Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 50

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


Introduction
Globalization and technological change processes have accelerated and created a
new global economy powered by technology, fuelled by information and driven by
knowledge. Globalization, which is made possible by the revolution in Information and
Communications Technology, has profoundly change the course of everything in this
world. During this time individuals needs to be more efficient. Education and Experience
are the two vital components in the process of acquiring knowledge by an individual. But
in this age of globalization it will no longer be enough. Each person needs to adapt and
learn new technologies and new ways of doing things if he or she wants to prosper in this
age of revolution. The learning curve will only going to grow steeper, requiring every one
of us to become more efficient, to do and learn more in less time.
Multimedia like the television, computer, etc. are all products of civilization in
this cybernetic generation, making life in a sense more comfortable and enjoyable. It is
the outcome of peoples intelligence. Various Information and Communication
Technology facilities is most widely use every day for various reasons such as finding
information, entertainment, organizing data and information and it helps in making work
a lot easier. It plays a significant role in education but such advantages and disadvantages
must be taken into consideration for all the things that provides beneficial effects are
often dwarfed by many disadvantages and harm.
As a powerful educational tool, technology can facilitate the transformation of
school education, in all of its aspects. To be able to fully utilize the power of technology

in transforming education, the teachers, administrators, parents and even the students
must allow a drastic change in their mind sets and culture from the way curriculum is
being designed down to how the learners are being assessed and evaluated. Why?
Because integrating technology always start from the core, and in the whole education
process teachers are considered to be the core, for they facilitate learning. In maximizing
the efficiency of this very powerful tool, being familiar with it is not enough. One must
be a master of technology to be able to utilize its full potentials.
Undoubtedly, Information and Communication Technology or ICT is a potential
and useful tool both for managing education for teaching. ICT is not a panacea for all ills
in education. ICT is an effective tool in the hands of the teachers for teaching and
students for learning. ICT needs the hand and the mind of the teacher. ICT and e-learning
offers opportunity to raise educational standards in schools. Through long-term
engagement with ICT, students are empowered to conduct both wider and deeper
exploration of a selected topic of interest (Chand, 2010).
Nevertheless, ICT in education should be monitored. ICT is just one of the many
instructional tools (next to textbooks, school television, calculators, etc.) most of which
are not monitored regularly. So, why then should ICT be monitored? One of the potential
reactions to such statements might be that ICT is not just an instructional tool, but the
backbone of the information society, which touches upon almost every aspect of private
and professional life (Brandijzerhoek, 2009).
ICT can and should be an integral part of most learning activities, and as available
as pen and paper. Meanwhile, in many schools today, and probably for a time into the
future, the only teachers with everyday access to ICT are teachers of a special subject

called Information Technology, or Computer Science, or Informatics. These teachers can


carry the important mission of being agents of change not only in ICT, but also in the
whole system of education since ICT are the instruments that can launch an important
and general paradigm shift (UNESCO, 2005).
Article IV Section I of the 1987 Philippine constitution states: The state shall
protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall
take appropriate to make such education accessible to all.
Education among the citizens of a nation will determine the quality of living that
it had, having, and will have. Excellence in the field of education is always a dream of the
Department of Education and the teachers in this field plays a vital role in achieving this
dream. Many different schools, whether public or private, struggle to provide quality
education for all students by adopting different innovations to make teaching and learning
more efficient and effective in preparing students in the demands of this new age of
revolution.
Schools and teachers play a vital role in providing quality education to the
students. It lies in the creativity and resourcefulness of the teachers given the fact that the
government do not provide all the needs of the institutions. Teachers need to be
innovative in the way they teach. Teachers need to think of strategies that would uplift the
performance of the students.
Many researches have proven that the performance of the students depends
largely on the quality of instructions provided to them by the teachers. A competent
teachers learns to have effective teaching techniques and to select teaching methods or

strategies to guarantee the maximum retention among students and the students would be
able to apply the learning that they can use in their everyday living.
The Philippine Education system faced a drastic change by adapting a new
curriculum, the K to 12 Program. The country is considered to be the last among its
neighboring countries to adapt the said curriculum and one out of three countries
worldwide to have a 10 year pre-college education. The adaptation of the K to 12
program is just one of the steps of the country in attaining the perfect setting for a 21 st
century education process.
The adaptation of a new curriculum is just the beginning. The next thing that a
teacher should know is how to make the subject matters, encompassing this curriculum,
more appealing and more interesting in this new era of learners, the 21 st century learners.
Teachers of the 21st century should now be more effective in choosing different teaching
strategies and must be more sensitive to the needs of this digital learners. It is deemed
necessary to use technology to expose, explore, experience and engage the learners to a
more challenging yet enjoyable activities for the improvement of the outcomes of the
educative process. Thus, a new approach is necessary to shift interests that may involve
instructional materials that is enjoyable to the learners and at the same time relevant and
responsive to their needs and abilities so as to promote better learning outcomes (Vicente,
2013).
With this introduction you can see that it support the statement that the teachers is
really an important factor in making this drastic change in the whole education process. It
is important that the teachers have a great competence in utilizing such equipment, such

as ICT, in making the classroom instruction more meaningful and produce a better
learning outcomes.
Statement of the Problem
This study assessed the Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
competencies of the Pre-Service teachers of the College of Education of the Tarlac State
University.
Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the status of the College of Education in terms of the ICT:
1.1. Source of Equipment;
1.2. Adequacy; and
1.3. Functionality?
2. How competent are the pre-service teachers in the utilization of ICT for classroom
instruction?
3. How is the ICT utilized by the pre-service teachers for classroom instruction as to:
3.1. ICT equipment used; and
3.2. Frequency?
4. What are the needs and problems encountered by the pre-service teachers in the
utilization of ICT in the classroom instruction?
5. What implication can be drawn from the study?
Significance of the Study
Educational systems can attain drastic changes caused by the advancements of
different technologies that can enhance it. Studies and researches about the use of
Information and Communication Technology may contribute to new approaches to
curriculum and in the development of the teaching and learning skills of both the teacher
and the learner.

To the students, this study can make them expose and aware of the other uses of
ICT facilities that can help them enhance their learning styles.
To the teachers, this study may offer enhancement in the method of teaching they
may offer to their students because the use of ICT is a new approach in providing new
and, meaningful learning experiences among the students.
To the parents, so that this study can help them to monitor their children whenever
they are engaging to the different ICT facilities. To enable them to help the teachers in
making the learning experiences of their children meaningful by providing them certain
materials and facilities.
To the school administrators, this study could serve as their basis for them to
enhance themselves regarding new technologies that could contribute to better
educational programs to their schools in line with ICT and how their support to the ICT
programs make a difference in the delivery of quality education in their schools.
To future researchers, the findings of this study may become meaningful to their
future studies.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study assessed the of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
competencies among the Pre-Service teachers of the Tarlac State University College of
Education. The study assess the respondents ICT competencies as to what kinds of
facilities they are using and its frequency. Furthermore, the study aims to determine the
problems encountered by the respondents in using ICT and propose solutions that will
suffice the needed solutions. The respondents of this study is the Pre-Service teachers

enrolled at the Tarlac State University College of Education for the academic year 20152016.
Definition of Terms
The following terms were defined for the better understanding of the study.
Adequacy. In this study, this refers to the sufficient ICT equipment intended for
teaching which are described as very adequate, adequate, moderately adequate,
inadequate, and very adequate.
Classroom Instruction. In this study, this refers to the teaching and learning
process in the respective classes of the teachers aiming to provide quality education to
their pupils.
Competence. In this study, this refers to the stability or skill to operate and use
the Information and Communication Technology for classroom instruction which is
categorize as very competent, competent, moderately competent, incompetent and very
incompetent.
Evaluation. In this study, this means the determination and assessment of the
utilization of ICT among the pre-service teachers to the classroom instruction.
Facilities. It refers to different materials.
Functionality. In this study, this refers to the state of usability of ICT equipment
for teaching-learning process which can be described as: all are in good condition, some
need repair, all need repair, some need replacement and all need replacement.

Information and Communication Technology. Is an umbrella term that includes


any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular
phones, computer and network hardware and software, etc. that can be used in education.
Implication. In this study, this refers to the significance of the result of this
research to all people and agencies concerned with regard to the acquisition of quality
education.
Major. It refers to the area of specialization of the respondents.
Pre-Service Teachers. It refers to the students who are taking up Education
course.
Problems. In this study, these refer to the prevailing concerns of the pre-service
teachers which hinder the quality of the instruction. Particularly, these problem have
something to do with ICT.
Status. In this study, this means the state or standing of the ICT being utilized for
classroom instruction among public elementary school teachers.

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES


This chapter presents local and foreign literature, concepts, theories, research
findings, viewpoints and studies related to the research being undertaken. Focus on the
variables and factors involved in the present study were explored from various
perspectives of educational institution.
Related Literature
Rapid advances in technology have changed the way people live and gain
information. Technology in the 21st century continues to revolutionize teaching practices
and management in school. A model for ICT development involves stages; Emerging
institutions at the initial stages of ICT development demonstrate the emerging approach.
Such institutions have just stated their journey in the ICT field with a skeleton computing
infrastructure. To start with, administrators and teachers just begin to explore the
possibilities and consequences if using ICT for institutional management and adding ICT
to the curriculum. Institutions at this emerging phase are still firmly grounded in
traditional, teacher-centered practice. The curriculum reflects an increase in learning how
to acquire ICT basic skills such as office automation, e-mail and basic operation of
computers, so that it prepares the ground for moving to the applying stage; Applying:
Those institutions, in which a new understanding of contribution of ICT to learning has
developed, exemplify the applying approach. In this secondary phase, administrators and
teacher use ICT for the task already carried out in the institutional management and the
curriculum. Teacher largely dominated the learning environment. Institutions at the
applying approach phase adapt the curriculum in the order to increase the use of ICT in
various subject area with specific tools and software such as drawing, designing,

10

modelling and application of specific tools. This curriculum assists movement to the next
stage, if so desired; Infusing: At the third stage, the infusing

approach involves

integrating or embedding ICT across the curriculum, and is seen in those institutions that
now employ a range of computer- based technologies n laboratories, classrooms and
administrative offices. Teachers explore new ways in which ICT changes their personal
productivity and professional practice. The curriculum begins to merge subject areas to
reflect real-world application; and transforming; Institutions that use ICT to rethink and
renew institutional organization in creative ways are at the transforming approach. ICT
becomes an integral, through invisible, part of daily personal productivity and
professional practices. The focus of the curriculum is now learner-centered that integrates
subject areas in real-world applications. Institutions have become centers of learning for
their communities. Teacher and other staff members regard ICT as a natural part of the
everyday life of the institutions that they begin to look at the process of teaching and
learning in new ways. The emphasis changes form teachers-centered to learner-centered.
Teachers, together with students experts a continuously changing teaching methodology
designed to meet individual learning objectives. (UNESCO, 2005)
Planning for the integration of the use f technology in the everyday life of a
school is not easy. Not only are computing technologies themselves constantly changing,
but also what is thought of as best practice for educational use. School, moreover, are by
nature conservative. Unfortunately, this can lead them to them embrace technological
innovations just as they become outdated. In many schools, planning cycles are longer
than cycles of innovation, making certain kinds of technology plans obsolete before they
can be implemented. In addition, most schools do not budget adequately for technology

11

and technology training. Technology planning is thus contingent on the acquisition of


outside funding which almost always imposes its own requirements and restrictions.
ICT offers learners assignments better suited to individual needs and makes it
easier to organise their own learning, through the use of, for example, digital portfolios.
Pupils state that they do assignments more at their own ways when using a computer;
their parents observe that they resolve assignments more at their own level. That is,
students assume greater responsibility for their own learning when they use ICT, working
more independently and efficiently. Teachers content that pupils work more in cohesion
with their own learning styles, resulting in a favourable impact on both academically
strong and weak students. Pupils with special needs special needs or behavioural
difficulties gain in different ways from the use of ICT. The impact of ICT in terms of
teachers use of ICT for communication with and between pupils is still in its infancy, and
that ICT is underexploited to create learning environments where teachers are more
actively engaged in the creation of knowledge. Also, where teachers estimate a high
impact of ICT on learning and learning outcomes, the perceived impact on teaching
methodologies is seen much more moderate. For instance, school leaders estimates that
the impact of a specific ICT application or device depends on the capacity of the teacher
to exploit it efficiently for pedagogical purposes and factors/barriers beyond the teachers
control influence ICT uptake. (Kefala, 2006)
Technology integration in the classroom also has the potential to support
important educational goals. Technology, it has been argued, help change teacher-student
relationships, encourages project-based learning styles, and supports the acquisition of
skills such as higher order thinking, analysis, and problem solving. The most important

12

reason for measuring, though, is the understanding that the impact of technology is
integrated.
Commitment to the appropriate use of effective teaching appraisal practices is
very important. What seems to be missing is the inclusion of the same rigorous attention
in evaluating technology use in the classroom. In addition, many educators mistakenly
believe that effective technology integration correlates with how much hardware and
software is available in the classroom. The use of available technology by all students
does not necessarily translate to effective technology integration. Its really about how the
teacher uses technology to support clear defined learning objectives (Rebure, 2007).
Integrating technology is what comes next after making the technology available
and accessible. It is a goal-in-process, not an end state. Goal of perfect technology
integration is inherently unreachable: technologist change and develop, student and
teachers come and go-thing change. It is the Process by which people and their
institutional setting adapt to the technology that matters most. The process of technology
integrating is one of continues change, learning, and (hopefully) improvement.
Developing a culture that embraces technology is also important messages by e-mail, or
encouraging staff to use electronic calendars to schedule meetings, fosters a culture that
accepts technology as natural to the business of everyday work. Technology integration
occurs in many forms. Sixth grade students at LAnse Creuse Middle School North in
Michigan use hand help PCs for assignments, taking notes, collecting data, editing
materials and beaming information to one another (Sugameli, 2004).
In Greece Country, North Carolina, All students in Grade six through twelve and
teachers have a loptop Apple iBook & #61666; computer with wireless internet access

13

from anywhere on campus. Teachers communicate with students and parents and plan
lessons using their loptop while students use for their assignments, research and
communication learning tools (Silberman, 2004).
Integrating technology in Philippines education has taken a lot turns. There was
the initial call for literacy, which only meant the capacity to use office tools like word
processors, spreadsheet, and presentation tools; others developed specialized skill like
programming, use of databases, drawing CAD, and even robotics. This initial stage
required investment in equipment, networking infrastructures, and most of all software
licenses that you have to upgrade the following year. This institution not only increased
the cost of education but also create an ethical issue of access, which later was associated
to the Digital Divide Aside from cost, there was also the question of effectiveness,
making parents and administration grow sceptical. The next stage brought technology to
the offices and administration and was more successfully. Technology was used f rte
efficient delivery of services like enrolment, grading, accounting and communication
(Matulac, 2005).
Related Studies
The following related studies had given the researcher better perspective and
insight into the proper conduct of the study.
A. Foreign
The study of Norum, Grabinger, and Duffield (2000) about the thoughts, perception,
beliefs, experiences, knowledge, and growth of participating teachers studying and
attempting to integrate the use of computers in their classrooms. The overacting theme

14

found running throughout this research was teachers strong assertion that they needed to
change personally and take on new roles if technology was to be effectively integrated
into their classrooms. Most of the teachers involved in this study saw themselves as the
plae where changes efforts needed to begin. Experiences with technology planning
highlight the well-documented observation that teacher attitudes toward echnology and
technology integration seriously impact the success of professional development
programs. Positive attitudes toward technology integration enhance learning to use
technologies in teaching and learning: negative attitudes constrain it. This does not
necessarily mean that only teachers with positive attitudes should be included in
technology training activities. It does mean that negative attitudes among participant need
to be valued and addressed, and that positive attitudes should be encouraged and
developed.
The study by Gray and Souter (2003) reported that relative to other subject teachers,
science teachers came out positively with regard to use of and confidence in ICT.
Although, the availability of computing facilities was reportedly quite high, the actual
level of use was quite low. In addition, where level of use was higher, it was with regard
to a rather narrow range of applications, particularly word-processing and little was
reported in the way of pupil use of ICT in science class. Although there appeared to be
awareness of the potential for ICt in science, teachers indicated that they did not see the
introduction of ICT radically changing the way in which teaching took place, nor
changing the teacher-pupil relationship. Science teachers were reasonably confident in
their use of ICT but felt that they needed much more in the way of support and
professional development to maximize their use of ICT in the classroom. The result of

15

this study also reveals that the sampled schools do not have adequate resources for
employing ICT to carry out continuous assessment.
Bingimlas (2009) reported in his study the barriers to the successful integration of
ICT in teaching and learning environment. The purpose of the study is to provide
information on the desired improvement in the future teaching situation to those
responsible for the integration of ICT in science education. The findings of the study
indicates that teachers have strong desire for the integration of ICT in education but they
encountered many barriers to it. The major barriers are lack of competence, lack of
confidence and lack of access to resources. Since, competence, confident and
accessibility have been found to be critical competent in the integration of technology in
schools, ICT resources including software and hardware, effective professional
development, sufficient time and technical support need to be provide for teachers. No
one competent in itself is sufficient to produce good teaching. The presence of all
components increases the likelihood of excellence integration of ICT in learning and
teaching opportunities.
A study in two technology-rich high schools Cuban (2001) had the assumptions that
writing schools, buying hardware and software, and describing the equipment will lead to
abundant classroom use by teachers and students and an improvement in teaching and
learning. Findings demonstrated that access to equipment and software seldom led to
widespread teacher and students use; most teachers were occasionally users or nonusers
of technology, and when computer were used during class work, they were used to
sustain rather than alter existing patterns of teaching practice of sustained technology use

16

to transform instruction, particularly to allow for inquiry-based, student-centered


learning.
Bauer and Kenton (2005) concluded that the relation to students access to computer
is teacher and students access to adequate equipment. As noted, the national statistics
indicate that student-to-computer ratios have been falling however, many teachers
continue to cite outdated or mismatched equipment or unreliable Internet connectivity as
major barriers to technology implementation in their classrooms. Additionally, when
teacher did have working computers in their classrooms, researchers found that even
students of teach-savvy teachers were not given enough time on the computers to
accomplish meaningful and constructive project.
B. Local Studies
Itaas (2007) reported on the capacity-building for secondary teachers in the
Phillipines on ICT. The training enhances teachers with the knowledge nd skills in the
Computer Applications and Information Management System (CAIMS). The trainers
were ICT experts facilitated the roll out of the project in the seven regions hands-on and
on-site training on CAIMS, installation and upgrading of computer hardware and
software, data banking and continue technical assistance. Some lesson learned included
the implementation of teaching and learning strategies that integrate a range of
information and communication technologies to promote and enhance students learning;
establishment of cooperative and collaborative technology-supported and learnercentered environment that engage all students in focused learning experience and
enrichment in curriculum lessons with students effectively evaluating and using relevant
and appropriate software for specific educational use.

17

Madamba (2010) report that not all teacher are using ICT for classroom instruction
among public elementary school; majority of the ICT equipment acquired by the school is
through donation coming from alumni, civic-spirited people and municipal/barangay
officials, followed by funding of PTA, then by school-fun-raising and supply from
DepEd. There was very inadequate number of ICT equipment for classroom instruction
among the public elementary school, teachers competence on the utilization of ICT was
generally incompetence; there is really a high need for training in line with ICT.
Samson (2000) reported in his study, development and Validation of an Interactive
Computer Aided Instructional Software on Complex Number the validation of
interactive computer-aided instruction software that assist students in the study of
complex number. The study developed a module to interactive CAI software, and
validated the effectiveness of the CAI through the evaluation of experts and through the
students performance by means of the interactive CAI software.
Reyes (2005) conducted a study on the Utilization of the Internet among Secondary
School Teacher Cluster IV in Tarlac. It was found out that the problems encountered by
secondary school teachers were lack of facilities and equipment such as computer,
telephone lines and Internet moderns, inadequate financial resources for maintenance and
computer internet trainings. Lack of trainings for the use of the internet was also
evident. Minor problems met were following: short period allotted for computer subject,
inadequate or limited opportunity for in service training, supervision and coordination
for the use of computer-internet program.
Mean (2000), Bilao (2000), Cavanaugh (2001), Inge (2002), and Trucker-Seeley
(2005) reported on the effectiveness of technology on student achievement such as

18

interactive distance education using videoconferencing and telecommunication,


integration of standards-based video clips into lessons developed by classroom teachers
that increase student achievement and the characteristics of how technology can enhance
both what and how children leran in the classroom.
In this rapid age of globalization where the revolution of technologies are becoming
more useful in the daily lives of the people, Education is becoming more advance and
complex but easier to manage. Information and Communication Technology (ICT), one
of the product of technology, slowly conquering the fields of education. For it provides a
great help for both the teacher and the learner. The planning to integrate the ICT in the
instruction is the most crucial part, for it can make or break the supposed effectiveness of
the material. It is usually the problem that is being encountered by the teachers, on where,
when, and how will they integrate such advance technology on the learning experiences
of the learners. ICT is not just for the teachers, it also beneficial and plays a vital part on
the learning of the learners. So it is necessary to educate them on how will they use such
facilities to make their learnings meaningful.
The study of Norum, Grabingan, and Duffield (2000), Gray and Souter (2003), Cuban
(2009), Itaas (2007), Samson (2000), and Reyes (2005) focused on the idea of integrating
ICT on the instruction to create a more meaningful experience that can help in attaining
the learning objectives. But the integration of ICT on the instruction is accompanied by
many barriers that hindering the effectiveness of the said material. The study of
Bingimlas (2009), Bauer and Kenton (2005), and Madamba (2010) focused on these
barriers. These barriers is ranging from the inadequate numbers of the materials to its
ineffective use in the instruction.

19

Conceptual Framework

The status of the


College of
Education in
terms of the ICT:
1.1 Source of
Equipment
1.2 Adequacy

Competencies of
the pre-service
teachers in the
utilization of ICT
for classroom
instruction.

1. 3Functionality

The ICT utilized by


the pre-service
teachers for
classroom instruction
as to:
1.1 ICT equipment
used
1.2 Frequency

The needs and problems in the utilization of ICT


in classroom instruction.

Implication of the Study


Figure 1
Paradigm of the Study
The study assessed the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
among the Pre-Service teachers. The status of the College of Education assessed in terms
of the Sources of Equipment; Adequacy; and Functionality. After determining the status

20

of the College of Education in terms of ICT, the Competencies of the respondents, the
pre-service teachers, in utilizing ICT for classroom instruction. On the other hand, the
utilization of ICT by the the respondents for classroom instruction as to the ICT
equipment used and frequency were determined. Furthermore, the study will also
determine the needs and problems encountered by the respondents, the pre-service
teachers, while utilizing the ICT for classroom instruction and give solutions that will
suffice these needs and problems. Lastly, the researchers will determine the implications
of the study.

21

Chapter 3
METHODS OF STUDY AND SOURCES OF DATA
This chapter illustrates the research methodology employed in the study which
includes the research design, the respondents of the study, the research instruments, the
data gathering procedure, and the statistical tools. It chronicles the significant steps to be
undertaken by the researcher to carry out the objectives of the study.
Research Design
The researchers of this study employed a descriptive method in assessing
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Competencies of the Pre-Service
teachers of the Tarlac State University College of Education. Through descriptive
method, the researchers will assess the Pre-Service teachers ICT competencies as to what
kinds of facilities they are using, frequency, and different subject areas where they use it.
This research also identified and described the problems that had been encountered by the
Pre-Service teachers in using ICT.
Respondents of the Study
The respondents of the study are the Pre-Service teachers of the Tarlac State
University College of Education. There are a number of 366 pre-service teachers that acts
as the respondents and are enrolled in the College of Education for the second semester
of the academic year 2015-2016.

22

Research Instrument
In securing the necessary data needed by this study, the researcher utilized a
questionnaire/checklist. The researcher used a questionnaire adapted on the study of
Madamba (2010). The questionnaire/checklist were revised based on the context of the
study. To establish the validity of the research instrument, a panel of experts evaluated it.
The comments and suggestions have been taken into consideration leading to the
refinement of the instrument.
Data Gathering Procedure
A letter requesting permission to distribute the questionnaire and conduct an
interview among the Pre-Service teachers is given to the Dean of the College of
Education. The questionnaires were given to the individual respondents and were
answered at their most convenient time. The researchers personally conducted the survey.
Statistical Treatment
After the questionnaires were retrieved from the respondents, the gathered data
were classified, tallied and tabulated using simple frequency counts and were expressed
in percentage.
In answering the question 1.1 the frequency per source of equipment given.
In answering the question 1.2, question 1.3, question 2, and question 3.2 the
weighted mean had been computed by the use of this formula;

23

Where:

the sum of the respondents

W= the weights
X= the value
In answering the question 3.1 and question 4 the percentage of the respondents
had been computed with the use of this formula:
No. of respondents

P=

Total no. of respondents

X 100

To determine the adequacy of ICT for classroom instruction, the following scale was
used:
Points

Descriptive Rating

4.50 5.00

Very Adequate

4.50 4.49

Adequate

2.50 3.49

Moderately Adequate

1.50 2.49

Inadequate

24

1 1.49

Very Inadequate

In finding out the functionality of the ICT equipment used for teaching, this scheme was
utilized.
Points

Descriptive Rating

4.50 5.00

All are in good condition

4.50 4.49

Some need repair

2.50 3.49

All need repair

1.50 2.49

Some need replacement

1 1.49

All need replacement

In order to find out the level of competence of the teachers in the utilization of
ICT for classroom instruction, the following scale was applied.
Points

Descriptive Rating

3.50 4

Above Proficiency

2.50 3.49

Proficient

1.50 2.49

Approaching Proficiency

1 1.49

Novice

25

On the other hand, to determine the frequency of the utilization of ICTs for
instruction, the scale below was utilized.
Points

Descriptive Rating

4.50 5.00

Daily

4.50 4.49

Twice a Week

2.50 3.49

Weekly

1.50 2.49

Twice a Month

1 1.49

Monthly

Chapter 4

26

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


This chapter presents, analyze, and interprets the data gathered from the research
instruments used in the research. The data are presented according to the specific
problems in this study. Presented in the following graphs and tables are the results of the
questionnaires administered to the respondents, the Pre-Service teachers of the Tarlac
State University College of Education.
1. The Status of the Tarlac State University College of Education in terms of
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
This section presents the status of the Tarlac State University College of
Education in terms of ICT that is necessary in determining the ICT competency of the
Pre-Service Teachers for the said educational institution. Thus, it is imperative in this
study to determine and establish the ICT equipment that is using for the classroom
instruction, the sources of ICT equipment, the adequacy of the ICT equipment, and the
functionality of the ICT equipment.
The use of ICT for classroom instruction is one of the programs of the
Department of Education which aims to enhance the teaching capabilities of the teachers
and the learning capabilities of the learners. Thus, it is necessary for the pre-service
teachers to know a wide variety of teaching strategies where the ICT can be incorporated.
It is now a challenge for them to prepare themselves to these technological revolution that
the whole educational process faces.

1.1 Sources of Equipment

27

The source of ICT equipment intended for classroom instruction varies. The
source of ICT can be University funded, Parents Teachers Association (PTA) funded, a
donation from other stakeholders, or it can be personally owned by the respondent.
Determining the sources of ICT equipment is necessary for determining the other
factors that contributes to the status of Tarlac State University College of Education when
regards to ICT. Table 2 shows the different ICT equipment and its source or where it
came from and the frequency per source of ICT equipment.
TABLE 1
Source of ICT Equipment
ICT Equipment

Radio/cassette/karaok
e
LCD/television
CD/DVD player
CDs/DVDs/Tapes
Computer
Laptop
Overhead projector
LCD projector
Internet connection

University
Funded
f

PTA
funded
f

Donation
f

Personal/
Owned
f

55

23

10

102

214
47
38
131
32
179
225
102

101
33
20
18
7
40
61
6

7
7
14
18
14
9
12
4

51
90
94
130
294
14
14
176

As shown in the table, most of the pre-service teachers are using the ICT
equipment that have been provided by the University and the ICT equipment that were
personally provided by the pre-service teachers.

28

Majority of all the 366 respondents have answered that they were using the ICT
equipment that have been provided by the University and and the ICT equipment that
they personally owned or provided.
The utilization of ICT for classroom instruction truly paved its way to be the most
conventional and efficient medium of instruction for the new generation of teachers and
learners. This idea was also been considered by the University. Since most of the ICT
equipment that the pre-service teachers are utilizing have been provided by the
University. We can say that the incorporation of ICT for classroom instruction is one of
the priorities of the University for they allot certain percentage of the annual budget for
purchasing different ICT equipment.
As well as for the pre-service teachers themselves. They can also see the
importance of utilizing the ICT for classroom instruction. That can be largely seen by the
great number of pre-service teachers that utilizes ICT equipment that they personally
owned. Pre-service teachers chooses to invest on certain ICT equipment rather than
buying other materials that can be used for classroom instruction. They can see the
flexibility of using ICT for the classroom instruction, its impact to the learners and its
effect to the whole teaching-learning process.
As shown in the table, the ICT equipment that have been provided by the ParentsTeachers Association (PTA) was next. Aside from the sources of equipment that have
been discussed earlier, they were also ICT equipment that have been provided by the
PTA. These equipment have been purchased with the use of the fund intended for the
PTA. As you can see, even though the numbers of pre-service teachers that utilizes the
ICT equipment provided by the PTA fund were considered few compare to other sources

29

of equipment, it must be taken into consideration. The allotment for the fund of PTA for
purchasing ICT equipment proves that other stakeholders such as the parents can also see
the many potentialities of the ICT for classroom instruction.
The source of ICT equipment that had the least number of pre-service teachers
were those ICT equipment that have been donated by other stakeholders. This is a good
indicator for the University for having donations doesnt really needed for the University
can fund the purchasing of different ICT equipment needed. This is also a good sign for
the other stakeholders for we can see that they were more than willing to extend a hand
for the implementation of ICT for classroom instruction.
1.2 Adequacy of ICT Equipment
Adequacy of the ICT tells the sufficient numbers of ICT for classroom instruction.
Adequate number of ICT definitely will bring out better results when it comes to its
utilization for classroom instruction. When there is sufficient number of ICT equipment
then the pre-service teacher can have access to it. Thus, resulting to a more efficient use
of the said ICT equipment. Therefore, adequacy of ICT is one determined towards a
successful utilization of ICT for teaching.
Determining the different ICT equipment and its sources is not enough in
determining the present status of the Tarlac State University College of Education when
regards to ICT. Thus, determining the adequacy of the equipment is equally important in
accordance to the other factors. Table 3 shows the adequacy of ICT for Classroom
Instruction as perceived by the respondents of this study using the scale presented in
Chapter 3 of this study.

30

Table 2
Adequacy of ICT Equipment
ICT Equipment
Radio/cassette/karaok
e
LCD/television
CD/DVD player
CDs/DVDs/Tapes
Computer
Laptop
Overhead projector
LCD projector
Internet connection

Weighted Mean
2.05

Descriptive Rating
Inadequate

2.95
2.02
2.19
3.01
3.58
2.84
3.88
2.77

Moderately Adequate
Inadequate
Inadequate
Moderately Adequate
Adequate
Moderately Adequate
Adequate
Moderately Adequate

As shown in the table, majority of the ICT equipment that the pre-service teachers
were utilizing was labelled moderately adequate. On the questionnaire, the definition for
the label moderately adequate is that three to four (3-4) of the classroom that they were
using were equipped with that certain ICT equipment. The ICT equipment that were
under this label are the LCD television, Computers, Overhead Projector, and internet
connection. The installation of LCD television to the classrooms on the building of the
Tarlac State University College of Education is currently on the process of full
implementation. So there are still classrooms that dont have LCD television installed.
The College of Education also have a one computer room intended for all the students
enrolled in the college, including the pre-service teachers. A one computer room is not
sufficient to meet all the needs of the students, including the pre-service teachers. The
only computer room in the college dont have enough numbers of computers. Therefore,
it was not enough for all the students but still enough for all the students that have an ICT
related subjects. In terms of adequacy, the overhead projector has a high rating. For

31

almost all the rooms on the college have this equipment. The internet connection is
present on the college but the availability that contributes to its adequacy is relatively
low.
The ICT equipments radio, cassette, karaoke, CD and DVD player, CDs, DVDs,
and tapes got a descriptive rating of Inadequate. This ICT equipment were labelled as
inadequate for the insufficiency in terms of number. If we assess the state of these ICT
equipment we can say that these equipment are archaic and the college would likely
choose to invest on ICT equipment that is relatively timely and can still be used for many
years.
As shown on the table, only two among all the ICT equipment was considered
Adequate these are the Laptop and the LCD projector. Laptop computers were preferred
to use by many than the Desktop computers for it is handy and easy to travel with. While
a LCD projector, was the first to be used in the college before the implementation of the
installation of the LCD televisions on every room.
1.3 Functionality of ICT Equipment
The functionality of the ICT is a necessary factor to consider in the utilization of
the equipment for instruction. The mere presence of the ICT equipment is not the whole
picture, school authorities must see to it that the ICT equipment are functional in order to
make the utilization among the pre-service teachers for classroom instruction. So, a
defective ICT equipment need to be repaired to avoid the unwanted results like
ineffective instruction. Functionality refers to the overall state and condition of the ICT

32

equipment. Table 4 presents the functionality of ICT for classroom instruction as


described by the Pre-service teachers.
Table 3
Functionality of the ICT Equipment
ICT Equipment
Radio/cassette/karaok
e
LCD/television
CD/DVD player
CDs/DVDs/Tapes
Computer
Laptop
Overhead projector
LCD projector
Internet connection

Weighted Mean
2.60

Descriptive Rating
All need repair

4.48

All are in good


Condition
All need repair
All need repair
Some need repair
Some need repair
All need repair
Some need repair
All need repair

2.92
2.91
3.64
4.03
3.44
4.01
2.93

As shown in the table, majority of the ICT equipment that the pre-service teachers
were utilizing was labelled all need repair. The ICT equipment that were under this label
are the radio, cassette, karaoke, CD/DVD player, CDs/DVDs tapes, overhead projector
and Internet connection. These equipment are present but cannot be utilized by the preservice teachers for the ICT equipment itself is not in a good state to function well.
The tables shows that the computer, laptop, and LCD projector have a descriptive
rating of some need to repair. These ICT equipment are those who likely to be used every
time during classroom instruction that results for it to have a little malfunction that need
to be repaired for it to function well again. These three were used collaboratively during
classroom instruction so it is normal for it to have malfunctions.

33

As shown in the table, only one among the ICT equipment that was mentioned is
considered under all are in good condition. LCD/ television because it was just recently
installed and it is always used by not only by the teacher but also by the pre-service
teacher as a medium of instruction inside the classroom.
2.

Pre-service Teachers Competence in the Utilization of ICT for Classroom

Instruction
The presence of the different ICT equipment in a classroom is the first sign that
the teaching learning-process is now making its way into transformation and adaptation
into the new trends that the technological revolution causes. Thus, it is mandatory for the
pre-service teachers to be trained on using such equipment and incorporating it into the
classroom instruction. Pre-service teachers are teachers on training. Therefore, they must
now possess the needed level of competency on utilizing such equipment. The teachers of
today now faces the 21st century learners that is considered as digital natives. Thus, there
learning can be more efficient with the use of technology on the teaching and learning
process.
Table 5 shows the different ICT equipment that is being utilized by the pre-service
teachers and their self-rating on how competent they are in utilizing these different
equipment. The weighted mean and the descriptive rating were also presented.
Table 4
Pre-Service Teachers Competence in the Utilization of ICT
ICT Equipment
Radio/cassette/karaok
e

Weighted Mean
2.86

Descriptive Rating
Proficient

34

LCD/television
CD/DVD player
CDs/DVDs/Tapes
Computer
Laptop
Overhead projector
LCD projector
Internet connection

3.22
3.01
3.01
3.29
3.51
2.89
3.19
3.08

Proficient
Proficient
Proficient
Proficient
Above Proficiency
Proficient
Proficient
Proficient

As shown in the table, almost all the ICT equipment given can be utilize by the
pre-service teachers proficiently. In other words they are good in utilizing such ICT
equipment for classroom instruction. The following ICT equipment are those equipment
that they can utilize proficiently these are the radio, cassette, karaoke, television, CD and
DVD player, CDs, DVDs, tapes, Computer, Overhead projector, LCD projector and the
use of internet. Most of these equipment can be seen on their homes such as the radio,
cassette, television, CD and DVD player, CDs, DVDs, tapes computer and the use of the
internet. Therefore, it results into a more familiar used of the said equipment. These
equipment was also provided by the university and can be seen in the college as well as
for the Overhead and LCD projector. Theses equipment usually used by the pre-service
teachers for the different activities in the school curriculum, those activities inside the
classroom and activities held outside classroom. Activities inside the classrooms includes
reporting, video and movie presentation, role playing, and of course during the normal
classroom instruction. While activities outside the classrooms includes the different
programs that is being held every occasion like Buwan ng Wika and United Nations Day.
These activities where the pre-service teachers were actively participating can result into
a wider and broader knowledge on how they can incorporate ICT during instruction, for
these activities itself includes ICT integration.

35

On the table one ICT equipment stands out, for it is the one and only ICT
equipment that gets a above proficiency rating, the Laptop computer. It means that the
pre-service teachers knows how to maximize the laptop computer at its full potential and
incorporate it to classroom instruction. Almost all of us now have their own computers,
and most of it are laptop computers. Thus it is one of the factors that results to a rating of
above proficiency. Most of the pre-service teachers have their own laptop computers that
they frequently used during the different activities held inside and outside the classroom,
such as reporting and film showing.
Pre-service Teachers Competence on the Basic ICT Softwares
Computers and its different forms such as laptop and netbooks is the major ICT
equipment that were widely used by a great number of teachers and learners. Therefore, a
pre-service teacher must be a master in utilizing this ICT equipment as to classroom
instruction. For it to become possible, mastering the different software that can be found
inside a computer is a must.
Table 5
Pre-Service Teachers Competence in the Utilization of Basic ICT Software
ICT Software
MS Office
Word

MS Office
Excel
MS Office
PowerPoint

Criteria on ICT Competency


Format documents used as testing
materials.
Layout still pictures used as
flashcards
Make charts and tables use as
visual aids
Compute grades using spreadsheet
Design a PowerPoint presentation
Create a slideshow with added

Weighted
Mean
3.53

Descriptive
Rating
Above Proficiency

3.42

Proficient

3.28

Proficient

3.30
3.60
3.66

Proficient
Above Proficiency
Above Proficiency

36

animations and effects


MS Office
Layout or design any publication
3.02
Proficient
Publisher
types such as programs, posters,
cards, certificates or newsletter
Create or produce any publication
2.97
Proficient
types such as programs, posters,
cards, certificates or newsletter
Cyberlink
Produce a projects such as video
3.01
Proficient
Power Director
clip short film, or movie.
Produce a projects such as video
3.01
Proficient
clip short film, or movie.
Internet Usage
Surf topics to tech and learn
3.55
Above Proficiency
Download still/motion pictures
3.55
Above Proficiency
Table 6 presents different basic ICT software that is commonly used for classroom
instruction and the respondents level of competency for each ICT software that were
given. The weighted mean and the descriptive rating were also given.
As shown on the table, most of the basic ICT software presented on the
questionnaire can be proficiently utilized by the pre-service teachers. These basic ICT
equipment includes Microsoft Office Word, Microsoft Office Excel, Microsoft Office
Publisher, and Cyberlink Power Director. The Microsoft Office Word were used for
making documents such as written reports and research papers. Many of the teachers
nowadays required computerize or printed copies of such written works that they give to
their students. Pre-service teachers encountered a bunch of these written works that
makes them proficient on using and utilizing the Microsoft Office Word. The Microsoft
Office Excel are used to make spreadsheets. In teaching, this basic software usually helps
the teacher on computing the grades of their students. Pre-service teachers are teachers in
training. Therefore, they find it really important to learn how to use this basic ICT
software. The Microsoft Office publisher are used to make programs and certificates.
Teachers sometimes tasks to organize school programs that requires printed programs and

37

certificates. This software can also help on making portfolios of the students. Thus, the
pre-service teachers finds it to be a must to learn to use such software. Sometimes video
clips are needed to be presented to support the lesson, and the Cyberlink Power Director
can help the teacher in doing such.
The table also shows that there are basic ICT software that the pre-service
teachers can utilize with a rating of above proficient. These are the Microsoft Office
PowerPoint and the use of the Internet Connection for the classroom instruction. The
Microsoft Office PowerPoint helps on making presentations for the classroom
instruction. Most of the time the pre-service teachers utilize this basic ICT software for
their reporting. They usually make presentations from this basic ICT software as their
main instructional aid during their reporting. They rated their utilization for this basic
ICT software as Above Proficiency for they are using it regularly, for the pre-service
teachers are trained to teach in a 21 st century classroom setting where making PowerPoint
Presentations are just the basic and the simplest among other ICT that can be used for
classroom instruction. Therefore, they really find its importance and place in the whole
teaching and learning process. The other one is the use of Internet as an aid for
instruction. Internet can provide a wide and vast amount of information that can be used
as a reference for teaching a lesson. But the information that can be found on the internet
must always pass a series of validation. So that it can lead into a more purposeful and
efficient instruction.
3. ICT Utilization by the Pre-service Teachers for Classroom Instruction
Determining the ways on how the pre-service teachers utilizes the different ICT
equipment into classroom instruction can support their level of competency. There are

38

two factors that were been considered on how they utilize the ICT equipment. First, the
different ICT equipment they are using. Second, the frequency or how many times they
used the certain equipment. The weighted mean and the descriptive rating were also
given.
3.1 ICT Equipment Used
Pre-service teachers are considered the future teacher of the future learners that is
bound by the laws and regulation of the Department of Education. It was stated in the
DepEd Order No. 1, s. 2007 (Strengthening the Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) Governance of Department of Education) that ICT committees and
coordinators were created to promote the use of ICT to support the teaching and learning
process.
ICT equipment paved its way as a medium for instruction on many educational
institution as an adaptation to the changes in technology that results to the changes on the
nature of the learners. Table 1 shows the different ICT equipment and the numbers of PreService Teachers that utilizes the certain equipment for classroom instruction.
TABLE 6
ICT Equipment Used
ICT Equipment
Radio/cassette/karaok
e
LCD/television
CD/DVD player
CDs/DVDs/Tapes
Computer
Laptop

NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS
99

PERCENTAGE (%)

215
129
99
283
329

58.74
35.25
27.05
77.32
89.89

27.05

39

Overhead projector
LCD projector
Internet connection

167
272
180

45.63
74.32
49.18

As shown form the table, having a total number of 329 pre-service teachers out of
the 366 pre-service teachers, the laptop is the most used by the 89.89 percent of all the
pre-service teachers of the Tarlac State University College of Education. The laptop is a
type of computer that is more compact and easy to bring anywhere. Majority of the preservice teachers prefer to use the laptop as a medium for classroom instruction more than
any other ICT equipment for many reasons. Laptops are like a computer with all the
hardware in a small package that can be easily to bring to schools. It has all the functions
that a normal computer have but more flexible and manageable to use even if youre
traveling in a public transportation. From this data, we can say that majority of the preservice teachers considered the laptop as the ICT equipment to be the most manageable,
flexible and having the most potentialities that can be used for classroom instruction.
Next to have a great number is the computer itself. Having a number of 283 preservice teachers out of the total number of 366 pre-service teachers, the computer was
used by the 77.32 percent of the total number of pre-service teachers. Computers were
still widely used for classroom instruction for it can still provide other tasks that the
laptop cannot do even though they have similar function. Computers were being used for
introducing the learners to the use of a computers such as its simple software and its
different hardware. Almost all of the schools now have their own computer laboratory, so
that they can meet the needs of the new curriculum were ICT is incorporated. Having this
result, we can say that the pre-service teachers are more than just familiar on using the
computer for the classroom instruction.

40

74.32 percent of the population of the pre-service teachers are using the LCD
projector for classroom instruction. It is equivalent into a number of 272 pre-service
teachers out of the population of 366 pre-service teachers. LCD projectors were widely
used for delivering the lessons in every class. It helps the students to see the presented
lesson more clearly than using the laptop or the computer for the LCD projector acts as
the second screen. Many pre-service teachers utilized this equipment for it helps them in
using the first two equipment dicussed more effective for classroom instruction.
More than half of the whole population of the respondents were using the LCD
television, specifically the 58.74 percent of the total population. It is equivalent into a
total number of 215 pre-service teachers out of the total [population of 366 pre-service
teachers. The LCD television do also have the similar function just like the LCD
projector, wherein it acts as the second screen.
As shown in the table, the other ICT equipment presented were being utilized by
less than half of the population of the pre-service teachers.
A percentage of 49.18 of the population of the pre-service teachers used the
internet as an aid for instruction. It have the total of 180 pre-service teachers out of the
population of 366 pre-service teachers. Less than half of the pre-service teachers see the
potentialities of using the internet as a aid in instruction. For it can provide a wide variety
of information that must still pass the process of validation by the user.
The overhead projector have a number of 167 pre-service teachers out of the
population of 366 pre-service teachers. The 45.63 percent of the population of the preservice teachers are using the overhead projector for the classroom instruction.

41

Although we can now consider the use of the CD and DVD player as archaic, it
was still being utilized. On a percentage of 35.25 of the population of the pre-service
teachers, a number 129 pre-service teachers are utilizing it for classroom instruction out
of the population of 366 pre-service teachers.
As shown in the table, the radio, cassettes, karaoke, CDs, DVDs and Tapes
acquired the least number when it comes to the pre-service teachers who utilized such
ICT equipment. The radio, cassette, karaoke, CDs, DVDs and tapes acquired 27.05
percentage of the population of the respondents. It is equivalent to a number of 99 preservice teachers out of the population of 366 pre-service teachers. These ICT equipment
were considered to be the most archaic and was not frequently used by the pre-service
teachers. for its function can be done by the other equipment that are present like the
computer and laptop.
3.2 Frequency of Used of ICT Equipment
Regular utilization of ICT in classroom instruction can help in attaining positive
learning outcomes. The more frequent use of a certain ICT equipment can result to
mastery that can result to a higher level of competency. On the other hand, the less
frequent use of certain ICT equipment can result to a below proficient rating that can
result to a lower level of competency.
Table 7
Frequency of Used of ICT Equipment
ICT Equipment
Radio/cassette/karaoke
LCD/television
CD/DVD player

Weighted Mean

Descriptive Rating

1.98
4.08
2.29

Twice a Month
Twice a Week
Twice a Month

42
CDs/DVDs/Tapes
Computer
Laptop
Overhead projector
LCD projector
Internet connection

2.32
3.60
4.27
2.27
3.52
3.85

Twice a Month
Twice a Week
Twice a Week
Twice a Month
Twice a Week
Twice a Week

It is shown in the table how frequent are the ICT Equipment are being used. The
description includes monthly, twice a month, weekly, twice a week, and daily. The
equipment that are usually being utilized by the Pre-service teacher are available such as
LCD/Television that allows them to present their reports; Computer that enables them to
learn how to operate and also learn different strategies that will be useful in terms of
teaching; LCD Projector usually the professors are bringing this tool because they prefer
to use it and there are rooms that dont have a LCD/Television so it is an alternative for it;
and the Internet connection as a source of information the Pre-service teacher in terms of
reporting and other educational matter. All of the ICT that have been presented previously
were being utilized by the pre-service teachers on a frequency of twice a week.
Next in line are the equipment that are not that always available for the
pre-service teacher like the Radio/cassette/Karaoke, CD/DVD Player, Tapes and the
Overhead Projector. These ICT equipment either lack of numbers or not functional, the
main reason why the pre-service teachers cannot utilize these equipment frequently.
4. Needs and Problems Encountered by the Pre-Service Teachers in Using ICT for
Classroom Instruction
Just like any other medium for classroom instruction, the use of ICT for
classroom instruction is not exempted from concerns that need to be addressed for its
successful utilization. Needs and problems in various area of ICT utilization exist which
must be solved so that the Pre-service teachers can maximize the utilization of ICT. In an

43

increasingly technology-oriented community, the use of ICT has become an essential


factor in enabling more people to acquire a functional education which in turn ensures a
productive individual who is ready to face any challenge.
Table 8 shows the different problems and needs that the pre-service teachers
encountered while utilizing different ICT equipment. The number of respondents were
given for each problems and needs that was stated. The problems and need were also
ranked according to the number of respondents experiencing the said problems and
needs.
Table 8
Needs and Problems Encountered by the Pre-service Teachers
Needs and Problems
Inadequate ICT equipment
ICT equipment need repair
ICT equipment need replacement
Absence of telephone lines and
internet modems
for internet
connection
Inadequate financial resources for
maintenance of ICT equipment
Lack of fund to purchase ICT
equipment
Little knowledge on the utilization of
some ICT equipment
No knowledge and skill about the
operation of computer and other ICT
equipment.
Unavailability of ICT equipment
Use of ICT is time consuming

Number of
Respondents
213
221
173
256

Percentag
e
58.20%
60.38%
47.27%
69.94%

Rankin
g
4
2
6
1

218

59.56%

221

60.38%

142

38.80%

49

13.39%

202
67

55.20%
18.31%

5
8

As shown on the table, majority of the Pre- Service teacher respondents


encountered a needs and problems in the absence of telephone lines and internet modems

44

for internet connection. There were two hundred fifty six (256) Pre- Service and 69.94%
who were absence of telephone lines and internet modems for internet connection. The
pre- service teachers encountered the problem in university because of the situation of the
place, and lack of equipment to have a good internet connection. There were two hundred
twenty one (221) Pre Service teachers and 60.38% tells that the equipment is need to
repair. Nowadays equipment needs to repair so that the quality of equipment that been
utilized is better for using to teach. There were two hundred eighteen and 59.56% Pre
Service teachers experienced the inadequate financial resources for maintenance of ICT
equipment. Almost all University is lack in ICT equipment because of the financial
resources for maintenance so that some students are not aware to use some ICT
equipment. There were two hundred thirteen 213 and 58.20% encountered the inadequate
ICT equipment. Lack of equipment encountered the pre service teachers and not all can
afford equipment. There were 202 and 55.20% determined the unavailability of ICT
equipment. Not all equipment is available in the university so the Pre-service teachers is
providing their needs. There were 173 and 47.27% Pre Service teachers tells that ICT
equipment is need to replacement. In every generation equipment is developing new skill,
and equipment must be replace in because we need to follow the modern equipment for
the better of the quality education. There were 142 and 38.80% Pre Service teachers who
has little knowledge on the utilization of some ICT equipment. Pre Service teachers is not
aware in other equipment because it is lack of equipment and financial resources. There
were 67 and 18.31% Pre Service Teachers were the use of ICT is time consuming. Using
ICT equipment is time consuming because of the limited time that is given by the
Professor to present the reports that been using with ICT equipment. There were 49 and
13.39% Pre service teachers were no knowledge and skill about the operation of

45

computer and other ICT equipment. Some students are no knowledge in ICT equipment
because of lack of equipment but nowadays I think that we can count only the students
that has no knowledge in ICT.
5. Implications of the Study
It is common for every school to have a development and progress using
technology. The modernization mostly affects the educational system that we have now.
The introduction of different equipment must be considered in a sense that not only the
pre-service teachers but the school itself. The University should give importance to both
parties involved in acquiring knowledge and sharing of learning that makes them better
and efficient. It also implies that the ICT equipment must be anchored in education
simply because it makes learning more easily but effectively. Providing this study will
open possibilities for the parties concerned and others who are interested to learn and to
know the status of the Tarlac State University College of Education in terms of ICT, the
ICT competencies of its pre-service teachers, the utilization of ICT for classroom
instructions and the needs and problems that were being encountered by its pre-service
teachers.
Information and Communication technology is already a part and parcel of our
life. In the field of Education, ICT can be considered as new trend in bringing out good
results in the educational outcomes that may contribute in our quest for a truly quality
education.
The Integration of ICT gave a big role for the teacher and for the Pre-service
teacher to promote and to upgrade what kind teaching learning process that they have.

46

That will be better to everyone to have a mastery and new skills, strategies on how
learning can possibly be in different ways and in the change that the modernization gave
us.

Chapter 5
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary of findings, the conclusions arrived at, and the
recommendations drawn from the study.
Summary of Findings
1. The Status of the Tarlac State University College of Education in terms of
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
1.1 Source of Equipment
Most of the pre-service teachers are using the ICT equipment that have been
provided by the University and the ICT equipment that they personally owned. These two
sources received the highest frequency among the other sources.
1.2. Adequacy
Majority of the ICT equipment that the pre-service teachers were utilizing was
labelled moderately adequate. Namely the following LCD television, computer, overhead
projector and the Internet connection. The label moderately adequate defined on the

47

questionnaire as to having three to four (3-4) classrooms equipped with the given
equipment.
1.3 Functionality
Majority of the ICT equipment that the pre-service teachers were utilizing was
labelled all need repair. The ICT equipment includes radio, cassette, Cd and DVD player,
CDs, DVDs, tapes, LCD projector and Internet connection.
2.

Pre-service Teachers Competence in the Utilization of ICT for Classroom

Instruction
Almost all the ICT equipment given can be utilize by the pre-service teachers
proficiently. Namely the following: radio, cassette, CD and DVD player, CDs, DVDs,
tapes, LCD projector, television, Overhead projector, computer and Internet connection
Most of the basic ICT software presented on the questionnaire can be proficiently utilized
by the pre-service teachers. It includes the MS Office Word, MS Office Excel, MS
Office Publisher and the Cyberlink Power Director.
3. ICT Utilization by the Pre-service Teachers for Classroom Instruction
3.1 ICT Equipment Used
Having a total number of 329 pre-service teachers out of the 366 pre-service
teachers, the laptop is the most used by the 89.89 percent of all the pre-service teachers of
the Tarlac State University College of Education.
3.2 Frequency of Used of ICT Equipment

48

Majority of the ICT equipment given were utilized by the pre-service teachers in a
frequency of twice a week. It includes the LCD television, computer, laptop, LCD
projector and internet connection.
4. Needs and Problems Encountered by the Pre-Service Teachers in Using ICT for
Classroom Instruction
First on the rank among the needs and problems that have been encountered by
the pre-service teachers on utilizing ICT is the absence of the Internet connection. Having
a percentage of 69.94 percent of the whole population, it is equivalent to 256 pre-service
teachers.
Conclusions
Based on the findings of this study the following conclusions were drawn:
1. It is necessary for the pre-service teachers to know a wide variety of teaching strategies
where the ICT can be incorporated.
2. Majority of all the 366 respondents have answered that they were using the ICT
equipment that have been provided by the University and the ICT equipment that they
personally owned or provided.
3. The definition for the label moderately adequate is that three to four (3-4) of the
classroom that they were using were equipped with that certain ICT equipment.
4. ICT equipment are present but cannot be utilized by the pre-service teachers for the
ICT equipments itself its not in a good state to function well.

49

5. The pre-service teachers can utilize the ICT equipment given and the basic ICT
software efficiently.
6. The different ICT equipment they are using and the frequency or how many times they
used the certain equipment.
7. This ICT equipment are considered to be the most archaic and was not frequently used
by the pre-service teachers. For its function can be done by the other equipment that are
present like the computer and laptop.
8. Regular utilization of ICT in classroom instruction can help in attaining positive
learning outcomes. The more frequent use of a certain ICT equipment can result to
mastery that can result to a higher level of competency.
Recommendation
Based on the findings and conclusion of the study. The following are
recommended.
1. Invent or innovate strategies which would help the ICT Equipment to be present in
education.
2. The school or the university should also provide all the necessary equipment that will
be useful in terms of education.
3. The university should provide more equipment so that the next batch will also develop
the skills in utilizing different tools.
4. Make the equipment available to every student for their necessity and to support them
in learning.

50

5. Learn more skills and strategies to utilize well the ICT equipment.
6. It should always be available in the students so that the equipment may be useful.
7. The ICT equipment should be available for everyone so that in early stage they can
develop already the skills in utilizing the tools.
8. Make it open or possibly be available to everyone so that the students will have
mastery and later on it will turn into a skill.