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VOZ pasiva

Se forma la voz pasiva con el verbo auxiliar to be y el participio pasado del


verbo.
Sujeto + verbo auxiliar (to be) + participio pasado
Ejemplos:
The speech is written for the president. (El discurso est escrito para el
presidente.)

The house was built in 1975. (La casa fue construida en 1975.)

My wallet has been stolen. (Ha sido robada mi cartera.)

The room will be cleaned while we are out. (Se limpiar la habitacin mientras
estemos fuera.)
Para transformar una oracin activa a pasiva tenemos en cuenta los siguientes
puntos:
1. El objeto de la oracin activa pasa a ser el sujeto de la pasiva.
2. El verbo principal se sustituye por el auxiliar to be, en su mismo tiempo,
junto al verbo principal en participio.
3. El sujeto de la oracin principal pasa a ser complemento agente de la
pasiva.
4. Si hacemos mencin en la oracin del sujeto que realiza la accin (sujeto
agente), este ir normalmente precedido por la preposicin by.
La voz activa:
Mark Twain wrote the book. (Mark Twain escribi el libro.)
La voz pasiva:
The book was written by Mark Twain. (El libro fue escrito por Mark Twain.)
La voz activa:
The housekeeper will clean the room. (La ama de casa limpiar la habitacin.)
La voz pasiva:

The room will be cleaned by the housekeeper. (La habitacin ser limpiada por
la ama de casa.)

They make many movies in Hollywood.


Many movies are made in Hollywood
The students will give a presentation tomorrow.
A presentation will be given tomorrow by the students.
Someone has stolen my bike!
My bike has been stolen!
We receive the newspaper everyday.
The newspaper is received everyday.
The children have eaten the cookies.
The cookies have been eaten by the children.
We will complete the renovations next week.
The renovations will be completed next week.

They pay us every Friday.


We are paid every Friday.
Did they deliver your new sofa?
Was your new sofa delivered?
Tag questions
En ingls es frecuente terminar las frases con otra frase corta, de signo
contrario, la cual tiene la intencin de pedir la opinin o buscar la aprobacin
del interlocutor: son las llamadas question tags (preguntas coletillas). Estas
frases equivalen a: verdad?, no es verdad?, no?, no es as? en serio?
Ejemplos:

You eat meat, dont you? (Comes carne, verdad?)

She doesnt like to dance, does she? (No le gusta bailar, no?)

Alex and Sergio are friends, arent they? (Alex y Sergio son amigos, no?)
Grammatical Rules (Reglas gramaticales)
Para formar esta pregunta corta utilizaremos el auxiliar de la frase principal y
su sujeto pero de signo contrario. Si no tuviera auxiliar entonces utilizaramos
el auxiliar to do.
Si la oracin es afirmativa, la pregunta coletilla es negativa y viceversa.
Ejemplos:
Oraciones afirmativas
Your brother is older than you, isnt he? (Tu hermano es mayor que t, no es
as?)

You can help me, cant you? (Puedes ayudarme, verdad?)

John is getting married, isnt he? (John se casar, verdad?)

You worked yesterday, didnt you? (Trabajaste ayer, no?)

Sarah likes ice cream, doesnt she? (A Sarah le gusta el helado, no?)
Oraciones negativas
Youre not from here, are you? (No eres de aqu, no?)

Kates not American, is she? (Kate no es americana, verdad?)

Peter never liked Susan, did he? (A Peter nunca le gust Susan, verdad?)

They didnt go to class yesterday, did they? (No fueron a la clase ayer,
verdad?)

You cant dance, can you? (No puedes bailar, no?)


Nota: Ten cuidado con los verbos to have y to have got.
Ejemplos:
To have got:
Theyve got a dog, havent they? (Tienen un perro, no?)
To have:
They have a dog, dont they? (Tienen un perro, no?)
Excepcin: Con el verbo to be en la primera persona de oraciones negativas,
se usa arent en la pregunta coletilla.
Ejemplos:
I am not wrong, am I?

I am wrong, arent I?
Ejemplos
She has got 2 brothers, hasn't she?
You can't swim, can you?
Megan is married, isn't she?
Kate doesn't teach Spanish, does she?
They aren't here, are they?

Second conditional
Refiere a una situacin hipottica y se forma segn la estructura if + simple
past + simple condicional. Aqu tienes algunos ejemplos traducidos.
If clause

Main clause

If + Past Simple

would / could / might + verb

If I won the lottery,

I would travel around the world.

If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world.


Si ganara la lotera, viajara por todo el mundo.
If I were in Brazil, I would go to Rio de Janeiro.
Si yo estuviese en Brasil, ira a Ro de Janeiro.
If I were you, I would buy that car.
Si yo fuese t, comprara ese auto.
If he were in my place, he wouldn't do this.
Si l estuviese en mi lugar, no hara esto.
If I had more money, I would buy a nice apartment.
Si yo tuviese ms dinero, me comprara un lindo apartamento.
If she had more time, she would travel more often.
Si ella tuviera ms tiempo, viajara ms a menudo.
If it were not raining, we could go out.
Si no estuviese lloviendo, podramos salir.
If we didn't have to work today, we could have a picnic.
Si no tuvisemos que trabajar hoy, podramos tener un picnic.
If they won the lottery, they wouldn't work any more.
Si ellos ganaran la lotera, no trabajaran ms.
If I saw her, I would ask her out.
Si la viera, la invitara a salir.
If you went to Brazil, you wouldn't want to come back.
Si fueras a Brazil, no querras regresar.
If they spoke Spanish, we would understand them.
Si ellos hablasen espaol, los entenderamos.
If he didn't live by the river, he couldn't go fishing.
Si el no viviera cerca del ro, no podra ir a pescar.
If I didn't want to go, I would tell you.
Si no quisiera ir, te lo dira.

If they worked for that company, they might have better salaries.
Si ellos trabajaran para esa compaa, podran tener mejores sueldos.
If she wrote a book, it would be a best-seller.
Si ella escribiese un libro, sera un best-seller.
Past perfect
Funciones del "past perfect"
El "past perfect" hace referencia a un tiempo anterior al pasado reciente. Se
emplea para sealar que un evento ocurri antes que otro en el pasado. No
importa cul de los eventos se mencione primero, porque el tiempo verbal deja
claro el orden temporal en que acontecieron.
En estos ejemplos, el Evento A es el que primero ocurri y el Evento B tuvo
lugar a continuacin, es el ms reciente:
Evento A

Evento B

John had gone out

when I arrived in the office.

Evento A

Evento B

I had saved my document

before the computer crashed.

Evento B

Evento A

When they arrived

we had already started cooking.

Evento B

Evento A

He was very tired

because he hadn't slept well.

Formacin del "past perfect"


En ingls, el "past perfect" est compuesto por dos partes: el pasado del verbo
to have (had) + el "past participle" del verbo principal.
Sujeto
Afirmativa

had

past participle

Sujeto

had

past participle

She

had

given

hadn't

asked.

they

arrived?

Negativa
She
Interrogativa
Had

Interrogativa negativa
Hadn't

you

finished?

To decide, "past perfect"


Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa

I had decided

I hadn't decided

Had I decided?

You had decided

You hadn't decided

Had you decided?

She had decided

She hadn't decided

Had she decided?

We had decided

We hadn't decided

Had we decided?

They had decided

They hadn't decided

Had they decided?

"Past perfect" + just


'Just' se utiliza con el "past perfect" para referirse a un evento acontecido muy
poco antes de otro evento situado en el pasado, e.g.
The train had just left when I arrived at the station.

She had just left the room when the police arrived.
I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.
Third Conditional, tambin -Type III- Refiere a una situacin hipottica del
pasado y se forma segn la estructura : if + past perfect + conditional perfect.
Aqu tienes algunos ejemplos traducidos.
If clause

Main clause

If + Past Perfect tense

would/could/might + have + past


participle

If I had won the lottery,

I would have traveled around the world.

If I had won the lottery, I would have traveled around the world.
Si yo hubiera ganado la lotera, habra viajado por todo el mundo.
If I had seen him, I would have told him about you.
Si lo hubiese visto, le habra contado acerca de ti.
If I had known the answer, I would have raised my hand.
Si hubiese sabido la respuesta, habra levantado mi mano.
If she had come on Saturday, I would have seen her.
Si ella hubiese venido el sbado, la habra visto.
If they had left earlier, they would have arrived on time.
Si ellos hubiesen salido ms temprano, habran llegado a tiempo.
If we had studied harder, we might have passed the test.
Si hubisemos estudiado ms duro, podramos haber aprobado la prueba.
If you had gone to Brazil, you would have had lots of fun.
Si tu hubieses ido a Brasil, habras tenido mucha diversin.
If I hadn't been so busy, I could have helped you.
Si no hubiese estado tan ocupado, te podra haber ayudado.
If you had phoned me, I would have known you were here.
Si tu me hubieses telefoneado, habra sabido que estabas aqu.
If they had invited us, we would have accepted at once.
Si ellos nos hubiesen invitado, habramos aceptado de inmediato.
If she had explained me the problem, I would have understood it.
Si ella me hubiese explicado el problema, lo habra entendido.

If I hadn't forgotten his number, I would have phoned him.


Si no hubiese olvidado su nmero, lo habra llamado.
If it hadn't rained, we would have gone fishing.
Si no hubiese llovido, habramos ido a pescar.
If my sister had been here, she would have enjoyed this.
Si mi hermana hubiese estado aqu, habra disfrutado esto.
If they hadn't drunk so much last night, they wouldn't have felt sick today.
Si no hubiesen tomado tanto anoche, no se habran sentido enfermos hoy.
If he had worked more, he could have saved more money.
Si l hubiese trabajado ms, podra haver ahorrado ms dinero.

Nosotros usamos las oraciones de relativo para dar informacin adicional


acerca de algo sin iniciar otra frase. Mediante la combinacin de frases con una
oracin de relativo, el texto se hace ms fluida y se puede evitar la repeticin
de ciertas palabras.

Cmo formar clusulas relativas Nivel 2

Imagnese, una nia est hablando con Tom. Quieres saber quin es ella y
pedirle a un amigo si la conoce. Se podra decir:

Una nia est hablando con Tom. Sabe usted la chica?

Eso suena bastante complicado, verdad? Sera ms fcil con una oracin de
relativo: se pone ambas piezas de informacin en una sola frase. Comience con
lo ms importante - usted quiere saber quin es la chica.

Sabe usted la chica ...

A medida que su amigo no puede saber qu chica que est hablando, es


necesario poner en la informacin adicional - la nia est hablando con Tom.
Use "la chica" slo en la primera parte de la frase, en la segunda parte
reemplazarlo con el pronombre relativo (para las personas, utilizar el
pronombre relativo "que"). As que la ltima frase es:

Sabe usted la chica que est hablando con Tom? Relative Pronouns
Level: lower intermediate
relative
pronoun

use

example

who

subject or object pronoun for people

I told you about the woman


who lives next door.

which

subject or object pronoun for animals Do you see the cat which is
and things
lying on the roof?

which

referring to a whole sentence

He couldnt read which


surprised me.

whose

possession for people animals and


things

Do you know the boy


whose mother is a nurse?

whom

object pronoun for people, especially


in non-defining relative clauses (in
defining relative clauses we
colloquially prefer who)

I was invited by the


professor whom I met at
the conference.

that

subject or object pronoun for people,


animals and things in defining
relative clauses (who or which are
also possible)

I dont like the table that


stands in the kitchen.

Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? Level: lower intermediate


Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms - who,
which, that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can, however,
distinguish them as follows:
If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject
pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.
the apple which is lying on the table

If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun), the
relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in
defining relative clauses, which are then called Contact Clauses.
the apple (which) George lay on the table
Relative Adverbs Level: intermediate
A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition.
This often makes the sentence easier to understand.
This is the shop in which I bought my bike.
This is the shop where I bought my bike.
relative
adverb

meaning

use

example

when

in/on
which

refers to a time expression

the day when we met


him

where

in/at
which

refers to a place

the place where we


met him

why

for which

refers to a reason

the reason why we


met him

Defining Relative Clauses Level: lower intermediate


Defining relative clauses (also called identifying relative clauses or restrictive
relative clauses) give detailed information defining a general term or
expression. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.
Imagine, Tom is in a room with five girls. One girl is talking to Tom and you ask
somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause defines which of
the five girls you mean.
Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?
Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions.
A seaman is someone who works on a ship.
Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped. (Sentences with a
relative clause without the relative pronoun are called Contact Clauses.)
The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice.
Non-Defining Relative Clauses Level: upper intermediate

Non-defining relative clauses (also called non-identifying relative clauses or


non-restrictive relative clauses) give additional information on something, but
do not define it. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas.
Imagine, Tom is in a room with only one girl. The two are talking to each other
and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause is
non-defining because in this situation it is obvious which girl you mean.
Do you know the girl, who is talking to Tom?
Note: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with
that.
Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.
Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice.
How to Shorten Relative Clauses? Level: intermediate
Relative clauses with who, which, that as subject pronoun can be replaced with
a participle. This makes the sentence shorter and easier to understand.
I told you about the woman who lives next door. I told you about the woman
living next door.
Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? Do you see the cat lying on the
roof?