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Sallador, Louie John

3Pol1
Related Literature
Introduction:
In the literature found about the research topic of Sport as a tool for promoting Peace,
International Awareness and nation building In all the related literature found majority of these
are about nation building, when creating peace in a country the country must have a unified
nation so that they can perform well and discipline and order is enforced throughout the land.
While other books are about sport and how a sport helped the youth of the world in developing
good characteristics that stick with them throughout their lives. Some Researchers of the United
Nations believe that through sport a country can be unified because it removes the barriers of
racial stereotypes which in other countries hinder building a nation because of the factions of the
citizens.
With the Literature found that are related to the research topic it will be easier to
determine the best way to approach the use of sport in a country especially in a developing
country and how a sport can help the developing countries in building a nation of united citizens
of diverse races and ethnicities. Some also show the psychological aspect of sports in helping the
character of a person to fully develop.

Books:
Nation Building in Comparative Contexts by Karl W. Deutsch and William J. Foltz
This Book shows the hardship on how to build a nation, building a nation is a long and a
hard task because of the endless rounds of revolts and wars that a nation may be dragged into but
in this time of ours wars are no longer popular. The wars now mainly consist of how to make
money and be economically powerful compared to another nation. The government of a nation
must also put up an administration or program that will control the people to Quote the statement
of Professor Friedrich:
An Integrated national identity may be too ambitious a goal for the new nations
emphasizes, as do the leaders of these countries themselves, that their immediate task is the
establishment of a strong governmental apparatus able to serve and control the population.
(Friedrich, 2010).
With this statement a nation that is starting must first build an institution that will be able to
control its populace this is where the sport of Basketball or Football comes in because a sport can
convince the people of a nation in joining together and playing and celebrating the sport of
basketball or football this phenomena was used by Nelson Mandela in building the nation of
South Africa because of the oppression of the White man to the black people Nelson Mandela
used the sport of rugby that is loved by both races in the country in making them come together
as one nation of South Africa.

Sport, Culture and Society an introduction by Grant Jarvie with James Thornton
This book shows us why the government must invest in sports for their country according
to the book a sport can act as a resource of hope for the people of a nation. Jarvie showed us the
sport environment of the Celtic, British, South African and Chinese with the studies he
previously conducted in the world.
Jarvie also focused on individualism because he believes that it dominates the sporting
world and it has two forms Methodological individualism and Individualization. To directly
quote the article about Individualism
One important feature is a sceptic view on individualism, which at present is dominating
large parts of sociology and of sports studies. Sociological individualism which may be a
contradiction in itself is widespread in two forms, either as methodological individualism or as
the substantial thesis of individualisation (Jarvie, 2006).
He explains all the factors that contribute to the inter human relations and that with sports
knowledge leads to action and how a society can be helpful to each other with and how the
movement of sports will empower the powerless in the world. And how a country can be
recognized with the use of a sport.(Jarvie 2006)

Key Concepts in Sport Psychology by John Kramer, Aidan Moran, Graham Walker and
Cathy Craig
A research in this book showed how the spectators of fans of a sport are affected when
their favorite team loses a game especially crucial games that could either cause them to win the
title of lose it to their enemy team. The factors of these is the group affiliation or team
identification and the loyalty of the fan is due to the success of the team because fans will bask
in the reflected glory(Mahony et al. 2000) of his or her favorite team. This loyalty can be seen
in the movie Invictus the fierce loyalty of the fans of the South African Team helped them in
becoming one nation that have no racial boundaries between its citizens because of the sport of
rugby that brought them together.
But Fan loyalty can have a disadvantage which is the violence that they can cause
between them and the fans of the rival team because of the fierce competition of the two teams
and sometimes alcohol drinking during games can cause unwanted violence of the spectators or
fans especially if their favorite team loses the championship game.

The Beginners Guide to Nation Building by JAMES DOBBINS, SETH G. JONES


KEITH CRANE, BETH COLE DEGRASSE

In this Book, it showed the research that the United States is not a fully developed nation.
The United States was the one who launched missions throughout the world mostly for
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peacekeeping purposes through this the country has neglected in overseeing the citizens of the
nation. After the decline of the American nation its governmental institutions accepted the fact
that Nation Building must be put in the forefront of the priorities of the country mentioned in the
book the authors said that:
The Departments of State and Defense and the White House have all taken initiatives to
build U.S. capacity to conduct nation-building operations. The Department of Defense has issued
a directive making stability operations, that departments term for nation-building, a core mission
for the U.S. military, henceforth supposedly to receive the same priority as preparation for major
combat. (Dobbin, Jones, Crane, Degrasse, 2007).
Because of the decline of the United States for the failures they experienced during the
time they gone to war with other countries and the peacekeeping missions they participated in
with the help of the United Nations. The United states then used a professional approach in
nation building to properly build their nation.

Articles, Journals and Unpublished Thesis:


Hoops as a second language by Bob Levin
In this article narrates on how the sport of basketball entered the Canadian borders with
the team expansion of the National Basketball Association or N.B.A. the arrival of the Toronto
Raptors the author predicted that the Canadian nation will take basketball as a second language
other than the popular sport of Hockey in Canada.

This also happened to the Philippines when the Americans came in and occupied the
country of the Philippines. The Philippines was engrossed with the sport of football during that
time and winning international games within Southeast Asia they introduced the sport of
basketball around the country with every school participating in the sport of basketball the
Philippine nation immediately fell in love with the sport of Basketball. The Philippine Basketball
Association was then created for the nation with 10 teams in its current roster and the love of the
Filipino citizens for the sport caused the sport to be played all around the country with basketball
courts sprouting in every corner of the country.
The Americans used the sport of basketball as a tool for nation building because they
believed that with the use of the sport they can entice the Filipinos to play and forge bonds
between the people they play with. Strong bonds that will help them in life and be unified as one
country.

Sport and Economic Regeneration in Cities by Chris Gratton, Simon Shilbi and Richard
Coleman
The Article explained on how the investment in sports in a country can attract the local
citizens to participate in the sport. When they participate the citizens build friendships and bonds
between the people they play with. But during these modern times the main goal of the
investment of the sporting industry is to attract tourists. The article explained that Manchester
invested 200 million euros on sporting venues for the upcoming games that they will host. They

will lose some money but the city will greatly benefit with the investments made by the foreign
investors and the tourists that will attend the sporting events.
To directly quote the article it said that:
Even with such Mega-events such as the Formula 1 Grand prix and the Olympics, it is
not always an unequivocal economic benefit to the cities that host the event. The Emphasize that
in general staging major sporting events often result in the losing of money by the authorities
even though the city itself benefits greatly in terms of additional spending in the city (Mules,
Faulkner, 2005).
The Philippines cannot do this because of the limited resources that are available to the
Filipinos. They can only host international Football games with the stadiums that have all passed
the international standards of the football world.

The Saving grace of sport by John Savant


In this article the author compared sports to Greek tragedy because the author believes
that we invest in sports our attention and emotional intensity ant our seeming proportion to their
civic or moral relevance (Savant, 2003). Just like the Greeks during the early ages they
emotionally invested in the tragic stories made by the renowned authors of Greece and
sometimes left the reader heartbroken because of the tragedy done to the characters they invested
in.
As said in the Article:
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Both Sport and Tragedy generally leave their audiences intact. They ritualize rather than
actualize violence, thus alerting us to, rather than bringing about, the tragic possibilities inherent
in such pursuits as fame, success, dominance, pleasure and the like. It is this ritualistic function, I
believe, that explains and justifies our fascination with both social functions. (Savant, 2003)
Both Sport and Greek Tragedy command attention because of the intensity and feeling of
both of the social functions (Savant, 2013).
This shows us how people emotionally invest in sports especially the die-hard fans of some
sporting teams in the world and in the Philippines and how they gat emotionally affected when
their team loses a game or wins a game.

Sport, The Aesthetic, And Narrative by Randolph Feezell


The article explains that people who tend to seek out new stories for their lives go to
sports because of the immense feeling they get when watching sports and they closely associate
themselves with the narrative of sports. As the author said that sports is psychologically fit in
curing despair because of its therapeutic effect on people.
With sports people will be able to realize new identities for themselves in the world so
they can write new stories for their life.
Since Persons find aesthetic quality intrinsically satisfying and since persons need
stories in order to experience life as having some shape, pattern, or end. It is natural that so many
people would be drawn to sport not merely because of a thirst for victory, a desire to make other
submit or the need to be excellent.(Feezel 2005)
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People here in the Philippines tend to participate in sports so that they can bring color to
their own lives because of the dull moments they have in their life they believe that sports can
bring some new things to their life.
Sport and soft authoritarian Nation Building by Natalie Koch
Authoritarian Regimes have a interest in promoting elite and mass sports because of the
nation building capacity it has and the discipline and respect it can produce for the people in
power.(Koch, 2013)
This strategy is only used by soft authoritarianism because authoritarianism uses violence
and other tactics that show their power to the people so they can stay in power they solely rely on
violent tactics unlike soft authoritarianism that will use sports to maintain power because of the
capacity it has in building bonds and friendship between the people of the nation.(Koch, 2013)
To quote the author directly:
I argue that nation-building through state promotion of sport illustrates the ways that
soft authoritarian regimes such as that of Nursultan Nazarbayev perpetuate their rule. Adding
nation-building as the sixth tool in the Schatz''s (2009) soft authoritarian toolkit, I demonstrate
through discourse analysis and focus group research, how the nationalist performances
surrounding elite sport are fundamental to allowing ordinary people to see their everyday
practices and support for the nation as something objective, rather than intimately tied to the
system of unequal power relations perpetuated by the ruling regime. (Koch, 2013)

The American occupation of the Philippines can be considered as a soft authoritarianism


because they did not use violent tactics in maintaining power over the Philippines but they used
sports and other tactics that did not involve violence to control the country.
Globalization and Chinese Sport Policy: The Case of Elite Football in the Peoples
Republic of China by Tien Chan Tan and Alan Bairner
In this article it showed us how China tackled the idea of Globalization of their football
franchise they centralized the powers of the sport leaders in china and they used out of date
soviet models to revitalize some markets in their area. This showed how china can control the
globalization of their country by controlling the influence they would allow to enter their
country.
They also allowed the country to exercise its administrative authority to respond to the
problems they encounter during their globalization and they chose to channel their economic
forces in ways favorable to their own interests and also so they can secure favorable gains from
international economic activities going on inside their country.
This showed us the capacity of Chinese government on how to tackle the arrival of
international football inside their country and how they exercised their power of choice on the
matters at hand during the globalization process of football in their country.

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Nation- Building 101 by Francis Fukuyama


This article acts as a basic guide in nation building the author used the Bush
Administration as an example because of some of the problems the bush administration
encountered because of their invasion of Iraq. After the War they did not plan on how to function
and the nation of Iraq fell down with the army melting away and the police not functioning
anymore. The officials were blamed for the failure because of their failure in planning
contingencies after the invasion.
Another factor would be is that the United States deployed only a small army that was
insufficient in spreading around the country of Iraq and even if the deployed troops would be
enough army troops will still not be prepared in controlling civilian disturbances because of their
heavy use of force.
The Americans did not follow on how they built the nation of the Philippines by using a
sport to control the populace but due to some factors that are different from the Philippines
which caused the Americans to deviate from their path of using a sport as a tool for nation
building.

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Haiti and the Limits to Nation Building by James R. Morrell, Rachel Neild and Hugh
Byrne
In the First phase of Nation building of Haiti was good with the deployment of 20,000
troops to Haiti. Without the troops there was no order in Haiti only chaos but with the
deployment of United Nations Troops and American Troops order was returned to Haiti.
Humanitarian Aid was given to Haiti for them to rebuild their economy and function again
properly. But due to the non-functioning government of Haiti the aid that was being given to
them was almost lost.
The Philippines can set this as a guide on how to properly tackle the Humanitarian Aid
that will be given to the Philippines in case a major catastrophe happens in the country.

Conclusion:
In all the research materials found that are related to the research topic showed us on how
different countries managed and tackled issues that came before them. Just like China they
successfully tackled the issue of the globalization of their football league in the country. The
readings also showed how a sport can emotionally affect the life of a person and how they can be
emotionally attached to their favorite teams in the world. It also showed the ways the Americans
used in building a nation the only unique way of nation building was used in the Philippines
when the occupied other countries they used Violence and other tactics that also promote
violence

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References:
Tien-Chin Tan and Alan Bairner(2010)., Globalization and Chinese sport policy: The case of elite
football in the peoples republic of china pp. 581-600
Feezell, Randolph (1995)., Sport, The Aesthetic and Narrative pp. 93-104
Savant, John (2003)., Saving grace of sport pp. 12-15
Gratton, Shibli, Coleman (2005)., Sport and economic regeneration in cities pp. 985-999
Koch, Natalie (2013)., Sport and soft authoritarian Nation Building retrieved from http://0ehis.ebscohost.com.lib1000.dlsu.edu.ph/eds/detail?vid=14&sid=b6e9cf61-d64a-4361-ae1662320cd1b580%40sessionmgr113&hid=110&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU
%3d#db=edselc&AN=edselc.2-52.0-84873729384
Levin, Bob (1995) Hoops as a second language
Karl W. Deutsch and William J. Foltz (2010)., Nation Building in Comparative Contexts
Dobbins, Jones, Crane and Degrasse (2007)., The Beginners Guide to Nation Building
Grant Jarvie with James Thornton (2012)., Sport, Culture and Society an Introduction
John Kramer, Aidan Moran, Graham Walker and Cathy Craig (2012) Key Concepts in Sport
Psychology
Francis Fukuyama (2004)., Nation-Building 101 pp.159-162
James R. Morrell, Rachel Neild and Hugh Byrne (1995) Haiti and the Limits to Nation Building
pp.122-132
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