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Use Intrinsic Aids Before Resorting to Extrinsic Aids
Intrinsic Aid
Elements found in the law itself

Extrinsic Aid
Facts or matters not found in the law


Based on logic or established provision of law

Intrinsic Aids
That which expresses the subject matter of the law. It can help in the
construction of statutes but it is not controlling and not entitled to much

That part of the statute following the title and preceding the enacting
clause which states the reasons or the objectives of the enactment. It
cannot enlarge or confer powers, or cure inherent defects in the statute


Words, Phrases and Sentences, Context
The intention of the legislature must primarily be determined from the
language of the statute and such language consists of the words, phrases
and sentences used therein. The meaning of the law should, however, be
taken from the general consideration of the act as a whole and not from
any single part, portion or section or from isolated words and phrases,
clauses or sentences used.


It is an aid of low degree in interpreting the language of the statute and
can never control against the intelligible meaning of the written word.
However, if the punctuation of the statute gives it a meaning that is
reasonable and in apparent accord with the legislative will, it may be
used as an additional argument for adopting the literal meaning of the
words thus punctuated

5. The rules are as follows: If a law provides that in case of doubt it should be construed or interpreted in a certain manner. Legislative definition of similar terms in other statute may be resorted to except where a particular law expressly declares that its definition therein is limited in application to the statutes in which they appear. b. A term is used throughout the statute in the same sense in which it is first defined. 6. such definition or construction should be followed by the courts. c. as revealed by the statute considered in its totality. the courts should follow such instructions. the latter shall prevail. Headings and Marginal Notes If the meaning of the statute is clear or if the text of the statute is clear. they will prevail as against the headings. a. . In case of conflict between the interpretation clauses and the legislative meaning. especially if the headings have been prepared by compilers and not by the legislature. d. Legislative Definition and Interpretation If the legislature has defined the words used in the statute and has declared the construction to be placed thereon.