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Chapter 4

Introduction to Differential
Equations
Transient Analysis of
First-Order Networks
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute
University of the Philippines - Diliman
Revised by Michael Pedrasa, May 2012

Elec Ckts 9ed, Chapter 7

Differential Equations
Definition: Differential equations are equations
that involve dependent variables and their
derivatives with respect to the independent
variables.

d 2u
+ ku = 0
2
dx

Simple harmonic
motion: u(x)
Wave equation in three
dimensions: u(x,y,z,t)

2
2u 2u 2u

u
2
+
+
=
c
x 2 y 2 z 2
t 2

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p2

Ordinary Differential Equations


Definition: Ordinary differential equations
(ODE) are differential equations that involve only
ONE independent variable.
Example:

d 2u( x )
+ ku = 0
2
dx
u(x) is the dependent variable
x is the independent variable

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p3

Ordinary Differential Equations


We can classify all ODEs according to
order, linearity and homogeneity.
The order of a differential equation is just the
highest differential term involved:

d 2y
dy
a2
+ a1
+ a0 = 0
2
dt
dt

dx
d 3x
=x 3
dt
dt
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2nd order
3rd order
EEE 33 - p4

Linearity
The important issue is how the unknown variable
(ie y) appears in the equation. A linear equation
must have constant coefficients, or coefficients
which depend on the independent variable. If
y or its derivatives appear in the coefficient the
equation is non-linear.

dy
+ y = 0 is linear
dt
dy
+ y 2 = 0 is non-linear
dt
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dy 2
+t = 0
dt

is linear

dy 2
y
+ t = 0 is non-linear
dt
EEE 33 - p5

Linearity - Summary
Linear
2y
dy
dt

(2 + 3 sin t) y
dy
t
dt
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Non-linear
y2

or

sin( y )

dy
y
dt

(2 3 y 2 ) y
dy

dt

EEE 33 - p6

Homogeniety
Put all the terms of the differential equation which
involve the dependent variable on the left hand
side (LHS) of the equation.
Homogeneous: If there is nothing left on the
right-hand side (RHS), the equation is
homogeneous. (unforced or free)
Nonhomogeneous: If there are terms left on
the RHS involving constants or the independent
variable, the equation is nonhomogeneous (forced)
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p7

Examples of Classification
dy
+y=0
dx
2

d y
2
+
cos(
x
)
y
= sin( x)
2
dx
3

d y
5 3 4y = cos( x )
dx

1st Order
Linear
Homogeneous
2nd Order
Non-linear
Non-homogeneous

3rd Order
Linear
Non-homogeneous

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p8

Linear Differential Equations


A linear ordinary differential equation describing
linear electric circuits is of the form

dnx
d n1x
dx
an
+
a
+
...
+
a
+ a0 = v ( t )
n 1
1
n
n 1
dt
dt
dt
where
an, an-1,,a0 constants
x(t)

dependent variable (current or voltage)

independent variable

v(t)

voltage or current sources

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p9

Linear Differential Equations


Assume that we are given a network of passive
elements and sources where all currents and
voltages are initially known. At a reference instant
of time designated t=0, the system is altered in a
manner that is represented by the opening or
closing of a switch.
Our objective is to obtain equations for currents
and voltages in terms of time measured from the
instant equilibrium was altered by the switching.

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EEE 33 - p10

Solution to Differential Equations


1

In the network shown, the


switch is moved from position
1 to position 2 at time t=0.

After switching, the KVL equation is

di
L
+ Ri = 0
dt

(1)

Re-arranging the equation to separate the


variables, we get

di
R
= dt
i
L

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(2)
EEE 33 - p11

Solution to Differential Equations


Equation 2 can be integrated to give

R
lni = t + K
L

(3)

where ln means the natural logarithm (base e).


The constant K can be expressed as

ln k

Thus, equation 3 can be written as

ln i = ln e Rt / L + ln k
We know that

(4)

ln y + ln z = ln yz

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EEE 33 - p12

Solution to Differential Equations


Equation 4 is equivalent to

ln i = ln ( ke Rt / L )

(5)

Applying the antilogarithm we get

i = ke Rt / L

(6)

Equation 6 is known as the general solution. If


the constant k is evaluated, the solution is a
particular solution.

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EEE 33 - p13

General and Particular Solutions


The general solution refers to a set of solutions
satisfying the differential equation.
A particular
solution fits the
specification of a
particular problem.

1.5e-250t
e-250t
0.5e-250t

Assume in the
previous circuit,
R=1k, L=4H.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p14

Transient Analysis of
First-Order Networks
Artemio P. Magabo
Professor of Electrical Engineering

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering


University of the Philippines - Diliman

First-Order Transients
Consider the homogeneous differential equation

dx
a
+ bx = 0
dt

with initial condition x(0)=X0.


The solution can be shown to be an exponential of
the form

x = K st
where K and s are constants. Substitution gives

asKst + bKst = 0
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EEE 33 - p16

After canceling the exponential term, we get

as + b = 0

b
s=
a

or

Thus the solution is

x = K

b
t
a

The constant K can be found using the given initial


condition. At t=0, we get

x(0) = X 0 = K0 = K
The final solution is

x = X0

b
t
a

t0

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p17

Source-Free RL Network
Consider the circuit shown. Let
i(0) = I0. From KVL, we get

di
L
+ Ri = 0
dt

R
i

The solution can be found to be

i = K

R
t
L

At t=0, we get

i(0) = I0 = K0 = K
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EEE 33 - p18

Substitution gives

i(t) = I0

R
t
L

From Ohm s Law, we get the resistor voltage.

vR = Ri = RI0

R
t
L

The voltage across the inductor is given by

di
vL = L
= RI0
dt

R
t
L

= vR

Note: Every current and voltage in an RL


network is a decaying exponential with a
time constant of =L/R.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p19

Source-Free RC Network
Consider the circuit shown. Let
vC(0) = V0. From KCL, we get
for t 0

dv C 1
C
+ vC = 0
dt
R

R
i

+
-

vC

The solution can be shown to be

vC = K

1
t
RC

At t=0, we get

vC (0) = V0 = K0 = K
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EEE 33 - p20

Substitution gives

vC (t) = V0

1
t
RC

From Ohm s Law, we get the resistor current.

vC
V0
iR =
=

R
R

1
t
RC

The current in the capacitor is is given by


1

dv C
V0 RC t
iC = C
=

= iR
dt
R

Note: Every current and voltage in an RC


network is a decaying exponential with a
time constant of =RC.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p21

The Exponential Function


Given the function

x(t) = X0

1
t

When t=0,

x(0) = X 00 = X 0

When t=,

x() = X0 1 = 0.368X0

When t=2,

x(2) = X0 2 = 0.135X0

When t=3,

x(3) = X0 3 = 0.050X0

When t=4,

x(4) = X0 4 = 0.018X0

When t=5,

x(5) = X0

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= 0.007X0
EEE 33 - p22

Plot of the Exponential Function


X0 ..

1
..
- t
..
x(t) = X0e
..
..
..
..
...
...
. ..
. . .. . . .. . . .

t0

Note: As seen from the plot, after t=5, or after 5


time constants, the function is practically zero.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p23

Comments:
1. When R is expressed in ohms, L in Henrys
and C in Farads, the time constant is in
seconds.
2. For practical circuits, the typical values of
the parameters are: R in ohms, L in mH,
C in F.
3. Typically, = L

R
= RC

in msec
in sec

Note: For practical circuits, the exponential


function will decay to zero in less than 1 second.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p24

A More General RL Circuit


The circuit shown has several resistors but only one
inductor. Given
4 0.1H
i1(0+)=I0=2 Amps,
i3
find i1, i2, and i3 for i2
i1
I0
t 0.
6
3
2
First, determine the
equivalent resistance
seen by the inductor.

R ab

6(3)
=2+4+
6+3
=8

4 a
6

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b
2

EEE 33 - p25

Next, find the time constant of the circuit.

L
1
=
=
sec
R ab 80
Every current will be described by the exponential

K 80 t

t0

For example, we get

i1 = K1

80t

t0

At t=0+, i1(0+)=I0=2 Amps. Thus, we get

i1(0+ ) = 2 = K10 = K1
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p26

Thus, we find the current i1 to be

i1 = 2 80t

Amps

t0

The remaining currents, i2 and i3, can be found


using current division. We get

or

3
1
i2 =
i1 = i1
3+6
3

2 80 t
i2 =
3

Amps

t0

Similarly, we get

4 80 t
i3 =
3

Amps

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t0
EEE 33 - p27

A More General RC Circuit


The circuit shown has several resistors but only one
capacitor. Given
vC(0+)=V0=20 volts,
2K
find i for t 0.
i
6k
3k
+
1F vC
First, determine the
equivalent resistance
seen by the capacitor.

R ab

6k(3k)
= 2k +
6k + 3k
= 4 k

2K
6k
a
b

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3k

EEE 33 - p28

Next, find the time constant of the circuit.

= R abC = (4k)(1F) = 4 msec


Any current or voltage will be described by the
exponential

K 250 t

t0

For example, we get

vC = K 250 t

t0

At t=0+, vC(0+)=V0=20 volts. Thus, we get

vC (0+ ) = 20 = K0 = K
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p29

Thus, we find the Voltage vC to be

vC = 20 250 t

volts

t0

The current in the capacitor is described by

dv C
iC = C
= 5 250 t
dt

mA

t0

Applying current division, we get the current i(t).

6k
- 250 t
i(t) =
(-iC ) = 3.33 e
6k + 3k

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mA

t0

EEE 33 - p30

End

RL Network with Constant Source


In the circuit shown, the
switch is closed at t = 0.
Find current i(t) for t 0.

R
+

For t 0, we get from


KVL

t=0

di
L
+ Ri = E
dt

The solution of a non-homogeneous differential


equation consists of two components:
1. The transient response
2. The steady-state response
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p32

Transient Response: The solution of the homogeneous differential equation; that is

dit
L
+ Rit = 0
dt
The transient response for the RL circuit is

it = K

R
t
L

Steady-State Response: The solution of the


differential equation itself; that is

diss
L
+ Riss = E
dt
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p33

The steady-state response is similar in form to the


forcing function plus all its unique derivatives. For
constant excitation, the steady-state response is
also constant.
Let iss=A, constant

diss
=0
dt

Substitute in the differential equation


or

0 + RA = E

E
A=
R

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EEE 33 - p34

Complete Response: The sum of the transient


response and steady-state response.
R

i(t) = iss

t
E
+ it =
+ K L
R

t0

Initial Condition: For t<0, i=0 since the switch is


open. At t=0+, or immediately after the switch is
closed, i(0+)=0 since the current in the inductor
cannot change instantaneously.
Evaluate K. At t=0+, we get

E
i(0 ) = 0 = + K0
R
+

or

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E
K=
R
EEE 33 - p35

Finally,we get

E E
i(t) =

R R

R
t
L

t0

A plot of the current for t 0 is shown below.

...
...
....
....
. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
...
...
....
....

iss

. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

E
R

i(t)

it

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p36

Transient Response
The transient response is the solution of the
homogeneous differential equation.
(1) It is an exponential function whose time
constant depends on the values of the electrical
parameters (R, L and C);
(2) It is also called the natural response since it is
a trademark of any network;
(3) It is independent of the source; and
(4) It serves as the transition from the initial
steady-state to the final steady-state value.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p37

Steady-State Response
The steady-state response is the solution of the
original differential equation.
(1) It is also called the forced response since its
form is forced on the electrical network by the
applied source;
(2) It is similar in form to the applied source plus
all its unique derivatives;
(3) It is independent of the initial conditions; and
(4) It exists for as long as the source is applied.
The forced response is the response that will be left after
the natural response dies out.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p38

RC Network with Constant Source


In the circuit shown, the
switch is closed at t = 0.
Assume vC(0)=V0. Find vC
(t) for t 0.

R
+

t=0

vC
-

For t 0, we get from KVL

Since

Ri + vC = E
dv C
, we get
i=C
dt
dv C
RC
+ vC = E
dt

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p39

Transient Response: For an RC network, we get

vC,t = K

1
t
RC

Steady-State Response: Since the forcing


function is constant, the steady-state response is
also constant.
Let vC,ss = A, constant

dv C,ss
dt

Substitute in

RC

=0

dv C,ss
dt

+ vC,ss = E

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p40

We get

0+A =E

A =E

or

Complete Response: Add the transient response


and steady-state response.

vC = vC,ss + vC,t = E + K

1
t
RC

Evaluate K. At t=0+, we get

vC (0 ) = V0 = E + K

or

Finally,we get

vC (t) = E + (V0 E)
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

1
t
RC

K = V0 E
t0
EEE 33 - p41

L and C at Steady State


With all sources constant, then at steady-state,
all currents and voltages are constant.
I0

iC C

L
+

vL

+ V0 -

If the current is
constant, then

If the voltage is
constant, then

dI0
vL = L
=0
dt

dV0
iC = C
=0
dt

Note: With constant sources, L is short-circuited


and C is open-circuited at steady state condition.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p42

10

Example: Find the


current and voltages
at steady state.

24V

+
-

+ vR -

vL

iss

24
=
= 2.4 A
10

Since the source is constant,


the inductor is shorted at
steady state.
10
24V

+
-

+ vR,ss -

iss

vL,ss
-

+
-

vR ,ss = 24 V
vL ,ss = 0

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p43

10

Example: Find the


current and voltages
at steady state.

24V

+
-

+ vR -

vC
-

Since the source is constant,


the capacitor is open-circuited
at steady state.

iss = 0

10
24V

+
-

+ vR,ss -

iss

vC,ss
-

vR ,ss = 0
v C,ss = 24 V

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p44

Example: Find the


inductor current and
capacitor voltage at
+
steady state.
24V -

vC
-

At steady state, short


the inductor and open
the capacitor.

iL ,ss

24
=
=2A
12

iL
9

3
+

24V -

vC,ss = 9iL ,ss = 18 V


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vC,ss
-

iL,ss
9

EEE 33 - p45

Example: Find the


inductor currents
+
and capacitor
24V
voltages at
steady state.

iL1

4
8

vC1

vC2

iL2

C3 vC3
-

Equivalent circuit at steady-state


IL1

4
24V

+
-

VC1
-

VC2
-

IL2

C3 VC3

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IL1
IL2
VC1
VC2
VC3

=0
=2A
= 16 V
=0
= 16 V
EEE 33 - p46

Example: The switch is


closed at t=0. Find the
+
current i(t) for t 0.
12V -

t=0

10mH

The transient current is

it = K

R
t
L

= K

400 t

t0

The steady-state equivalent circuit for t 0

Iss

12
=
=3A
4

4
12V

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Iss

EEE 33 - p47

The complete solution

i(t) = iss + it = 3 + K

400 t

t0

Initial condition: At t=0+, i(0+)=0 since the


inductor current cannot change instantaneously.
Evaluate K: At t = 0+,

i(0 ) = 0 = 3 + K
+

or

K = 3

Thus, we get

i(t) = 3 3 400 t A
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t0
EEE 33 - p48

RL and RC Networks
The solution of a non-homogeneous differential
equation consists of two components: the transient
response and the steady-state response
RL Network with
Constant Source

i( t ) = A + K
steady-state
response

RC Network with
Constant Source

R
t
L

transient
response

v( t ) = A + K
steady-state
response

1
t
RC

transient
response

With constant sources, L is short-circuited and C


is open-circuited at steady state condition.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p49

Example: The switch has been in position 1 for a


long time. At t=0, the switch is moved to position
2. Find the current i(t) for t 0.
5k 1 2 10k
12V

+
-

vC

t=0
i

1F

The circuit is at steady-state


condition prior to switching.
-

vC,ss = 12 V = vC (0 )

12V

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+
-

6V

5k
+
-

vC,ss
-

EEE 33 - p50

Equivalent circuit for t 0

10k

From KVL, we get

1
Ri +
C
At t=0+,
or

1F

idt = E

+
-

E=6V

Ri(0 ) + vC (0 ) = E
+

E vC (0 )
i(0 ) =
R
+

Since the capacitor voltage cannot change


instantaneously,

vC (0+ ) = vC (0- ) = 12 V
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p51

We get

6 12
+
i(0 ) =
= 0.6 mA
10k
V (0
C

it = K

1
t
RC

= K

+)

=12V

The transient response is

10k

100 t

1uF

+
-

6V

t0

The steady-state current is zero since the capacitor


will be open-circuited. Thus, the total current is
equal to the transient current. Since i(0+)=-0.6 mA,
we get

i(t) = 0.6

100 t

mA

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t0
EEE 33 - p52

Comments:
+
VC
-

10k
- VR +
1uF

6V

1. The actual current flows in the clockwise


direction. The capacitor supplies the current.
The 6-volt source is absorbing power.
2. The voltages across the resistor and capacitor
can be found to be

vR = Ri(t) = 6

100 t

vC = 6 vR = 6 + 6
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V
100 t

t0
V

t0
EEE 33 - p53

Comments:
3. The energy stored in the capacitor decreases
from 72 J to 18 J.

WC (0 + ) = 12 Cv C2 (0 + ) = 12 (1F)(12) 2 = 72 J

WC () = 12 Cv C2 () = 12 (1F)(6) 2 = 18 J
The resistor will dissipate a total energy of 18 J.

WR =

36
v2
200 t
dt =

dt = 18 J
0 10 k
R

The 6V source will absorb a total energy of 36 J.

WR = Vi dt = 6 (0.6 100 t mA)dt = 36 J


Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p54

Example: The network has reached steady-state


condition with the switch in position 1. At t=0, the
switch is moved to position 2. Find i, vc1 and vC2 for
t 0. Assume that capacitor C2 is initially
uncharged.
10k 1 2 2.5k
100V

+
-

t=0
5F

vC1

The circuit is at steady-state


prior to switching.
+
100V

vC1,ss = 100 V

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vC2
-

20F

10k
+

vC1,ss
-

EEE 33 - p55

Equivalent circuit at

vC1(0+ ) = 100 V
v C2 (0 + ) = 0

2.5k

t=0+
+

vC1(0+)

i(0+)

C1

C2

vC2(0+)

From KVL, we get

vC1(0+ ) = Ri(0+ ) + vC2 (0+ )


Substitution gives i(0+) = 40 mA.
2.5k

Equivalent circuit for t 0

C eq = 4 F

= RC eq = 10 ms

5F

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+
-

+
-

20F

EEE 33 - p56

The current for a source-free RC circuit is given by

i(t) = K

1
t
RC

= K 100t

t0

Since i(0+) = 40 mA, we get

i(t) = 40

100 t

mA

t0

The voltages are

vR = Ri(t) = 100 100 t V t 0


1 t
1 t
+
vC2 =
idt = vC2 (0 ) +
idt
+

C2
C2 0
= 20 20 100 t V t 0
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p57

vC1 = vR + vC2
= 20 + 80

100 t

t0

Comments:
1. The current decays to zero but vC1 And vC2 do
not decay to zero. At steady-state (t=),

VC1,ss = VC2,ss = 20 V
2. The initial energy stored in C1 and C2
2
C1

WC1(0 ) =

1
2

C1v (0 ) = 25 mJ

WC2 (0+ ) =

1
2

C2v2C2 (0+ ) = 0

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p58

3. The final energy stored in C1 and C2

WC1() =

1
2

C1v2C1() = 1 mJ

WC2 () =

1
2

C2v2C2 () = 4 mJ

4. The total energy lost is 20 mJ.


5. The total energy dissipated by the resistor

WR =

i Rdt =

4 200 t dt = 20 mJ

Note: At t=0+, vC1=100 volts and vC2=0. Capacitor


C1 supplies the current that charges capacitor C2.
The current stops when vC1 = vC2 =20 V.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p59

Example: The network has reached steady-state


condition with the switch closed. At t=0, the switch
is opened. Find i(t)
t=0 2k
1k
for t 0.
12V

0.1H

The circuit is at steadystate prior to switching.

IL ,ss

12 36
=
+
1k 2k
= 30 mA

12V

1k
+
-

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IL,ss

36V

2k
+
- 36V

EEE 33 - p60

1k

Equivalent circuit for t 0


The transient current is

i t = K

R
t
L

= K

12V

10, 000 t

+
-

0.1H

At steady-state, the inductor is short-circuited.


Thus, the steady state current is 12 mA.
The complete response is

i( t ) = 12 + K

10, 000 t

mA t 0

Since i(0+) = 30 mA, we get K = 18 mA. The final


expression is

i( t ) = 12 + 18 10,000t mA t 0
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p61

First-Order RL and RC Circuits


General Procedure
1. Find f(0+), the initial value of the variable to
be solved.

2. Find f(), the final value of the variable to be


solved.

Note: When solving for the initial and final values, treat the
capacitors as open circuits & the inductors as short circuits.

3. Simplify the RC or RL circuit to get Req, Ceq or


Leq. The time constant is ReqCeq or Leq/Req.

4. The solution is:


f(t) = f() + [f(0+) - f()] e-t/

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p62

NOTES:
1. f(t) = f() + [f(0+) - f()] e-t/

forced response

natural response

2. Req is the thevenin resistance seen by the


capacitor or inductor.
3. If a switch changed state (closes or opens) at
t = t0, then

vC(t0+) = vC(t0-)

iL(t0+) = iL(t0-)

The voltage across a


capacitor cannot change
instantaneously.

The current through an


inductor cannot change
instantaneously.
All other voltages and currents can change instantaneously.

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p63

t=0

Example: In the circuit,


vC1(0-) = 12 V
and vC2(0-) = 0 V.

+
vC1
_

Find vC1(t), vC2(t) and iR(t).

1 k i (t)
R
3 uF

6 uF

+
vC2
_

Step 1: Initial conditions


t = 0++ :
At att=0
+
12 V
_

1 k 12 mA

3 uF

6 uF

v C1(0 + ) = v C1(0 ) = 12V


+
0V
_

v C2 (0 + ) = v C2 (0 ) = 0V

+
+
v
(0
)

v
(0
) 12 0
+
C1
C2
iR (0 ) =
=
= 12mA
1k
1k
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p64

Step 2: Final conditions


After a very long time, iR() = 0.
Therefore, vC1() = vC2() or

Q1 Q2
=
2Q1 = Q2
3u 6u
Initial charge stored = final charge stored

(12V)(3uF) = 36uC = Q1 + Q2 = Q1 + 2Q1


Q1 = 12uC and Q2 = 24uC
Therefore, vC1() = 4 V
vC2() = 4 V
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

+
4V
_

1 k

3 uF

0 mA

6 uF

+
4V
_
EEE 33 - p65

Step 3: Find the time constant,



Req = 1 k
Ceq = 3 uF in series with 6 uF = 2 uF
Therefore, = ReqCeq = (1 k)(2u) = 2 ms
Step 4: f(t) = f() + [f(0+) - f()] e-t/
iR(t) = 0 + [12 - 0] e-t / 2ms = 12 e

-t / 2ms

mA

vC1(t) = 4 + [12 - 4] e-t / 2ms


= 4 + 8 e -t / 2ms V
vC2(t) = 4 + [0 - 4] e-t / 2ms
=4-4e

-t / 2ms

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p66

12

iR(t) = 12 e -t / 2ms mA iR
vC1(t) = 4 + 8 e -t / 2ms VvvC1
C2
vC2(t) = 4 - 4 e -t / 2ms V

10

0
0

0.002

0.004

0.006

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

0.008

0.01

0.012

EEE 33 - p67

Example: Find the inductor


current iL(t) and the
inductor voltage vL(t).

t=0
10 V

2.4 k
iL(t)
80 uH

Step 1: Initial conditions


iL(0+) = iL(0-) = 0

+
vL(t)
_

vL(0+) = 10 V

Step 2: Final conditions


2.4 k
The inductor will behave like a
short circuit so
10 V

80 uH

+
0V
_

vL() = 0 V
iL() = 102400= 4.167 mA

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p68

Step 3: Find the time constant,



Req = 2.4 k


Leq = 80 uH

Therefore = Leq / Req = 33.33 ns


Step 4: f(t) = f() + [f(0+) - f()] e-t/
iL(t) = 4.167 + [0 - 4.167] e-t/33.33n
= 4.167 - 4.167 e-t/33.33n mA
vL(t) = 0 + [10 - 0] e-t/33.33n V
= 10 e-t/33.33n V
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p69

Transient and Steady-State Response


10

i
L
iL(t) = 4.167 - 4.167 e-t/33.33n mA
v
L

9
8

vL(t) = 10 e-t/33.33u V

Transient
response

iL()=4.167mA

iL(0+)=0A

vL()=0V

vL(0+)=10V

Steady-state
Response

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

=33.33 ns

0.8

1.2

1.4

5=1.67x10-4

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

1.6

1.8

2
x 10

-4

EEE 33 - p70

Example: If the switch in the network closes at


t=0, find v0(t) for t>0.
4
+

3A

vA

24V

2vA

-+

-+

2F

vo

Step 1: Initial conditions


At t=0-

3A

4
+

vA

24V

2vA

-+

-+

vC(0-)

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

vA(0-)=3A(4)
= 12V
+
-

vC(0-)= 2vA+24+vA
= 60 V
EEE 33 - p71

At t=0+,
v0(0+) = vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 60V
Step 2: Final conditions
24V
-+

4
3A

vA

2vA
-+
+

vo

vA,ss = 0
v0,ss = 24V

Step 3: Find the time constant,



Since we have a dependent source, the equivalent
resistance seen by the capacitor can be obtained
by finding vOC/iSC

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p72

Determine vOC

v0C = 24V

Get iSC

3A

24V
-+
+

3A

24V
-+

4
+

vA

vA

2vA
-+

vOC

2vA

-+

iSC

From KVL,
2vA + vA = -24
vA = -8V

The two resistors are in parallel, thus


2iSC 24 2vA = 0
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

iSC = 4 A

EEE 33 - p73

The equivalent resistance is


Req = vOC iSC = 24V / 4A = 6

The time constant is
= ReqC = 6(2F)= 12sec
Step 4: f(t) = f() + [f(0+) - f()] e-t/
v0(t) = 24 + [60 - 24] e-t/12 V
= 24 + 36 e-t/12 V

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p74

End

The Unit Step Forcing


Function
0
u ( t ) =
1

t<0
t>0

+
_

u(t)

u(t)

u(t)
1

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p76

Example
5u(t)

5 u(t) V

5V

+
_

t
t > 0:

t < 0:

5V

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

+
_

EEE 33 - p77

Translated
Step Function

Step Function
Inverted in Time

0 t < to
u (t to) =
1 t > to

1 t < to
u (to t ) =
0 t > to
u(t0-t)

u(t-t0)
1

t0

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

t0

EEE 33 - p78

Example
2u(2-t)
2mA

2 u(2 - t)
mA

2 - t > 0 or t < 2 s:

2 - t < 0 or t > 2 s:

2 mA

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p79

Example: The circuit shown is initially at steadystate condition. Formulate the expression for vC(t)
and iR(t) for t>0.
iR
3k
+

vc

24u(t) 24u(t-4ms)

1F

6k

Evaluate the forcing function:


24V

24V 1
t
24u(t)

4ms

24V
t

24u(t-4ms)

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

4ms

24u(t) - 24u(t-4ms)
EEE 33 - p80

We need to evaluate the circuit using two time


intervals: 0 < t < 4ms , voltage source = 24V
t > 4ms
, voltage source = 0

First time interval: 0 < t < 4ms


At t<0, the circuit is in steady-state. The 3k
and 6k resistors will dissipate whatever energy
is initially stored in C, thus vC(0-) = 0.
At t = 0+:

iR(0+)

3k

+
vC

24V
-

(0+)=0

+
-

1F

vC(0+) = vC(0-) = 0
6k

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

iR(0+) = 0
EEE 33 - p81

Time constant for 0<t<4ms

= R eqC

= (2 K)(1F)
= 2 msec

24 V

iR

3k
+

vC

1F

6k

The transient response is of the form

vC,t = K1e

-500t

i R ,t = K 2e

Equivalent circuit at steady-state

6
v C,ss =
(24 V) = 16V
3+ 6
24V
i R ,ss =
= 2.67 mA
3k + 6k

24 V

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

-500t

iR,ss

3k
+

vC,ss
-

6k

EEE 33 - p82

Complete Response

v C ( t ) = 16 + K1e-500t V
i R ( t ) = 2.67 + K 2e-500t mA
Evaluate the constants K1 and K2 using initial
conditions.

v C (0 + ) = 0 = 16 + K1 or K 1 = -16

i R (0+ ) = 0 = 2.67 + K 2 or K 2 = -2.67


Thus, we get

v C ( t ) = 16 16e -500t V

i R (t ) = 2.67 2.67e-500t mA
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

0 < t < 4 msec

0 < t < 4 msec


EEE 33 - p83

Second time interval: t > 4ms


To get initial conditions, determine the voltage vC
right before switching.
-

v C (4 ms ) = 16 16e

-500(0.004 )

13.83 V

At t = 4ms+
3k
vC(4ms+) +
13.83V -

vC(4ms+) = vC(4ms-)
= 13.83 V

iR

1F

6k

iR(4ms+) = 13.83 6k
= 2.305 mA

Note:

i R (4ms ) = 2.67 2.67e-500(0.004) i (4ms ) i (4ms+ )


R
R
2.31 mA

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p84

Equivalent circuit for t 4 ms.


Req = 3k || 6k = 2K

iR

3k

' = R eq C = (2 K)(1F)

vC

+
-

1F

6k

= 2 msec
This is a source-free network, so at steady-state
i R,ss=0 and v C,ss=0.
Let t=t +4 ms. For t 0, the capacitor voltage
and resistor current is described by

v C ( t ' ) = 13.83e -500t' V, t' > 0

i R (t ' ) = 2.305e-500t' mA, t' > 0


Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p85

Thus, the expression for vC and iR for t>0


vC(t) =

iR(t) =

16 16e-500t V,

t < 4ms

13.83e-500(t-4ms) V,

t > 4ms

2.67 2.67e-500t mA, t < 4ms


2.305e-500(t-4ms) mA,

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

t > 4ms

EEE 33 - p86

V
VCC(t)
(t)
(V)
(V)

Graph for vc(t)

16 16e-500t V

16 16e-500t V,

t < 4ms

13.83e-500(t-4ms) V,

t > 4ms

=2 ms
5= 10 ms
13.83e-500(t-4ms)

t
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p87

iR(t)
(mA)
2.67 2.67e-500t mA

Graph for iR(t)


2.67 2.67e-500t mA, t < 4ms
2.305e-500(t-4ms) mA,

t > 4ms

=2 ms
5= 10 ms
2.305e-500(t-4ms) mA

t
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p88

Equivalent of Switching
Vu(t-t0)

+
_

General

General
V +
_

Network

v(t)
V

Network
t0

t0

Equivalent circuit

i(t)
Iu(t-t0)

General
Network

General
I

Network
Equivalent circuit

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p89

50

Example: Find i(t)


for t>0.

i
30
2H

2 u(t)
+
_

When t < 0, the sources


are off, thus i(0-) = 0 A

100 u(t)

At t = 0+, the sources


turn on
50

50

i
i

30
2H

30
2H

2A
+
_

100 V

i(0+) = i(0-) = 0 A
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p90

Final condition: After a very long time, the


inductor will behave like a short circuit
50
i
30
ix

2A
+
_

100 V

From KCL, i + ix = 2
KVL yields
-100 30ix + 50i = 0
Thus, i = 2 A and ix = 0 i
() = 2 A

Time constant:
Leq = 2 H

= 0.025 s

Req = 30 + 50 = 80
Finally, i(t) = i() + [i(0+) i()]e-t/

i(t) = 2 + (0 2) e-t/0.025 = 2 - 2 e-40t A


Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p91

Sinusoidal Sources
Consider the network shown.
Let v(t)=Vm sin t where Vm
+
and are constant.
v(t)
For t 0, we get from KVL
-

R
t=0
i

di
L
+ Ri = Vm sin t
dt
The transient response is

it = K

R
t
L

t0

Remember: The transient response is independent


of the source.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p92

The steady-state response is the solution of the


differential equation itself. Let

iss = K1 sin t + K2cos t


diss
= K1 cos t - K2sin t
dt
Substituting in the original equation
gives

di
L
+ Ri = Vm sin t
dt

LK1 cos t - LK2sin t


+ RK1sin t + RK2cos t = Vm sin t
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p93

Substitution gives

LK1 cos t - LK2sin t


+ RK1sin t + RK2cos t = Vm sin t
Comparing coefficients, we get

Vm = RK1 LK2

and

0 = RK2 + LK1

Solving simultaneously, we get

RVm
K1 = 2
2 2
R +L

LVm
and K 2 = 2
2 2
R +L

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

EEE 33 - p94

The steady-state response is

iss = K1 sin t + K2cos t


Substituting K1 and K2

iss

Vm
= 2
(R sin t L cos t)
2 2
R +L

The complete response is

Vm
i(t) = 2
(R sin t L cos t)
2 2
R +L
R

+ K

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute

t0
EEE 33 - p95

End