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EXPERIMENT NO- 2

AIM:- To study about various types of boilers.


BOILER:It is a closed vessel in which the heat produced by the combustion of fuel is
transferred to water for its conversion into steam at the desired temperature and
pressure.
Broadly speaking, a boiler is a device used for generating(1) Steam for power generation
(2) Hot water for heating purpose.

CLASSIFICATION OF BOILERS:The boilers may be classified as under:


(A) BASED ON THE AXIS OF THE DRUM:1. Horizontal boiler:-The boiler in which the drum axis is parallel and horizontal.
Example Lancashire, locomotive.
2. Vertical boiler: - The boiler in which the drum axis is vertical. Example Cochran
boiler.
(B) BASED ON WATER CONTENT IN THE TUBES:1. Fire tube boiler:-In this type of boiler hot gases is inside the tubes and water is
surrounding the tubes. Example Cochran, Lancashire and locomotive.
2. Water tube boiler: - In this type of boiler water is inside the tubes and hot gases
are surrounding the tubes. Example Babcock and Wilcox boiler, striling boiler.
(C) BASED ON POSITION OF FURNACE:1. Externally fired boiler: - The boiler in which the furnace is outside the boiler
drum is called externally fired boiler. Example Babcock and Wilcox boiler.
2. Internally fired boiler:-The boiler in which the furnace is inside the boiler drum is
called internally fired boiler. Example Cochran boiler, Lancashire boiler.

(D) BASED ON CIRCULATION OF WATER:1. Forced circulation boiler:-In this boiler circulation of water is done by a pump.
Example:
velox boiler, Lamount boiler and Bension boiler.
2. Natural circulation boiler:-In this boiler circulation of water take place due to
difference in density resulting from difference in temperature. Example:
Lancashire boiler, Babcock and Wilcox boiler.
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(E)BASED ON ITS WORKING PRESSURE:1. High pressure boiler:-It is one in which the working pressure of the boiler is more
than 25 bar. Example: Babcock and Wilcox boiler.
2. Medium pressure boiler:-It is one in which the working pressure of the boiler is
10 to 25 bar. Example: Lancashire boiler, locomotive boiler.
3. Low pressure boiler:-It is one in which the working pressure of the boiler is
between 3.5 to 10 bar. Example: Cochran and Cornish boiler.
(F)BASED ON ITS POSITION WHEN IT IS WORKING:1. Stationary boiler: - The boiler which cannot be transported easily from one place
to another are called stationary boilers. Example Cornish, Babcock and Wilcox
boiler, package boiler.
2. Movable or mobile boiler: - The boiler which can be easily transported from one
place to another are called movable boiler. Example: locomotive boiler.
(G)BASED ON NUMBER OF TUBES:1. Single tube boiler: - The boiler having only one fire tube or water tube is called
single tube boiler. Example: Cornish boiler.
2. Multi tube boiler: - The boiler having two or more fire or water tube is called multi
tube boiler. Example: Lancashire boiler, Cochran boiler, Babcock and Wilcox
boiler.
(H) BASED ON CURVATURE OF TUBE:1. Straight tube: - The boiler in which the water tube or fire tube are straight or
inclined. Example: locomotive, Babcock and Wilcox boiler.
2. Bent tube: - The boiler in which the water or fire tube are bent. Example: sterling,
Benson boiler.
(I) BASED ON HEAT SOURCE:1. Coal fired boiler,
2. Oil fired boiler,
3. Gas fired boiler,
4. Electricity heated boiler,
5. Nuclear boiler,
6. Waste heat boiler.
(J) BASED ON DRAFT OR DRAUGHT USED:1. Natural draft: - In this type of boiler, the flue gas is flowing inside the boiler is
called natural draft boiler. Example: Lancashire boiler.

2. Artificial draft: - In this type of boiler, the flue gas is flowing with help of fan is
called artificial draft boiler. Example: locomotive boiler.

1. COCHRAN BOILER:-

Working:The water is fed into the boiler through the feed check valve. The level is
adjusted with the help of water level indicator. Coal is added through the fire hole to the
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grate and burnt. The hot gases produced are collected in the fire box. From fire box, the
gases pass on to the combustion chamber through the pipe with considerable velocity.
The fire brick lining deflects the hot gases to pass through the horizontal tubes. After
that hot gases pass through smoke box and enter into the chimney. The water
evaporates and the steam is collected at the top. The steam is taken out for utilization
through the steam stop valve.

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2.
3.
4.
5.

Advantages:The minimum floor area is required.


Cost of construction is low.
It can be moved and setup readily in different locations.
No brickwork setting is necessary.
Any type of fuel can be used.

Disadvantages:1. Due to its vertical design, cleaning and inspection is difficult as well as steam rising
capacity is less.
2. The pressure and capacity is limited.
3. The boiler requires high head room.

2. LANCASHIRE BOILER:-

Working:The water is fed into the boiler shell through the feed check valve. Coal is added
to the grate through the fire hole and then it burnt. The position of damper is adjusted in

such a way that the necessary air required for combustion of the coal will be supplied.
The combustion will produce hot gases. They move along the main flue tube and
deflected by the fire brick. They are made to pass all among the length of the main flue
tubes. At the back of main flue tube, they are deflected again and made to pass through
the bottom flue of the boiler. At front side of boiler shell, the gases in the bottom flue are
divided into two side flue and then gases enter into the smoke box and finally go to the
chimney. The path of gas is shown in figure. The water evaporates and converted into
the steam. The steam is collected in the steam collecting pipe for utilization.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Advantages:It is easy to clean and inspect.


Heating surface area/ unit volume of boiler is considerably large.
The availability of steam is high and maintenance cost is low.
It is reliable.
Its operation is easy.

Disadvantages:More floor area is required.


Due to shell construction the maximum pressure is limited to about 16 bar.
Cracks in setting, due to large temperature difference inside and outside cause
leakage.
4. Due to large water capacity, for developing more pressure, boiler takes more time.
5. Since the furnace is inside the tubes the grate area is restricted.

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3.

3. BABCOCK AND WILCOX BOILER:-

Working:7

The water is fed into the boiler shell through the feed check valve. Due to gravity,
water passes through the vertical tube, headers and fills up the inclined tube first and
water level is adjusted by water level indicator. The coal is put on grate and fired. In
order to provide air for combustion of coal and circulation of hot gases, damper is
lowered to the furnace level. The baffle plates guide hot gases. These gases travel in
the sine wave form and then move to smoke box fitted with a long chimney.
Water in the upper portion of the tube is heated and rises up. The cold water from
the down take header rises to take its place and water from the boiler drums flows
down.
Till the temperature of water in the tube and in the drum become uniform, the
circulation of water continues. Finally the water in the upper portion of the tube is
converted into the steam. It is then collected in the boiler shell. The steam collected
above the surface of the water in the drum is wet steam. The super heater is used to
convert this wet steam into the superheated steam. This superheated steam is then
taken out through the steam stop valve on the top of the boiler for different uses.
ADVANTAGES OF THE BOILER:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

It uses both solid as well as liquid fuel for burning.


The draught losses as compared to other boilers are minimum.
The evaporative capacity is high.
The circulation of water is natural.
The defective tubes can be replaced easily.
It is used in power stations for generating large quantity of steam.