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# Chapter II

THERMAL CONCEPTS
Temperature is the intuitive concepts of hotness or coldness of a substance. It can be
measured by using a thermometer. For the example a body temperature is measured
by using Celsius thermometer.
While heat is energy that is transferred from one body into another as a result of
different temperatures.
Thermal Properties
A. Specific Heat Capacity (c)
If thermal energy is provided to a body, generally the temperature of the body will
increases.
Specific heat capacity is the amount of thermal energy needed to raise the temperature
of a mass of one kilogram of a substance by one Kelvin.
Therefore, to raise the temperature of a mass m by T Kelvin, the amount of thermal
energy required is
Q = mc T
(assuming that c is temperature independent).
The units of specific heat capacity are Jkg-1K-1
B. Heat Capacity (C)
Heat capacity is the amount thermal energy required to change the temperature of one
kilogram by one Kelvin. It is the result of mass multiplied by specific heat capacity of
a body.
C = mc
The units of heat capacity are JK-1
If a quantity of thermal energy Q is given to a body, then the rise in temperature T
will be found the following formula
Q=C T
C. Thermal Equilibrium
It is everyday experience that thermal energy flows from hot bodies into cold bodies
(see figure 1.1)
Hot

cold
Flow of thermal energy

Figure 1.1 in an isolated system thermal energy always flows from the hotter body to the colder

When a cold and a hot body are placed in contact, thermal energy will flow until the
temperature of both bodies is the same. This state of affairs is called thermal
equilibrium.
The amount of thermal energy lost by the hot body is equal to the amount of thermal
energy gained by the cold body. In some books this condition is called Black principle

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D. Change of State
Ordinary matter can exist as a solid, a liquid or a gas. These three are called state of
matter.
Heating can turn ice into water and water into steam. Ice will turn into water if the
temperature of the ice is its melting temperature: 0oC. Similarly, to turn water into
steam the temperature must be 100oC.
This means that if we are given a piece of ice at a temperature of say, - 10oC , to melt
it we must first raise its temperature from -10oC to zero. After all of the ice has turned
into water, we have water at a temperature of 0oC.
Any additional thermal energy supplied will increase the temperature of the water.
When the temperature reaches 100oC, any additional thermal energy supplied is used
to turn water into steam at the same temperature of 100oC.
After all of the water has turned into steam, the temperature begins to increase again.
We thus see that when the state of matter is changing, the temperature does not
change.
Once at the melting point, any additional thermal energy supplied does not
increase the temperature.
The thermal energy required to melt a unit mass of material at its melting point
is called the specific latent heat of fusion, Lt and the thermal energy required
to vaporize a unit mass at its boiling point is called the specific latent heat of
vaporization, Lv.
Thus to melt or vaporize a quantity of mass m, we require a quantity of
thermal energy
Q = m. Lt and Q = m. Lv
The specific latent heats have units of Jkg-1
gas
o

T( C)
Liquid and gas
100
liquid
Solid and liquid
0
-x solid

Q (J)

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Exercise
Questions
1. A body of mass 0.150kg has its temperature increased by 5.00oC when 385J of
thermal energy is provided to it. What is the bodys specific heat capacity?
2. How much ice at -10oC must be dropped into a cup containing 300 g of water
at 20oC in order for the temperature of the water to be reduced to 10 oC? The
cup itself has a mass of 150 g and is made out of aluminum, assume that not
thermal energy is lost to be surrounding.
3. A graph in figure 1.7 shows the change of ice phase, from data what is the value
of t? ( Les=80 cal/gram, ces= 0.5 cal/gramoC and cair= 1 cal/gramoC).
toC
t

2000

6000

7000

Q(cal)

## 4. Ice at 0 oC is added to 900 gram of water at 20 oC. The water temperature

cools down to 10 oC. How much ice was added( Les=80 cal/gram, ces= 0.5
cal/gramoC and cair= 1 cal/gramoC?
5. A body has mass of 0.15kg its temperature increased by 5 oC when 375J of
thermal energy is applied to it. What is the specific heat capacity of the body ?

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