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# Chapter 4

Introduction to Differential
Equations
Transient Analysis of
First-Order Networks
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute
University of the Philippines - Diliman
Revised by Michael Pedrasa, May 2012

## Elec Ckts 9ed, Chapter 7

Differential Equations
Definition: Differential equations are equations
that involve dependent variables and their
derivatives with respect to the independent
variables.

d 2u
+ ku = 0
2
dx

Simple harmonic
motion: u(x)
Wave equation in three
dimensions: u(x,y,z,t)

2
2u 2u 2u

u
2
+
+
=
c
x 2 y 2 z 2
t 2

EEE 33 - p2

## Ordinary Differential Equations

Definition: Ordinary differential equations
(ODE) are differential equations that involve only
ONE independent variable.
Example:

d 2u( x )
+ ku = 0
2
dx
u(x) is the dependent variable
x is the independent variable

EEE 33 - p3

## Ordinary Differential Equations

We can classify all ODEs according to
order, linearity and homogeneity.
The order of a differential equation is just the
highest differential term involved:

d 2y
dy
a2
+ a1
+ a0 = 0
2
dt
dt

dx
d 3x
=x 3
dt
dt
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2nd order
3rd order
EEE 33 - p4

Linearity
The important issue is how the unknown variable
(ie y) appears in the equation. A linear equation
must have constant coefficients, or coefficients
which depend on the independent variable. If
y or its derivatives appear in the coefficient the
equation is non-linear.

dy
+ y = 0 is linear
dt
dy
+ y 2 = 0 is non-linear
dt
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

dy 2
+t = 0
dt

is linear

dy 2
y
+ t = 0 is non-linear
dt
EEE 33 - p5

Linearity - Summary
Linear
2y
dy
dt

(2 + 3 sin t) y
dy
t
dt
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

Non-linear
y2

or

sin( y )

dy
y
dt

(2 3 y 2 ) y
dy

dt

EEE 33 - p6

Homogeniety
Put all the terms of the differential equation which
involve the dependent variable on the left hand
side (LHS) of the equation.
Homogeneous: If there is nothing left on the
right-hand side (RHS), the equation is
homogeneous. (unforced or free)
Nonhomogeneous: If there are terms left on
the RHS involving constants or the independent
variable, the equation is nonhomogeneous (forced)
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p7

Examples of Classification
dy
+y=0
dx
2

d y
2
+
cos(
x
)
y
= sin( x)
2
dx
3

d y
5 3 4y = cos( x )
dx

1st Order
Linear
Homogeneous
2nd Order
Non-linear
Non-homogeneous

3rd Order
Linear
Non-homogeneous

EEE 33 - p8

## Linear Differential Equations

A linear ordinary differential equation describing
linear electric circuits is of the form

dnx
d n1x
dx
an
+
a
+
...
+
a
+ a0 = v ( t )
n 1
1
n
n 1
dt
dt
dt
where
an, an-1,,a0 constants
x(t)

## dependent variable (current or voltage)

independent variable

v(t)

EEE 33 - p9

## Linear Differential Equations

Assume that we are given a network of passive
elements and sources where all currents and
voltages are initially known. At a reference instant
of time designated t=0, the system is altered in a
manner that is represented by the opening or
closing of a switch.
Our objective is to obtain equations for currents
and voltages in terms of time measured from the
instant equilibrium was altered by the switching.

EEE 33 - p10

1

## In the network shown, the

switch is moved from position
1 to position 2 at time t=0.

di
L
+ Ri = 0
dt

(1)

## Re-arranging the equation to separate the

variables, we get

di
R
= dt
i
L

(2)
EEE 33 - p11

## Solution to Differential Equations

Equation 2 can be integrated to give

R
lni = t + K
L

(3)

## where ln means the natural logarithm (base e).

The constant K can be expressed as

ln k

## Thus, equation 3 can be written as

ln i = ln e Rt / L + ln k
We know that

(4)

ln y + ln z = ln yz

EEE 33 - p12

## Solution to Differential Equations

Equation 4 is equivalent to

ln i = ln ( ke Rt / L )

(5)

i = ke Rt / L

(6)

## Equation 6 is known as the general solution. If

the constant k is evaluated, the solution is a
particular solution.

EEE 33 - p13

## General and Particular Solutions

The general solution refers to a set of solutions
satisfying the differential equation.
A particular
solution fits the
specification of a
particular problem.

1.5e-250t
e-250t
0.5e-250t

Assume in the
previous circuit,
R=1k, L=4H.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p14

Transient Analysis of
First-Order Networks
Artemio P. Magabo
Professor of Electrical Engineering

## Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

University of the Philippines - Diliman

First-Order Transients
Consider the homogeneous differential equation

dx
a
+ bx = 0
dt

## with initial condition x(0)=X0.

The solution can be shown to be an exponential of
the form

x = K st
where K and s are constants. Substitution gives

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p16

as + b = 0

b
s=
a

or

x = K

b
t
a

## The constant K can be found using the given initial

condition. At t=0, we get

x(0) = X 0 = K0 = K
The final solution is

x = X0

b
t
a

t0

## Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p17

Source-Free RL Network
Consider the circuit shown. Let
i(0) = I0. From KVL, we get

di
L
+ Ri = 0
dt

R
i

## The solution can be found to be

i = K

R
t
L

At t=0, we get

i(0) = I0 = K0 = K
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p18

Substitution gives

i(t) = I0

R
t
L

vR = Ri = RI0

R
t
L

di
vL = L
= RI0
dt

R
t
L

= vR

## Note: Every current and voltage in an RL

network is a decaying exponential with a
time constant of =L/R.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p19

Source-Free RC Network
Consider the circuit shown. Let
vC(0) = V0. From KCL, we get
for t 0

dv C 1
C
+ vC = 0
dt
R

R
i

+
-

vC

## The solution can be shown to be

vC = K

1
t
RC

At t=0, we get

vC (0) = V0 = K0 = K
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p20

Substitution gives

vC (t) = V0

1
t
RC

vC
V0
iR =
=

R
R

1
t
RC

1

dv C
V0 RC t
iC = C
=

= iR
dt
R

## Note: Every current and voltage in an RC

network is a decaying exponential with a
time constant of =RC.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p21

## The Exponential Function

Given the function

x(t) = X0

1
t

When t=0,

x(0) = X 00 = X 0

When t=,

x() = X0 1 = 0.368X0

When t=2,

x(2) = X0 2 = 0.135X0

When t=3,

x(3) = X0 3 = 0.050X0

When t=4,

x(4) = X0 4 = 0.018X0

When t=5,

x(5) = X0

= 0.007X0
EEE 33 - p22

## Plot of the Exponential Function

X0 ..

1
..
- t
..
x(t) = X0e
..
..
..
..
...
...
. ..
. . .. . . .. . . .

t0

## Note: As seen from the plot, after t=5, or after 5

time constants, the function is practically zero.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p23

1. When R is expressed in ohms, L in Henrys
and C in Farads, the time constant is in
seconds.
2. For practical circuits, the typical values of
the parameters are: R in ohms, L in mH,
C in F.
3. Typically, = L

R
= RC

in msec
in sec

## Note: For practical circuits, the exponential

function will decay to zero in less than 1 second.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p24

## A More General RL Circuit

The circuit shown has several resistors but only one
inductor. Given
4 0.1H
i1(0+)=I0=2 Amps,
i3
find i1, i2, and i3 for i2
i1
I0
t 0.
6
3
2
First, determine the
equivalent resistance
seen by the inductor.

R ab

6(3)
=2+4+
6+3
=8

4 a
6

b
2

EEE 33 - p25

## Next, find the time constant of the circuit.

L
1
=
=
sec
R ab 80
Every current will be described by the exponential

K 80 t

t0

i1 = K1

80t

t0

## At t=0+, i1(0+)=I0=2 Amps. Thus, we get

i1(0+ ) = 2 = K10 = K1
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p26

i1 = 2 80t

Amps

t0

## The remaining currents, i2 and i3, can be found

using current division. We get

or

3
1
i2 =
i1 = i1
3+6
3

2 80 t
i2 =
3

Amps

t0

Similarly, we get

4 80 t
i3 =
3

Amps

t0
EEE 33 - p27

## A More General RC Circuit

The circuit shown has several resistors but only one
capacitor. Given
vC(0+)=V0=20 volts,
2K
find i for t 0.
i
6k
3k
+
1F vC
First, determine the
equivalent resistance
seen by the capacitor.

R ab

6k(3k)
= 2k +
6k + 3k
= 4 k

2K
6k
a
b

3k

EEE 33 - p28

## = R abC = (4k)(1F) = 4 msec

Any current or voltage will be described by the
exponential

K 250 t

t0

vC = K 250 t

t0

## At t=0+, vC(0+)=V0=20 volts. Thus, we get

vC (0+ ) = 20 = K0 = K
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p29

vC = 20 250 t

volts

t0

dv C
iC = C
= 5 250 t
dt

mA

t0

6k
- 250 t
i(t) =
(-iC ) = 3.33 e
6k + 3k

mA

t0

EEE 33 - p30

End

## RL Network with Constant Source

In the circuit shown, the
switch is closed at t = 0.
Find current i(t) for t 0.

R
+

KVL

t=0

di
L
+ Ri = E
dt

## The solution of a non-homogeneous differential

equation consists of two components:
1. The transient response
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p32

## Transient Response: The solution of the homogeneous differential equation; that is

dit
L
+ Rit = 0
dt
The transient response for the RL circuit is

it = K

R
t
L

## Steady-State Response: The solution of the

differential equation itself; that is

diss
L
+ Riss = E
dt
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p33

## The steady-state response is similar in form to the

forcing function plus all its unique derivatives. For
constant excitation, the steady-state response is
also constant.
Let iss=A, constant

diss
=0
dt

or

0 + RA = E

E
A=
R

EEE 33 - p34

R

i(t) = iss

t
E
+ it =
+ K L
R

t0

## Initial Condition: For t<0, i=0 since the switch is

open. At t=0+, or immediately after the switch is
closed, i(0+)=0 since the current in the inductor
cannot change instantaneously.
Evaluate K. At t=0+, we get

E
i(0 ) = 0 = + K0
R
+

or

E
K=
R
EEE 33 - p35

Finally,we get

E E
i(t) =

R R

R
t
L

t0

## A plot of the current for t 0 is shown below.

...
...
....
....
. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
...
...
....
....

iss

. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

E
R

i(t)

it

## Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p36

Transient Response
The transient response is the solution of the
homogeneous differential equation.
(1) It is an exponential function whose time
constant depends on the values of the electrical
parameters (R, L and C);
(2) It is also called the natural response since it is
(3) It is independent of the source; and
(4) It serves as the transition from the initial
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p37

The steady-state response is the solution of the
original differential equation.
(1) It is also called the forced response since its
form is forced on the electrical network by the
applied source;
(2) It is similar in form to the applied source plus
all its unique derivatives;
(3) It is independent of the initial conditions; and
(4) It exists for as long as the source is applied.
The forced response is the response that will be left after
the natural response dies out.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p38

## RC Network with Constant Source

In the circuit shown, the
switch is closed at t = 0.
Assume vC(0)=V0. Find vC
(t) for t 0.

R
+

t=0

vC
-

Since

Ri + vC = E
dv C
, we get
i=C
dt
dv C
RC
+ vC = E
dt

EEE 33 - p39

vC,t = K

1
t
RC

## Steady-State Response: Since the forcing

function is constant, the steady-state response is
also constant.
Let vC,ss = A, constant

dv C,ss
dt

Substitute in

RC

=0

dv C,ss
dt

+ vC,ss = E

EEE 33 - p40

We get

0+A =E

A =E

or

## Complete Response: Add the transient response

vC = vC,ss + vC,t = E + K

1
t
RC

## Evaluate K. At t=0+, we get

vC (0 ) = V0 = E + K

or

Finally,we get

vC (t) = E + (V0 E)
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

1
t
RC

K = V0 E
t0
EEE 33 - p41

## L and C at Steady State

With all sources constant, then at steady-state,
all currents and voltages are constant.
I0

iC C

L
+

vL

+ V0 -

If the current is
constant, then

If the voltage is
constant, then

dI0
vL = L
=0
dt

dV0
iC = C
=0
dt

## Note: With constant sources, L is short-circuited

and C is open-circuited at steady state condition.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p42

10

## Example: Find the

current and voltages

24V

+
-

+ vR -

vL

iss

24
=
= 2.4 A
10

## Since the source is constant,

the inductor is shorted at
10
24V

+
-

+ vR,ss -

iss

vL,ss
-

+
-

vR ,ss = 24 V
vL ,ss = 0

EEE 33 - p43

10

## Example: Find the

current and voltages

24V

+
-

+ vR -

vC
-

## Since the source is constant,

the capacitor is open-circuited

iss = 0

10
24V

+
-

+ vR,ss -

iss

vC,ss
-

vR ,ss = 0
v C,ss = 24 V

EEE 33 - p44

## Example: Find the

inductor current and
capacitor voltage at
+
24V -

vC
-

the inductor and open
the capacitor.

iL ,ss

24
=
=2A
12

iL
9

3
+

24V -

## vC,ss = 9iL ,ss = 18 V

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

vC,ss
-

iL,ss
9

EEE 33 - p45

## Example: Find the

inductor currents
+
and capacitor
24V
voltages at

iL1

4
8

vC1

vC2

iL2

C3 vC3
-

IL1

4
24V

+
-

VC1
-

VC2
-

IL2

C3 VC3

IL1
IL2
VC1
VC2
VC3

=0
=2A
= 16 V
=0
= 16 V
EEE 33 - p46

## Example: The switch is

closed at t=0. Find the
+
current i(t) for t 0.
12V -

t=0

10mH

it = K

R
t
L

= K

400 t

t0

Iss

12
=
=3A
4

4
12V

Iss

EEE 33 - p47

## The complete solution

i(t) = iss + it = 3 + K

400 t

t0

## Initial condition: At t=0+, i(0+)=0 since the

inductor current cannot change instantaneously.
Evaluate K: At t = 0+,

i(0 ) = 0 = 3 + K
+

or

K = 3

Thus, we get

i(t) = 3 3 400 t A
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

t0
EEE 33 - p48

RL and RC Networks
The solution of a non-homogeneous differential
equation consists of two components: the transient
RL Network with
Constant Source

i( t ) = A + K
response

RC Network with
Constant Source

R
t
L

transient
response

v( t ) = A + K
response

1
t
RC

transient
response

## With constant sources, L is short-circuited and C

is open-circuited at steady state condition.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p49

## Example: The switch has been in position 1 for a

long time. At t=0, the switch is moved to position
2. Find the current i(t) for t 0.
5k 1 2 10k
12V

+
-

vC

t=0
i

1F

## The circuit is at steady-state

condition prior to switching.
-

vC,ss = 12 V = vC (0 )

12V

+
-

6V

5k
+
-

vC,ss
-

EEE 33 - p50

10k

## From KVL, we get

1
Ri +
C
At t=0+,
or

1F

idt = E

+
-

E=6V

Ri(0 ) + vC (0 ) = E
+

E vC (0 )
i(0 ) =
R
+

## Since the capacitor voltage cannot change

instantaneously,

vC (0+ ) = vC (0- ) = 12 V
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p51

We get

6 12
+
i(0 ) =
= 0.6 mA
10k
V (0
C

it = K

1
t
RC

= K

+)

=12V

10k

100 t

1uF

+
-

6V

t0

## The steady-state current is zero since the capacitor

will be open-circuited. Thus, the total current is
equal to the transient current. Since i(0+)=-0.6 mA,
we get

i(t) = 0.6

100 t

mA

t0
EEE 33 - p52

+
VC
-

10k
- VR +
1uF

6V

## 1. The actual current flows in the clockwise

direction. The capacitor supplies the current.
The 6-volt source is absorbing power.
2. The voltages across the resistor and capacitor
can be found to be

vR = Ri(t) = 6

100 t

vC = 6 vR = 6 + 6
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

V
100 t

t0
V

t0
EEE 33 - p53

3. The energy stored in the capacitor decreases
from 72 J to 18 J.

WC (0 + ) = 12 Cv C2 (0 + ) = 12 (1F)(12) 2 = 72 J

WC () = 12 Cv C2 () = 12 (1F)(6) 2 = 18 J
The resistor will dissipate a total energy of 18 J.

WR =

36
v2
200 t
dt =

dt = 18 J
0 10 k
R

## WR = Vi dt = 6 (0.6 100 t mA)dt = 36 J

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p54

## Example: The network has reached steady-state

condition with the switch in position 1. At t=0, the
switch is moved to position 2. Find i, vc1 and vC2 for
t 0. Assume that capacitor C2 is initially
uncharged.
10k 1 2 2.5k
100V

+
-

t=0
5F

vC1

## The circuit is at steady-state

prior to switching.
+
100V

vC1,ss = 100 V

## Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

vC2
-

20F

10k
+

vC1,ss
-

EEE 33 - p55

Equivalent circuit at

vC1(0+ ) = 100 V
v C2 (0 + ) = 0

2.5k

t=0+
+

vC1(0+)

i(0+)

C1

C2

vC2(0+)

## vC1(0+ ) = Ri(0+ ) + vC2 (0+ )

Substitution gives i(0+) = 40 mA.
2.5k

C eq = 4 F

= RC eq = 10 ms

5F

+
-

+
-

20F

EEE 33 - p56

i(t) = K

1
t
RC

= K 100t

t0

i(t) = 40

100 t

mA

t0

## vR = Ri(t) = 100 100 t V t 0

1 t
1 t
+
vC2 =
idt = vC2 (0 ) +
idt
+

C2
C2 0
= 20 20 100 t V t 0
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p57

vC1 = vR + vC2
= 20 + 80

100 t

t0

1. The current decays to zero but vC1 And vC2 do
not decay to zero. At steady-state (t=),

VC1,ss = VC2,ss = 20 V
2. The initial energy stored in C1 and C2
2
C1

WC1(0 ) =

1
2

C1v (0 ) = 25 mJ

WC2 (0+ ) =

1
2

C2v2C2 (0+ ) = 0

EEE 33 - p58

WC1() =

1
2

C1v2C1() = 1 mJ

WC2 () =

1
2

C2v2C2 () = 4 mJ

## 4. The total energy lost is 20 mJ.

5. The total energy dissipated by the resistor

WR =

i Rdt =

4 200 t dt = 20 mJ

## Note: At t=0+, vC1=100 volts and vC2=0. Capacitor

C1 supplies the current that charges capacitor C2.
The current stops when vC1 = vC2 =20 V.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p59

## Example: The network has reached steady-state

condition with the switch closed. At t=0, the switch
is opened. Find i(t)
t=0 2k
1k
for t 0.
12V

0.1H

IL ,ss

12 36
=
+
1k 2k
= 30 mA

12V

1k
+
-

IL,ss

36V

2k
+
- 36V

EEE 33 - p60

1k

## Equivalent circuit for t 0

The transient current is

i t = K

R
t
L

= K

12V

10, 000 t

+
-

0.1H

## At steady-state, the inductor is short-circuited.

Thus, the steady state current is 12 mA.
The complete response is

i( t ) = 12 + K

10, 000 t

mA t 0

## Since i(0+) = 30 mA, we get K = 18 mA. The final

expression is

i( t ) = 12 + 18 10,000t mA t 0
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p61

## First-Order RL and RC Circuits

General Procedure
1. Find f(0+), the initial value of the variable to
be solved.

## 2. Find f(), the final value of the variable to be

solved.

Note: When solving for the initial and final values, treat the
capacitors as open circuits & the inductors as short circuits.

## 3. Simplify the RC or RL circuit to get Req, Ceq or

Leq. The time constant is ReqCeq or Leq/Req.

## 4. The solution is:

f(t) = f() + [f(0+) - f()] e-t/

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p62

NOTES:
1. f(t) = f() + [f(0+) - f()] e-t/

forced response

natural response

## 2. Req is the thevenin resistance seen by the

capacitor or inductor.
3. If a switch changed state (closes or opens) at
t = t0, then

vC(t0+) = vC(t0-)

iL(t0+) = iL(t0-)

## The voltage across a

capacitor cannot change
instantaneously.

## The current through an

inductor cannot change
instantaneously.
All other voltages and currents can change instantaneously.

EEE 33 - p63

t=0

## Example: In the circuit,

vC1(0-) = 12 V
and vC2(0-) = 0 V.

+
vC1
_

1 k i (t)
R
3 uF

6 uF

+
vC2
_

t = 0++ :
At att=0
+
12 V
_

1 k 12 mA

3 uF

6 uF

## v C1(0 + ) = v C1(0 ) = 12V

+
0V
_

v C2 (0 + ) = v C2 (0 ) = 0V

+
+
v
(0
)

v
(0
) 12 0
+
C1
C2
iR (0 ) =
=
= 12mA
1k
1k
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p64

## Step 2: Final conditions

After a very long time, iR() = 0.
Therefore, vC1() = vC2() or

Q1 Q2
=
2Q1 = Q2
3u 6u
Initial charge stored = final charge stored

## (12V)(3uF) = 36uC = Q1 + Q2 = Q1 + 2Q1

Q1 = 12uC and Q2 = 24uC
Therefore, vC1() = 4 V
vC2() = 4 V
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

+
4V
_

1 k

3 uF

0 mA

6 uF

+
4V
_
EEE 33 - p65

## Step 3: Find the time constant,

Req = 1 k
Ceq = 3 uF in series with 6 uF = 2 uF
Therefore, = ReqCeq = (1 k)(2u) = 2 ms
Step 4: f(t) = f() + [f(0+) - f()] e-t/
iR(t) = 0 + [12 - 0] e-t / 2ms = 12 e

-t / 2ms

mA

## vC1(t) = 4 + [12 - 4] e-t / 2ms

= 4 + 8 e -t / 2ms V
vC2(t) = 4 + [0 - 4] e-t / 2ms
=4-4e

-t / 2ms

## Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p66

12

iR(t) = 12 e -t / 2ms mA iR
vC1(t) = 4 + 8 e -t / 2ms VvvC1
C2
vC2(t) = 4 - 4 e -t / 2ms V

10

0
0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

EEE 33 - p67

## Example: Find the inductor

current iL(t) and the
inductor voltage vL(t).

t=0
10 V

2.4 k
iL(t)
80 uH

## Step 1: Initial conditions

iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 0

+
vL(t)
_

vL(0+) = 10 V

## Step 2: Final conditions

2.4 k
The inductor will behave like a
short circuit so
10 V

80 uH

+
0V
_

vL() = 0 V
iL() = 102400= 4.167 mA

EEE 33 - p68

Req = 2.4 k

Leq = 80 uH

## Therefore = Leq / Req = 33.33 ns

Step 4: f(t) = f() + [f(0+) - f()] e-t/
iL(t) = 4.167 + [0 - 4.167] e-t/33.33n
= 4.167 - 4.167 e-t/33.33n mA
vL(t) = 0 + [10 - 0] e-t/33.33n V
= 10 e-t/33.33n V
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p69

10

i
L
iL(t) = 4.167 - 4.167 e-t/33.33n mA
v
L

9
8

vL(t) = 10 e-t/33.33u V

Transient
response

iL()=4.167mA

iL(0+)=0A

vL()=0V

vL(0+)=10V

Response

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

=33.33 ns

0.8

1.2

1.4

5=1.67x10-4

1.6

1.8

2
x 10

-4

EEE 33 - p70

## Example: If the switch in the network closes at

t=0, find v0(t) for t>0.
4
+

3A

vA

24V

2vA

-+

-+

2F

vo

At t=0-

3A

4
+

vA

24V

2vA

-+

-+

vC(0-)

## Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

vA(0-)=3A(4)
= 12V
+
-

vC(0-)= 2vA+24+vA
= 60 V
EEE 33 - p71

At t=0+,
v0(0+) = vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 60V
Step 2: Final conditions
24V
-+

4
3A

vA

2vA
-+
+

vo

vA,ss = 0
v0,ss = 24V

## Step 3: Find the time constant,

Since we have a dependent source, the equivalent
resistance seen by the capacitor can be obtained
by finding vOC/iSC

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p72

Determine vOC

v0C = 24V

Get iSC

3A

24V
-+
+

3A

24V
-+

4
+

vA

vA

2vA
-+

vOC

2vA

-+

iSC

From KVL,
2vA + vA = -24
vA = -8V

## The two resistors are in parallel, thus

2iSC 24 2vA = 0
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

iSC = 4 A

EEE 33 - p73

## The equivalent resistance is

Req = vOC iSC = 24V / 4A = 6

The time constant is
= ReqC = 6(2F)= 12sec
Step 4: f(t) = f() + [f(0+) - f()] e-t/
v0(t) = 24 + [60 - 24] e-t/12 V
= 24 + 36 e-t/12 V

EEE 33 - p74

End

Function
0
u ( t ) =
1

t<0
t>0

+
_

u(t)

u(t)

u(t)
1

EEE 33 - p76

Example
5u(t)

5 u(t) V

5V

+
_

t
t > 0:

t < 0:

5V

+
_

EEE 33 - p77

Translated
Step Function

Step Function
Inverted in Time

0 t < to
u (t to) =
1 t > to

1 t < to
u (to t ) =
0 t > to
u(t0-t)

u(t-t0)
1

t0

## Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

t0

EEE 33 - p78

Example
2u(2-t)
2mA

2 u(2 - t)
mA

2 - t > 0 or t < 2 s:

2 - t < 0 or t > 2 s:

2 mA

## Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p79

Example: The circuit shown is initially at steadystate condition. Formulate the expression for vC(t)
and iR(t) for t>0.
iR
3k
+

vc

24u(t) 24u(t-4ms)

1F

6k

24V

24V 1
t
24u(t)

4ms

24V
t

24u(t-4ms)

## Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

4ms

24u(t) - 24u(t-4ms)
EEE 33 - p80

## We need to evaluate the circuit using two time

intervals: 0 < t < 4ms , voltage source = 24V
t > 4ms
, voltage source = 0

## First time interval: 0 < t < 4ms

At t<0, the circuit is in steady-state. The 3k
and 6k resistors will dissipate whatever energy
is initially stored in C, thus vC(0-) = 0.
At t = 0+:

iR(0+)

3k

+
vC

24V
-

(0+)=0

+
-

1F

vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 0
6k

iR(0+) = 0
EEE 33 - p81

= R eqC

= (2 K)(1F)
= 2 msec

24 V

iR

3k
+

vC

1F

6k

vC,t = K1e

-500t

i R ,t = K 2e

6
v C,ss =
(24 V) = 16V
3+ 6
24V
i R ,ss =
= 2.67 mA
3k + 6k

24 V

## Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

-500t

iR,ss

3k
+

vC,ss
-

6k

EEE 33 - p82

Complete Response

v C ( t ) = 16 + K1e-500t V
i R ( t ) = 2.67 + K 2e-500t mA
Evaluate the constants K1 and K2 using initial
conditions.

v C (0 + ) = 0 = 16 + K1 or K 1 = -16

## i R (0+ ) = 0 = 2.67 + K 2 or K 2 = -2.67

Thus, we get

v C ( t ) = 16 16e -500t V

i R (t ) = 2.67 2.67e-500t mA
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p83

## Second time interval: t > 4ms

To get initial conditions, determine the voltage vC
right before switching.
-

v C (4 ms ) = 16 16e

-500(0.004 )

13.83 V

At t = 4ms+
3k
vC(4ms+) +
13.83V -

vC(4ms+) = vC(4ms-)
= 13.83 V

iR

1F

6k

iR(4ms+) = 13.83 6k
= 2.305 mA

Note:

R
R
2.31 mA

EEE 33 - p84

## Equivalent circuit for t 4 ms.

Req = 3k || 6k = 2K

iR

3k

' = R eq C = (2 K)(1F)

vC

+
-

1F

6k

= 2 msec
This is a source-free network, so at steady-state
i R,ss=0 and v C,ss=0.
Let t=t +4 ms. For t 0, the capacitor voltage
and resistor current is described by

## i R (t ' ) = 2.305e-500t' mA, t' > 0

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p85

## Thus, the expression for vC and iR for t>0

vC(t) =

iR(t) =

16 16e-500t V,

t < 4ms

13.83e-500(t-4ms) V,

t > 4ms

## 2.67 2.67e-500t mA, t < 4ms

2.305e-500(t-4ms) mA,

t > 4ms

EEE 33 - p86

V
VCC(t)
(t)
(V)
(V)

## Graph for vc(t)

16 16e-500t V

16 16e-500t V,

t < 4ms

13.83e-500(t-4ms) V,

t > 4ms

=2 ms
5= 10 ms
13.83e-500(t-4ms)

t
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p87

iR(t)
(mA)
2.67 2.67e-500t mA

## Graph for iR(t)

2.67 2.67e-500t mA, t < 4ms
2.305e-500(t-4ms) mA,

t > 4ms

=2 ms
5= 10 ms
2.305e-500(t-4ms) mA

t
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p88

Equivalent of Switching
Vu(t-t0)

+
_

General

General
V +
_

Network

v(t)
V

Network
t0

t0

Equivalent circuit

i(t)
Iu(t-t0)

General
Network

General
I

Network
Equivalent circuit

EEE 33 - p89

50

for t>0.

i
30
2H

2 u(t)
+
_

## When t < 0, the sources

are off, thus i(0-) = 0 A

100 u(t)

## At t = 0+, the sources

turn on
50

50

i
i

30
2H

30
2H

2A
+
_

100 V

i(0+) = i(0-) = 0 A
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p90

## Final condition: After a very long time, the

inductor will behave like a short circuit
50
i
30
ix

2A
+
_

100 V

From KCL, i + ix = 2
KVL yields
-100 30ix + 50i = 0
Thus, i = 2 A and ix = 0 i
() = 2 A

Time constant:
Leq = 2 H

= 0.025 s

Req = 30 + 50 = 80
Finally, i(t) = i() + [i(0+) i()]e-t/

## i(t) = 2 + (0 2) e-t/0.025 = 2 - 2 e-40t A

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p91

Sinusoidal Sources
Consider the network shown.
Let v(t)=Vm sin t where Vm
+
and are constant.
v(t)
For t 0, we get from KVL
-

R
t=0
i

di
L
+ Ri = Vm sin t
dt
The transient response is

it = K

R
t
L

t0

## Remember: The transient response is independent

of the source.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p92

## The steady-state response is the solution of the

differential equation itself. Let

## iss = K1 sin t + K2cos t

diss
= K1 cos t - K2sin t
dt
Substituting in the original equation
gives

di
L
+ Ri = Vm sin t
dt

## LK1 cos t - LK2sin t

+ RK1sin t + RK2cos t = Vm sin t
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p93

Substitution gives

## LK1 cos t - LK2sin t

+ RK1sin t + RK2cos t = Vm sin t
Comparing coefficients, we get

Vm = RK1 LK2

and

0 = RK2 + LK1

RVm
K1 = 2
2 2
R +L

LVm
and K 2 = 2
2 2
R +L

EEE 33 - p94

## iss = K1 sin t + K2cos t

Substituting K1 and K2

iss

Vm
= 2
(R sin t L cos t)
2 2
R +L

## The complete response is

Vm
i(t) = 2
(R sin t L cos t)
2 2
R +L
R

+ K

t0
EEE 33 - p95

End