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SEQUENCES AND SERIES

Finite Series: expression of the form u 1 u 2 u 3


formed by some definite rule.
Infinite Series: it is of the form

u2 u
1

. . . un

where each term is

. . . u n . .... u
3

n 1

(Example: infinite geometric series with a0=1 and r=1/2)

2
n 1

n 1

1
1
n
n
n 1 2
n 0 2

Sum of Infinite Series (Sn)


The sum of finite series is merely the algebraic sum of all term.
(addition)
Infinite series has no sum in ordinary sense.
Definitions: The sum of an infinite series is the limit, if it exist, of the sum of a
finite number of terms, as the number of terms approaches infinity. ( S lim n S
(Sum of infinite geometric progression)

Convergence and Divergence


If the series has a sum Sn i.e. if Sn approaches a limit when n

Power Series
An infinite series of the form

a 0 + a1 x + a 2 x 2 + . . . + a n x n + . . .

(1)

in which a0 , a1, a2, . . . , a n, . . . are constants and x is a variable, is called a power series in x. The
totality of all values of x for which a power series converges is called its interval of convergence.
This interval of convergence always includes the value x = 0, and its range is determined by the ratio
test, R = lim

u n +1
1.
un

Examples. Find the interval of convergence for each of the following series.
1. 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + . . . + x n 1 + . . .
2. 2 x + 4 x 2 + 8 x 3 + . . . + 2 n x n + . . .

1
1
( x - 1) 2 + ( x - 1) 3 + ...
2
3
4. x + 2! x 2 + 3! x 3 + . . . + n! x n + . . .
3.

( x - 1) +

5. x -

x3
x5
+
3!
5!

6. 1 x

- . . . + (-1) n -1

x 2 n-1
+ ...
( 2n - 1)!

x2 x3
x n 1

. . .
. . .
2! 3!
( n 1)!

Maclaurins Series
A power series of the form

f ( x) f (0) f ' (0) x

f ' ' ( 0) 2
f ' ' ' ( 0) 3
f ( n ) ( 0) n
x
x . . .
x . . ..
2!
3!
n!

is called Maclaurins series, or the power-series expansion of f(x) about x = 0. It is named for the
Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin (1698 1746).
Examples. Obtain the first four terms of the Maclaurins series for the following functions.
1.
f(x) = ex
2.
f(x) = sin x

3.
4.
5.

f(x) = cos x
f(x) = ln(x+1)
f(x) = 1/(1+x)

Some power series expansions:

x3 x5 x7

... for all x


3! 5! 7!
x2 x4 x6
cos x 1

... for all x


2! 4! 6!
x 2 x3 x 4
log e (1 x) x

... for 1 x 1
2
3
4

sin x x

p ( p 1) 2 p ( p 1)( p 2) 3
x
x ... for -1 < x < 1
2!
3!

x 3 2 x 5 17 x 7
tan x x

... for x
2
2
3
15
315
3
5
7
x
x
x
sinh x x

... for all x


3! 5! 7!
x 2 x4 x6
cosh x 1

... for all x


2! 4! 6!
(1 x) p 1 px

Taylors Series
A power series expansion of f(x) about x = a is of the form

f ( x) f (a ) f ' (a)( x a)

f ' ' (a )
f ' ' ' (a)
f ( n ) (a )
( x a) 2
( x a) 3 ...
( x a) n ... .
2!
3!
n!

This series is called Taylors series, named for the English mathematician Brook Taylor (1685 1731).
Examples. Obtain the first four terms of the Taylors series expansion for the given functions about the
indicated point.
1. f(x) = cos x about x = /4
2. f(x) = ex about x = -1
3. f(x) = ln x about x = 2
4. f( x) = x about x = 1
5.

f(x) = tan x about x = /4

Find the Taylor series expansion of


1. f ( x) x about the point x = 4.
Ans.

x 2

1
1
1
( x 4)
( x 4) 2
( x 4)3 ...
4
64
512

2. f(x) = tan x about x =

3. f(x) = x e x about x = 1
4. f(x)=

2x
in powers of x - 1
1 x