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Effects of advertisement on consumer

Advertising, a form of commercial mass communication designed to promote the sale of a
product or service, or a message on behalf of an institution, organization, or candidate for
political office.
Advertising can be looked at from various perspectives. As the quote above states, its purpose is
to increase the number of articles or products sold. These are not only things we can buy in
different stores, for example clothing or supplies for our daily life, but also such simple things as
a message placed by an institution or organization asking for attention of the public to raise
money or to make them aware of a problem, such as anti-smoking ads. Even political parties use
advertisements and commercials to state the opinion of their candidate. I think we have all
experienced that quite extensively during the presidential campaign in the United States.
Advertising became big business in the 20th century, offering many different jobs in advertising
agencies and the marketing section. The use of the media, like newspapers, television, direct
mail, radio, magazines, outdoor signs and of course the Internet made this growth possible. It is a
form of transporting information to the consumer, but which does not only have positive sides.
There are many critical aspects about it, like persuading people to doing unhealthy things, like
smoking, or producing special stereotypes everybody tries to follow. Nevertheless, advertising
has become international, since producers and companies try to sell their products on a
globalized market in almost every corner of the world. It is therefore not surprising to see a big
sign for Coca Cola in third world countries.
How advertisement affect consumer

Importance of measuring the Effectiveness of Advertising

(1) It acts as a Safety measure
(2) Testing effectiveness of advertising helps in finding out ineffective
advertisement and a d v e r t i s i n g c a m p a i g n s . I t f a c i l i t a t e s t i m e l y
a d j u s t m e n t s i n a d v e r t i s i n g t o m a k e a d v e r t i s i n g consumer oriented and
result oriented. Thus waste of money in faulty advertising can be avoided.

(3) Provides feedback for remedial measures

(4) Testing effectiveness of advertising provides useful information to the advertisers to take
remedial steps against ineffective advertisements.
(5) Avoids possible failure
(6) Advertisers are not sure of results of advertising from a particular advertising campaign.
Evaluating advertising effectives helps in estimating the results in order to avoid
complete loss.
(7) To justify the Investment in Advertising
(8) The expenditure on advertisement is considered to be an investment. The
investment in advertising is a marketing investment and its objectives should be spelt
out clearly indicating the results expected from the campaign. The rate and size of return
should be determined in advance. If the expected rate of return is achieved in terms of
additional profits, the advertisement can be considered as effective one.
(9) To know the communication Effect
The effectiveness of the advertisement can be measured in terms of their
communication effects on the target consumers or audience. The main purpose
of advertising is communicated t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , a n d e x i s t i n g a n d
p r o s p e c t i v e c o n s u m e r s , v a r i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e product and the
company. It is therefore desirable to seek post measurements of advertising
Order to determine whether advertisement have been seen or heard or
in other words whether they have communicated the theme, message or appeal of the
(12)Compare two markets
Under this procedure, advertising is published in test markets and
results are contrasted w i t h o t h e r. M a r k e t s s o c a l l e d c o n t r o l m a r k e t s
w h i c h h a v e h a d t h e r e g u l a r a d v e r t i s i n g program. The measurements made to
determine results may be measurements of change in sales, change in consumer attitudes,
changes in dealer display and so on depending upon the objectives sought by the

The basics of measuring effectiveness

Our main objective in measuring advertising effectiveness is to determine the effect of each
advertising campaign from the results of our measuring and compare it with its price. Then we
can decide which campaigns bring the best value for the money spent.
It is also important to realize the various factors influencing advertising. The medium, ad copy
(exact wording), the format, audience (is the ad well aimed to the people who use our products?)
All of this affects the final success of the campaign. Therefore, it is necessary to judge the
effectiveness in context.

Before we start, we need to decide which criteria we are going to monitor. These will differ with
respect to the medium used, our possibilities, the purpose of the ad etc.

Examples of possible criteria are:

Customers tell how they learned about us

Increase in sales of the promoted goods
More calls to our toll-free line
Calls to a campaign-specific phone number
Specific codes applied by customers to receive offered discount (i.e. Tube)
Redeemed coupons or vouchers that were given out at a campaign
Increased visits on our website
Other metrics from our website statistics (i.e. orders amount) see below

It is best to combine several criteria, because a customer can for example either contact you by
calling your line or by sending you an email. Also, accept the fact that we are not going to be
able to measure everything. Especially if you run several campaigns in various media
simultaneously, it may be difficult to ascribe the measured effects to a specific campaign. This
can be helped by careful choice of criteria or by running campaigns separately (though it is not

always desirable). Contrary to traditional media, online campaigns are usually very easily
traceable and can be measured well.

Small companies will probably not use the methods of big corporations (ad recognition or recall)
which are based on questioning samples of people once the campaign has ended. This would be
too costly for small advertisers. Instead, you can simply judge the impact by how many people
has the medium reached (viewers, readers, listeners) and comparing how much did it cost to
reach thousand people (this is called CPM).

Measuring effectiveness on the Internet

Monitoring the effect of your internet advertising can be easy and cheap when you use quality
tools. I have good experience with Google Analytics, which is a free website analysis tool. When
you implement it in your website and set up your campaigns properly, you'll have all the
information you need to decide which advertisement you should drop and which brings you good
return on your investments.
Besides basic functions like monitoring number of visits and page views, it offers you a variety
of statistics regarding visitor segmentation, traffic sources etc. Google Analytics also allows
setting up goals on your website and tracking conversions goals accomplished by visitors.
Examples of conversions:

submitted contact forms

completed transactions in your e-shop

file downloads

newsletter subscriptions

clicks on your email address

I would definitely recommend setting up the analytics for your website professionally before
it is launched, because it can provide so much valuable information for marketing purposes.
Then you can mine for data and see for example what the average transaction value is for visitors
from London, how many pages they view per visit etc. If you set value for your goals, you can
also see return on investments (ROI) for the money spent on advertising. This is possible
because of tags, which are added to the links pointing to your website.

Another advantage of this tool is that it helps you to test the different versions of either website
or ad copy. Thus, you can create much better land page or more effective add this is called A/B


The dawn of Indian Advertising marked its beginning when hawkers called out their wares right
from the days when cities and markets first began. It was then that the signages, the trademarks,
the press ads and the likes evolved.
Concrete advertising history began with classified advertising. Ads started appearing for the first
time in print in Hickeys Bengal Gazette which was Indias first newspaper. Studios mark the
beginning of advertising created in India as opposed to being imported from England. Studios
were set up for bold type, ornate fonts, fancier, larger ads. Newspaper studios trained the first
generation of visualizers and illustrators
Major advertisers during that time were retailers like Spencers, Army & Navy and Whiteaway
and Laidlaw. Retailers catalogues that were used as marketing promotions provided early
example. Patent medicines: The first brand as we know them today was a category of advertisers.
Horlicks becomes the first malted milk to be patented in1883.
B Dattaram and Co. claims to be the oldest existing Indian agency in Mumbai which was started
in 1902. Later, Indian ad agencies were slowly established and they started entering foreign
owned ad agencies. Ogilvy and Mater and Hindustan Thompson Associate agencies were formed
in the early 1920s. In 1939, Levers advertising department launched Dalda the first major
example of a brand and a marketing campaign specifically developed for India. In the 1950s,
various advertising associations were set up to safeguard the interests of various advertisers in
the industry. In 1967, the first commercial was aired on Vividh Bharati and later in 1978; the first
television commercial was seen. Various companies now started advertising on television and
sponsoring various shows including Humlog and Yeh Jo Hai Zindagi.
As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United
States, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order

In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages,
allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula
was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roots of the modern
day advertising agency in Philadelphia. In 1842 Palmer bought large amounts of space in various
newspapers at a discounted rate then resold the space at higher rates to advertisers. The actual ad
- the copy, layout, and artwork - was still prepared by the company wishing to advertise; in
effect, Palmer was a space broker. The situation changed in the late 19th century when the
advertising agency of N.W. Ayer & Son was founded. Ayer and Son offered to plan, create, and
execute complete advertising campaigns for its customers. By 1900 the advertising agency had
become the focal point of creative planning, and advertising was firmly established as a
profession. Around the same time, in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his
news agency, Havas to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French group to
organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. N. W. Ayer &
Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayer
opened in 1869, and was located in Philadelphia.[3]
An 1895 advertisement for a weight gain product.
A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the Encyclopdia Britannica
Advertisement for a live radio broadcast, sponsored by a milk company and published in the Los
Angeles Times on May 6, 1930

At the turn of the century, there were few career choices for women in business; however,
advertising was one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done
in their household, advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the
creative process. In fact, the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a
woman for a soap product. Although tame by today's standards, the advertisement featured a
couple with the message "The skin you love to touch".
Advertisements of hotels in Pichilemu, Chile from 1935.

In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers
and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As time passed,
many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations, and included:
schools, clubs and civic groups. When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularised,
each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief
mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows. However, radio
station owners soon realised they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in small
time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's broadcasts, rather than
selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show.

This practice was carried over to commercial television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. A
fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialise the radio and people who
argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of the commons to be used only
non-commercially and for the public good. The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model
for the BBC, originally a private company, the British Broadcasting Company, but incorporated
as a public body by Royal Charter in 1927. In Canada, advocates like Graham Spry were
likewise able to persuade the federal government to adopt a public funding model, creating the
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. However, in the United States, the capitalist model
prevailed with the passage of the Communications Act of 1934 which created the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC). However, the U.S. Congress did require commercial
broadcasting companies to operate in the "public interest, convenience, and necessity". Public
broadcasting now exists in the United States due to the 1967 Public Broadcasting Act which led
to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and National Public Radio (NPR).
In the early 1950s, the DuMont Television Network began the modern practice of selling
advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Previously, DuMont had trouble finding sponsors for
many of their programs and compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several
businesses. This eventually became the standard for the commercial television industry in the
United States. However, it was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows, such as
The United States Steel Hour. In some instances the sponsors exercised great control over the
content of the showup to and including having one's advertising agency actually writing the
show. The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now, a notable exception being the
Hallmark Hall of Fame.
In the 1960s, campaigns featuring heavy spending in different mass media channels became
more prominent. For example, the Esso gasoline company spent hundreds of millions of dollars
on a brand awareness campaign built around the simple and alliterative[7] theme Put a Tiger in
Your Tank.Psychologist Ernest Dichter[9] and DDB Worldwide copywriter Sandy Sulcer[10]
learned that motorists desired both power and play while driving, and chose the tiger as an easy
toremember symbol to communicate those feelings. The North American and later European
campaign featured extensive television and radio and magazine ads, including photos with tiger
tails supposedly emerging from car gas tanks, promotional events featuring real tigers,
billboards, and in Europe station pump hoses "wrapped in tiger stripes" as well as pop music
songs.Tiger imagery can still be seen on the pumps of successor firm ExxonMobil.
The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV.
Pioneering the concept of the music video, MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the
consumer tunes in for the advertising message, rather than it being a by-product or afterthought.
As cable and satellite television became increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged,
including channels entirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC, Home Shopping Network, and
ShopTV Canada.
With the advent of the ad server, marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for
advertisers and contributed to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated
solely on advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. At the
turn of the 21st century, a number of websites including the search engine Google, started a

change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant, unobtrusive ads intended to

help, rather than inundate, users. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing
trend of interactive advertising.
The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in
media. For example, in the US in 1925, the main advertising media were newspapers, magazines,
signs on streetcars, and outdoor posters. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2.9
percent. By 1998, television and radio had become major advertising media. Nonetheless,
advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lowerabout 2.4 percent.

A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing", which involve unusual approaches such
as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with
brand messages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the
advertising message.Guerrilla advertising is becoming increasing more popular with a lot of
companies. This type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative, which causes consumers to
buy the product or idea. This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and "embedded" ads, such
as via product placement, having consumers vote through text messages, and various innovations
utilizing social network services such as Facebook.
Public service advertising

The advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and services can be used to
inform, educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues, such as HIV/AIDS,
political ideology, energy conservation and deforestation.
Advertising, in its non-commercial guise, is a powerful educational tool capable of reaching and
motivating large audiences. "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest
it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes." Attributed to Howard
Gossage by David Ogilvy.
Public service advertising, non-commercial advertising, public interest advertising, cause
marketing, and social marketing are different terms for (or aspects of) the use of sophisticated
advertising and marketing communications techniques (generally associated with commercial
enterprise) on behalf of non-commercial, public interest issues and initiatives.
In the United States, the granting of television and radio licenses by the FCC is contingent upon
the station broadcasting a certain amount of public service advertising. To meet these
requirements, many broadcast stations in America air the bulk of their required public service
announcements during the late night or early morning when the smallest percentage of viewers
are watching, leaving more day and prime time commercial slots available for high-paying

Public service advertising reached its height during World Wars I and II under the direction of
more than one government. During WWII President Roosevelt commissioned the creation of The
War Advertising Council (now known as the Ad Council) which is the nation's largest developer
of PSA campaigns on behalf of government agencies and non-profit organizations, including the
longest-running PSA campaign, Smokey Bear.

Literature view
According to Ellis (2000), popular culture offers frameworks of explanation that help us
work through major public and private concerns of society. This intricate set of frameworks is
often developed and maintained by a set group of individuals. Celebrities, models, and athletes
often lead the way when determining basic guidelines for acceptable practices in society. The
influence of these individuals, specifically celebrities, can be seen most often in younger
generations. As young adults mature, they begin to develop a strong sense of independence.
With this new found self-identity, many adolescents look to media outlets for guidance in
establishing social norms and behaviors.
It is extremely evident that media outlets have the power to create meaning. Image
advertisements in particular have the power to create a set of frames that perpetuate ideological
hegemony. Ideology is a culmination of social beliefs and values that are upheld by members of
society. Hegemony is the power or dominance that one social group holds over others (Lull,
1995). Ideological hegemony is a concept that describes an intertwined system of everyday
realities that are created by dominant individuals. As a result, ideological hegemony can often
go undetected by common members of society.
For example, ideological hegemony can be detected in image advertisements. Gender
stereotypes and dominant norms are often perpetuated in daily advertisements. Clothing
advertisers often feature young women and men and exaggerate potential sexual relationships.
This could indicate the importance of heterosexuality, and the importance of beauty in our
society. Due to the amount of messages an individual sees on a daily basis, these common
stereotypes are not as obvious to the American consumer. As active consumers, it is our
responsibility to challenge the existing system of ideological hegemony to help eliminate
existing ignorance.
By analyzing the way media outlets portray males and females in image advertisements,
researchers can help determine the presence of bias and ideological frameworks.
Image Advertising
Print advertising has been an area of concern for many decades. Businesses have
realized that advertising is an effective way to draw in consumers and dramatically increase
profits. Advertising images are used as a means to create sensation and provide information

about services or products that a specific company offers to its consumers. The prominence of
advertisements in our everyday interaction with media raises many critical concerns for
scholars. The popularity of mediated resources such as fashion magazines, television and the
Internet has made it easier for agencies to project advertisements. The consumers of these
resources are often young women or adolescents.
Researchers have debated on the number of advertisements consumers view on a daily
basis; however, the average is most likely in the thousands. Due to this staggering statistic it is
extremely important that scholars critically evaluate advertisement campaigns. Advertisements
often include idealized body images and a skewed depiction of gender. According to Shields
(1997), the persuasive images that are presented in advertisements have a direct correlation to
how social identities are constructed and maintained in our society.
One of the most controversial producers of advertisements is fashionable clothing
designer, Calvin Klein. Primarily recognized for racy underwear and jean advertisements, Calvin
Klein has tested the ethical boundaries in print media. Klein is one of the top American
designers that has benefited from the use of sexuality in print advertisements. He has featured
advertisements ranging from models representing group sex and to young children posing in
white underwear. He has shocked the American culture with references to eroticism and sexual
However, Calvin Klein may have overlooked the cumulative impact of his ethically
strapped advertisements. After relevant research is presented, Calvin Klein advertisements will
be critically evaluated in an effort to expose the true meaning behind each image. Although
many may only see an advertisement for clothing, many subliminal messages are presented.
Body Image
According to Kellner (1995), media images often help shape our view of the world and
provide a foundation for creating values and morals. For example, mediated sources often
influence the acceptance or disapproval of a behavior or ideology. Themes of right and wrong,
moral or evil, are often created and sustained in media stories or images. Therefore, young
women or adolescents often look to mediated sources to help them construct their own identity.
Relying on advertisement agencies to create identities for Americas youth is a very dangerous
and risky decision made by our society.
When looking at media images, many ideologies come to the forefront. The importance
of an attractive physical appearance and sexual identity are two visible themes that repeatedly
appear in media images of women. According to research conducted by Goffman (1976)
magazine advertisements influenced the creation of cultural values and the distinction in gender
The presentation of unrealistic skinny women has been a frequent critique of
communication scholars. Women depicted in image advertisements are often a misrepresentation
of the average sized woman in our society. According to the Media Awareness Network (2008),
the standard model twenty years ago weighed 8 percent less than the average woman. Currently,
female models represented in the media weigh 23 percent less than the average woman. This
saddening statistic displays the ideological shift of the definition of beauty over the decades.
This shift can be seen not only in women, but those who are exceedingly young.
According to findings conducted by Muller (1998), 40% of 6-year-old girls wished that they
were thinner. This can be attributed to societys obsession with beauty and to be categorized as
beautiful, one must be thin. Muller also found that these negative ideologies were correlated

with the act of dieting. The popularity of dieting in our society is intertwined with the distorted
body image presented by the media.
Another study that supports this notion of a negative body image was conducted by Park
(2005). This study confirmed that female college students received pressure to be thin directly
from the media. It also noted that women applied unnecessary pressure on themselves by
assuming that those around them valued a thinner body type.
According to Stern (2004), advertisements geared towards women emphasize the
importance of physical appearance. These advertisements also urge consumers to buy specific
products and conduct certain behaviors to look as young and thin as the models represented in
the image. For example, if a consumer purchases Calvin Klein jeans, they will be able to portray
a sexual, thin image. However, those who purchase these products are most likely going to be let
down by the results. They are not going to be as thin or beautiful as the model pictured in the
advertisement, causing them to constantly pay attention to negative physical attributes.
Due to the overwhelming presence of unrealistic images of women in the media, many
average women critically evaluate themselves. According to Wolszon (1998), women who are
dissatisfied with themselves are more likely to experience self-esteem problems, depression, and
a higher risk of eating disorders. These negative consequences of false mediated stereotypes
should be taken seriously. According to Garner and Garfinkel (1985), body image and selfesteem have been proven to play important roles in the creation of eating disorders. Eating
disorders are extremely popular among adolescents and young women.
Social Comparison Theory
Due to constant exposure to image advertisements, women in society often become
acutely aware of their own body image. The social comparison theory developed by Festinger
(1954) helps to explain the process of self comparison. Festinger proposed that individuals tend
to evaluate themselves by looking at other social groups around them. There are two types of
social comparison that were later developed. Downward social comparison, is the comparison to
others that are not as fortunate ultimately increasing your self-worth and self-image. (Wills,
1991). Upward social comparison is the more negative side to the social comparison theory. This
type of comparison includes judgements placed on those who are better than our personal selfimage. Constant upward judgement can be very threatening to a positive self-esteem and can
contribute to negative behaviors (Higgins, 1987).
This theory can be directly applied to the social comparison processes of consumers. If a young
woman is subjected to unrealistic body images on a daily basis, she is most likely going to take
part in a social comparison process. Further research conducted by Wood (1989) suggested that
social comparison can affect self-feelings and self-concept. After the young woman is
overexposed to image advertisements, she may choose to evaluate herself in a negative manner.