Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 37

# CE 307

## Railway Engineering and Airport

Planning
Stresses in track & Relief of stresses

## Dr. Indrajit Ghosh

Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Track Stresses

Track

## Elastic theory of track

Fundamental basis

Track Stresses

## Causes deflection of rail

Downward movement

## Both downward and upward bending

POINT OF CONTRAFLEXURE

Relief of Stresses

## Can be defined as:

This is a state that is reached when a group of
wheel loads working close to each other act
simultaneously on the rail

Relief of Stresses

## A maximum bending moment gets produced

below center of rail seat

Relief of Stresses

contraflexure

## Attains maximum negative BM at some

distance from wheel load (for which it has
been produced)

## Becomes negligible at a farther distance along

rail length

Relief of Stresses
Wheel

Direction of Movement
- ve Bending
Moment

Rail Length

Condition
+ ve Bending
Moment

Relief of Stresses

## Consists of number of wheel loads, close to

each other, which act simultaneously on rail

Maximum positive BM

## Net BM under wheel considered will be less than

maximum positive bending moment
Rail stresses will be comparatively smaller
8

Relief of Stresses
Wheel

Direction of
Movement

- ve Bending
Moment

Rail Length

Condition
+ ve Bending
Moment

Relief of Stresses

## Distance of point of contraflexure

Spacing of wheels

Interesting facts

In case of wagons

## Stresses due to locomotives are higher as

compared to the wagon

## Axle distances are very large as compared to

axle distances of locomotives

50%
10

Track Stresses

Assumption

Track is elastic

## Deflection y at any point is proportional to

upward pressure p at that point

p = Ky

P = KY
11

Track Stresses

## The I, II, III and IV derivatives of elastic curve

for a continuously supported beam provide

Slope

BM

Shear Force

d4y
EI 4 Ky
dx

12

Track Stresses

## Formulae for stress calculations

EI
BM max P
tonne. cm 0.318 Px1 tonne.cm
4 .5 K
4

x1 42.33 4

I
cm
K

BM max 13.8 P 4 I
Stress due to BM (kg / cm ), f

tonne / cm 2
z
z
K
BM max
BM max
f compression
, f tension
zc
zt
2

Deflection, y0

9.25 P
4

cm

K I
13

Track Stresses
Where,

## x1 - Distance of point of contraflexure from load in cm

K - Track modulus

14

Track Stresses

## Find value of BM and deflection of elastic track

due to adjacent wheels from CHARTS

15

16

Track Stresses

## Causes of stresses in railway track:

Lateral forces
Longitudinal forces
Contact stresses

17

wheels

DYNAMIC EFFECT

18

Speed

Vibrations

## Obtained by increasing static wheel load by

an incremental amount

19

## Till 1966, Indian Railways used Indian formula

Speed factor = V / (18.2 K)
Where
V = Speed of train in kmph
K = Track modulus in kg/cm2

## For speed up to 100 kmph

Speed factor = V2/30000

## For speed above 100 kmph

Speed factor = (4.5 V2/105) (1.5V3/107)
20

Track Stresses

Three wheels of an engine are equi-spaced with centerto-center distance of 120 cm. The central wheel carries a
static load of 10 tons while the outer wheels carry 8 tons
each. Calculate the bending moment under the first
wheel and the deflection under the central wheel. Use
the following data and Figure given overleaf.

1940 cm4

85 kg/cm2

300 kg/cm2

80 km/hr

Nosing action

Twist in rail

## Lateral deflection is resisted by

Rail-sleeper fastening

22

Developed due to

## Its braking force

Temperature variation

23

## Wheel and rail head are assumed to be two

cylinders with their axis at right angles to each
other

## Hertz formulated a theory to determine area of

contact and pressure distribution at surface of
contact between rail and wheel

## Maximum contact shear stress at the contact

point between wheel and rail is given by:
F = 4.13 (P/R)1/2 in kg/mm2
24

Where

26

## Track Stresses: Defects/irregularities

Causes

A flat in a wheel

## Unevenness of ballast or subgrade

Results in depression

Non-uniformity in gauge

## Level difference in top of rails

27

Stresses on a sleeper

Sleeper subjected to

Permanent stresses

Fastening

Transient stress

## Due to passage of trains

28

Stresses on a sleeper

## Stresses in sleepers depend upon factors

Transfer of weight
Irregularities of rails
Speed
Elasticity of rail
Efficiency of fastening
Design/dimension/strength of sleepers
Track modulus
Track maintenance
Rail stiffness
29

Stresses on a sleeper

## Based on elastic theory

Maximum load on a rail seat =

Where,
K = Track modulus
S = Sleeper spacing
L = Characteristic length = (EI/K)1/4
EI = Flexural stiffness of rail
Z = Modulus of rail section
30

Stresses on a sleeper

End-bound sleepers

## More deflection at centre

Centre-bound sleepers

## Greater deflection at ends

31

Stresses on a sleeper

## Pressure at any depth h (cm) below centre of sleeper

pa
pc = 5.24 1.25
h
pa
pc = 0.48 10
h

-2.06 (

x 2
)
h

Where
pa is tie pressure below load

2P
pa
bl

b Width of sleeper
l Length of sleeper
P Wheel load (kg or ton)

32

Stresses on ballast

## Elastic property of sleepers

Size/shape/depth of ballast

Prof. A.N.Talbot

## Pressure distribution curve under sleeper

would shape like bulbs
33

34

## Pressure on formation or subgrade

and superstructure

Pressure depends on

## Manner in which it is being transferred to

Distribution of pressure

Spacing of sleepers

35

## Maximum formation pressure (tonnes/cm2)

pmax

2 PS 4 K

DL 64 EI

Where
S Sleeper spacing (cm)
D Depth of ballast under sleeper (cm)
L Effective length of sleeper under one rail seat
(76 cm for BG, 63 cm for MG)
K Track modulus (kg/cm2)
I Moment of Inertia of rail (cm4)
E Modulus of elasticity of rail steel (kg/cm2) = 2.11 x 106

36

## Permissible limits of formation pressure

(kg/cm2)

Locomotives

= 3.5 kg/cm2

Other stock

= 3 kg/cm2

(wagons, coaches)

37