius 5 cm is uniformly charged such that the potential on its surface is 10 volts
then potential at centre of sphere will be :
(A) Zero
(B) 10 volt
(C) Same as at a point 5 cm away from the surface
(D) Same as at a point 25 cm away from the centre

C-14.

The particle of mass m and charge q will touch the infinitely large
plate of uniform charge density if its velocity v is more than: {Given
that q > 0}

........

........

qd
m0

q,m

(D) none of these

S
T

(C)
C-15.

(B)

2qd
m0

IT

(A) 0

C-12.

A charge +q is fixed at each of the points x = x 0, x = 3x 0, x = 5x 0, ...... upto infinity on the x-axis and a
charge -q is fixed at each of the points x = 2x 0, x = 4x 0, x = 6x 0, ..... upto infinity. Here x 0 is a positive
Q
constant. Take the electric potential at a point due to a charge Q at a distance r from it to be 4 r .
0

(A) 0

(B)

IN

Then the potential at the origin due to the above system of charges is:

q
8 0 x 0 n 2

(C)

(D)

[JEE '98 Screening, 2/200 ]

q n 2
4 0 x 0

SECTION (D) : ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A PARTICLE


If a charge is shifted from a high potential region to low potential region, the electrical potential
energy:
(A) Increases
(B) Decreases
(C) May increase or decrease.
(D) Remains constant

D-2.

A particle of mass 2 g and charge 1C is held at rest on a frictionless horizontal surface at a distance
of 1 m from a fixed charge of 1 mC. If the particle is released it will be repelled. The speed of the
particle when it is at distance of 10 m from the fixed charge is:
(A) 100 m/s
(B) 90 m/s
(C) 60 m/s
(D) 45 m/s

-O
N

D-1.

SECTION (E) : POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF POINT CHARGES


When the separation between two charges is decreased, the electric potential energy of the charges
(A) increases
(B) decreases
(C) may increase or decrease
(D) remains the same

E-2.

Six charges of magnitude + q and q are fixed at the corners of a


regular hexagon of edge length a as shown in the figure. The electro
static potential energy of the system of charged particles is :

E-1.

(A)

q2 3 15

4
0 a 8

q2 3 15

(C)
2
0 a 4
RES

(B)

q2 3 9

4
0 a 2

q2 3 15

(D)
8
0 a 2
ELECTROSTATICS - 113

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


You are given an arrangement of three point charges q, 2q and xq separated by equal finite distances
so that electric potential energy of the system is zero. Then the value of x is :
(A)
E-4.*

2
3

(B)

1
3

(C)

2
3

(D)

3
2

Which of the following quantites depends on the choice of zero potential or zero potential energy ?.
(A) Potential at a particular point
(B) Change in potential energy of a two-charge system
(C) Potential energy of a two - charge system
(D) Potential difference between two points

E-3.

SECTION (F) : SELF ENERGY AND ENERGY DENSITY

A uniformly charged sphere of radius 1 cm has potential of 8000 V at surface. The energy density
near the surface of sphere will be:
(A) 64 105 J/m 3
(B) 8 103 J/m 3
(C) 32 J/m 3
(D) 2.83 J/m 3

F-2.

If ' n ' identical water drops (assumed spherical each) each charged to a potential energy U coalesce
to form a single drop, the potential energy of the single drop is(Assume that drops are uniformly
charged):
(A) n1/3 U
(B) n2/3 U
(C) n4/3 U
(D) n5/3 U

IT

F-1.

SECTION (G) : QUESTIONS BASED ON RELATION BETWEEN E AND V :


The electric field intensity at a point in space is equal in magnitude to :
(A) Magnitude of the potential gradient there
(B) The electric charge there
(C) The magnitude of the electric force, a unit charge would experience there
(D) The force, an electron would experience there

G-2.

The variation of potential with distance r from a fixed point is


shown in Figure. The electric field at r = 5 cm, is :
(A) (2.5) V/cm
(B) (2.5) V/cm
(C) (2/5) cm

IN

S
T

G-1.*

In the above question, the electric force acting on a point charge of 2 C placed at the origin will be :
(A) 2 N
(B) 500 N
(C) 5 N
(D) 500 N

-O
N

G-3.

(D) (2/5) V/cm

The electric potential V as a function of distance x (in metre) is given by


V = (5x 2 + 10x 9) volt.
The value of electric field at x = 1 m would be :
(A) 20 volt/m
(B) 6 volt/m
(C) 11 volt/m
(D) 23 volt/m

G-5.

A uniform electric field having a magnitude E 0 and direction along positive X-axis exists. If the electric
potential V is zero at x = 0, then its value at x = +x will be :
(A) Vx = xE0
(B) Vx = xE0
(C) Vx = x 2E0
(D) Vx = x 2 E0

G-6.

Let E be the electric field and V, the electric potential at a point.


(A) If E 0, V cannot be zero
(B) If E = 0, V must be zero
(C) If V = 0, E must be zero
(D) None of these

G-4.

G-7.

RES

The electric field in a region is directed outward and is proportional to the distance r from the origin.
Taking the electric potential at the origin to be zero, the electric potential at a distance r :
(A) increases as one goes away from the origin.
(B) is proportional to r 2
(C) is proportional to r
(D) is uniform in the region
ELECTROSTATICS - 114

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


G-8.

A non-conducting ring of radius 0.5 m carries a total charge of 1.11x 1010 C distributed non-uniformly on

its circumference producing an electric field E every where in space . The value of the line integral
0


E . d ( = 0 being centre of the ring) in volts is : (Approximately)

[ JEE '97, 1 ]

(A) + 2

(B) 1

(C) 2

(D) zero

SECTION (H) : DIPOLE


Due to an electric dipole shown in fig., the electric field intensity is parallel to dipole axis :

(A) at P only

(C) both at P and at Q (D) neither at P nor at Q

An electric dipole of dipole moment


p is placed at the origin along the x-axis. The angle made by

IT

H-2.

(B) at Q only

H-1.

tan =
(A)

1
tan )
2

(B)

S
T

electric field with x-axis at a point P, whose position vector makes an angle with x-axis, is :(where,

(C) +

(D) + 2

An electric dipole consists of two opposite charges each of magnitude 1.0 C, separated by a distance
of 2.0 cm. The dipole is placed in an external electric field of 1.0 105 N/C. The maximum torque on the
dipole is :
(A) 0.2 103 N-m
(B) 1.0 103 N-m
(C) 2.0 103 N-m
(D) 4.0 103 N-m

H-4.

A dipole of electric dipole moment P is placed in a uniform electric field of strength E. If is the angle
between positive directions of P and E, then the potential energy of the electric dipole is largest when
is :
(A) zero
(B) /2
(C)
(D) /4

H-5.*

An electric dipole is placed (not at infinity) in an electric field generated by a point charge.
(A) The net electric force on the dipole may be zero
(B) The net electric force on the dipole will not be zero
(C) The torque on the dipole due to the field may be zero
(D) The torque on the dipole due to the field must be zero

-O
N

IN

H-3.

Two opposite and equal charges of magnitude 4 10 8 coulomb each when placed 2 102 cm apart
form a dipole. If this dipole is placed in an external electric field of 4 10 8 N/C, the value of maximum
torque and the work required in rotating it through 180 from its initial orientation which is along
electric field will be : (Assume rotation of dipole about an axis passing through centre of the dipole):
(A) 64 104 N-m and 44 104 J
(B) 32 104 N-m and 32 104 J
4
4
(C) 64 10 N-m and 32 10 J
(D) 32 104 N-m and 64 104 J

H-7.

At a point on the axis (but not inside the dipole and not at infinity) of an electric dipole
(A) The electric field is zero
(B) The electric potential is zero
(C) Neither the electric field nor the electric potential is zero
(D) The electric field is directed perpendicular to the axis of the dipole

H-6.

H-8.

RES

The force between two short electric dipoles separated by a distance r is directly proportional to :
(A) r2
(B) r4
(C) r2
(D) r4

ELECTROSTATICS - 115

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


SECTION () : ELECTRIC LINES OF FORCE, FLUX CALCULATION AND GAUSS'S LAW
A square of side 'a' is lying in xy plane such that two of its sides are lying on the axis. If an electric

field E E 0 xk is applied on the square. The flux passing through the square is :
(B)

E0 a 3
2

E0 a 3
3

-3.

If electric field is uniform, then the electric lines of forces are:


(A) Divergent
(B) Convergent
(C) Circular

Figure shows a charge Q placed at the centre of open face of a cylinder


as shown in figure. A second charge q is placed at one of the positions A,
B, C and D, out of which positions A and D are lying on a straight line
parallel to open face of cylinder. In which position(s) of this second charge,
the flux of the electric field through the cylinder remains unchanged ?
(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) D

(D) Parallel

IT

The figure shows the electric lines of force emerging from a charged
body. If the electric fields at A and B are E A and EB respectively and if
the distance between A and B is r, then
(A) EA < EB
(B) EA > EB
EB
r

(D) E A

EB

S
T

(C) E A

E0 a 2
2

(D)

-2.*

-4.

r2

Select the correct statement :


(A) The electric lines of force are always closed curves
(B) Electric lines of force are parallel to equipotential surface
(C) Electric lines of force are perpendicular to equipotential surface
(D) Electric line of force is always the path of a positively charged particle.

-6.

If the electric flux entering and leaving a closed surface are respectively of magnitude 1 and 2 ,
then the electric charge inside the surface will be :

-8.

-9.

(C) 0 (2 1 )

(D) 0 (2 1 )

(B) (1 2 ) 0

An electric dipole is placed at the centre of a sphere. Mark the correct options.
(A) The electric field is zero at every point of the sphere.
(B) The flux of the electric field through the sphere is non-zero.
(C) The electric field is zero on a circle on the sphere.
(D) The electic field is not zero anywhere on the sphere.

-O
N

-7.

2 1
0

IN

-5.

(A)

RES

(C)

(A) E0a3

-1.

Figure (a) shows an imaginary cube of edge length L. A uniformly charged rod of length 2L moves
towards left at a small but constant speed v. At t = 0, the left end of the rod just touches the centre of
the face of the cube opposite to it. Which of the graphs shown in fig.(b) represents the flux of the
electric field through the cube as the rod goes through it ?

(a)

Flux

a
c

(b)

time

(A) a

(B) b

(C) c

(D) d

Electric charges are distributed in a small volume. The flux of the electric field through a spherical
surface of radius 20cm surrounding the total charge is 50 V-m. The flux over a concentric sphere of
radius 40 cm will be:
(A) 50 V-m
(B) 75 V-m
(C) 100 V-m
(D) 200 V-m
ELECTROSTATICS - 116

An imaginary closed surface P is constructed around a neutral conducting wire connected to a battery and a switch as shown in figure.
As the switch is closed, the free electrons in the wire start moving
along the wire. In any time interval, the number of electrons entering
the closed surface P is equal to the number of electrons leaving it. On
closing the switch, the flux of the electric field through the closed
surface:
(A) remains unchanged
(B) remains zero
(C) is increased
(D) is decreased

-11.

Eight point charges (can be assumed as uniformly charged small


spheres and their centres at the corner of the cube) having value q
each are fixed at vertices of a cube. The electric flux through square
surface ABCD of the cube is
q
(C) 6
0

q
(D) 8
0

Figure shows two large cylindrical shells having uniform linear


charge densities + and . Radius of inner cylinder is a and
that of outer cylinder is b. A charged particle of mass m, charge
q rev olves in a circle of radius r. Then, its speed v is : (Neglect
gravity and assume the radii of both the cylinders to be very small
in comparison to their length.)
(A)

q
2 0 m

(B)

2 q
0 m

S
T

IT

-12.

q
(B) 12
0

q
(A) 24
0

-10.*

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

(C)

q
0 m

(D)

q
4 0m

A charge Q is placed at a distance of 4R above the centre of a disc of


radius R. The magnitude of flux through the disc is . Now a hemispherical shell of radius R is placed over the disc such that it forms a
closed surface. The flux through the curved surface (taking direction
of area vector along outward normal as positive), is (A) zero
(B)
(C)
(D) 2

I-14.

The given figure gives electric lines of force due to two charges q 1
and q2. What are the signs of the two charges?
(A) Both are negative
(B) Both are positive
(C) q1 is positive but q2 is negative
(D) q1 is negative but q2 is positive

IN

-13.

-O
N

SECTION (J) : CONDUCTOR, IT'S PROPERTIES & ELECTRIC PRESSURE


A neutral spherical metallic object A is placed near a finite metal plate B carrying a positive charge.
The electric force on the object will be :
(A) away from the plateB
(B) towards the plate B
(C) parallel to the plate B
(D) zero

J-2.

A positive point charge q is brought near a neutral metal sphere.


(A)
The sphere becomes negatively charged.
(B)
The sphere becomes positively charged.
(C)
The interior remains neutral and the surface gets non-uniform charge distribution.
(D)
The interior becomes positively charged and the surface becomes negatively charged.

J-1.

J-3.

Three concentric conducting spherical shells carry charges as follows : + 4Q on the inner shell, - 2 Q
on the middle shell and 5 Q on the outer shell. The charge on the inner surface of the outer shell is:
(A) 0
(B) 4 Q
(C) - Q
(D) - 2 Q

J-4.

A charge q is uniformly distributed over a large plastic plate. The electric field at a point P close to the
centre and just above the surface of the plate is 50 V/m. If the plastic plate is replaced by a copper
plate of the same geometrical dimensions and carrying the same uniform charge q, the electric field
at the point P will become:
(A) zero
(B) 25 V/m
(C) 50 V/m
(D) 100 V/m

RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 117

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


J-5.*

A and B are two conducting concentric spherical shells. A is given a


charge Q while B is uncharged. If now B is earthed as shown in
figure.Then:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

+++
+
++
+ A +
+
+
+ + ++

The charge appearing on inner surface of B is -Q


The field inside and outside A is zero.
The field between A and B is not zero.
The charge appearing on outer surface of B is zero.

Figure shows a thick metallic sphere. If it is given a charge +Q,


then electric field will be present in the region
(A) r < R1 only
(B) r > R1 and R1 < r < R2
(C) r R2 only
(D) r R2 only

J-7.

An uncharged sphere of metal is placed in a uniform electric field produced by two large conducting
parallel plates having equal and opposite charges, then lines of force look like:

(A)

(B)

(C)

IT

+ + + + +

J-6.

(D)

(A)

q1 q2 q1 q2
,
,Q
2
2

(C)

q1 q2 Q q1 q2 Q
,
,0
2
2

(B)

S
T

Two small conductors A and B are given charges q 1 and q2 respectively. Now they are placed inside a hollow metallic conductor (C)
carrying a charge Q. If all the three conductors A, B and C are connected by conducting wires as shown, the charges on A, B and C will
be respectively:

Q q1 q3 Q q1 q2 Q q1 q2
,
,
3
3
3

IN

J-8.

(D) 0, 0, Q + q1 + q2

You are travelling in a car during a thunder storm. In order to protect yourself from lightening, would
you prefer to :
(A) Remain in the car
(B) Take shelter under a tree
(C) Get out and be flat on the ground
(D) Touch the nearest electrical pole

J-10.

A positively charged body 'A' has been brought near a neutral brass
sphere B mounted on a glass stand as shown in the figure. The
potential of B will be:
(A) Zero
(B) Negative
(C) Positive
(D) Infinite

-O
N

J-9.

J-11.

J-12.

RES

The amount of work done by electric field in joules in carrying a


charge +q along the closed path PQRSP between the oppositely
charged metal plates is: (where, E is electric field between the plates)
(A) zero
(B) q
(C) qE (PQ + QR + SR + SP)
(D) q / 0
Figure shows a closed surface which intersects a conducting
sphere. If a positive charge is placed at the point P, the flux of
the electric field through the closed surface:
(A) will become positive
(B) will remain zero
(C) will become undefined
(D) will become negative
ELECTROSTATICS - 118

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


J-13.

An ellipsoidal cavity is carved within a perfect conductor . A positive


charge q is placed at the center of the cavity . The points A and B are
on the cavity surface as shown in the figure .
Then :
[JEE '99 (Scr.), 3/100 ]
(A) Electric field near A in the cavity = electric field near B in the cavity
(B) Charge density at A = Charge density at B
(C) Potential at A = Potential at B
(D) Total electric field flux through the surface of the cavity is q/0 .

STATEMENT-1 : A point charge q is placed at centre of spherical cavity


inside a spherical conductor as shown. Another point charge Q is placed
outside the conductor as shown. Now, as the point charge Q is pushed
away from conductor, the potential difference (VA VB) between two points
A and B within the cavity of sphere remains constant.

1.

PART - III : ASSERTION / REASONING

S
T

STATEMENT-1 : A solid uncharged conducting cylinder moves with acceleration a (w.r.t ground). As a
result of acceleration of cylinder, an electric field is produced within cylinder.

IN

2.

IT

STATEMENT-2 : The electric field due to charges on outer surface of conductor and outside the conductor
is zero at all points inside the conductor.
(A) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1.
(B) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement-1
(C) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False
(D) Statement-1 is False, Statement-2 is True

STATEMENT-2 : When a solid conductor moves with acceleration a, then from frame of conductor a
pseudo force (of magnitude ma; where m is mass of electron) will act on free electrons in the conductor. As
a result some portion of the surface of conductor acquires negative charge and remaining portion of
surface of conductor acquires positive charge.
(A) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1.
(B) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement-1
(C) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False
(D) Statement-1 is False, Statement-2 is True
STATEMENT-1 : Two concentric conducting spherical shells are charged. The charge on the outer shell is
varied keeping the charge on inner shell constant. As a result the electric potential difference between the
two shells does not change.
STATEMENT-2 : If charge is changed on a thin conducting spherical shell, the potential at all points inside
the shell changes by same amount.
(A) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1.
(B) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement-1
(C) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False
(D) Statement-1 is False, Statement-2 is True

4.

Statement 1 : The electric potential and the electric field intensity at


the centre of a square having four point charges at its vertices (as
shown) are zero.
Statement 2 : Electric field is negative gradient of the potential.

-O
N

3.

+q

+q

(A) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1
(B) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement-1
(C) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False
(D) Statement-1 is False, Statement-2 is True.
RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 119

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

PART - I : SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS


Two small equally charged identical conducting balls are suspended from long threads from the same
point. The charges and masses of the balls are such that they are in equilibrium. When the distance
between them is a = 10 cm (the length of the threads L >> a). One of the balls is discharged. How will
the balls behave after this? What will be the distance b between the balls when equilibrium is restored?

2.

Two balls of same radius and weight are suspended on threads (suspended from the same point) so that
their surfaces are in contact. Equal charge is applied to the balls, making them repel each other to an
angle of 60 in static equilibrium. The angle of divergence becomes 54, when balls are immersed in
kerosene. Find the density of the material of the balls if the distance from the point of suspension to the
centre of the ball is 0.2 m.[Density of kerosene () = 800 kg/m3, dielectric constant k = 2,tan27 = 0.5]

3.

Two small balls of masses m 1 and m 2 and having charges Q 1 and Q 2 are connected by a string
passing over a fixed pulley. Calculate the acceleration of the balls and tension in the string if the
whole assembly is located in a uniform electric field E acting vertically downwards. Neglect any
interaction between the balls.

4.

A particle of mass 10 g and charge 5 10 3 C is released from rest in a uniform electric field of
magnitude 2 104 N/C. (a) Find the electric force and the force of gravity acting on this particle. Can
one of these forces be neglected in comparison with the other for approximate analysis ? (b) How
long will it take for the particle to travel a distance of 2m ? (c) What will be the speed of the particle
after travelling this distance ? (d) How much is the work done by the electric force on the particle
during this period?
[g = 9.8 m/s2]

5.

Two like charged, infinitely long wires with the same linear charge density of 3 10-8 C/cm are 2 cm
apart. Find the electric force per unit length on each wire due to the other and the work done
against that force per unit length to be done in bringing them closer by 1 cm.

6.

Find the electric field at a point A on the perpendicular bisector of a uniformly charged wire of length
, and total charge q. The distance of A from the centre of the wire is b.

7.

A very long charged wire (lying in the xy plane) which is having a linear charge density is having
one of its end and at a point P as shown in figure. What is electric field intensity at point Q?

-O
N

IN

S
T

IT

1.

8.

RES

An infinitely long string uniformly charged with a linear charge density 1 and a segment of length
uniformly charged with linear charge density 2 lie in a plane at right angles to each other and
separated by a distance r 0. Determine the force with which these two interact.

ELECTROSTATICS - 120

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


A cavity of radius r is present inside a solid dielectric sphere of radius R, having a volume charge
density of . The distance between the centres of the sphere and the cavity is a. An electron e is
kept inside the cavity at an angle = 450 as shown. How long will the electron (mass m and charge
e) take to touch the sphere again? Neglect gravity.

10._

A ball of radius R carries a positive charge whose volume density depends only on the separation r
from the balls centre as 0 (1 r/R), where 0 is a constant. Assuming the perimittivities of the ball
and the environment to be equal to unity, find :
(i)
The magnitude of the electric field strength as a function of the distance r both inside and
outside the ball;
(ii)
The maximum intensity E max and the corresponding distance r m.

11.

A positive charge is distributed in a spherical region with charge density 0 r for r R (where 0
is a positive constant and r is the distance from centre). Find out electric potential and electric field at
following locations.
(a) At a distance r from centre inside the sphere.
(b) At a distance r from centre outside the sphere.

12.

Two point charges q and 2q are placed at a distance 6m apart on a horizontal plane (xy plane).
Find the locus of the zero potential points in the xy plane.

13._

A hollow sphere having uniform charge density (charge per unit volume) is shown in figure. Find the
potential difference between A and B.

14.

Two identical particles of mass m carry a charge Q each. Initially, one is at rest on a smooth horizontal
plane and the other is projected along the plane directly towards the first particle from a large
distance, with a speed V. Find the closest distance of approach.

-O
N

IN

S
T

IT

9.

15.

A particle having charge + q is fixed at a point O and a second particle of mass m and having charge
- q0 moves with constant speed in a circle of radius r about the charge + q. Find energy required
to be supplied to the moving charge to increase radius of the path to 2 r.

16._

A positive charge +Q is fixed at a point A. Another positively charged particle of mass m and charge +q is
projected from a point B with velocity u as shown in the figure. The point B is at large distance from A and
at distance d from the line AC. The initial velocity is parallel to the line AC. The point C is at very large
distance from A. Find the minimum distance (in meter) of +q from +Q during the motion.

Take Qq = 40 mu2d and d ( 2 1) meter..


B
u +q
d
A
+Q

RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 121

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


17.

Small identical balls with equal charges of magnitude 'q' each are fixed at the vertices of a regular
2013-gon (a polygon of 2013 sides) with side 'a'. At a certain instant, one of the balls is released and
a sufficiently long time interval later, the ball adjacent to the first released ball is freed. The kinetic
energies of the released balls are found to differ by K at a sufficiently large distance from the polygon.
Determine the charge q.

18.

Two concentric spherical shells of radius R1 and R2 (R2 > R1) are having uniformly distributed charges Q1
and Q2 respectively. Find out total energy of the system.

R2
R1

Q2

Q1

Two metalic balls of radii R1 and R2 are kept in vacuum at a large distance compared to their radii.
Find the ratio of the charges on the two balls for which electrostatic energy of the system is minimum.
What is the potential difference between the two balls for this ratio ? Total charge of the balls is
constant. Neglect the interaction energy. (charge distribution on each ball is uniform)

20.

The electric potential varies in space according to the relation: V = 3x + 4y. A particle of mass
10 Kg starts from rest from point (2, 3.2) under the influence of this field. Find the velocity of the
particle when it crosses the x-axis. The charge on the particle is +1C. Assume V and (x, y) are in S..
units.

Four short dipoles each of dipole moment P are placed at the vertices of a square of side a. The
direction of the dipole moments are shown in the figure. Find the electric field and potential at the
centre O of the square.

IT

S
T

IN

21.

19.

E x
The electric field in a region is given by E 0 i . Find the charge contained inside a cubical volume

bounded by the surface x = 0, x = a, y = 0, y = a, z = 0 and z = a. Take E 0 = 4 103 N/C, = 2 cm and


a = 2 cm.

-O
N

23.

The electric field in a region is radially outward with magnitude E = Br. Find the charge contained in
a sphere of radius a centred at the origin. Take B = 200 V/m 2 and a = 40 cm.

22.

A long cylindrical volume (of radius R) contains a uniformly distributed charge of density . Find the
electric field at a point P inside the cylindrical volume at a distance x from its axis as shown in the
figure. Consider two cases :
(i) x < R
(ii) x R

24.

25.

RES

A very long uniformly charged thread oriented along the axis of a circle of radius R rests on its centre
with one of the ends. The charge on the thread per unit length is equal to . Find the flux of the vector
E through the circle area.

ELECTROSTATICS - 122

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


A point charge 'q' is within an electrically neutral conducting shell whose
outer surface has spherical shape. Find potential V at point P
lying outside shell at a distance 'r' from centre O of outer sphere.

27.

A metal sphere of radius r 1 charged to a potential V 1 is than palced in


a thin-walled uncharged conducting spherical shell of radius r 2 .
Determine the potential acquired by the spherical shell after it has
been connected for a short time to the sphere by a conductor.

28.

Two thin conducting plates (very large) parallel to each other carrying
total charges A and -2 A respectively (where A is the area of each
plate), are placed in a uniform external electric field E as shown. Find
the surface charge on each surface.

29._

A metallic sphere of radius R is cut in two parts along a plane whose minimum distance from the
sphere's centre is h and the sphere is uniformly charged by a total electric charge Q. What minimum
force is necessary to hold the two parts of the sphere together?

IT

26.

PART - II : OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

S
T

Single choice type

Five balls, numbered 1 to 5, are suspended using separate threads. Pairs (1, 2), (2, 4), (4, 1) show
electrostatic attraction, while pairs (2, 3) and (4, 5) show repulsion. Therefore ball 1 :
(A) Must be positively charged
(B) Must be negatively charged
(C) May be neutral
(D) Must be made of metal

2.

Two point charges of same magnitude and opposite sign are fixed at points A and B. A third small point
charge is to be balanced at point P by the electrostatic force due to these two charges. The point P:

IN

1.

(A) lies on the perpendicular bisector of line AB


(C) lies to the left of A

A particle A has charge +q and particle B has charge + 4q with each of them having the same mass
m. When allowed to fall from rest through same electrical potential difference, the ratio of their speed
v A : v B will be :
(A) 2 : 1
(B) 1 : 2
(C) 4 : 1
(D) 1 : 4

-O
N

3.

4.

There is a uniform electric field in X-direction. If the work done by external agent in moving a charge of
0.2 C through a distance of 2 metre slowly along the line making an angle of 60 with X-direction is 4
joule, then the magnitude of E is:
(A)

5.

3 N/C

(B) 4 N/C

(C) 5 N/C

(D) 20 N/C

A charge ' q ' is placed at the centre of a conducting spherical shell of


radius R, which is given a charge Q. An external charge Q is also
present at distance R (R > R) from ' q '. Then the resultant field will be
best represented for region r < R by:
[ where r is the distance of the point from q ]

(A)

RES

(B) is at the mid point of line AB


(D) none of these.

(B)

(C)

(D)

ELECTROSTATICS - 123

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


6.

In the above question, if Q' is removed then which option is correct :

(A)

(C)

(D)

The volume charge density as a function of distance X from one face inside a unit cube is varying as
shown in the figure. Then the total flux (in S.I. units) through the cube if (0 = 8.85 1012 C/m 3) is:

(B) 1/2

(D) 1

A positive point charge Q is kept (as shown in the figure) inside a


neutral conducting shell whose centre is at C. An external uniform
electric field E is applied. Then :
(A) Force on Q due to E is zero
(B) Net force on Q is zero
(C) Net force acting on Q and conducting shell considered as a system is zero
(D) Net force acting on the shell due to E is zero.

9.

A point charge q is brought from infinity (slowly so that heat developed


in the shell is negligible) and is placed at the centre of a conducting
neutral spherical shell of inner radius a and outer radius b, then work
done by external agent is:

k q2
(B)
2b

k q2
k q2
(C)

2b
2a

k q2
k q2
(D)
2a
2b

The electric field above a uniformly charged nonconducting sheet is E. If the nonconducting sheet is
now replaced by a conducting sheet, with the charge same as before, the new electric field at the
same point is :

-O
N

10.

IN

S
T

8.

(A) 0

(A) 2E

(B) E

(C)

E
2

(D) None of these

A solid sphere of radius R has a volume charge density = 0 r2 ( Where 0 is a constant and r is the
distance from centre). At a distance x from its centre (for x < R), the electric field is directly proportional
to :
(A) 1/x 2
(B) 1/x
(C) x 3
(D) x 2

12.

A charged particle q is shot from a large distance with speed v towards a fixed charged particle Q.
It approaches Q upto a closest distance r and then returns. If q were given a speed 2v, the closest
distance of approach would be :

11.

(A) r

RES

(C) 3/4

IT

(A) 1/4

7.

(B)

(B) 2r

(C)

r
2

(D)

r
4

ELECTROSTATICS - 124

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


A total charge of 20 C is divided into two parts and placed at some distance apart. If the charges
experience maximum coulombian repulsion, the charges should be :
(A) 5 C , 15 C
14.

(B) 10 C , 10 C

(C) 12 C , 8 C

(D)

40
20
C, C
3
3

The magnitude of electric force on 2 c charge placed at the


centre O of two equilateral triangles each of side 10 cm, as shown
in figure is P. If charge A, B, C, D, E & F are 2 c, 2 c, 2 c, 2 c, - 2 c, - 2 c respectively, then P is:
(A) 21.6 N
(B) 64.8 N
(C) 0
(D) 43.2 N

F
A

E
O
D

13.

Two point charges a & b, whose magnitudes are same are positioned
at a certain distance from each other with a at origin. Graph is drawn
between electric field strength at points between a & b and distance x
from a. E is taken positive if it is along the line joining from a to b.
From the graph, it can be decided that
(A) a is positive, b is negative
(B) a and b both are positive
(C) a and b both are negative
(D) a is negative, b is positive

16.

The net charge given to an isolated conducting solid sphere:


(A) must be distributed uniformly on the surface
(B) may be distributed uniformly on the surface
(C) must be distributed uniformly in the volume
(D) may be distributed uniformly in the volume.

17.

The net charge given to a solid insulating sphere:


(A) must be distributed uniformly in its volume
(B) may be distributed uniformly in its volume
(C) must be distributed uniformly on its surface
(D) the distribution will depend upon whether other charges are present or not.

18.

A charge Q is kept at the centre of a conducting sphere of inner radius R 1 and outer radius R2. A point
charge q is kept at a distance r (> R2) from the centre. If q experiences an electrostatic force 10 N
then assuming that no other charges are present, electrostatic force experienced by Q will be:
(A) 10 N
(B) 0
(C) 20 N
(D) none of these

19.

Two short electric dipoles are placed as shown (r is the distance


between their centres). The energy of electric interaction between
these dipoles will be:
(C is centre of dipole of moment P 2)

-O
N

IN

S
T

IT

15.

(A)

(C)

20.

21.

RES

2k P1P2 cos
r

(B)

2kP1P2 sin

(D)

r3

2k P1P2 cos
r3

4kP1P2 cos
r3

A solid metallic sphere has a charge +3Q. Concentric with this sphere is a conducting spherical shell
having charge Q. The radius of the sphere is a and that of the spherical shell is b(>a). W hat is the
electric field at a distance r(a < r < b) from the centre?
(A)

1
4 0

Q
r

(B)

1
4 0

3Q
r

(C)

1
4 0

3Q
r

(D)

1
4 0

Q
r2

A solid conductor sphere having a charge Q is surrounded by an uncharged concentric conducting


hollow spherical shell. Let the potential difference between the surface of the solid sphere and that of
the outer surface of the hollow shell be V. If the shell is now given a charge 3Q, the new potential
difference between the same two surfaces is :
(A) V
(B) 2V
(C) 4V
(D) 2V
ELECTROSTATICS - 125

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

2eV
m

q
loge
4 0

(C)

q
loge 2
4 0

(D)

q
1
loge
2 0
2

(B)

2eV
m

(C) 2 m/eV

(D) (V2 /2em)

In a cathode ray tube, if V is the potential difference between the cathode and anode, the speed of
the electrons, when they reach the anode is proportional to : (Assume initial velocity = 0)
(B) 1/V

(C)

(D) (v 2/2em)

S
T

(A) V

A dipole having dipole moment p is placed in front of a solid uncharged conducting sphere as shown in the
diagram. The net potential at point A lying on the surface of the sphere is :

IN

25.

(B)

In an electron gun, electrons are accelerated through a potential difference of V volt. Taking electronic
charge and mass to be respectively e and m, the maximum velocity attained by them is :
(A)

24.

23.

q
loge
0

(A)

For an infinite line of charge having charge density lying along x-axis, the work required in moving
charge q from C to A along arc CA is :

IT

22.

(B)

k p cos 2
r

(C)

27.

28.

(C) zero

(D)

2kp cos 2
r2

q
4 0

(D) 5q/60

Two uniformly charged non-conducting hemispherical shells each having uniform charge density
and radius R form a complete sphere (not stuck together) and surround a concentric spherical
conducting shell of radius R/2. If hemispherical parts are in equilibrium then minimum surface charge
density of inner conducting shell is:
(A) 2
(B) /2
(C)
(D) 2
Two isolated metallic solid spheres of radii R and 2R are charged such that both of these have same charge
density . The spheres are located far away from each other, and connected by a thin conducting wire.
Then the new charge density on the bigger sphere is.
(A)

RES

A charge q is placed at the centre of the cubical vessel (with one face
open) as shown in figure. The flux of the electric field through the surface
of the vessel is
(A) zero
(B) q/0

-O
N

26.

kp cos

(A)

5
6

(B)

5
3

(C)

7
6

(D)

7
3

ELECTROSTATICS - 126

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


More than one choice type
29.

A large nonconducting sheet M is given a uniform charge density.


Two uncharged small metal spheres A and B are placed near the
sheet as shown in figure.
(A) M attracts A
(B) A attracts B
(C) M attracts B
(D) B attracts A

30.

A uniform electric field of strength E exists in a region. An electron


y

through the electric field & exits at point B.Then:

(0,0)

(B) Rate of work done by the electric field at B is


(C) Rate of work by the electric field at A is zero.
2av
i vj .
d

4ma 2 v 3
d3

A(a,0)

IT

(D) Velocity at B is

2
2amv
i.
2
ed

B(2a,d)

(A) E

(charge e, mass m) enters a point A with velocity V j . It moves

An oil drop has a charge - 9.6 10 19 C and mass 1.6 1015 gm. When allowed to fall, due to air
resistance force it attains a constant velocity. Then if a uniform electric field is to be applied v ertically
to make the oil drop ascend up with the same constant speed, which of the following are correct.
(g = 10 ms-2) (Assume that the magnitude of resistance force is same in both the cases)
(A) The electric field is directed upward
(B) The electric field is directed downward
1
2
(C) The intensity of electric field is 10 N C1
3
1
10 5 N C1
(D) The intensity of electric field is
6

32.

At distance of 5cm and 10cm outwards from the surface of a uniformly charged solid sphere, the
potentials are 100V and 75V respectively. Then :
(A) Potential at its surface is 150V.
(B) The charge on the sphere is (5/3) 10 9C.
(C) The electric field on the surface is 1500 V/m.
(D) The electric potential at its centre is 225V.

-O
N

IN

S
T

31.

An electric dipole is kept in the electric field produced by a point charge.


(A)
dipole will experience a force.
(B)
dipole will experience a torque.
(C)
it is possible to find a path (not closed) in the field on which work required to move the dipole
is zero.
(D)
dipole can be in stable equilibrium.

34.

Select the correct alternative :


(A)
The charge gained by the uncharged body from a charged body due to conduction is equal to
half of the total charge initially present.
(B)
The magnitude of charge increases with the increase in velocity of charge
(C)
Charge cannot exist without matter although matter can exist without net charge
(D)
Between two nonmagnetic substances repulsion is the true test of electrification (electrification
means body has net charge)

33.

35.

RES

The electric potential decreases uniformly from 180 V to 20 V as one moves on the X-axis from
x = 2 cm to x = + 2 cm. The electric field at the origin :
(A) must be equal to 40V/cm.
(B) may be equal to 40V/cm.
(C) may be greater than 40V/cm.
(D) may be less than 40V/cm.
ELECTROSTATICS - 127

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

PART - III : MATCH THE COLUMN


1.

Column gives certain situations involving two thin conducting shells connected by a conducting wire via a
key K. In all situations, one sphere has net charge +q and other sphere has no net charge. After the key K
is pressed, column gives some resulting effects. Match the figures in Column with the statements in
Column .
Column
Column
initially no
net charge

+q

(p) Charge flows through connecting wire


shell

(A)
shell

initially no
net charge

+q

(q) Potential energy of system of spheres decreases.

(B)
shell

shell

IT

initially no
net charge
+q
K

(C)

S
T

(r) No heat is produced.

shell

shell

initially no
net charge

(D)

shell

IN

+q

(s) The shell has no charge after equilibrium is reached.


y

Column gives a situation in which two dipoles of dipole moment


p i and 3 p j are placed at origin. A circle of radius R with

-O
N

2.

shell

centre at origin is drawn as shown in figure. Column gives


coordinates of certain positions on the circle. Match the statements
in Column with the statements in Column .
Column

(A)

The coordinate(s) of point on circle

3 pj
pi
R

Column
R 3 R

(p) ,

2
2

where potential is maximum :

RES

(B)

The coordinate(s) of point on circle where potential is zero :

R
3 R
(q) ,
2
2

(C)

The coordinate(s) of point on circle where

3 R R
,
(r)
2 2

(D)

1 4p
magnitude of electric field intensity is 4
3 :
0 R
The coordinate(s) of point on circle where
1 2p
:
magnitude of electric field intensity is
4 0 R3

3 R R

(s) 2 , 2

ELECTROSTATICS - 128

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

PART - IV : COMPREHENSION
Comprehension # 1
A leaf electroscope is a simple apparatus to detect any charge on a body. It consists of two metal
leaves OA and OB, free to rotate about O. Initially both are very slightly separated. When a charged
object is touched to the metal knob at the top of the conducting rod, charge flows from knob to the
leaves through the conducting rod. As the leaves are now charged similarly, they start repelling each
other and get separated, (deflected by certain angle).

++

++

Rubber

Glass
window

+
+
+ ++

IT

Gold leaves

+
+
+
++

++

Metal knob
Metal rod

The angle of deflection in static equilibrium is an indicator of the amount of charge on the charged
body.
When a + 20 C rod is touched to the knob, the deflection of leaves was 5, and when an identical rod
of 40 C is touched, the deflection was found to be 9. If an identical rod of +30 C is touched, then
the deflection may be :
(A) 0
(B) 2
(C) 7
(D) 11

2.

If we perform these steps one by one.

IN

S
T

1.

+
++ +
++

(i) A positively charged rod is brought closer to initially uncharged knob

+
++ +
++

(B)

-O
N

(ii) Then the positively charged rod is touched to the knob

-- --

(iii) Now the +vely charged rod is removed, and a negatively charged.

3.

(C)

rod of same magnitude is brought closer at same distance


In which case, the leaves will converge (come closer), as compared to the previous state ?
(A) (i)
(B) (i) and (iii)
(C) only (iii)
(D) In all cases, the leaves will diverge

In an electroscope, both leaves are hinged at the top point O. Each leaf has mass m, length and gets
charge q. Assuming the charge to be concentrated at ends A and B only, the small angle of deviation
() between the leaves in static equilibrium, is equal to :
1/ 3

4 kq 2

(A) 2

mg
RES

(A)

1/ 3

k q2

(B) 2

mg

1/ 2

2k q2

(C) 2

mg

1/ 3

64 k q2

(D) 2

mg

ELECTROSTATICS - 129

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

5.

(C) 1.77 C

What is the charge on shell A ?


(A) 5.31 106 C
(B) 5.31 106 C

(C) 3.54 106 C

(D) 3.4 C

(D) 1.77 106 C

In which range of the values of r is the electric field zero ?


(A) 0 to rA
(B) rA to rB
(C) For r > r B
(D) For no range of r, electric field is zero.

S
T

6.

What is the charge on the central particle ?


(A) 0.2 C
(B) 2 C

IT

4.

Comprehension # 2
A charged particle is suspended at the centre of two thin concentric spherical charged shells, made
of non conducting material. Figure A shows cross section of the arrangement. Figure B gives the net
flux through a Gaussian sphere centered on the particle, as a function of the radius r of the sphere.

IN

Comprehension # 3
A solid conducting sphere of radius a is surrounded by a thin uncharged concentric conducting shell of
radius 2a. A point charge q is placed at a distance 4a from common centre of conducting sphere and shell.
The inner sphere is then grounded.

2a

4a

7.

The charge on solid sphere is :


q
2

(B)

-O
N

(A)

q
4

(C)

q
8

8.

Pick up the correct statement.


(A) Charge on surface of inner sphere is non-uniformly distributed.
(B) Charge on inner surface of outer shell is non-uniformly distributed.
(C) Charge on outer surface of outer shell is non-uniformly distributed.
(D) All the above statements are false.

9.

The potential of outer shell is.

A
RES

q
(A) 32 a
o

q
(B) 16 a
o

q
(C) 8 a
o

(D)

q
16

q
(D) 4 a
o

ELECTROSTATICS - 130

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

PART - I : IIT-JEE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)


* Marked Questions may have more than one correct option.
A point charge ' q ' is placed at a point inside a hollow conducting sphere. Which of the following
electric force pattern is correct?
[ JEE 2003 (Scr.), 3/90 ]

(B)

(D)

Eight charges each of magnitude q , are placed at the vertices of a cube of side a. The nearest
neighbours of any charge have opposite sign. Find the work required to dismantle the system .

IT

2.

(C)

(A)

1.

3.

S
T

[ JEE 2003 (Mains), 2/60 ]

A point positive charge Q is fixed at origin and a dipole P is placed at very large distance on x-axis

Six charges q,q,q, q, q and q are to be arranged on the vertices of a regular hexagon PQRSTU
such that the electric field at centre is double the field produced when only charge q is placed at
vertex R. The sequence of the charges from P to U is :
[JEE 2004 (Scr.), 3/84]

4.

IN

with P pointing away from the origin . Find (a) the kinetic energy of the dipole when it is at a distance
' d ' from origin and (b) at that moment , find the force on charge by dipole.[JEE 2003 (Mains), 4/60 ]

-O
N

(A) q, q, q, q, q, q
(C) q, q, q, q, q, q

A +q1 charge is at centre of an imaginary spherical Gaussion surface S and q 1 charge is placed
nearby this +q1 charge inside S. A charge +q 2 is located outside this Gaussian surface. Then,
electric field on Gaussian surface will be :
[JEE 2004 (Scr.), 3/84]
(A) due to q1 & q2
(B) uniform
(C) due to all charges
(D) zero

6.

Two uniformly charged infinitely large plane sheets S 1 and S2 are held in air parallel to each other
with separation d between them. The sheets have charge distributions per unit area 1 and 2 (Cm 2),
respectively, with 1 > 2. Find the work done by the electric field on a point charge Q that moves from
S1 towards S2 along a line of length a (a > d) making an angle of /4 with the normal to the sheets.
Assume that the charge Q does not affect the charge distributions of the sheets.
[JEE 2004 (Mains), 2/60]

5.

7.

RES

(B) q, q, q, q, q, q
(D) q, q, q, q, q, q

Which of the following groups do not have same dimensions


(A)
Youngs modulus, pressure, stress
(B)
Work, heat, energy
(C)
Electromotive force, potential difference, voltage
(D)
Electric dipole moment, electric flux, electric field

[JEE 2005 (Scr.), 3 /60]

ELECTROSTATICS - 131

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


Three large parallel plates have uniform surface charge densities as shown in the figure. Find out
electric field intensity at point P.
[ JEE 2005 (Scr.), 3/60 ]

4
k
0

(B)

4
k
0

(C)

2
k
0

(D)

2
k
0

(A)

8.

A bubble of conducting liquid is charged to potential V. It has radius a and thickness t << a. It
collapses to form a droplet. Find potential of the droplet.
[ JEE 2005 (Mains), 2/60]

10.

For spherical symmetrical charge distribution, variation of electric potential with distance from centre
is given in diagram. Given that :
[ JEE 2006 (Mains), 5/184 ]
q
for r R0
4 0R 0

and

q
V = 4 r for r R0.
0

IT

V=

9.

S
T

Then which option(s) are correct :


(A) Total charge within 2R0 is q.
(B) Total electrostatic energy for r R0 is zero.
(C) At r = R0 electric field is dicontinuous.
(D) There will be no charge anywhere except at r = R 0

A long hollow conducting cylinder is kept coaxially inside another long, hollow conducting cylinder
of larger radius. Both the cylinders are initially electrically neutral.
[JEE-2007, 3/184]
(A)
A potential difference appears between the two cylinders when a charge density is given
to the inner cylinder.
(B)
A potential difference appears between the two cylinders when a charge density is given
to the outer cylinder.
(C)
No potential difference appears between the two cylinders when a uniform line charge is
kept along the axis of the cylinders.
(D)
No potential difference appears between the two cylinders when same charge density is
given to both the cylinders.

12.

Consider a neutral conducting sphere. A positive point charge is placed outside the sphere. Then
the net charge on the sphere is :
[JEE-2007, 3/184]
(A)
negative and distributed uniformly over the surface of the sphere.
(B)
negative and appears only at the point on the sphere closest to the point charge.
(C)
negative and distributed non-uniformly over the entire surface of the sphere.
(D)
zero.

-O
N

IN

11.

13.

14.

RES

A spherical portion has been removed from a solid sphere having


a charge distributed uniformly in its volume as shown in the fig
ure. The electric field inside the emptied space is :
[ JEE-2007, 3/184 ]
(A) zero every where
(B) is not zero but uniform
(C) nonuniform
(D) is zero at centre only
a
a

,
Positive and negative point charges of equal magnitude are kept at 0, 0, and 0, 0,
2
2

respectively. The work done by the electric field when another positive point charge is moved
from (a, 0, 0) to (0, a, 0) is
[JE-2007, 3/184 ]
(A) positive
(B) negative
(C) zero
(D) depends on the path connecting the initial and final positions.

ELECTROSTATICS - 132

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


15.

Consider a system of three charges

q q
2q
,
and
placed at points A, B and C, respectively, as shown in
3 3
3

the figure. Take O to be the centre of the circle of radius R and angle CAB = 60. [ JEE-2008, 3/163]

q
8 0 R 2

directed along the negative x-axis.

IT

(A) The electric field at point O is

(B) The potential energy of the system is zero.

q2

54 0 R 2

S
T

(C) The magnitude of the force between the charges at C and B is


q
(D) The potential at point O is 12 R .
0

Paragraph for Question Nos. 16 to 18

-O
N

IN

The nuclear charge (Ze) is nonuniformly distributed within a nucleus of radius R. The charge density (r)
[charge per unit volume] is dependent only on the radial distance r from the centre of the nucleus as shown
in figure. The electric field is only along the radial direction.
[JEE-2008 ; 12/163]
Figure :

16.

17.

18.

The electric field at r = R is :


(A) independent of a
(C) directly proportional to a2

For a = 0, the value d (maximum value of as shown in the figure) is :


(A)

3Ze 2
4R

(B)

3Ze
R

(C)

4Ze
3R

(D)

Ze
3R 3

The electric field within the nucleus is generally observed to be linearly dependent on r. This implies :
(A) a = 0

RES

(B) directly proportional to a


(D) inversely proportional to a

(B) a =

R
2

(C) a = R

(D) a =

2R
3

ELECTROSTATICS - 133

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


STATEMENT -1
[JEE -2008, 3, 1/163]
For practical purposes, the earth is used as a reference at zero potential in electrical circuits.
and
STATEMENT -2
The electrical potential of a sphere of radius R with charge Q uniformly distributed on the surface is given
Q
.
4 0 R

(A)

STATEMENT -1 is True, STATEMENT -2 is True; STATEMENT -2 is a correct explanation


for STATEMENT -1
STATEMENT -1 is True, STATEMENT -2 is True; STATEMENT -2 is NOT a correct explanation for
STATEMENT -1
STATEMENT -1 is True, STATEMENT -2 is False
STATEMENT -1 is False, STATEMENT -2 is True.

(C)
(D)

A disk of radius a/4 having a uniformly distributed charge 6C is


placed in the x-y plane with its centre at (a/2, 0, 0). A rod of length
a carrying a uniformly distributed charge 8C is placed on the x-axis
from x = a/4 to x = 5a/4. Two point charges 7C and 3C are placed
at (a/4, a/4, 0) and (3a/4, 3a/4, 0), respectively. Consider a cubical surface formed by six surfaces x = a/2, y = a/2, z = a/2.
The electric flux through this cubical surface is :
[ JEE -2009, 3/160, 1 ]
2C

(A)
0

2C

(B)
0

IT

20.

(B)

by

10C

(C)
0

S
T

19.

12C

(D)
0

Three concentric metallic spherical shells of radii R, 2R, 3R, are given charges Q1, Q2, Q3, respectively. It
is found that the surface charge densities on the outer surfaces of the shells are equal. Then, the ratio of
the charges given to the shells, Q1 : Q2 : Q3, is
[ JEE -2009, 3/160, 1 ]
(A) 1 : 2 : 3
(B) 1 : 3 : 5
(C) 1 : 4 : 9
(D) 1 : 8 : 18

22.

Under the influence of the Coulomb field of charge +Q, a charge q is moving around it in an elliptical orbit.
Find out the correct statement(s).
[ JEE -2009, 4/160, 1 ]
(A) The angular momentum of the charge q is constant.
(B) The linear momentum of the charge q is constant.
(C) The angular velocity of the charge q is constant.
(D) The linear speed of the charge q is constant.

23.

A solid sphere of radius R has a charge Q distributed in its volume with a charge density = kra, where k

IN

21.

1
R
is
times that at
8
2
[JEE -2009, 4/160, 1]

-O
N

and a are constants and r is the distance from its centre. If the electric field at r =

r = R, find the value of a.

A few electric field lines for a system of two charges Q1 and Q2 fixed at two different points on the x-axis are
shown in the figure. These lines suggest that :
[JEE-2010, 3/163]

24.

(A) |Q1| > |Q2|


(B) |Q1 | < |Q2|
(C) at a finite distance to the left of Q1 the electric field is zero
(D) at a finite distance to the right of Q2 the electric field is zero
RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 134

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


25.

A uniformly charged thin spherical shell of radius R carries uniform surface charge density of per unit area.
It is made of two hemispherical shells, held together by pressing them with force F (see figure). F is proportional to
[JEE-2010, 5/163, 2]
F

1 2
(B) R
0

26.

1 2
(C)
0 R

1 2
(D)
0 R2

1 2 2
(A) R
0

A tiny spherical oil drop carrying a net charge q is balanced in still air with a vertical uniform electric field of

81
10 5 Vm1. When the field is switched off, the drop is observed to fall with terminal velocity
7
2 103 m s1. Given g = 9.8 m s2, viscosity of the air = 1.8 105 Ns m2 and the density of oil = 900 kg
m3, the magnitude of q is :
[JEE-2010, 5/163, 2]
(A) 1.6 1019 C
(B) 3.2 1019 C
(C) 4.8 1019 C
(D) 8.0 1019 C

Consider an electric field E E 0 x , where E0 is a constant. The

IT

27.

strength

flux through the shaded area (as shown in the figure) due to this
field is :
[JEE-2011, 3/160, 1]
(A) 2E0a2
(C) E0a2

(D)

A spherical metal shell A of radius RA and a solid metal sphere B of radius RB (< RA) are kept far apart and
each is given charge +Q. Now they are connected by a thin metal wire. Then
[JEE-2011, 4/160]
(A) Einside
0
A

(B) QA > QB

A RB
(C) R
B
A

surface
(D) E on
E Bon surface
A

A wooden block performs SHM on a frictionless surface with frequency, 0. The block carries a charge +Q
on its surface. If now a uniform electric field E is switched-on as shown, then the SHM of the block will be
[JEE-2011, 3/160, 1]

-O
N

29.

E0 a 2

IN

28*.

2
2 E0a

S
T

(B)

(A) of the same frequency and with shifted mean position.


(B) of the same frequency and with the same mean position.
(C) of changed frequency and with shifted mean position.
(D) of changed frequency and with the same mean position.

30.

RES

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?


[JEE-2011, 4/160 ]
(A)
If the electric field due to a point charge varies as r 2.5 instead of r 2, then the Gauss law will still be
valid.
(B)
The Gauss law can be used to calculate the field distribution around an electric dipole.
(C)
If the electric field between two point charges is zero somewhere, then the sign of the two charges
is the same.
(D)
The work done by the external force in moving a unit positive charge from point A at potential VA to
point B at potential VB is (VB VA).

ELECTROSTATICS - 135

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


31.

Consider a thin spherical shell of radius R with its centre at the origin, carrying uniform positive surface

charge density. The variation of the magnitude of the electric field E(r ) and the electric potential V(r) with

(B)

(C)

(D)

S
T

Six point charges are kept at the vertices of a regular hexagon of side L

IN

32.

IT

(A)

the distance r from the centre, is best represented by which graph? [JEE-2012, Paper-1 : 3/70, 1]

1 q
and centre O, as shown in the figure. Given that K = 4 2 , which of
0 L

-O
N

the following statement (s) is (are) correct? [JEE-2012, Paper-1 : 4/66]


(A) the elecric field at O is 6K along OD
(B) The potential at O is zero
(C) The potential at all points on the line PR is same
(D) The potential at all points on the line ST is same.

PART - II : AIEEE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)

1.

A thin spherical conducting shell of radius R has a charge q. Another charge Q is placed at the centre of the
shell. The electrostatic potential at a point P at a distance R/2 from the centre of the shell is :
[ AIEEE-2003, 4/300]
2Q
(1) 4 R
0

2.

2Q
q
(3) 4 R 4 R
0
0

(q Q ) 2
(4) 4 R
R
0

Three charges q1, + q2 and q3 are placed as shown in the figure. The
x-component of the force on q1 is proportional to : [ AIEEE-2003, 4/300]
(1)

(3)

RES

2Q
2q
(2) 4 R 4 R
0
0

q2
b

q2
b

q3
a

q3
a

cos

(2)

cos

(4)

q2
b

q2
b

q3
a2
q3
a2

sin

sin

ELECTROSTATICS - 136

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


3.

If the electric flux entering and leaving an enclosed surface respectively is 1 and 2, the electric charge
inside the surface will be :
[AIEEE-2003, 4/300]
(1) (2 1)0
(2) (1 + 2)/0
(3) (2 1)/0
(4) (1 + 2) 0

4.

Two spherical conductors B and C having equal radii and carrying equal charges repel each other with a
force F when kept apart at some distance. A third spherical conductor having same radius as that of B but
uncharged is brought in contact with B, then brought in contact with C and finally removed away from both.
The new force of repulsion between B and C is :
[AIEEE-2004, 4/300]
(2)

3F
4

(3)

3F
8

(2) 2r

(3)

r Q

(1) r

r
2

(4)

r
4

Four charges equal to Q each are placed at the four corners of a square and a charge q is at its centre.
If the system is in equilibrium, the value of q is:
[AIEEE-2004, 4/300]

Q
(1 2 2 )
4

(2)

Q
(1 2 2 )
4

(3)

Q
(1 2 2 )
2

S
T

(1)

(4)

Q
(1 2 2 )
2

A charged oil drop is suspended in uniform field of 3 104 V/m so that it neither falls nor rises. The charge
on the drop will be :
(take the mass of the charge = 9.9 1015 kg, g = 10m/s2)
[AIEEE-2004, 4/300]
(1) 3.3 1018 C
(2) 3.2 1018 C
(3) 1.6 1018 C
(4) 4.8 1018 C

8.

A charged ball B hangs from a silk thread S, which makes an angle with
a large charged conducting sheet P, as shown in the figure. The surface
charge density of the sheet is proportional to: [AIEEE-2005, 4/300]
(1) sin
(2) tan
(3) cos
(4) cot

IN

7.

10.

qR

Two thin wire rings, each having a radius R are placed at a distance d apart with their axes coinciding. The
charges on the two rings are + q and q. The potential difference between the centers of the two rings is:
[AIEEE-2005, 4/300]
(1) zero

11.

+
+
+
+
P +
+
+
+
+
+

Two point charges + 8 q and 2q are located at x = 0 and x = L respectively. The location of a point on the
x axis at which the net electric field due to these two point charges is zero is:
[AIEEE-2005, 4/300]
(1) 8L
(2) 4L
(3) 2L
(4) L/4

-O
N

9.

RES

(4)

A charged particle 'q' is shot towards another charged particle 'Q', which is fixed, with a speed 'v'. It
approaches 'Q' upto a closest distance r and then returns. If q were given a speed of '2v', the closest
distance of approach would be :
[AIEEE-2004, 4/300]
q

6.

F
8

IT

5.

F
4

(1)

(3)

4 0 d

q
(2) 4
0

R
R 2 d2

1
q 1

(4) 2
0
R
R 2 d2

An electric dipole is placed at an angle of 30o to a non-uniform electric field. The dipole will experience
[AIEEE-2006, 4/220]
(1) A torque as well as a translational force.
(2) A torque only.
(3) A translational force only in the direction of the field.
(4) A translational force only in a direction normal to the direction of the field.
ELECTROSTATICS - 137

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


12.

Two insulating plates are both uniformly charged in such a way that the potential difference between them is
V2 - V1 = 20 V. (i.e. plate 2 is at a higher potential). The plates are separated by d = 0.01 m and can be
treated as infinitely large. An electron is released from rest on the inner surface of plate 1. What is its speed
when it hits plate 2? (e = 1.6 10-19 C, me = 9.11 10-31 kg)
[AIEEE-2006, 4/220]

Y
0.01 m

(1) 1.87 106 m/s

(2) 32 10-19 m/s

(3) 2.65 106 m/s

(4) 7.02 1012 m/s

Two spherical conductors A and B of radii 1 mm and 2mm are separated by a distance of 5 cm and are
uniformly charged. If the spheres are connected by a conducting wire then in equilibrium condition, the
ratio of the magnitude of the electric fields at the surfaces of sphere A and B is : [AIEEE-2006, 4/220]
(1) 2 : 1
(2) 1 : 4
(3) 4 : 1
(4) 1 : 2

14.

An electric charge 103C is placed at the origin (0,0) of XY co-ordinate system. Two points A and B are

(1) 9 volt

2, 2 and (2,0) respectively. The potential difference between the points A and B will be
(2) zero

[AIEEE-2007, 3/120]
(4) 4.5 volt

(3) 2 volt

S
T

situated at

IT

13.

15.

Charges are placed on the vertices of a square as shown. Let E be the


electric field and V the potential at the centre. If the charges on A and B
are interchanged with those on D and C respectively, then [AIEEE-2007, 3/120]

(1) E remains unchanged, V changes

The potential at a point x (measured in m) due to some charges situated on the x-axis is given by
V(x) = 20/(x2 4) volts. The electric field E at x = 4 m is given by :
[AIEEE-2007, 3/120]
(1) 5/3 volt/m and in the ve x direction
(2) 5/3 volt/m and in the +ve x direction
(3) 10/9 volt/m and in the ve x direction
(4) 10/9 volt/m and in the +ve x direction

17.

A thin spherical shell of radius R has charge Q spread uniformly over its surface. Which of the following
graphs most closely represents the electric field E (r) produced by the shell in the range 0 < r < , where r
is the distance from the centre of the shell?
[AIEEE-2008, 3/105]

-O
N

16.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Two points P and Q are maintained at the potentials of 10 V and 4 V respectively. The work done in
moving 100 electrons from P to Q is :
[AIEEE-2009, 4/144]
(1) 9.60 1017 J
(2) 2.24 1016 J
(3) 2.24 1016 J
(4) 9.60 1017 J

19.

A charge Q is placed at each of the opposite corners of a square. A charge q is placed at each of the other
two corners. If the net electrical force on Q is zero, then Q/q equals:
[AIEEE-2009, 4/144]

18.

(1) 1
RES

(4) E changes, V remains unchanged

IN

(3) E and V remain unchanged

(2) Both E and V change

(2) 1

(3)

1
2

(4) 2 2
ELECTROSTATICS - 138

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


20.

Statement 1 : For a charged particle moving from point P to point Q, the net work done by an electrostatic
field on the particle is independent of the path connecting point P to point Q.
[AIEEE-2009, 6/144]
Statement 2 : The net work done by a conservative force on an object moving along a closed loop is zero.
(1) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2 is the correct explanation of Statement-1.
(2) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2 is not the correct explanation of Statement-1.
(3) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true.
(4) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false.

21.

Let (r) =

R4

r be the charge density distribution for a solid sphere of radius R and total charge Q. For a

4 0R

(3)

Qr12

(4) 0

3 0R 4

A thin semi-circular ring of radius r has a positive charge q distributed

uniformly over it. The net field E at the centre O is : [AIEEE-2010, 4/144]
q

(1)

4 0r

2 0r

(2)

4 0r 2
q

(4)

2 0r 2

S
T

(3)
23.

Qr12

IT

22.

(2)

(1) 4 r 2
01

point P inside the sphere at distance r1 from the centre of sphere, the magnitude of electric field is:
[AIEEE-2009, 4/144]

Let there be a spherically symmetric charge distribution with charge density v arying as
5 r
(r ) 0 upto r = R, and (r) = 0 for r > R, where r is the distance from the origin. The
4 R

(1)

(2)

0r
4 0

5 r

3 R

(3)

4 0 r 5 r

3 0 4 R

[AIEEE-2010, 4/144]
(4)

0r
3 0

5 r

4 R

Two identical charged spheres are suspended by strings of equal lengths. The strings make an angle of 30
with each other. When suspended in a liquid of density 0.8 g cm3, the angle remains the same. If density
of the material of the sphere is 1.6 g cm3, the dielectric constant of the liquid is
[AIEEE-2010, 8/144]
(1) 4
(2) 3
(3) 2
(4) 1

-O
N

24.

4 0 r 5 r

3 0 3 R

IN

electric field at a distance r (r < R) from the origin is given by

The electrostatic potential inside a charged spherical ball is given by = ar2 + b where r is the distance
from the centre; a,b are constants. Then the charge density inside the ball is :
[AIEEE - 2011, 4/120, 1]
(1) 24 a0r
(2) 6 a0r
(3) 24 a0
(4) 6 a0

26.

Two positive charges of magnitude q are placed at the ends of a side (side 1) of a square of side 2a. Two
negative charges of the same magnitude are kept at the other corners. Starting from rest, if a charge Q
moves from the middle of side 1 to the centre of square, its kinetic energy at the centre of square is :
[AIEEE 2011, 11 May; 4, 1]

25.

RES

(1) zero

1 2qQ
1
1

(2) 4

a
5
0

1 2qQ
2
1

(3) 4

a
5
0

1 2qQ
1
1

(4) 4

a
5
0

ELECTROSTATICS - 139

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


27.

In a uniformly charged sphere of total charge Q and radius R, the electric field E is plotted as function of
distance from the centre. The graph which would correspond to the above will be :
[AIEEE 2012 ; 4/120, 1]

(2)

(4)

This question has statement-1 and statement-2. Of the four choices given after the statements, choose the
one that best describes the two statements.
[AIEEE 2012 ; 4/120, 1]
An insulating solid sphere of radius R has a unioformly positive charge density . As a result of this uniform
charge distribution there is a finite value of electric potential at the centre of the sphere, at the surface of the
sphere and also at a point out side the sphere. The electric potential at infinite is zero.
Statement-1 : When a charge q is taken from the centre to the surface of the sphere its potential energy
q
.
3 0

IT

changes by

28.

(3)

(1)

29.

S
T

r
Statement-2 : The electric field at a distance r (r < R) from the centre of the sphere is 3
0
(1) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement-2 is not the correct explanation of statement-1.
(2) Statement 1 is true Statement 2 is false.
(3) Statement 1 is false Statement 2 is true.
(4) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true, Statement 2 is the correct explanation of Statement 1.

Two charges, each equal to q, are kept at x = a and x = a on the x-axis. A particle of mass m and charge

(1) y

(2) y

(3)

1
y

(4)

1
y

A charge Q is uniformly distributed over a long rod AB of length L

30.

IN

q
q0 is placed at the origin. If charge q0 is given a small displacement (y <<a) along the y-axis, the net
2
force acting on the particle is proportional to :
[JEE-Mains 2013, 4/120]

-O
N

as shown in the figure. The electric potential at the point O lying at


distance L from the end A is : [JEE-Mains 2013, 4/120]

PART - III : CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)

An electrostatic field line cannot be discontinuous why ?

2.

Define electric field intensity. Write its S.I unit. Write the magnitude and direction of electric field intensity
due to an electric dipole of length 2a at the mid-point of the line joining the two charges.
[CBSE 2005]

3.

Three point charge of +2C, 3C and 3C are kept at the vertices,


A, B and C respectively of an equilateral triangle of side 20 cm as
shown in the figure. What should be the sign and magnitude of the
charge to be placed at the mid-point (M) of side BC so that the
charge at A remains in equilibrium?
[CBSE-2005]

1.

4.

[CBSE 2005]

+2 C
A

B
3 C

lim
The electric field E due to a point charge at any point near it is defined as E q0

charge and F is the force acting on it. What is the physical significance of
electric field lines of a point change Q when (i) Q > 0 and (ii) Q < 0.
RES

M
20cm

lim
q0

C
3 C

F
,where q is the test
q

in this expression ? Draw the


[CBSE 2007]
ELECTROSTATICS - 140

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


Define electric flux. Write its S.I units. A spherical rubber balloon carries a charge that is uniformly distributed
over its surface. As the balloon is blown up and increases in size, how does the total electric flux coming out
of the surface change ? Give reason.
[CBSE 2007]

6.

Calculate the work done to dissociate the system of three charges placed on the vertices of a triangle as
shown. Here q = 1.6 1010 C
[CBSE 2007]

7.

The electric field components due to charge inside the cube of side 0.1 m as shown :[CBSE BOARD 2008]

IT

5.

S
T

0.1 m

IN

0.1 m

Ex = ax, where a = 500 N/C-m


Ey = 0, EZ = 0
Calculate (i) the flux through the cube, and (ii) the charge inside the cube.

Two point charges 20 x 106 C and 4 x 106 C are separated by a distance of 50 cm in air.
(i) Find the point on the line joining the charges, where the electric potential is zero.
(ii) Also find the electrostatic potential energy of the system.
[CBSE BOARD 2008 ]

-O
N

8.

A positive point charge (+q) is kept in the vicinity of an uncharged conducting plate. Sketch electric field
lines originating from the point on to the surface of the plate. Derive the expression for the electric field at
the surface of charged conductor.
[CBSE BOARD 2009 ]

10.

Point out right or wrong for the following statements :


[CBSE BOARD 2009 ]
(a) The mutual forces between two charges do not get affected by the presence of other charges.
(b) The potential, due to a dipole, at any point on its axial line, is zero.

11.

Two charges +Q and Q are kept at (x2, 0) and (x1, 0) respectively in the x y plane. Find the magnitude
and direction of the net electric field at the origin (0, 0)
[CBSE BOARD 2009 ]

12.

(a) A charge +Q is placed on a large spherical conducting shell of radius R. Another small conducting
sphere of radius r carrying charge q is introduced inside the large shell and is placed at its centre. Find
the potential difference between two points, one lying on the sphere and the other on the shell.
(b) How would the charge between the two flow if they are connected by a conducting wire ? Name the
device which works on this fact.
[CBSE BOARD 2009 ]

13.

A spherical conducting shell of inner radius r1 and outer radius r2 has a charge Q. A point charge q is
placed at the centre of the shell.
[CBSE BOARD 2010 ]
(a) What is the surface charge density on the (i) inner surface (ii) outer surface of the shell ?
(b) Write the expression for the electric field at a point x > r2 from the centre of the shell ?

9.

RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 141

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


14.

Show that the electric field at the surface of a charged conductor is given by E n , where is the surface
0

charge density and n is a unit vector normal to the surface in the outward direction .
[CBSE BOARD 2010 ]
A dipole is present in an electrostatic field of magnitude 106 N/C. If the work done in rotating it, from its
position of stable equilibrium to its position of unstable equilibrium, equals 2 1023 J, find the magnitude of
the dipole moment of this dipole.
[CBSE BOARD 2010 ]

16.

Figure shows three point charges +2q, q and + 3q. Two charges + 2q and q are enclosed within a
surface S. What is the electric flux due to this configuration through the surface S?
[CBSE BOARD 2010 ]

17.

In which orientation, a dipole placed in a uniform electric field is in (i) stable, (ii) unstable equilibrium?
[CBSE BOARD 2010 ]

18.

(a)

Depict the equipotential surfaces for a system of two identical positive point charges placed a
distance d apart.
[CBSE BOARD 2010 ]
Deduce the expression for the potential energy of a system of two point charges q1 and q2 brought

S
T

(b)

IT

15.

from infinity to the r1 points r2 and respectively in the presence of external electric field .
A proton is placed in a uniform electric field directed along the positive x-axis. In which direction will it tend
to move.
[CBSE BOARD 2011]

20.

(a) Draw equipotential surfaces due to a point charge Q > 0.


(b) Are these surfaces equidistant from each other? If not explain why.

IN

19.

A point charge Q is placed at point O as shown in the figure. Is the potential difference VA VB positive,
negative or zero, if Q is (i) positive (ii) negative?
[CBSE 2011]

22.

Two small identical electrical dipole AB and CD, each of dipole moment 'p'
are kept at an angle of 120 as shown in the figure. What is the resultant
dipole moment of this combination? If this system is subjected to electric

field (E ) directed along + X direction, what will be the magnitude and


direction of the torque acting on this?
[CBSE 2011]

-O
N

21.

Two point charges having equal charges separated by 1m distance experience a force of 8 N. What will
be the force experienced by them, if they are held in water, at the same distance ? (Given : Kwater = 80)
[CBSE 2011]

24.

State Gauss's law. Use it to deduce the expression for the electric field due to a uniformly charged thin
spherical shell at points (i) inside and (ii) outside the shell.
[CBSE 2011]

23.

25.

Define electric dipole moment. Write its S.I. unit.

26.

Two point charges 3 C and 3 C are placed at points A and B apart.


(i) Draw the equipotential surfaces of the system.
[CBSE 2011]
(ii) Why do the equipotential surfaces get closer to each other near the point charges ?
A hollow metal sphere of radius 10 cm is charged such that the potential on its surface is 5V. What is the
potential at the centre of the sphere ?
[CBSE 2011]

27.
RES

[CBSE BOARD 2011]

[CBSE 2011]

ELECTROSTATICS - 142

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


A thin straight infinitely long conducting wire having charge density is enclosed by a cylindrical surface
of radius r and length l, its axis coinciding with the length of the wire. Find the expression for the electric
flux through the surface of the cylinder.
[CBSE 2011]

29.

Why must electrostatic field be normal to the surface at every point of a charged conductor ? [CBSC 2012]

30.

Draw a plot showing the variation of (i) electric field (E) and (ii) electric potential (V) with distance r due to
a point charge Q.
[CBSC 2012]

31.

Explain the principle of device that can build up high voltages of the order of a few million volts.
Draw a schematic diagram and explain the working of this device.
[CBSE 2012]
Is there any restriction on the upper limit of the high voltages set up in this machine ? Explain.

32.

(a) Define electric flux. Write its S.I.units.


[CBSE 2012]
(b) Using Gausss law, prove that the electric field at point due to a uniformly charged infinite plane sheet is
independent of the distance from it.
(c) How is the field directed if (i) the sheet is positively charged, (ii) negatively charged ?

33.

A charge 'q' is placed at the centre of a cube of side l. What is the electric flux passing through each face
of the cube.?
[CBSE 2012]

34.

A test charge 'q' is moved without acceleration from A to C along the path from A to B and then B to C in
electric field E as shown in the figure (i) Calculate the potential difference between A and C. (ii) At which
point (of the two) is the electric potential more and why?
[CBSE 2012]

35.

An electric dipole is held in a uniform electric field.


[CBSE 2012]
(i) Show that the net force acting on it is zero.
(ii) The dipole is aligned parallel to the field. Find the work done in rotating it through the angle of 180.

-O
N

IN

S
T

IT

28.

RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 143

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

5.

6.

7.

8.

1 p 3 cos 2 1
.
4 0
r3

where is the angle, which the line joining the


observation point and the centre of the dipole
makes with the dipole.
No it does not experience a torque, when it is
placed along the direction of electric field.
The torque is maximum, when the electric dipole
is placed perpendicular to the direction of electric field.
The charged particle may or may not move along
an electric line of force. If the charged particle
was initially at rest, it will move along an electric
line of force. In case the charged particle had
some initial velocity making certain angle with a
line of force, then its resultant path will not be
along the line of force.
Electric flux is associated with electric field.
The electric flux through a surface held inside
an electric field represents the total number of
electric lines of force crossing the surface in a
direction normal to the surface.
If a gaussian surface does not include any net
charge, there can be electric field on the surface of the gaussian surface but parallel to the
surface. However, it will require that there should
be some source charge outside the gaussian
surface.

-O
N

9.

E=

10.

11.

12.

RES

16.

15.

4.

In order to find electric field due to a charge


distribution by applying Gauss theorem, one is
required to evaluate a surface integral. The surface integral can be evaluated easily by choosing a suitable gaussian surface for the charge
distribution.
The magnitude of electric field due to an infinite
plane sheet of charge is independent of the distance of the observation point from the sheet of
charge.
(a) in the region between the two infinite parallel
planes having uniform charge densities , the
electric field is equal to /0.
(b) The electric field is zero in the region outside the plates. The problem has symmetry due
to infinite extension of planes.
Since points A and B are at the same distance
from the charge +q placed at centre of the
circle(fig.), the points A and B are at same potential.

S
T

3.

14.

IN

2.

(i) On glass rod : positive charge and on silk :


negative charge
(ii) On ebonite rod : negative charge and on
wool : positive charge.
When q1q2 < 0, if implies that if one charge is
positive, the other must be negative, Hence,
when q1q2 < 0, the force between the two charges
will be attractive in nature.
Because electrostatic force between two charges
acts along the line joining the two charges.
In case, test charge is not vanishingly small, it
will produce its own electric field and the measured value of electric field will be different from
the actual value of electric field at that point.
1. Both the charges can not be of same sign.
2. The observation point (where electric field intensity is zero) has to be closer to the smaller
charge than to the bigger charge.
The tangent at a point on the line of force gives
the direction of electric field at the point. If two
lines of force intersect each other at a point,
then electric field at the point will have two directions. As the same cannot be ture, two lines of
force can never intersect each other.

1.

13.

IT

BOARD LEVEL EXERCISE : HINT & SOLUTIONS

17.

18.

Hence, work done in taking a charge +q from


point A to B is zero.
Points a and B are at same potential (fig.). It
follows that
VC VA = V C VB
Hence, work done in taking a point charge from
A to C or from C to B will be the same.
Electric field at any point is equal to the negative
of potential gradient at that point i.e.
dV
dr
The work done in moving a test charge between
the points on an equipotential surface can be
zero, only if electric field is at right angles to the
equipotential surface.
In practice, the charge on a charged body is
very large. On the other hand, the charge on
and electron is very small. When electrons are
added to a body (negatively charged body) or
removed from a body (positively charged body),
the change taking place in the total charge on
the body is so small that the charge seems to be
varying in a continuous manner. Therefore, quantization of electric charge can be ignored, when
dealing with a large scale charged body.

E=

19.

20.

ELECTROSTATICS - 144

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

25.

The electric lines of force cannot pass through


a conductor. As a result, there can be no electric field inside a conductor. hence, electric field
intensity inside a conductor is zero.
Draw a spherical shell of radius r1 through the
point P1 as gaussian surface. If E1 is electric
field at point P1, then according to Gauss theorem, we have
Q
E1 4r12 =
0

26.

1
Q
E1 = 4 . 2
r
0
1

24.

Since electric field inside a conductor is zero,


the electric field at point P2 will be zero.
Let us again consider the gaussian surface
(shown dotted) so that it encloses the cavity and
the conductor B with charge q inserted in the
cavity (fig.)

S
T

IT

22.

Yes, two balls having same kind of charge can


attract each other, if one ball possesses charge
quite large as compared to that on the other ball.
The reason is that when two charged balls are
placed near each other, they induce opposite
kinds of charges on the faces of each other.
Since on the ball having a small amount of
charge, get attracted towards each other due to
the force between the large inducing charge of
one ball and the large induced charge (opposite
in nature) on the other ball.
Charges 1 and 2 are deflected towards the positive plate, hence they are negatively charged
particles. On the other hand, charge 3 is positively charged particle, as it gets deflected towards negative plate

21.

IN

Since all the three charged particles are crossing the electric field with same velocities, they
remain under the action of electric field E (say)
for the same time t. the deflection produced in
the path of a charged particle along the vertical,

1 2
at
2
Now, the initial velocity of the charged particle
along vertical is zero. If e is charge on a particle
and m is its mass, then acceleration produced
in its path,
eE
m

-O
N

a=

27.

y = ut +

1 eE 2 1 eE 2
t
t
2 m
2 m
As E and t are same for all the charged particles, it follows that

23.

RES

y=0t+

e
y
m
An electric line of force is the path along which
a unit positive charge will move inside the electric field, if it is free to do so.
The importance of electric line of force is that
the tangent at any point to it gives the direction
of electric field at that point.
Further, the relative closeness of the electric lines
of force in different regions of an electric field
provides an estimate of the strength of the electric field in those regions.

28

As such the electric flux will cross the gaussian


surface and it would imply that the electric filed
exists inside the codnductor A. But the electric
field inside the conductor A must be zero. It will
be true only, if the charge q on conductor B
induces charge q on the inner surface and +q
on the outer surface of the conductor A. As there
is already a charge +Q on the outer surface of
the conductor A, the total charge on its outer
surface becomes Q + q.
The electric field inside a hollow conductor is
zero. Therefore, if an object located inside a
hollow conductor is subjected to electric field,
there will be no effect of electric field on the
object. In other words, the hollow conductor
shields the object from the external electric field.
This concept is made use of to shield the wires
carrying audio signals (low frequency signal)
from the external electric fields, such as that due
to atmospheric electricity or due to electric
sparks. If such wires are not shielded, the audio signal will give rise to a noisy sound on reproduction.
Yes, it is possible. For this to happen, place the
charged conductor inside a hollow conductor so
that it touches the inside wall of the hollow conductor. Now, whatsoever charge is given to the
charged conductor, it gets immediately transferred to the hollow conductor. It is because of
the fact that in case of a charged conductor, the
charge always resides on its surface.
In fact, it forms the principle of Van de Graaff
generator.
ELECTROSTATICS - 145

charge position vector source charge.

( r = position vector of test charge w.r.t.


source charge)
(i) When we will use this formula in vector
form then we have to put value of charges
with their sign.

(ii) If the force F12 on charge q 1 due to

charge q2, and F21 is force on charge q2 due

to charge q1 then F12

1 q1 q2
r12 F21
2
4 0 r21

IN

31.

kq q
F 1 32 r where r = position vector of test
|r |

IT

30.

The work done in moving a test charge between


two points in an electric field is independent of
path i.e. the work done depends only on the location of initial and final positions of the charge.
In fact, it is true for all the fields obeying inverse
square law.
(i) In Fig. (a), as the field is due to positive
charge, VP VQ > 0.
In Fig. (b), as the field is due to negative charge,
VA VB < 0 or VB VA > 0
(ii) The potential energy of a negative charge at
point Q will be negative and at point P, it will be
still more negative therefore,
(P.E.)Q (P.E.)P > 0
For similar reasons .
(P.E.)A (P.E.)B > 0
(iii) A small positive charge will tend to move from
point P to Q and work done by the field in moving the charge from point P to Q will be positive.
Therefore, work done by electric field in moving
a small positive charge from point Q to P will be
negative.
(iv) For the reason as given in (iii), work done
by external agency in moving a small negative
charge from B to A will be positive.
(v) As the potential energy of the negative charge
increases, kinetic energy of the negative charge
decreases in going from point B to A.
(i) Charge is quantized : Charge on any body
always exists in integral multiples of a fundamental unit of electric charge. This unit is equal
to the magnitude of charge on electron (1e =
1.6 1019 coulomb). So charge on anybody
is Q = ne, where n is an integer and e is the
charge of the electron. Millikan's oil drop
experiment proved the quantization of charge
or atomicity of charge
(ii) Charge is conserved : In an isolated system, total charge (sum of positive and negative) remains constant whatever change takes
place in that system.
(iii) Charge is a scalar quantity : It adds
algebraically and represents excess or deficiency of electrons.
Coulomb low in vector form
Let us consider q 1 and q 2 are placed at
positions

r1 x1i y1j z1k and r2 x 2 i y 2 j z2k

S
T

29.

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

-O
N

33.

32.

respectively. If we want to calculate coulomb


force on q2 due to q1 then q1 will be considered
as a source charge and q2 will be considered
as test charge.

Consider an element of charge dq. Due to


this element, the electric field at the point on
axis, which is at a distance x from the centre
of the ring is dE.
There are two components of this electric field
dE
dEX

RES

dEY
ELECTROSTATICS - 146

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


The y-component of electric field due to all
the elements will be cancelled out to each
other. So net electric field intensity at the point
will be only due to X-component of each element.

K( dq)

x2

dECos

kx

R2 X2

(R 2 x 2 )3 / 2

dq

dE

Enet =

KQx
2

[R x 2 ] 3 / 2

R
2

2 KQ

and Emax =

if x>>R, E =

KQ

x2
a point charge

3 R

, hence the ring will act like

Properties :

-O
N

IN

(i) Line of force originates out from a positive


charge and terminates on a negative charge.
If there is only one positive charge, then lines
starts from positive charge and terminates at
. If there is only one negative charge, then
lines starts from and terminates at negative
charge.

RES

because there cannot be two directions of E at


a single Point

impossilble

(iii) Electric lines of force produced by static


charges do not form closed loop.
If lines of force make a closed loop, then work
done to move a +q charge along the loop will be
non-zero. So it will not be conservative field. So
these type of lines of force are not possible in
electrostatics.

S
T

34.

dE
= 0, that is at x=
dx

E will be max when

(ii) Two lines of force never intersect each other

IT

Enet =

(iv) The Number of lines per unit area (line density) represents
the magnitude of electric field.
If lines are dense E will be more
If Lines are rare E will be less
and if E = 0, no line of force will be found there

(v) Number of lines originating (terminating) at


a charge is proportional to the magnitude of
charge

ELECTROSTATICS - 147

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


Electric Dipole
Definition :
(i) If two point charges, equal in magnitude
q and opposite in sign separated by a
distance a such that the distance of field point
r>>a, the system is called a dipole.
(ii) The electric dipole moment is defined as
a vector quantity having magnitude p = (q
a) and direction from negative charge to
positive charge.
For points on the equatorial plane
The magnitudes of the electric fields due to the
two charges +q and q are given by
q
40

1
a2
r2
4

E q

q
40

an electric dipole is defined by

p q ap

that is it is a vector whose magnitude is charge


q times the separation a (between the pair of
charges q, q) and the direction is along the

line from q to q. In terms of p , the electric field


of a dipole at large distance takes dimple forms:
At a point on the dipole axis

2p
E
(r >> a)
4 0r 3

E q

It is clear that the dipole field at large distances


does not involve q and a separately; it depends
on the product qa. This suggests the definition

of dipole moment. The dipole moment vector p of

1
r2

a2
4

35.

(i) Dipole is placed along electric field :

IN

S
T

36.

IT

At a point on the equatorial plane

p
E
(r >> a)
4 0r 3

and are equal

The directions of E q and E q are as shown in

(ii)

In this case, Fnet = 0, net = 0, so it is an equilibrium state. And it is a stable equilibrium position.

If the dipole is placed at angle from E : -

Fig. Clearly, the components normal to the dipole


axis cancel away. The components along the
dipole axis add up. The total electric field is

-O
N

opposite to p . We have

E (E q E q ) cos

cos =

a2
2 r 2

qa

1/ 2

a2
40 r 2

At large distances (r >> a), this reduces to

qa
40r 3

In this case Fnet = 0 but


Net torque = (qEsin) (a)
Here qa = P = PE sin

in vector form :
P E

p
3/2

(r >> a)

37.

Line charge density


For a line charge distribution, the linear charge
density of a wire is defined by

RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 148

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


where is a small line element of wire on the
macroscopic scale that, however, includes a
large number of microscopic charged constituents, and Q is the charge contained in that line
element. The units for are C/m.
(i)

Q
V
where Q is the charge included in the macroscopically small volume element V that includes
a large number of microscopic charged constituents. The units for are C/m3

Volume charge density


The volume charge density (sometimes simply
called charge density) is defined in a similar
manner:

The circle on the sign of integration indicates


that the integration is to be carried out over
the closed surface.
Electric field due to solid sphere (having
uniformly distributed charge Q and radius R):
Electric field outside the sphere :
Direction of electric field is radially outwards, so
we will choose
a spherical Gaussian surface Applying Gauss`s
theorem

Q,R
+

+ +
+

+
+

S
T

IT

qin

GAUSS'S LAW IN ELECTROSTATICS OR


GAUSS'S THEOREM
Defin itio n : T hi s law was st at ed by a
mathematician Karl F Gauss. This law gives
the relation between the electric field at a point
on a closed surface and the net charge
enclosed by that surface. This surface is
called Gaussian surf ace. It i s a closed
hypothetical surface. Its validity is shown by
experiments. It is used to determine the electric
f i el d due t o som e sym m et r i c charge
distributions.
Statement and Details :
Gauss's law is stated as given below :
The surface integral of the electric field
intensity over any closed hypothetical surface
(called Gaussian surface) in free space is

-O
N
equal to

1
times the total charge enclosed
0

E .ds

E (4r2) =

IN

38.

(ii)

= net = =

| E || ds | cos0

ds

E (4r2)

or

Eout = 4 r 2

Electric field inside a solid sphere :

++
+ ++ +
+ +
+ +
+ +
+
+ + + +
++
+ +
++
+ +
+ ++ +
+

Q,R +
+
+ +
r+
++
++
+
++
+ ++ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
++ ++
++

G.S

Q = Total charges
contained by solid
sphere
R = Radins of sphere

within the surface. Here, 0 is the permittivity


of free space.
n

If S is the Gaussian surface and

is the

i1

tot al charge enclosed by the Gaussian


surface, then according to Gauss's law,
E =

RES

1
E dS =
0

For this choose a spherical Gaussian surface


inside the
solid sphere Applying Gauss`s theorem for this
surface

E.ds = net =

qin
.

qi .

i1

ELECTROSTATICS - 149

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


(iii) Since work done is independent of the
path, we choose a convenient path - along
the radial direction from infinity to the point
A.
(iv) At some intermediate point A on the path,
the electrostatic force on a unit positive charge
is

4
Qr 3
r 3 =
qinside = (volume) =
4 3 3
R3
R
3

E (4r2)=

qinside
0

FE

Qr 3
R

Q r

VB VA

Ein =

4 R 3

Fext FE

dw = Fext . d r

W AB
q0

S
T

If point A is to be considered at infinity then


VA = V = 0
W
VB B
q0

IN

rA

Derivation : (i) Consider a positive point


charge Q at the origin. We wish to determine
the potential at any point A with position vector
r from the origin.
(ii) Work done in bringing a unit positive test
charge from infinity to the point A. For Q > 0.
The work done against the repulsive force on
the test charge is positive.

w A

dw

rA

4 r

dr

Q
= VA V 4 r (V = 0)
0 A

(reference point is taken at infinity)

-O
N

A
RES

WA
q0

(FE ) . (d r )

dw FE ( dr )

(Here r is decreasing so we will take dr


negative)

Electrical potential due to a point charge


The electrostatic potential at a point in an
electric field due to the point charge may be
defined as the amount of work done per unit
positive test charge in moving it from infinity
to that point (without acceleration) against the
electrostatic force due to the electric field of
point charge.
It is a scalar quantity.
Consider a point charge +q placed at point
O. Suppose that VA is electric potential at point
A, whose distance from the source charge
+q is rA
If W A is work done in moving a vanishingly
small positive test charge q 0 from infinity to
point A, then
VA

r where is the unit vector along


r

IT

39.

E=

4 0r 2

OP. W ork done by electric field on test

charge for small displacement d r as shown


in figure .

kQ

r
R3
Electrostatic potential at a point in an electric
field
Definition : The electrostatic potential at a point
in an electric field is defined as the amount of
work done per unit positive test charge in
moving it from infinity to that point against the
electrostatic force due to the electric field.

ds =

Q
= VA 4 r
0 A

In case, the distance of point A is from the


charge +Q is denoted by r
V

40.

Q
4 0r

Potential energy of a system of two point


charges :
Suppose, first the charge q 1 is brought from

infinity to the point . r1 . There is no external


field against which work needs to be done, so
work done in bringing q1 from infinity to r 1 is
zero. This charge produces a potential in
space given by
1 q1
V1 = 4 r
0 1P

ELECTROSTATICS - 150

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


where r1P is the distance of a point P in space
from the location of q1. From the definition of
potential, work done in bringing charge q2 from

infinity to the point r2 is q2 times the potential

at r2 due to q1 :

EXERCISE - 1
PAR T-I
SE CTION (A)
A-1.
5400 N, attractive.
A-2.

(4 i 3 k )
|F| = 0.18 N, F
.
5

where r12 is the distance between points 1


and 2.
Since electrostatic force is conservative , this
work gets stored in the form of potential
energy of the system. Thus the potential
energy of a system of two charges q 1 and q2
is

A-3.

q
q
q
q0K 21 22 ....... 220 = 1.89 106 N
r20
r2
r1

A-7.

Potential energy of a system of three point


charges.
Let us calculate the potential energy of a
system of three charges q1, q2 and q3 located

at r1 , r2 , r3 respectively. To bring q1 first from

infinity to r1 , no work is required. Next we

bring q2 from infinity to r2 . As before, work


done in this step is

A-8.

2
from charge 4 e ( If q is positive stable, If
3
q is negative unstable)
(a) moves towards the centre

(b)

S
T

41.

Kq1q2
= 0.144 N (ii)
= 6 m/s2
r2
mr 2
(iii) No (Magnitude is same but direction is
different)
1.0 x 10-6 C, 3 x 10-6 C
tan1 (1/100) = 0.6

A-5.
A-6.

1 q1q 2
4 0 r12

Kq1q2

(i)

IT

U=

A.4.

1 q1q 2
Work done on q2 = 4 r
0
12

...(1)

1 q1 q2

4 0 r1P r2P

-O
N

V1. 2

The charges q1 and q2 produce a potential,


which at any point P is given by
...(2)

Work done next in bringing q3 from infinity to

the point r3 is q3 times V1 . 2 at r3

q3 V1. 2 ( r3 )

1
4 0

q1q3 q2 q3

r
r23
13

...(3)

The total work done in assembling the charges


at the given locations is obtained by adding
the work done in different steps
(eq. (1) to (3)
1 q1q2 q1q3 q2 q3

4 0 r12
r13
r23

4Qq

3 3 0 d2

SE CTION (B)
B-1.

B-2.

F
= 5 103 N/C
q
T he el ect ron dev i at es by an angl e
tan 1

eE
mv 02

(from x axis) = 45

B-3.

30 cm from A along BA

B-4.

1 Kq

2 20
2

B-5.

2540 i 2000 j 1720k N/C.


QdA

B-6.

16 2 0 a 4

B-7.

(i)

4K
; along OP..
x

(ii)

4K

cot ; Perpendicular to OP..


x
2

B-8.

100 2 141s

B-9.

E A = 2 0 j ,

EC
RES

2 2

IN

1 q1q 2

q2V1( r2 ) = 4 r
0
12

A-9.

7
,
2 0 j

EB = 2 0 j ,

ED

,
2 0 j

ELECTROSTATICS - 151

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


B-10.

(R r )
(i)
3 0

(ii)

B-11.

(i) 0

(ii)

B-12.

(a) E =

R 3
3 0 (r R )
R 2
0 (r R ) 2

D-3.

D-4.

2
4 0 r

3Kqq 0
a

(i)

C-4.

400 volts

C-5.

1 1
W = Kqq0 = 1.2 J
rB rA

C-10.

C-12.

Kq2
3
1

2ma
2
3

(iv)

2Kq 2
ma

(v)

Kq2
3
1

ma
2
3
q(q0 q / 2)
q(q0 q / 2)
, W ext =
8 0R
8 0R

F-2.

K.E. =

4Qqk 1
1

a
5

F-3.

, 0,

1
4 0

Q (R r )
V = 4 . 2 2
0 R r

6Kqq0
a

3
1

2
3

SECTION (F)

1
= 1.579 J
45

4 2qk

IT
(iii)

1
(b) 4.5 2

0,

2Kq2 3 3 1

,
a
2
3

2Kq2 3 3 1

2
3
a

W el =

W el =

4Kq2
3
1

a
2
3

F.1

C-14. 1m
SE CTION (D)
D-1.
10 eV

RES

(i)

(a) 450 6 i 8 j V/m, 4.5 k V/m

where k =

D-2.

E-3.

K
m

S
T

=
(b a)
q0
2 0
(a) 0 (b) E.d = 40 V
(a) (8V/m) x
(b) points on the plane x = 20 m
(c) 80 V (8 V/m) x
(d) infinity
(a) + 4.5 10-5 J (b) 3 105 N/C
(c) 1.5 x 104 V
(a) 4.5 10-5 J (b) 3 105 N/C
(c) 1.5 104 V

C-13.

Qq
(b)
4 0 K
SE CTION (E)
E-1.
4.5 J
E-2.
9.0 103 J.

(a)

(ii) W ext =

-O
N

C-11.

103 m/s

D-5.

IN

C-9.

qQ
2 0 mR

(iii) No

C-7.
C-8.

(ii) v centre

(ii)

C-3.

C-6.

qQ
4 0 mR

(b) E = 0

SECTION (C)
C-1.
(i) q(V) = 20 mJ.
(ii) 20 mJ
(iii) q(V) +K.E. = 30 mJ (iv) 20mJ
(v) 30 mJ
C-2.
60 cm from A along BA and 20 cm from A
along AB
6Kqq0
a

(i) v surface

Q
1
2 4 0 d

6U 0
Joules
5
SE CTION (G)
G-1.
2xy + C

G-2.

2xy i (x 2 + 2yz) j y2 k

G-3.
G-4.
G-5.

(i) 4( i 2 k ) (ii) E 8r
V(3, 3) V(0, 0) = 90 V
40 V

G-6.

2r 3
+C
3

G-7.

2x 3
+ y3 + C
3
ELECTROSTATICS - 152

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

Q 2a 2 p 2

4 0a 3

2 qP

H-3.

H-4.

4 0 r 2

(i) E =

K
7K
,V=
8
4

6.023
J = 3.016 J (Approx)
2
SECTION ()
-1.
50 Nm 2/C.
-2.
0

H-5.

-3.

104

Nm
, 0 -4.
C

q/(2 0 )

(a)

Q
(b) 2A towards left
0

Q
2A

Q
(c) 2A

towards right
0

q
2

Q'1

2
3

-O
N

J-2.

Q
(d) 2A towards right
0

IN

J-1.

S
T

There is net positive charge in the close


surface.
SECTION (J)
-5.

J-3.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Q'2

2
3
30 = 12 C, 30 = 18 C
5
5

(i) on inner shell = 0, on outer shell = Q a + Q b

J-5.

(i) (r1/r 2)q


(ii) Charge on inner shell= (r 1/r 2 )q and
charge on the outer shell =q
(iii) Charge flown in to the earth =(r 1/r2)q

RES

(ii)

1.
4.

(A)
(B)

2.

'1 3

'2 2

r1r2
v 1 v 2 2 = 3/2 Joules
(iv) 20

r1 r2

J-4.

(A)

(B)
(D)
(A)

B-3.
B-6.

(C)
(A), (C)

(B)
(A)
(C)
(B)
(C)

C-3.
C-6.
C-9.
C-12.
C-15.

(C)
(A)
(D)
(A)
(D)

(B)

K
K 7
[ where K = 1/4 0 ]
(ii) E =
,V=
4
8

(B), (D) A-3.


(C)

H-2.

Qa 3 , along the bisector of the angle at


2Q, towards the triangle

(D)

E-3.

IT

H-1.

P AR T -I I
SE CTION (A)
A-1.
(D)
A-2.
A-4.
(A)
A-5.
SE CTION (B)
B-1.
(D)
B-2.
B-4.
(B)
B-5.
B-7.
(C)
B-8.
SECTION (C)
C-1.
(A)
C-2.
C-4.
(A)
C-5.
C-7.
(B)
C-8.
C-10. (C)
C-11.
C-13. (B)
C-14.
SE CTION (D)
D-1.
(C)
D-2.
SE CTION (E)
E-1.
(C)
E-2.
E-4.
(A), (C)
SECTION (F)
F-1.
(D)
F-2.
SE CTION (G)
G-1.
(A),(C) G-2.
G-4.
(A)
G-5.
G-7.
(B)
G-8.
SECTION (H)
H-1.
(C)
H-2.
H-4.
(C)
H-5.
H-7.
(C)
H-8.
SECTION ()
-1.
(B)
-2.
-4.
(B)
-5.
-7.
(D)
-8.
-10. (A),(B) -11.
-13. (C)
I-14.
SECTION (J)
J-1.
(B)
J-2.
J-4.
(C)
J-5.
J-6.
(C)
J-7.
J-9.
(A)
J-10.
J-12. (A)
J-13.

SE CTION (H)

(A)

(D)
(A)
(B)
(A)

G-3.
G-6.

(D)
(D)

(C)
H-3.
(B),(C) H-6.
(D)

(C)
(D)

(A),(D) -3.
(C)
-6.
(D)
-9.
(C)
-12.
(A)

(D)
(C)
(A)
(A)

(C)
J-3.
(A), (C), (D)
(C)
J-8.
(C)
J-11.
(C)
P AR T- II I
(A)
3.

(D)
(D)
(A)

(A)

EXERCISE - 2
1.

PAR T-I
The balls will first go down, touch each other
and then move apart by a distance
b=

K Q2a

1 1

2 a b
2.

a
(4)1/ 3

4 3

= 2874.5 kg/m 3

4 35

ELECTROSTATICS - 153

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

T=
4.

5.

m1m2

21.

E=

m1m2

(a) 100 N, 9.8 10


(b) 2 102 s
(c) 200 m/s
(d) 200 J

N,

E=

2 k
r

2 k
( j )
r

1.2 i 1.6 j

20.

, V=

2p
0 a 2

22.

40 Ba3 = 14.2 1010 C.

23.

0E 0a 3
= 1.416 10111 C

24.

(i) x/(20)

(ii) R2/(20 x)

25.

R
2 0

26.

27.

V2 V1

28.

( - x) A, x A, - xA,(x - 2 ) A

2 0b 2 4b 2

E=

2p
0 a

2k2
= 8.1 N/m , 2k2 n2 = 0.1129 J/m
r

7.

Q1 R1
;0

Q2 R2

2m1m 2 g m1Q 2 m 2 Q1 E

6.

19.

r1
r2

V=

m2 m1 gQ2 Q1 E

1 q
4 0 r

a=

3.

1 2
n
2 0

9.

6 2m r 0

ea

10.

(i) E =

E=

1
r0

29.

1/ 2

0r
3r
1
for r < R,
3 0
4R

0 R3

for r > R

12 0 r 2

1 0R
2
R.
(ii) Emax = 9 for rm =
3
0

0r 2
[ 4R 3 r 3 ]
r ; V = 0
(a) E
4 0
12 0

-O
N

11.

R
0R
0
r
(b) E
2 ; V =
4 0r
4 0r
4

12.

Locus is a circle (equation depends on choice


of coordinate system)

13.

VA VB =

14.

16.

18.

RES

Q2

1m

8 0R1

q q0
16 0 r

17.
+

32 0R 4

P AR T -I I
(C)
2.
(D)
3.
(B)
(D)
5.
(A)
6.
(A)
(C)
8.
(D)
9.
(C)
(B)
11.
(C)
12.
(D)
(B)
14.
(D)
15.
(A)
(A)
17.
(B)
18.
(B)
(B)
20.
(C)
21.
(A)
(A)
23.
(B)
24.
(C)
(B)
26.
(D)
27.
(A)
(A)
29.
(B), (D)
(A), (B), (C), (D)
31.
(B), (C)
(A), (B), (C), (D)
33.
(A), (C)
(C), (D)
35.
(B), (C)
P AR T- II I
(A) p, q (B) p, q (C) p, q, s (D) r, s
(A) p (B) r,s (C) p,q (D) r,s
PA RT- IV
(C)
2.
(C)
3.
(A)
(C)
5.
(B)
6.
(D)
(B)
8.
(C)
9.
(A)

1.
4.
7.
10.
13.
16.
19.
22.
25.
28.
30.
32.
34.
1.
2.
1.
4.
7.

2
2a 3
2
b 3a

15.

0 m v 2

Q12

6 0

Q 2 (R 2 h 2 )

S
T

F=

IN

8.

IT

where, x =(2 0 E+3)/2

Q 22
8 0R 2

4 0K a

Q1Q 2
4 0R 2

EXERCISE - 3
PAR T-I
1.

(A)

2.

3.

(a)

U=p

4.

(A)

5.

4 k q2
1
3

a
3
2

kQ
d2

(b) F =

(C)

6.

2kp
d3

Q ( i )

( 1 2 )Qa
2 2 0

ELECTROSTATICS - 154

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


(C)
F2 = 9 109

1/ 3

9.

a
V = V
3t

11.
14.
17.
20.
23.
26.
28.
30.

(A)
12.
(D)
13.
(C)
15.
(C)
16.
(B)
18.
(C)
19.
(A)
21.
(B)
22.
2
24.
(A), (D) 25.
(D)
27.
(C)
(A),(B),(C), (D)
29.
(C)
31.
(D)
32.

(A), (B), (C), (D)

P AR T -I I
(2)
(4)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(4)
(1)
PART-III

(1)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(2)
(3)
(3)
(4)

An electrostatic field line cannot be a discontinuous curve i.e, it cannot have breaks. If it is
so, it will indicate the absence of electric field at
the break points, But the electric field vanishes
only at infinity.
The electric field intensity of any point is defined as the force experienced by a unit positive
charge placed at that point.

= 1.35 N,

F12 F22 2F1F2 cos 60


(1.35 )2 (1.35 )2 2 1.35 1.35 0.5

= 1.35

3 = 2.34 N, along AM
For the equilibrium of charge at A, the charge q
placed at point M must be positive charge so
that it exerts force along MA. Force between
charged at A and M,

(A)
(A), (B), (C)

1.

9 10 9 2 10 6 q
(0.10 3 )2

or q =

4.

2.34 0.01 3

= 2.34 [AM = 10 3 cm]

The

lim
q0

18 10 3

= 3.9 106 C = 3.9 C.

indicates that the test charge q is so

IN

S
T

small that its presence does not disturb the distribution of source charge and hence its electric field .
The electric fields of the point charge Q are
shown below

F
q0

3.
6.
9.
12.
15.
18.
21.
24.
27.
30.

F=

(3)
(4)
(1)
(4)
(1)
(4)
(4)
(3)
(4)
(3)

(0.20)2

along AC
The resultant force of F1 and F2 is

(B)
(A)
(B)
(A)
(A)

1.
4.
7.
10.
13.
16.
19.
22.
25.
28.

2.

2.
5.
8.
11.
14.
17.
20.
23.
26.
29.

10.

2 10 6 3 10 6

8.

(D)

IT

7.

-O
N

The SI unit of electric field intensity = NC1


Electric field at any equatorial point of a dipole
is

1
p
E
4 0 r 2 a 2 3 / 2

3.

At the mid-point of the dipole , r = 0 so

1
p
E
4 0 a 3

The direction of E is from positive charge to


negative charge.
Force exerted on + 2C charge by the charge
at B,
F1 = 9 109

2 10 6 3 10 6
(0.20)2

= 1.35 N,

along AB
Force exerted on + 2C charge by charge at C,

RES

5.

6.

The electric flux through a given surface area is


the total number of electric lines of force passing normally through that area. It is given by.

E E.S
SI unit of electric flux is Nm2 C1
As the balloon is blown up the total charge on
the balloon surface remains unchanged, so the
total electric flux coming out of its surface remains unchanged.
Let q1 = q, q2 = 4q and q3 = + 2q
and r = 10 cm = 0.10 m
Total work done
1 q1q2
1 q2q3
1 q3q1
= 4 r 4 r 4 r
0
0
0
1
= 4 r (q1q2 + q2q3+ q3q1
0

ELECTROSTATICS - 155

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


1
= 4 r [(q)(4q)+(4q)(+2q)+(+2q)(q)]
0

14x = 5 x =

5
m
14
(ii) Electrostatic potential energy of the system

Distance from first charge =

1
= 4 r (10q2)
0

U = 9 x 109 x

9 10 9 10 2.56 10 20 100
10

U=

U
9.

S
T

cube L to y-axis and z-axis.


Electric flux is only for left and right face along
x-axis of the cube.
(i) Electric field at the left face, x = a is
EL= a

= a a2 cos 180 = a3
E
L
L . S

IN

[ E = X]
and electric field at the right face,
x = a + a = 2a is ER = (2a)

R = E . S = (2a) a2 cos 0 = 2 a3
R

-O
N

Net flux through the cube = L + R


= a3 + 2a3 = a3 = 500 (0.1)3
= 0.5 Nm2 C1
(ii) By Gausss law
q = 0
= 8.85 1012 0.5 = 4.425 1012 C
8.

(i) Here, q1 = 20 x 106 C, q2 = 4 x 106 c and


AB = 50 cm = 0.50 m = 0.5 m
Let
AP = x then PB = 0.5 x

720
10 3 = 1440 x 103 = 1.44 J.
0.5

= 23.04 109 = 2.03 108 J.


Here, Fx = ax, Ey=0, Ez = 0
a = 500 N/C-m, side of cube a = 0.1 m
Since the electric field has only x component,

E = e. S = 0 for each of four faces of

Potential at P due to charge q1

Kq1
AP

Potential at P due to charge q2

Kq2
PB

Potential at P = 0

20 10 6 ( 4 10 6 )
0.5

IT

7.

10 (1.6 10 10 )2
0.10

q1q2
r

U=K

= 4 r [4q2 8q2 +2q2]


0

= 9 109

5
m
14

q1
q
2
AP PB

Electric field due to a uniformly charged infinite plane sheet : Let be the uniform surface
charge density of an infinite plane sheet Figure.
We take the x-axis normal to the given plane. By
symmetry, the electric field will not depend on y
and z coordinates and its direction
at every point must be parallel to the x-direction.
We can take the Gaussian surface to be a rectangular parallelepiped of cross sectional area
A, as shown. (A cylindrical surface will also do.)
As seen from the figure, only the two faces 1
and 2 will contribute to the flux; electric field lines
are parallel to the other faces and they, therefore, do not contribute to the total flux. The unit
vector normal to surface 1 is in x direction while
the unit vector normal to surface 2 is in the +x

direction. Therefore, flux E S through both the
surfaces are equal and add up. Therefore the
net flux through the Gaussian surface is 2 EA.
The charge
enclosed by the closed surface is A. Therefore by Gausss law,
2 EA = A /0
or E = /20
Vectorial,

E
n
2 0

20 10 6 ( 4 10 6 )
10
4

x
0. 5 x
x
0. 5 x

4x = 5 10 4x + 10 x = 5
RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 156

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

KQ
i KQ i
E
x2
x1

(a) Potential inside conducting spherical shell of


radius R carrying charge Q is :
1 Q
.
4 0 R

When a small sphere of radius r, carrying some


charge q is introduced into the large sphere
and place it at the centre.
Potential due to small sphere of radius r carrying charge q

-O
N

1 q
= 4 r at surface of small sphere
0
1 q
= 4 . R at large shell of radius R.
0

Total potential is given by


V (R) =

4r12

Qq

Surface charge density on outer surface

IN

12.

Surface charge density on inner surface

IT

11.

Where n is a unit vector normal to the plane

and going away from it., E is direction away


from the plate if is positive and toward the

plate if is negative. E is independent of x also


(a) Right (b) wrong. Since electric potential at
any point in the equatorial plane of dipole is zero.
Total charge, q = Q + (Q) = 0
They form an electric dipole.

S
T

10.

13.

(b) When both spheres are connected by a conducting wire then the charge q on smaller sphere
will flow onto the larger sphere having charge Q.
Van de Graaff generator work on this fact that
charge given to a hollow conductor is transferred
to outer surface and is distributed uniformly over
it.
Charge Q resides on outer surface of spherical
conducting shell. Due to charge q placed at centre, charge induced on inner surface is q and
on outer surface it is +q .So, total charge on
inner surface q and on outer it is Q + q.

1 Q q

4 0 R R

14.

(b) For external points, whole charge acts at


center,
so electric field at distance x > r2,
E (x) =

1 Qq
4 0 x 2

Let a charge Q be given to a conductor, this


charge under electrostatic equilibrium will redistribute and the electric field inside the conductor is zero (i.e., Ein = 0).
Let us consider a point P at which electric field
strength is to be calculated, just outside the surface of the conductor. Let the surface charge
density on the surface of the conductor in the
neighborhood of P be coulomb/meter2. Now
consider a small cylindrical box CD having one
base C passing through P; the other base D
lying inside the conductor and the curved surface being perpendicular to the surface of the
conductor.

1 Q q

4 0 R r
Potential difference = V (r) V (R)

and V (r )

RES

1 Q q
1 Q q


4 0 R r 4 0 R R

1 q q
q 1 1
=

4 0 r R
4 0 r R

4r22

ELECTROSTATICS - 157

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

E dS

S1

S1

EdS1 cos0

S2

S2


0 d S2

S3

q
, where 0 is the permittivity of free space.
0

17.

A dipole placed in a uniform electric filed is in


(i) Stable equilibrium when the electric field is
directed along the direction of the dipole i.e.,

when E is parallel to p .
(ii) Unstable equilibrium when the electric filed
is directed at an angle of 180 degrees with the

parallel to p .
18.

(a)

direction of the dipole, i.e., E when is anti-

Equipotential surface

S3

E dS3 cos90

The net electric flux through the surface S is

16.

IT

Let the area of each flat base be a. As the surface of the conductor is equipotential surface ,
the electric field strength E at P, just outside the
surface of the conductor is perpendicular to the
surface of the conductor in the neighborhood
of P .
The flux of electric field through curved surface
of the box is zero, since there is no component
of electric field E normal to curved surface.Also
the flux of electric field through the base D is
zero as electric field strength inside the conductor is zero. Therefore the resultant flux of
electric field through the entire surface of the
box is same as the flux through the face C. This
may be analytically seen as :
If S1 and S2 are flat surface at C and D and S3
is curved surface, then
Total electric flux




Ed S
E d S1
E d S2
E d S3

S
T

d/2

Ea

d/2

As the charge enclosed by the cylinder is (a)


coulomb, we have, using Gausss theorem,

IN

1
Total electric flux = charge enclosed
0
1

Ea
(a) or E
0 ........(i)
0

Thus the electric field strength at any point closed


to the surface of charged conductor of any shape
is equal to 1/0 times the surface charge density
. This known is coulmbs Law. The electric field
strength is directed radially away from the conductor if is positive and towards the conductor
if negative.

-O
N

q1q2
40r12

Where, r12 is the distance between q1 and q2.


By the superposition principle for fields,

Work done in bringing q2 from infinity to r2 is

RES

qq
q2 V( r2 ) 1 2 .

4 0r12

Obviously electric field strength near a plane


conductor is twice of the electric field strength
near a non-conducting thin sheet of charge
Here E = 106 N/C and W = 2 1023 J, P = ?
The magnitude of work done is
W = pE
p

p = 2 1027 C-m.

2 10 23
10 6

Work done on q2 against external field = q2


Work done on q2 against the field due to q1 =

E
n
0

2 1023 = p 106

infinity to r1 is q1V( r1 ).
V( r2 )

If n is unit vector normal to surface in outward


direction, then

15.

(b) The work done in bringing charge q1 from

Thus,
Potential energy of system = The total work done
in assembling the configuration
= q1V( r1 ) + q2V( r2 ) +
19.
20.

q1q2
.
40r12

Proton will tend to move along + ve x-axis.


These surfaces are equidistant from each other.
In a uniform electric field, equipotential surfaces
differing by same amount of potential difference
will be equidistant from each other. Since elecELECTROSTATICS - 158

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


tric field is perpendicular to the equipotential surfaces. Further as the equipotential surfaces are
equidistant from each other, V1 V2 is equal to
V2 V3.

24.

Gausss law : It state that total electric flux


over the closed surface S in vacuum is

1
0

times the total charge (q) contained inside S.

22.

If Q is positive charge, VA VB = positive If q is


negative charge, VA VB = negative.
Resultant dipole moment
pr p2 p 2 2pp cos 120

1
2p 2 (2p 2 ) 2p 2 p 2 p
2

IN

2p 2 2p 2 cos 120

S
T

-O
N

making an angle 60 with Y-axis or 30 with X


axis

Torque , P E ( is perpendicular to both

P and E )

23.

RES

IT

21.


q
E B. dS
0
Electric field due to a uniformly charged spherical shell.
Suppose a thin spherical shell of Radius R and
centre O. Let the charge +q is distributed over
the surface of sphere.

1
p E sin 30= pE .
2
Direction of torque is along negative Z- direction.
When two charges are situated in other
medium in place of air, the force between the
charges may be greatly affected. For example, when the two charges are placed at the
same distance in water, the force between the

two charges become about


th of the force
80
between them, when the same two charges are
located in air.

Electric field intensity E is same at every point


on the surface of sphere directed directly outward.
Let a point P outside the shell with radius vector

r and small area element dsn


According to Gausss law

E. dS E dS
0
0

Since E and n are in the same direction.


E 4 r 2

q
0

1 q
4 0 r 2

1
q
r
Vectorially, E 4
2
0 r

Special cases
(i) At the point on the surface of the shell,
r>R

1 q
4 0 R 2

(ii) If is the surface charge density on the

shell then q =4R2

1 4 R 2
.
=
2
0
4 0
R

(iii) If the point P lies inside the spherical shell


then the Gaussian surface encloses no charge
i.e. ; r < R

q=0
Hence E = 0
ELECTROSTATICS - 159

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH

Electric dipole moment : Dipole moment (P )

26.

10

= E dS1 (Since electric field E is the same at

29.

each point of curved surface )


= E 2rl (Since area of curved surface = 2rl)

In the static situation E has to ensure that the


free charges on the surface do not experience
any force.

30.

Here E

1
r

and V

1
r

IT

(ii) Normal to the plane in the direction AB.


Potential inside the charges sphere is constant
and equal to potential on the surface of the
conductor.
So therefore, Potential at the centre of the
sphere is 5V.

27.

E dS

is a measure of strength of electric dipole. It is a


vector quantity whose magnitude is equal to product of the magnitude of either charge and the
distance between them.
SI unit of dipole moment is coulomb-meter (cm).
(i) The plane normal to AB and passing
through its middle point has zero potential
everywhere.

25.

S
T

28.

IN

31.

-O
N

Electric flux due to infinitely long, thin and


uniformly charge straight wire :
Consider an infinitely long charge having linear
charge density coulomb meter 1 .(linear charge
density means charge per unit length) To find
the electric field strength at a distance r, we consider a cylindrical Gaussian surface of radius r
and length l coaxial with charge. The (i) Curved
surface S1 (ii) Flat surface S2 and (iii) Flat surface S3.
By symmetry the electric field has the magni
tude E at each point of curved surface S1 is di

rected perpendicular. d S 2 and d S 3 are directed

perpendicular to field vector E ( i.e., angle be

tween d S 2 , d S 3 and E is 90).

Principle :- Suppose we have a large spherical


conducting shell of radius R carrying charge Q.
The charge spreads uniformly over whole surface of the shell. Now suppose a small conducting sphere of radius 'r' is introduced inside the
spherical shell and placed at its centre, so that
both the sphere and shell have same centre O.
The electric field in the region inside tha small
sphere and large shell is due to charge+ q only,
so electric field strength at a distance x from the
centre O is.

Electric Flux through the cylindrical surface

E dS E d S1
E d S2
E d S3

RES

S1

S1

E dS1 cos0

S2

S2

E dS2 cos90

S3

S3

E dS3 cos90

1 q
, directed radially outward
4 0 x 2

The potential difference between the sphere and


the shell
r

V (r)U (R) = E.d x


R

ELECTROSTATICS - 160

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


r

1 q
q
= 4 2 dx 4
x
0
0
R

(v)

x 1
q 1 1


1 R 4 0 r R

IT

-O
N

IN

S
T

( 10 4 volts.) and the upper comb C2 is connected to the inner surface of metallic sphere
S.
Working :
(i)
An endless belt of an insulating
material is made to run on two pulleys
P1 and P2 with the help of an electric
motor.
(ii)
The metal comb C1 , called spray
comb is held potential with the help
of E.H.T. source ( 10 4 V), i t
produces ions in its vicinity. The
positive ions get sprayed on the belt
due to the repulsive action of comb
C1 .
(iii)
These positiv e ions are carried
upward by the moving belt. A comb
C 2 , cal l e d col l ect i ng com b i s
positioned near the upper end of the
belt, such that the pointed ends
touch the belt and the other end is
in contact with the inner surface of
the metallic sphere S. The comb C2
col l ect s t he po si t i v e i ons and
transfers them to the metallic sphere.
(iv)
The charge transferred by the comb
C2 immediately moves on to the outer
surface of the hollow sphere. As the
bel t goes on m ov i ng, t he
accumulation of positive charge on
the sphere also keeps on taking
place continuously and its potential
rises considerably.

This is independent of charge Q on the large


spherical shell. As r < R; V(r) U(R) is positive. As charge flows from higher to lower potentials therefore, if we connect the small
sphere and large shell by a conducting wire,
The charge flows from sphere to outer shell
whatsoever the charge on outer shell may be .
This forms the principle of Van de Graaff generator. The maximum charge that may be given
to outer shell which may cause discharge in
air.
Construction. It consists of a large hollow metallic sphere S mounted on two insulating columns A and B and an endless belt of rubber
silk is made to run on two pulleys P1 and P2 by
the means of an electric motor . C1 and C2 are
two sharp metallic spikes in the form of combs.
The lower comb C1 is connected to the positive terminal of a very high voltage source(HTS)

With the increase of charge on the sphere,


i ts l eakage due to i oni sati on of
surrounding air also becomes faster.
(vi)
The maximum potential to which the
sphere can be raised is reached, when
the rate of loss of charge due to
leakage becomes equal to the rate at
which the charge is transferred to the
sphere.
(vii)
To prevent the leakage of charge from
t he sphere, t h e generat or i s
completely enclosed inside an earthconnected steel tank, which is filled
with air under pressure.
(viii)
If the charged particles, such as
protons, deutrons, et c. are now
generated in the discharge tube D with
lower end earthed and upper end
inside the hollow sphere, they get
accelerated in downward direction
along the length of the tube. At the
other end, they come to hit the target
with large kinetic energy.
(ix)
Van de Graaff generator of this type
was installed at the Carnegie institute
in Washington in 1937. One such
generator was installed at Indian
Institute of Technology, kanpur in 1970
and it accelerates particles to 2 MeV
energy.
Yes, the high voltages can be built up to the
breakdown field of the surrounding medium.

RES

32.

(a) Electric flux : It is defined as the total number

ELECTROSTATICS - 161

A ONE INSTITUTE A SYNONYM TO SUCCESS, OFFICE SCO 322, SECTOR 40 D, CHANDIGARH


of electric field lines passing through an area
normal to them :

Also, E.ds

33.

sheet of charge is independent of the distance of


the point and is directed normally away from the
charge. If the surface charge density is
negative the electric field is directed towards the
surface charge.
(c) (i) Away from the charged sheet
(ii) Towards the plane sheet
By Gauss's Theorem in electrostatics

q
E. ds
0

Total flux through all six faces would be ' = 6


where = Flux through one face.

(i) From the given diagram,


potential difference between A and C

34.

q
6 0

q
Hence, 6
0

IT

VC VA = E . dl cos 180 = E4 = 4E
A

Hence, VC VA = 4E

(ii)VC > VA.


Because direction of electric field is in decreasing potential.

S
T

The SI unit is Nm /C or volt-meter.


(b) Let electric charge be uniformly distributed
over the surface of a thin, nonconducting infinite sheet. Let the surface charge density(i.e.,
charge per unit surface area) be . We have
to calculate the electric field strength at any point
distance r from the sheet of charge. To calculate the electric field strength near the sheet, we
now consider a cylindrical Gaussian surface
bounded by two plane faces A and B lying on
the opposite sides and parallel to the charged
sheet and the cylindrical surface perpendicular
to the sheet (fig.) By symmetry the electric field
strength at every point on the flat surface is the
same and its direction is normal outwards at the
surface. Total electric flux.

E.ds E.d s E.d s E.d s


s1

s2

-O
N

E.d S
s

Ed S1 cos 00

s1

s3

Ed S 2 cos 0 0

s2

Ed S 3 cos 90 0
s3

E dS1 E dS 2 = Ea + Ea = 2Ea

Total electric flux = 2Ea.


As is charge per unit area of sheet and a is
the intersecting area, The charge enclosed by
Gaussian surface = a
According to Gauss's theorem,

(i) The dipole moment of dipole is

| P | = q (2a)

Force on q at A = q E

Froce on +q at B = q E

Net force on the dipole = q E q E = 0

IN

35.

Total electric flux =

(ii) work done on dipole


W = U = PE (cos1 cos2)
= PE (cos0 cos180)
W = 2PE

1
x (total charge enclosed
0

by the surface)
i.e., 2Ea =

1
( a )
0

E 2 .
0

Thus electric field strength due to an infinite flat


RES

ELECTROSTATICS - 162