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CE 307

Railway Engineering and Airport


Planning
Stresses in track & Relief of stresses

Dr. Indrajit Ghosh


Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Track Stresses

Track

Elastic theory of track

Fundamental basis

Track support is elastic

Depression is proportional to load

Recovery is complete after load is removed

There might be slight failures in recovering

Not accounted in theoretical consideration

Track Stresses

Wheel load is applied at any point in track

Causes deflection of rail

Downward movement

Compression of sleepers and ballasts

Beyond point of load application

Due to continuity of track

A reverse bending occurs in rail

Both downward and upward bending

POINT OF CONTRAFLEXURE

Relief of Stresses

Can be defined as:


This is a state that is reached when a group of
wheel loads working close to each other act
simultaneously on the rail

Relief of Stresses

Single wheel load condition:

A single wheel load acts on rail

Rail deflects at that point

A maximum bending moment gets produced


below center of rail seat

Relief of Stresses

Single wheel load condition:

BM becomes negative after point of


contraflexure

Attains maximum negative BM at some


distance from wheel load (for which it has
been produced)

Becomes negligible at a farther distance along


rail length

Relief of Stresses
Wheel
Load

Direction of Movement
- ve Bending
Moment

Rail Length

Single Wheel Load


Condition
+ ve Bending
Moment

Relief of Stresses

Train load

Consists of number of wheel loads, close to


each other, which act simultaneously on rail

Group of wheel loads

Maximum positive BM

Gets counteracted by negative BM produced by


adjacent wheel load

Net BM under wheel considered will be less than


maximum positive bending moment
Rail stresses will be comparatively smaller
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Relief of Stresses
Wheel
Loads

Direction of
Movement

- ve Bending
Moment

Rail Length

Multiple Wheel Load


Condition
+ ve Bending
Moment

Relief of Stresses

Magnitude of relief of stress depends upon

Distance of point of contraflexure


Spacing of wheels

Interesting facts

In case of wagons

Stresses due to locomotives are higher as


compared to the wagon

Axle distances are very large as compared to


axle distances of locomotives

Because of heavier weight of the locomotive

Relief of stress under wheel may be up to


50%
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Track Stresses

Assumption

Track is elastic

Track has a continuous support

Deflection y at any point is proportional to


upward pressure p at that point

p = Ky

Maximum deflection occurs under load

P = KY
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Track Stresses

The I, II, III and IV derivatives of elastic curve


for a continuously supported beam provide

Slope

BM

Shear Force

Rate of intensity of loading

d4y
EI 4 Ky
dx

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Track Stresses

Formulae for stress calculations


EI
BM max P
tonne. cm 0.318 Px1 tonne.cm
4 .5 K
4

x1 42.33 4

I
cm
K

BM max 13.8 P 4 I
Stress due to BM (kg / cm ), f

tonne / cm 2
z
z
K
BM max
BM max
f compression
, f tension
zc
zt
2

Deflection, y0

9.25 P
4

cm

K I
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Track Stresses
Where,

BM Bending moment under wheel load

f - Stress in rail due to vertical bending

y0 - Deflection in track under load in cm

P - Wheel load in ton

E - Modulus of elasticity of rail steel in kg/cm2

x1 - Distance of point of contraflexure from load in cm

K - Track modulus

I - Moment of Inertia of rail section in cm4

z - Modulus of rail section in cm3


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Track Stresses

Determine values of BM, f and y0 under load

Find value of BM and deflection of elastic track


due to adjacent wheels from CHARTS

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Track Stresses

Causes of stresses in railway track:

Vertical loads

Lateral forces
Longitudinal forces
Contact stresses

Wheel loads
Dynamic effect of wheel loads

Wheel and rail contact

Stresses due to surface defects


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Track Stresses: Vertical Loads

Wheel loads

Dead load

Transmitted to point of contact of wheel and rail

When wheels are in stationary position

Needs to be modified due to impact of moving


wheels

DYNAMIC EFFECT

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Track Stresses: Vertical loads

Dynamic effect of wheel load

Dynamic load is much more than static load

Speed

Vibrations

Obtained by increasing static wheel load by


an incremental amount

Speed factor or impact factor

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Track Stresses: Dynamic Effects

Till 1966, Indian Railways used Indian formula


Speed factor = V / (18.2 K)
Where
V = Speed of train in kmph
K = Track modulus in kg/cm2

After 1966, German formula by Schram has


been adopted

For speed up to 100 kmph


Speed factor = V2/30000

For speed above 100 kmph


Speed factor = (4.5 V2/105) (1.5V3/107)
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Track Stresses

Three wheels of an engine are equi-spaced with centerto-center distance of 120 cm. The central wheel carries a
static load of 10 tons while the outer wheels carry 8 tons
each. Calculate the bending moment under the first
wheel and the deflection under the central wheel. Use
the following data and Figure given overleaf.

Moment of inertia of rail section

1940 cm4

Initial Track modulus

85 kg/cm2

Elastic track modulus

300 kg/cm2

Speed of the train

80 km/hr

Track Stresses: Lateral forces

Stresses due to lateral forces

Oscillations: striking of wheels flanges with rails

Nosing action

Lateral force produces

Twist in rail

Bending of head and foot of rail

Lateral deflection is resisted by

Rail-sleeper fastening

Ballast coming in contact with rail


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Track Stresses: Longitudinal forces

Stresses due to longitudinal forces

Developed due to

Tractive effort of locomotive

Its braking force

Temperature variation

Results in thermal forces

Leads to stress development

Tensile stresses vs. Compressive stresses

Winter vs. Summer


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Track Stresses: Contact stresses

Contact Stresses between rail and wheel

Wheel and rail head are assumed to be two


cylinders with their axis at right angles to each
other

Hertz formulated a theory to determine area of


contact and pressure distribution at surface of
contact between rail and wheel

Have an elliptical contact area

Maximum contact shear stress at the contact


point between wheel and rail is given by:
F = 4.13 (P/R)1/2 in kg/mm2
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Track Stresses: Contact stresses

Contact Stresses between rail and wheel

Track Stresses: Contact stresses

Contact Stresses between rail and wheel


Where

R = radius of fully worn out wheel in mm

P = Static wheel load in kg + 1000 kg for onloading on curves

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Track Stresses: Defects/irregularities

Causes

A flat in a wheel

A low spot in rail

Unevenness of ballast or subgrade

Results in depression

Non-uniformity in gauge

Level difference in top of rails

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Stresses on a sleeper

Sleeper subjected to

Permanent stresses

Fastening

Longitudinal forces in rails

Transient stress

Due to passage of trains

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Stresses on a sleeper

Stresses in sleepers depend upon factors

Wheel load
Transfer of weight
Irregularities of rails
Speed
Elasticity of rail
Efficiency of fastening
Design/dimension/strength of sleepers
Track modulus
Track maintenance
Rail stiffness
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Stresses on a sleeper

Based on elastic theory


Maximum load on a rail seat =

Where,
P = Wheel load
K = Track modulus
S = Sleeper spacing
L = Characteristic length = (EI/K)1/4
EI = Flexural stiffness of rail
Z = Modulus of rail section
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Stresses on a sleeper

End-bound sleepers

More deflection at centre

Centre-bound sleepers

Greater deflection at ends

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Stresses on a sleeper

Pressure at any depth h (cm) below centre of sleeper

pa
pc = 5.24 1.25
h
pa
pc = 0.48 10
h

-2.06 (

x 2
)
h

Where
pa is tie pressure below load

2P
pa
bl

b Width of sleeper
l Length of sleeper
P Wheel load (kg or ton)

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Stresses on ballast

Loads passed onto sleeper from rail

In turn transferred to ballast

Efficacy of load transmission depends on

Elastic property of sleepers

Size/shape/depth of ballast

Degree of compaction under sleepers

Prof. A.N.Talbot

Pressure distribution curve under sleeper


would shape like bulbs
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Pressure on formation or subgrade

Subgrade

Carries dead plus live loads exerted by trains


and superstructure

Pressure depends on

Total quantum of load

Manner in which it is being transferred to


subgrade

Distribution of pressure

Spacing of sleepers

Size, depth, compaction of ballast

Type of subgrade
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Pressure on formation or subgrade

Maximum formation pressure (tonnes/cm2)

pmax

2 PS 4 K

DL 64 EI

Where
P Live wheel load (ton)
S Sleeper spacing (cm)
D Depth of ballast under sleeper (cm)
L Effective length of sleeper under one rail seat
(76 cm for BG, 63 cm for MG)
K Track modulus (kg/cm2)
I Moment of Inertia of rail (cm4)
E Modulus of elasticity of rail steel (kg/cm2) = 2.11 x 106

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Pressure on formation or subgrade

Permissible limits of formation pressure


(kg/cm2)

Locomotives

= 3.5 kg/cm2

Other stock

= 3 kg/cm2

(wagons, coaches)

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